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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 15, 2014

Title 26: Internal Revenue


PART 301—PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION


Contents

Information and Returns

Returns and Records

records, statements, and special returns

§301.269B-1   Stapled foreign corporations.
§301.1474-1   Required use of magnetic media for financial institutions filing Form 1042-S or Form 8966.
§301.6001-1   Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns.
§301.6011-1   General requirement of return, statement or list.
§301.6011-2   Required use of magnetic media.
§301.6011-3   Required use of magnetic media for partnership returns.
§301.6011-5   Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns.
§301.6011-6   Statement of series and series organizations [Reserved]
§301.6011-7   Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.
§301.6011(g)-1   Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.
§301.6012-1   Persons required to make returns of income.
§301.6013-1   Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife.
§301.6014-1   Income tax return—tax not computed by taxpayer.
§301.6015-1   Declaration of estimated income tax by individuals.
§301.6016-1   Declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.
§301.6017-1   Self-employment tax returns.
§301.6018-1   Estate tax returns.
§301.6019-1   Gift tax returns.
§301.6020-1   Returns prepared or executed by the Commissioner or other Internal Revenue Officers.
§301.6021-1   Listing by district directors of taxable objects owned by nonresidents of internal revenue districts.
§301.6031(a)-1   Return of partnership income.
§301.6032-1   Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds.
§301.6033-1   Returns by exempt organizations.
§301.6033-4   Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033.
§301.6033-5   Disclosure by tax-exempt entities that are parties to certain reportable transactions.
§301.6034-1   Returns by trusts described in section 4947(a)(2) or claiming charitable or other deductions under section 642(c).
§301.6035-1   Returns of officers, directors, and shareholders of foreign personal holding companies.
§301.6036-1   Notice required of executor or of receiver or other like fiduciary.
§301.6037-1   Return of electing small business corporation.
§301.6037-2   Required use of magnetic media for returns of electing small business corporation.
§301.6038-1   Information returns required of U.S. persons with respect to certain foreign corporations.
§301.6039-1   Information returns and statements required in connection with certain options.
§301.6041-1   Returns of information regarding certain payments.
§301.6042-1   Returns of information regarding payments of dividends and corporate earnings and profits.
§301.6043-1   Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or contraction.
§301.6044-1   Returns of information regarding payments of patronage dividends.
§301.6046-1   Returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock.
§301.6047-1   Information relating to certain trusts and annuity and bond purchase plans.
§301.6048-1   Returns as to creation of or transfers to certain foreign trusts.
§301.6049-1   Returns regarding payments of interest.
§301.6050A-1   Information returns regarding services performed by certain crewmen on fishing boats.
§301.6050M-1   Information returns relating to persons receiving contracts from certain Federal executive agencies.
§301.6051-1   Receipts for employees.
§301.6052-1   Information returns and statements regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance.
§301.6056-1   Rules relating to reporting by applicable large employers on health insurance coverage offered under employer-sponsored plans.
§301.6056-2   Electronic furnishing of statements.
§301.6057-1   Employee retirement benefit plans; identification of participant with deferred vested retirement benefit.
§301.6057-2   Employee retirement benefit plans; notification of change in plan status.
§301.6058-1   Information required in connection with certain plans of deferred compensation.
§301.6059-1   Periodic report of actuary.
§301.6061-1   Signing of returns and other documents.
§301.6062-1   Signing of corporation returns.
§301.6063-1   Signing of partnership returns.
§301.6064-1   Signature presumed authentic.
§301.6065-1   Verification of returns.
§301.6071-1   Time for filing returns and other documents.
§301.6072-1   Time for filing income tax returns.
§301.6073-1   Time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by individuals.
§301.6074-1   Time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.
§301.6075-1   Time for filing estate and gift tax returns.
§301.6081-1   Extension of time for filing returns.
§301.6081-2   Automatic extension of time for filing an information return with respect to certain foreign trusts.
§301.6091-1   Place for filing returns and other documents.
§301.6096-1   Designation by individuals for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.
§301.6096-2   Designation by individuals for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1972 and beginning before January 1, 1973.
§301.6101-1   Period covered by returns or other documents.
§301.6102-1   Computations on returns or other documents.
§301.6103(a)-1   Disclosures after December 31, 1976, by officers and employees of Federal agencies of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed to such officers and employees by the Internal Revenue Service before January 1, 1977, for a purpose not involving tax administration.
§301.6103(a)-2   Disclosures after December 31, 1976, by attorneys of the Department of Justice and officers and employees of the Office of the Chief Counsel for the Internal Revenue Service of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed to such attorneys, officers, and employees by the Service before January 1, 1977, for a purpose involving tax administration.
§301.6103(c)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.
§301.6103(h)(2)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice for use in Federal grand jury proceeding, or in preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving tax administration.
§301.6103(i)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or another Federal agency for use in Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration.
§301.6103(j)(1)-1   Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Commerce for certain statistical purposes and related activities.
§301.6103(j)(5)-1   Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture for conducting the census of agriculture.
§301.6103(k)(6)-1   Disclosure of return information by certain officers and employees for investigative purposes.
§301.6103(k)(9)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information relating to payment of tax by credit card and debit card.
§301.6103(l)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.
§301.6103(l)(2)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of research and studies.
§301.6103(l)(2)-2   Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies.
§301.6103(l)(2)-3   Disclosure to Department of Labor and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of certain returns and return information.
§301.6103(l)(14)-1   Disclosure of return information to United States Customs Service.
§301.6103(l)(21)-1   Disclosure of return information to the Department of Health and Human Services to carry out eligibility requirements for health insurance affordability programs.
§301.6103(m)-1   Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.
§301.6103(n)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements for the acquisition of property or services for tax administration purposes.
§301.6103(n)-2   Disclosure of return information in connection with written contracts among the IRS, whistleblowers, and legal representatives of whistleblowers.
§301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.
§301.6103(p)(4)-1   Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.
§301.6103(p)(7)-1   Procedures for administrative review of a determination that an authorized recipient has failed to safeguard returns or return information.
§301.6104(a)-1   Public inspection of material relating to tax-exempt organizations.
§301.6104(a)-2   Public inspection of material relating to pension and other plans.
§301.6104(a)-3   Public inspection of Internal Revenue Service letters and documents relating to pension and other plans.
§301.6104(a)-4   Requirement for 26 or more plan participants.
§301.6104(a)-5   Withholding of certain information from public inspection.
§301.6104(a)-6   Procedural rules for inspection.
§301.6104(b)-1   Publicity of information on certain information returns.
§301.6104(c)-1   Disclosure of certain information to State officers.
§301.6104(d)-0   Table of contents.
§301.6104(d)-1   Public inspection and distribution of applications for tax exemption and annual information returns of tax-exempt organizations.
§301.6104(d)-2   Making applications and returns widely available.
§301.6104(d)-3   Tax-exempt organization subject to harassment campaign.
§301.6105-1   Compilation of relief from excess profits tax cases.
§301.6106-1   Publicity of unemployment tax returns.
§301.6108-1   Publication of statistics of income.
§301.6109-1   Identifying numbers.
§301.6109-2   Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977.
§301.6109-3   IRS adoption taxpayer identification numbers.
§301.6110-1   Public inspection of written determinations and background file documents.
§301.6110-2   Meaning of terms.
§301.6110-3   Deletion of certain information in written determinations open to public inspection.
§301.6110-4   Communications from third parties.
§301.6110-5   Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional disclosure.
§301.6110-6   Written determinations issued in response to requests submitted before November 1, 1976.
§301.6110-7   Miscellaneous provisions.
§301.6111-1T   Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.
§301.6111-2   Confidential corporate tax shelters.
§301.6111-3   Disclosure of reportable transactions.
§301.6112-1   Material advisors of reportable transactions must keep lists of advisees, etc.
§301.6114-1   Treaty-based return positions.

Time and Place for Paying Tax

Place and Due Date for Payment of Tax

§301.6151-1   Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.
§301.6153-1   Installment payments of estimated income tax by individuals.
§301.6155-1   Payment on notice and demand.
§301.6159-0   Table of contents.
§301.6159-1   Agreements for payment of tax liabilities in installments.
§301.6161-1   Extension of time for paying tax.
§301.6162-1   Extension of time for payment of tax on gain attributable to liquidation of personal holding companies.
§301.6163-1   Extension of time for payment of estate tax on value of reversionary or remainder interest in property.
§301.6164-1   Extension of time for payment of taxes by corporations expecting carrybacks.
§301.6165-1   Bonds where time to pay the tax or deficiency has been extended.
§301.6166-1   Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business.

Assessment

In General

§301.6201-1   Assessment authority.
§301.6203-1   Method of assessment.
§301.6204-1   Supplemental assessments.
§301.6205-1   Special rules applicable to certain employment taxes.
§301.6211-1   Deficiency defined.
§301.6212-1   Notice of deficiency.
§301.6212-2   Definition of last known address.
§301.6213-1   Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court.
§301.6215-1   Assessment of deficiency found by Tax Court.
§301.6221-1   Tax treatment determined at partnership level.
§301.6222(a)-1   Consistent treatment of partnership items.
§301.6222(a)-2   Application of consistent reporting and notification rules to indirect partners.
§301.6222(b)-1   Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.
§301.6222(b)-2   Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment.
§301.6222(b)-3   Partner receiving incorrect schedule.
§301.6223(a)-1   Notice sent to tax matters partner.
§301.6223(a)-2   Withdrawal of notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding.
§301.6223(b)-1   Notice group.
§301.6223(c)-1   Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.
§301.6223(e)-1   Effect of Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice.
§301.6223(e)-2   Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.
§301.6223(f)-1   Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.
§301.6223(g)-1   Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.
§301.6223(h)-1   Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.
§301.6224(a)-1   Participation in administrative proceedings.
§301.6224(b)-1   Partner may waive rights.
§301.6224(c)-1   Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.
§301.6224(c)-2   Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.
§301.6224(c)-3   Consistent settlements.
§301.6226(a)-1   Principal place of business of partnership.
§301.6226(b)-1   5-percent group.
§301.6226(e)-1   Jurisdictional requirement for bringing an action in District Court or United States Court of Federal Claims.
§301.6226(f)-1   Scope of judicial review.
§301.6227(c)-1   Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership.
§301.6227(d)-1   Administrative adjustment request filed on behalf of a partner.
§301.6229(b)-1   Extension by agreement.
§301.6229(b)-2   Special rule with respect to debtors in title 11 cases.
§301.6229(c)(2)-1   Substantial omission of income.
§301.6229(e)-1   Information with respect to unidentified partner.
§301.6229(f)-1   Special rule for partial settlement agreements.
§301.6230(b)-1   Request that correction not be made.
§301.6230(c)-1   Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc.
§301.6230(e)-1   Tax matters partner required to furnish names.
§301.6231(a)(1)-1   Exception for small partnerships.
§301.6231(a)(2)-1   Persons whose tax liability is determined indirectly by partnership items.
§301.6231(a)(3)-1   Partnership items.
§301.6231(a)(5)-1   Definition of affected item.
§301.6231(a)(6)-1   Computational adjustments.
§301.6231(a)(7)-1   Designation or selection of tax matters partner.
§301.6231(a)(7)-2   Designation or selection of tax matters partner for a limited liability company (LLC).
§301.6231(a)(12)-1   Special rules relating to spouses.
§301.6231(c)-1   Special rules for certain applications for tentative carryback and refund adjustments based on partnership losses, deductions, or credits.
§301.6231(c)-2   Special rules for certain refund claims based on losses, deductions, or credits from abusive tax shelter partnerships.
§301.6231(c)-3   Limitation on applicability of §§301.6231(c)-4 through 301.6231(c)-8.
§301.6231(c)-4   Termination and jeopardy assessment.
§301.6231(c)-5   Criminal investigations.
§301.6231(c)-6   Indirect method of proof of income.
§301.6231(c)-7   Bankruptcy and receivership.
§301.6231(c)-8   Prompt assessment.
§301.6231(d)-1   Time for determining profits interest of partners for purposes of sections 6223(b) and 6231(a)(11).
§301.6231(e)-1   Effect of a determination with respect to a nonpartnership item on the determination of a partnership item.
§301.6231(e)-2   Judicial decision not a bar to certain adjustments.
§301.6231(f)-1   Disallowance of losses and credits in certain cases.
§301.6233-1   Extension to entities filing partnership returns.
§301.6241-1T   Tax treatment determined at corporate level.
§301.6245-1T   Subchapter S items.

Collection

General Provisions

§301.6301-1   Collection authority.
§301.6302-1   Manner or time of collection of taxes.
§301.6303-1   Notice and demand for tax.
§301.6305-1   Assessment and collection of certain liability.
§301.6311-1   Payment by check or money order.
§301.6311-2   Payment by credit card and debit card.
§301.6312-1   Treasury certificates of indebtedness, Treasury notes, and Treasury bills acceptable in payment of internal revenue taxes or stamps.
§301.6312-2   Certain Treasury savings notes acceptable in payment of certain internal revenue taxes.
§301.6313-1   Fractional parts of a cent.
§301.6314-1   Receipt for taxes.
§301.6315-1   Payments of estimated income tax.
§301.6316-1   Payment of income tax in foreign currency.
§301.6316-2   Definitions.
§301.6316-3   Allocation of tax attributable to foreign currency.
§301.6316-4   Return requirements.
§301.6316-5   Manner of paying tax by foreign currency.
§301.6316-6   Declarations of estimated tax.
§301.6316-7   Payment of Federal Insurance Contributions Act taxes in foreign currency.
§301.6316-8   Refunds and credits in foreign currency.
§301.6316-9   Interest, additions to tax, etc.
§301.6320-1   Notice and opportunity for hearing upon filing of notice of Federal tax lien.
§301.6321-1   Lien for taxes.
§301.6323(a)-1   Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.
§301.6323(b)-1   Protection for certain interests even though notice filed.
§301.6323(c)-1   Protection for commercial transactions financing agreements.
§301.6323(c)-2   Protection for real property construction or improvement financing agreements.
§301.6323(c)-3   Protection for obligatory disbursement agreements.
§301.6323(d)-1   45-day period for making disbursements.
§301.6323(e)-1   Priority of interest and expenses.
§301.6323(f)-1   Place for filing notice; form.
§301.6323(g)-1   Refiling of notice of tax lien.
§301.6323(h)-0   Scope of definitions.
§301.6323(h)-1   Definitions.
§301.6323(i)-1   Special rules.
§301.6323(j)-1   Withdrawal of notice of federal tax lien in certain circumstances.
§301.6324-1   Special liens for estate and gift taxes; personal liability of transferees and others.
§301.6324A-1   Election of and agreement to special lien for estate tax deferred under section 6166 or 6166A.
§301.6325-1   Release of lien or discharge of property.
§301.6326-1   Administrative appeal of the erroneous filing of notice of federal tax lien.

Seizure of Property for Collection of Taxes

§301.6330-1   Notice and opportunity for hearing prior to levy.
§301.6331-1   Levy and distraint.
§301.6331-2   Procedures and restrictions on levies.
§301.6331-3   Restrictions on levy while offers to compromise are pending.
§301.6331-4   Restrictions on levy while installment agreements are pending or in effect.
§301.6332-1   Surrender of property subject to levy.
§301.6332-2   Surrender of property subject to levy in the case of life insurance and endowment contracts.
§301.6332-3   The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.
§301.6333-1   Production of books.
§301.6334-1   Property exempt from levy.
§301.6334-2   Wages, salary, and other income.
§301.6334-3   Determination of exempt amount.
§301.6334-4   Verified statements.
§301.6335-1   Sale of seized property.
§301.6336-1   Sale of perishable goods.
§301.6337-1   Redemption of property.
§301.6338-1   Certificate of sale; deed of real property.
§301.6339-1   Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property.
§301.6340-1   Records of sale.
§301.6341-1   Expense of levy and sale.
§301.6342-1   Application of proceeds of levy.
§301.6343-1   Requirement to release levy and notice of release.
§301.6343-2   Return of wrongfully levied upon property.
§301.6343-3   Return of property in certain cases.
§301.6361-1   Collection and administration of qualified taxes.
§301.6361-2   Judicial and administrative proceedings; Federal representation of State interests.
§301.6361-3   Transfers to States.
§301.6361-4   Definitions.
§301.6361-5   Effective date of section 6361.
§301.6362-1   Types of qualified tax.
§301.6362-2   Qualified resident tax based on taxable income.
§301.6362-3   Qualified resident tax which is a percentage of Federal tax.
§301.6362-4   Rules for adjustments relating to qualified resident taxes.
§301.6362-5   Qualified nonresident tax.
§301.6362-6   Requirements relating to residence.
§301.6362-7   Additional requirements.
§301.6363-1   State agreements.
§301.6363-2   Withdrawal from State agreements.
§301.6363-3   Transition years.
§301.6363-4   Judicial review.
§301.6365-1   Definitions.
§301.6365-2   Commencement and cessation of applicability of subchapter E to individual taxpayers.

Abatements, Credits, and Refunds

Procedure in General

§301.6401-1   Amounts treated as overpayments.
§301.6402-1   Authority to make credits or refunds.
§301.6402-2   Claims for credit or refund.
§301.6402-3   Special rules applicable to income tax.
§301.6402-3T   Special rules applicable to income tax (temporary).
§301.6402-4   Payments in excess of amounts shown on return.
§301.6402-5   Offset of past-due support against overpayment.
§301.6402-6   Offset of past-due, legally enforceable debt against overpayment.
§301.6402-7   Claims for refund and applications for tentative carryback adjustments involving consolidated groups that include insolvent financial institutions.
§301.6403-1   Overpayment of installment.
§301.6404-0   Table of contents.
§301.6404-1   Abatements.
§301.6404-2   Abatement of interest.
§301.6404-3   Abatement of penalty or addition to tax attributable to erroneous written advice of the Internal Revenue Service.
§301.6404-4   Suspension of interest and certain penalties when the Internal Revenue Service does not timely contact the taxpayer.
§301.6405-1   Reports of refunds and credits.
§301.6407-1   Date of allowance of refund or credit.

Rules of Special Application

§301.6411-1   Tentative carryback adjustments.
§301.6413-1   Special rules applicable to certain employment taxes.
§301.6414-1   Income tax withheld.
§301.6425-1   Adjustment of overpayment of estimated income tax by corporation.

Limitations

Limitations on Assessment and Collection

§301.6501(a)-1   Period of limitations upon assessment and collection.
§301.6501(b)-1   Time return deemed filed for purposes of determining limitations.
§301.6501(c)-1   Exceptions to general period of limitations on assessment and collection.
§301.6501(d)-1   Request for prompt assessment.
§301.6501(e)-1   Omission from return.
§301.6501(f)-1   Personal holding company tax.
§301.6501(g)-1   Certain income tax returns of corporations.
§301.6501(h)-1   Net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.
§301.6501(i)-1   Foreign tax carrybacks; taxable years beginning after December 31, 1957.
§301.6501(j)-1   Investment credit carryback; taxable years ending after December 31, 1961.
§301.6501(m)-1   Tentative carryback adjustment assessment period.
§301.6501(n)-1   Special rules for chapter 42 and similar taxes.
§301.6501(n)-2   Certain contributions to section 501(c)(3) organizations.
§301.6501(n)-3   Certain set-asides described in section 4942(g)(2).
§301.6501(o)-1   Work incentive program credit carrybacks, taxable years beginning after December 31, 1971.
§301.6501(o)-2   Special rules for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.
§301.6501(o)-3   Partnership items.
§301.6502-1   Collection after assessment.
§301.6503(a)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; issuance of statutory notice of deficiency.
§301.6503(b)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; assets of taxpayer in control or custody of court.
§301.6503(c)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; location of property outside the United States or removal of property from the United States; taxpayer outside of United States.
§301.6503(d)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; extension of time for payment of estate tax.
§301.6503(e)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; certain powers of appointment.
§301.6503(f)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitation; wrongful seizure of property of third-party owner and discharge of lien for substitution of value.
§301.6503(g)-1   Suspension pending correction.
§301.6503(j)-1   Suspension of running of period of limitations; extension in case of designated and related summonses.
§301.6511(a)-1   Period of limitation on filing claim.
§301.6511(b)-1   Limitations on allowance of credits and refunds.
§301.6511(c)-1   Special rules applicable in case of extension of time by agreement.
§301.6511(d)-1   Overpayment of income tax on account of bad debts, worthless securities, etc.
§301.6511(d)-2   Overpayment of income tax on account of net operating loss or capital loss carrybacks.
§301.6511(d)-3   Special rules applicable to credit against income tax for foreign taxes.
§301.6511(d)-4   Overpayment of income tax on account of investment credit carryback.
§301.6511(d)-7   Overpayment of income tax on account of work incentive program credit carryback.
§301.6511(e)-1   Special rules applicable to manufactured sugar.
§301.6511(f)-1   Special rules for chapter 42 taxes.
§301.6511(g)-1   Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.
§301.6512-1   Limitations in case of petition to Tax Court.
§301.6513-1   Time return deemed filed and tax considered paid.
§301.6514(a)-1   Credits or refunds after period of limitation.
§301.6514(b)-1   Credit against barred liability.
§301.6521-1   Mitigation of effect of limitation in case of related employee social security tax and self-employment tax.
§301.6521-2   Law applicable in determination of error.
§301.6532-1   Periods of limitation on suits by taxpayers.
§301.6532-2   Periods of limitation on suits by the United States.
§301.6532-3   Periods of limitation on suits by persons other than taxpayers.

Interest

Interest on Underpayments

§301.6601-1   Interest on underpayments.
§301.6602-1   Interest on erroneous refund recoverable by suit.
§301.6611-1   Interest on overpayments.
§301.6621-1   Interest rate.
§301.6621-2T   Questions and answers relating to the increased rate of interest on substantial underpayments attributable to certain tax motivated transactions (temporary).
§301.6621-3   Higher interest rate payable on large corporate underpayments.
§301.6622-1   Interest compounded daily.

Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties

Additions to the Tax and Additional Amounts

§301.6651-1   Failure to file tax return or to pay tax.
§301.6652-1   Failure to file certain information returns.
§301.6652-2   Failure by exempt organizations and certain nonexempt organizations to file certain returns or to comply with section 6104(d) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969.
§301.6652-3   Failure to file information with respect to employee retirement benefit plan.
§301.6653-1   Failure to pay tax.
§301.6654-1   Failure by individual to pay estimated income tax.
§301.6655-1   Failure by corporation to pay estimated income tax.
§301.6656-1   Abatement of penalty.
§301.6657-1   Bad checks.
§301.6658-1   Addition to tax in case of jeopardy.
§301.6659-1   Applicable rules.
§301.6671-1   Rules for application of assessable penalties.
§301.6672-1   Failure to collect and pay over tax, or attempt to evade or defeat tax.
§301.6673-1   Damages assessable for instituting proceedings before the Tax Court merely for delay.
§301.6674-1   Fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to employee.
§301.6678-1   Failure to furnish statements to payees.
§301.6679-1   Failure to file returns, etc. with respect to foreign corporations or foreign partnerships for taxable years beginning after September 3, 1982.
§301.6682-1   False information with respect to withholding allowances based on itemized deductions.
§301.6684-1   Assessable penalties with respect to liability for tax under chapter 42.
§301.6685-1   Assessable penalties with respect to private foundations' failure to comply with section 6104(d).
§301.6686-1   Failure of DISC to file returns.
§301.6688-1   Assessable penalties with respect to information required to be furnished with respect to possessions.
§301.6689-1T   Failure to file notice of redetermination of foreign tax (temporary).
§301.6690-1   Penalty for fraudulent statement or failure to furnish statement to plan participant.
§301.6692-1   Failure to file actuarial report.
§301.6693-1   Penalty for failure to provide reports and documents concerning individual retirement accounts or annuities.
§301.6707-1T   Questions and answers relating to penalties for failure to furnish information regarding tax shelters.
§301.6707A-1   Failure to include on any return or statement any information required to be disclosed under section 6011 with respect to a reportable transaction.
§301.6708-1T   Failure to maintain list of investors in potentially abusive tax shelters (temporary).
§301.6712-1   Failure to disclose treaty-based return positions.
§301.6721-0   Table of Contents.
§301.6721-1   Failure to file correct information returns.
§301.6722-1   Failure to furnish correct payee statements.
§301.6723-1   Failure to comply with other information reporting requirements.
§301.6724-1   Reasonable cause.
§301.6723-1A   Failure to include correct information.

General Provisions Relating to Stamps

§301.6801-1   Authority for establishment, alteration, and distribution.
§301.6802-1   Supply and distribution.
§301.6803-1   Accounting and safeguarding.
§301.6804-1   Attachment and cancellation.
§301.6805-1   Redemption of stamps.
§301.6806-1   Posting occupational tax stamps.

Jeopardy, Bankruptcy, and Receiverships

Jeopardy

termination of taxable year

§301.6851-1   Termination of taxable year.
§301.6852-1   Termination assessments of tax in the case of flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations.
§301.6861-1   Jeopardy assessments of income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes.
§301.6862-1   Jeopardy assessment of taxes other than income, estate, gift, and certain excise taxes.
§301.6863-1   Stay of collection of jeopardy assessments; bond to stay collection.
§301.6863-2   Collection of jeopardy assessment; stay of sale of seized property pending Tax Court decision.
§301.6867-1   Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified.
§301.6871(a)-1   Immediate assessment of claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in bankruptcy and receivership proceedings.
§301.6871(a)-2   Collection of assessed taxes in bankruptcy and receivership proceedings.
§301.6871(b)-1   Claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in proceedings under the Bankruptcy Act and receivership proceedings; claim filed despite pendency of Tax Court proceedings.
§301.6872-1   Suspension of running of period of limitations on assessment.
§301.6873-1   Unpaid claims in bankruptcy or receivership proceedings.

Transferees and Fiduciaries

§301.6901-1   Procedure in the case of transferred assets.
§301.6902-1   Burden of proof.
§301.6903-1   Notice of fiduciary relationship.
§301.6905-1   Discharge of executor from personal liability for decedent's income and gift taxes.

Licensing

§301.7001-1   License to collect foreign items.

Bonds

§301.7101-1   Form of bond and security required.
§301.7102-1   Single bond in lieu of multiple bonds.

Closing Agreements and Compromises

§301.7121-1   Closing agreements.
§301.7122-0   Table of contents.
§301.7122-1   Compromises.

Crimes, Other Offenses, and Forfeitures

Crimes

general provisions

§301.7207-1   Fraudulent returns, statements, or other documents.
§301.7209-1   Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.
§301.7214-1   Offenses by officers and employees of the United States.
§301.7216-0   Table of contents.
§301.7216-1   Penalty for disclosure or use of tax return information.
§301.7216-2   Permissible disclosures or uses without consent of the taxpayer.
§301.7216-3   Disclosure or use permitted only with the taxpayer's consent.
§301.7231-1   Failure to obtain license for collection of foreign items.

Other Offenses

§301.7269-1   Failure to produce records.
§301.7272-1   Penalty for failure to register.
§301.7304-1   Penalty for fraudulently claiming drawback.
§301.7321-1   Seizure of property.
§301.7322-1   Delivery of seized property to U.S. marshal.
§301.7324-1   Special disposition of perishable goods.
§301.7325-1   Personal property valued at $2,500 or less.
§301.7326-1   Disposal of forfeited or abandoned property in special cases.
§301.7327-1   Customs laws applicable.

Judicial Proceedings

Civil Actions by the United States

§301.7401-1   Authorization.
§301.7403-1   Action to enforce lien or to subject property to payment of tax.
§301.7404-1   Authority to bring civil action for estate taxes.
§301.7406-1   Disposition of judgments and moneys recovered.
§301.7409-1   Action to enjoin flagrant political expenditures of section 501(c)(3) organizations.
§301.7422-1   Special rules for certain excise taxes imposed by chapter 42 or 43.
§301.7423-1   Repayments to officers or employees.
§301.7424-2   Intervention.
§301.7425-1   Discharge of liens; scope and application; judicial proceedings.
§301.7425-2   Discharge of liens; nonjudicial sales.
§301.7425-3   Discharge of liens; special rules.
§301.7425-4   Discharge of liens; redemption by United States.
§301.7426-1   Civil actions by persons other than taxpayers.
§301.7426-2   Recovery of damages in certain cases.
§301.7429-1   Review of jeopardy and termination assessment and jeopardy levy procedures; information to taxpayer.
§301.7429-2   Review of jeopardy and termination assessment and jeopardy levy procedures.
§301.7429-3   Review of jeopardy and termination assessment and jeopardy levy procedures; judicial action.
§301.7430-0   Table of contents.
§301.7430-1   Exhaustion of administrative remedies.
§301.7430-2   Requirements and procedures for recovery of reasonable administrative costs.
§301.7430-3   Administrative proceeding and administrative proceeding date.
§301.7430-4   Reasonable administrative costs.
§301.7430-5   Prevailing party.
§301.7430-6   Effective dates.
§301.7430-7   Qualified offers.
§301.7430-8   Administrative costs incurred in damage actions for violations of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code.
§301.7432-1   Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.
§301.7433-1   Civil cause of action for certain unauthorized collection actions.
§301.7433-2   Civil cause of action for violation of section 362 or 524 of the Bankruptcy Code.
§301.7452-1   Representation of parties.
§301.7454-1   Burden of proof in fraud and transferee cases.
§301.7454-2   Burden of proof in foundation manager, etc. cases.
§301.7456-1   Administration of oaths and procurement of testimony; production of records of foreign corporations, foreign trusts or estates and nonresident alien individuals.
§301.7457-1   Witness fees.
§301.7458-1   Hearings.
§301.7461-1   Publicity of proceedings.
§301.7476-1   Declaratory judgments.
§301.7477-1   Declaratory judgments relating to the value of certain gifts for gift tax purposes.
§301.7481-1   Date when Tax Court decision becomes final; decision modified or reversed.
§301.7482-1   Courts of review; venue.
§301.7483-1   Petition for review.
§301.7484-1   Change of incumbent in office.
§301.7502-1   Timely mailing of documents and payments treated as timely filing and paying.
§301.7503-1   Time for performance of acts where last day falls on Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday.
§301.7505-1   Sale of personal property acquired by the United States.
§301.7506-1   Administration of real estate acquired by the United States.
§301.7507-1   Banks and trust companies covered.
§301.7507-2   Scope of section generally.
§301.7507-3   Segregated or transferred assets.
§301.7507-4   Unsegregated assets.
§301.7507-5   Earnings.
§301.7507-6   Abatement and refund.
§301.7507-7   Establishment of immunity.
§301.7507-8   Procedure during immunity.
§301.7507-9   Termination of immunity.
§301.7507-10   Collection of tax after termination of immunity.
§301.7507-11   Exception of employment taxes.
§301.7508-1   Time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of service in a combat zone.
§301.7508A-1   Postponement of certain tax-related deadlines by reasons of a federally declared disaster or terroristic or military action.
§301.7510-1   Exemption from tax of domestic goods purchased for the United States.
§301.7512-1   Separate accounting for certain collected taxes.
§301.7513-1   Reproduction of returns and other documents.
§301.7514-1   Seals of office.
§301.7515-1   Special statistical studies and compilations on request.
§301.7516-1   Training and training aids on request.
§301.7517-1   Furnishing on request of statement explaining estate or gift valuation.

Discovery of Liability and Enforcement of Title

Examination and Inspection

§301.7601-1   Canvass of districts for taxable persons and objects.
§301.7602-1   Examination of books and witnesses.
§301.7602-2   Third party contacts.
§301.7603-1   Service of summons.
§301.7603-2   Third-party recordkeepers.
§301.7604-1   Enforcement of summons.
§301.7605-1   Time and place of examination.
§301.7606-1   Entry of premises for examination of taxable objects.
§301.7609-1   Special procedures for third-party summonses.
§301.7609-2   Notification of persons identified in third-party summonses.
§301.7609-3   Duty of and protection for the summoned party.
§301.7609-4   Right to intervene; right to institute a proceeding to quash.
§301.7609-5   Suspension of periods of limitations.
§301.7610-1   Fees and costs for witnesses.
§301.7611-1   Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.
§301.7621-1   Internal revenue districts.
§301.7622-1   Authority to administer oaths and certify.
§301.7623-1   Rewards and awards for information relating to violations of internal revenue laws.
§301.7624-1   Reimbursement to State and local law enforcement agencies.
§301.7641-1   Supervision of operations of certain manufacturers.
§301.7654-1   Coordination of U.S. and Guam individual income taxes.

Definitions

§301.7701-1   Classification of organizations for federal tax purposes.
§301.7701-2   Business entities; definitions.
§301.7701-2T   Business entities; definitions (temporary).
§301.7701-3   Classification of certain business entities.
§301.7701-4   Trusts.
§301.7701-5   Domestic and foreign business entities.
§301.7701-6   Definitions; person, fiduciary.
§301.7701-7   Trusts—domestic and foreign.
§301.7701-8   Military or naval forces and Armed Forces of the United States.
§301.7701-9   Secretary or his delegate.
§301.7701-10   District director.
§301.7701-11   Social security number.
§301.7701-12   Employer identification number.
§301.7701-13   Pre-1970 domestic building and loan association.
§301.7701-13A   Post-1969 domestic building and loan association.
§301.7701-14   Cooperative bank.
§301.7701-15   Tax return preparer.
§301.7701-16   Other terms.
§301.7701-17T   Collective-bargaining plans and agreements (temporary).
§301.7701(b)-0   Outline of regulation provision for section 7701(b)-1 through (b)-9.
§301.7701(b)-1   Resident alien.
§301.7701(b)-2   Closer connection exception.
§301.7701(b)-3   Days of presence in the United States that are excluded for purposes of section 7701(b).
§301.7701(b)-4   Residency time periods.
§301.7701(b)-5   Coordination with section 877.
§301.7701(b)-6   Taxable year.
§301.7701(b)-7   Coordination with income tax treaties.
§301.7701(b)-8   Procedural rules.
§301.7701(b)-9   Effective/applicability dates of §§301.7701(b)-1 through 301.7701(b)-7.
§301.7701(i)-0   Outline of taxable mortgage pool provisions.
§301.7701(i)-1   Definition of a taxable mortgage pool.
§301.7701(i)-2   Special rules for portions of entities.
§301.7701(i)-3   Effective dates and duration of taxable mortgage pool classification.
§301.7701(i)-4   Special rules for certain entities.
§301.7704-2   Transition provisions.

General Rules

Application of Internal Revenue Laws

§301.7803-1   Security bonds covering personnel of the Internal Revenue Service.
§301.7805-1   Rules and regulations.
§301.7811-1   Taxpayer assistance orders.
§301.9000-1   Definitions when used in §§301.9000-1 through 301.9000-6.
§301.9000-2   Considerations in responding to a request or demand for IRS records or information.
§301.9000-3   Testimony authorizations.
§301.9000-4   Procedure in the event of a request or demand for IRS records or information.
§301.9000-5   Written statement required for requests or demands in non-IRS matters.
§301.9000-6   Examples.
§301.9000-7   Effective date.
§301.9001   Statutory provisions; Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Amendments of 1978.
§301.9001-1   Collection of fee.
§301.9001-2   Definitions.
§301.9001-3   Cross reference.
§301.9100-0   Outline of regulations.
§301.9100-1   Extensions of time to make elections.
§301.9100-2   Automatic extensions.
§301.9100-3   Other extensions.
§301.9100-4T   Time and manner of making certain elections under the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981.
§301.9100-5T   Time and manner of making certain elections under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982.
§301.9100-6T   Time and manner of making certain elections under the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984.
§301.9100-7T   Time and manner of making certain elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1986.
§301.9100-8   Time and manner of making certain elections under the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988.
§301.9100-9T   Election by a bank holding company to forego grandfather provision for all property representing pre-June 30, 1968, activities.
§301.9100-10T   Election by certain family-owned bank holding companies to divest all banking or nonbanking property.
§301.9100-11T   Election by a qualified bank holding corporation to pay in installments the tax attributable to sales under the Bank Holding Company Act.
§301.9100-12T   Various elections under the Tax Reform Act of 1976.
§301.9100-14T   Individual's election to terminate taxable year when case commences.
§301.9100-15T   Election to use retroactive effective date.
§301.9100-16T   Election to accrue vacation pay.
§301.9100-17T   Procedure applicable to certain elections.
§301.9100-18T   Election to include in gross income in year of transfer.
§301.9100-19T   Election relating to passive investment income of electing small business corporations.
§301.9100-20T   Election to treat certain distributions as made on the last day of the taxable year.
§301.9100-21   References to other temporary elections under various tax acts.

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805.

Section 301.1474-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474(f).

Section 301.6011-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6011(e).

Section 301.6011-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6011.

Section 301.6011-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6011.

Section 301.6011-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6011(a).

Section 301.6011-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6011(e).

Section 301.6033-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6033.

Section 301.6036-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6036.

Section 301.6037-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6037.

Section 301.6050M-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6050M.

Section 301.6061-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6061.

Section 301.6081-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6081(a).

Section 301.6103(c)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(c).

Section 301.6103(j)(1)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(j)(1).

Section 301.6103(j)(1)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(j)(1);

Section 301.6103(j)(5)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(j)(5).

Section 301.6103(k)(6)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(k)(6);

Section 301.6103(k)(6)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(k)(6);

Section 301.6103(k)(9)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(k)(9) and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q).

Section 301.6103(l)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(q).

Section 301.6103(l)(14)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(l)(14).

Section 301.6103(l)(21)-(1) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(l)(21) and 6103(q).

Section 301.6103(m)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(q).

Section 301.6103(n)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(n).

Section 301.6103(n)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(n).

Section 301.6103(n)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(q).

Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(p)(2).

Section 301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(p)(2).

Sections 301.6103(p)(4)-1 and 301.6103(p)(7)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6103(p)(4) and (7) and (q),

Section 301.6104(a)-6(d) is also issued under 5 U.S.C. 552.

Section 301.6104(b)-1(d)(4) is also issued under 5 U.S.C. 552.

Section 301.6104(d)-1(d)(3)(i) is also issued under 5 U.S.C. 552.

Section 301.6104(d)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6104(d)(3).

Section 301.6104(d)-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6104(d)(3).

Section 301.6104(d)-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6104(e)(3).

Section 301.6104(d)-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6104(e)(3).

Section 301.6109-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6109 (a), (c), and (d).

Section 301.6109-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6109.

Section 301.6111-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6111.

Section 301.6111-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6111(f)(4).

Section 301.6111-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6111.

Section 301.6111-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6111.

Section 301.6112-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6112.

Section 301.6114-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6114.

Section 301.6222(a)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6222(a)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6222(b)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6222(b)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6222(b)-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6223(a)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6223(a)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6223(b)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6223(b)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6223(c)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6223(c) and 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6223(e)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6223(e)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6223(f)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6223(g)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6223(g) and 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6223(h)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6224(a)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6224(b)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6224(c)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6224(c)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6224(c)-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6226(a)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6226(b)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6226(e)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6226(f)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6229(c)(2)-1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6229(c)(2)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. §6230(k).

Section 301.6231(a)(6)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6231(a)(7)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6231(a)(7)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k).

Section 301.6231(a)(12)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(a)(12).

Section 301.6231(c)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6231(c)(1) and (3).

Section 301.6231(c)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6231(c)(1) and (3).

Section 301.6231(c)-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(c)-4T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(c)-5T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(c)-6T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(c)-7T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(c)-8T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6231(c).

Section 301.6231(d)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6231(e)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6231(e)-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6231(f)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230 (i) and (k) and 6231(f).

Section 301.6233-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k) and 6233.

Section 301.6241-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6241.

Section 301.6245-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6245.

Section 301.6311-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6311.

Section 301.6323(f)-(1)(c) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6323(f)(3).

Section 301.6325-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6326.

Section 301.6343-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6343.

Section 301.6343-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6343.

Section 301.6402-3 also issued under 95 Stat. 357 amending 88 Stat. 2351.

Section 301.6402-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6402(i) and 6411(c).

Section 301.6404-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6404.

Section 301.6404-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6404(f)(3).

Section 301.6621-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6230(k).

Section 301.6689-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6689(a).

Section 301.7216-2, paragraphs (o) and (p) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7216(b)(3).

Section 301.7502-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7502.

Section 301.7502-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7502.

Section 301.7507-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 597.

Section 301.7507-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 597.

Section 301.7508-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7508(a)(1)(K).

Section 301.7508A-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7508(a)(1)(K) and 7508A(a).

Section 301.7605-1 also issued under section 6228(b) of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988.

Section 301.7623-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7623.

Section 301.7624-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7624.

Sections 301.7701(b)-1 through 301.7701(b)-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7701(b)(11).

Section 301.7701(i)-1(g)(1) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7701(i)(2)(D).

Section 301.7701(i)-4(b) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 7701(i)(3).

Section 301.9000-1 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9000-2 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9000-3 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9000-4 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9000-5 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9000-6 also issued under 5 U.S.C. 301 and 26 U.S.C. 6103(q) and 7804;

Section 301.9100-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6081.

Section 301.9100-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6081.

Section 301.9100-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 6081.

Section 301.9100-4T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 168(f)(8)(G).

Section 301.9100-7T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 42, 48, 56, 83, 141, 142, 143, 145, 147, 165, 168, 216, 263, 263A, 448, 453C, 468B, 469, 474, 585, 616, 617, 1059, 2632, 2652, 3121, 4982, 7701; and under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, 100 Stat. 2746, sections 203, 204, 243, 311, 646, 801, 806, 905, 1704, 1801, 1802, and 1804.

Section 301.9100-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1(i)(7), 41(h), 42(b)(2)(A)(ii), 42(d)(3), 42(f)(1), 42(g)(3), 42(i)(2)(B), 42(j)(5)(B), 121(d)(9), 142(i)(2), 165(l), 168(b)(2), 219(g)(4), 245(a)(10), 263A(d)(1), 263A(d)(3)(B), 263A(h), 460(b)(3), 643(g)(2), 831(b)(2)(A), 835(a), 865(f), 865(g)(3), 865(h)(2), 904(g)(10), 2056(b)(7)(c)(ii), 2056A(d), 2523(f)(6)(B), 3127, and 7520(a); the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, 102 Stat. 3324, sections 1002(a)(23)(B), 1005(c)(11), 1006(d)(15), 1006(j)(1)(C), 1006(t)(18)(B), 1012(n)(3), 1014(c)(1), 1014(c)(2), 2004(j)(1), 2004(m)(5), 5012(e)(4), 6181(c)(2), and 6277; and under the Tax Reform Act of 1986, 100 Stat. 2746, section 905(a).

Sections 301.9100-9T, 301.9100-10T and 301.9100-11T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1103 (g) and (h) and 6158(a).

Sections 301.9100-13T, 301.9100-14T and 301.9100-15T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 108(d)(8) and 1017(b)(3)(E).

Section 301.9100-16T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 463(d).

Source: 32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, unless otherwise noted.

Editorial Note: In the text of this part, integral section references are to sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954; decimal section references are to the Code of Federal Regulations.

References in the text to the “Code” are references to sections of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

Information and Returns

Returns and Records

records, statements, and special returns

§301.269B-1   Stapled foreign corporations.

In accordance with section 269B(a)(1), a stapled foreign corporation is subject to the same taxes that apply to a domestic corporation under title 26 of the Internal Revenue Code. For provisions concerning taxes other than income for which the stapled foreign corporation is liable, apply the same rules as set forth in §1.269B-1(a) through (f)(1)(i), and (g) of this Chapter, except that references to income tax shall be replaced with the term tax. In addition, for purposes of collecting those taxes solely from the stapled foreign corporation, the term tax means any tax liability imposed on a domestic corporation under title 26 of the United States Code, including additions to tax, additional amounts, penalties, and interest related to that tax liability.

[T.D. 9216, 70 FR 43760, July 29, 2005]

§301.1474-1   Required use of magnetic media for financial institutions filing Form 1042-S or Form 8966.

(a) Financial institutions filing certain information returns. If a financial institution is required to file a Form 1042-S, “Foreign Person's U.S. Source Income Subject to Withholding,” (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) under §1.1474-1(d) of this chapter, the financial institution must file the information required by the applicable forms and schedules on magnetic media. Additionally, if a financial institution is required to file Form 8966, “FATCA Report,” (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) to report certain information about U.S. accounts, substantial U.S. owners of foreign entities, or owner-documented FFIs as required under this chapter, the financial institution must file the required information on magnetic media or other machine-readable form. Returns filed on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable regulations, revenue procedures, publications, forms, instructions, and the IRS.gov Internet site. In prescribing regulations, revenue procedures, publications, forms, and instructions, including those on the IRS.gov Internet site, the Commissioner may direct the type of magnetic media or other machine-readable form used for filing.

(b) Waiver. The Commissioner may grant waivers from the requirements of this section in cases of undue hardship. A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. The waiver also will be subject to such terms and conditions regarding the method of filing as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Failure to file. If a financial institution fails to file a Form 1042-S or a Form 8966 on magnetic media when required to do so by this section, the financial institution is deemed to have failed to comply with the information reporting requirements under section 6723 of the Code. See section 6724(c) for failure to meet magnetic media requirements. In determining whether there is reasonable cause for failure to file the return, §301.6651-1(c) and rules similar to the rules in §301.6724-1(c)(3) (undue economic hardship related to filing information returns on magnetic media) will apply.

(d) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section—(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any magnetic media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media, such as electronic filing, specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions.

(2) Financial institution. The term financial institution has the meaning set forth in section 1471(d)(5) of the Code and the regulations thereunder.

(e) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to any Form 1042-S or Form 8966 (or any other form that the IRS may prescribe) filed with respect to calendar years ending after December 31, 2013.

[T.D. 9610, 78 FR 5994, Jan. 28, 2013]

§301.6001-1   Notice or regulations requiring records, statements, and special returns.

For provisions requiring records, statements, and special returns, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

tax returns or statements

General Requirement

§301.6011-1   General requirement of return, statement or list.

(a) For provisions requiring returns, statements, or lists, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

(b) The Internal Revenue Service may prescribe in forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance the information or documentation required to be included with any return or any statement required to be made or other document required to be furnished under any provision of the internal revenue laws or regulations.

[T.D. 9040, 68 FR 4921, Jan. 31, 2003]

§301.6011-2   Required use of magnetic media.

(a) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures or publications, or, in the case of returns filed with the Social Security Administration, Social Security Administration publications. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media (such as electronic filing) specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, procedures, or publications.

(2) Machine-readable paper form. The term “machine-readable paper form” means—

(i) Optical-scan paper form; or

(ii) Any other machine-readable paper form permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, or Social Security Administration publications.

(3) Person. The term “person” includes any person that is required to file a return that is described in paragraph (b) of this section. Thus, the term “person” includes the United States, a State, the District of Columbia, a foreign government, a political subdivision of a State or of a foreign government, or an international organization. In addition, in the case of an affiliated group of corporations filing a consolidated return, each member of the affiliated group is a separate person.

(b) Returns required on magnetic media. (1) If the use of Form 1042-S, 1094 series, 1095 series, 1098, 1098-E, 1098-T, 1099 series, 5498, 8027, W-2G, or other form treated as a form specified in this paragraph (b)(1) is required by the applicable regulations or revenue procedures for the purpose of making an information return, the information required by the form must be submitted on magnetic media, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section. Returns on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). Pursuant to these procedures, the consent of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (or other authorized officer or employee of the Internal Revenue Service) to a magnetic medium must be obtained by submitting Form 4419 (Application for Filing Information Returns Magnetically/Electronically) prior to submitting a return described in this paragraph (b)(1) on the magnetic medium.

(2) If the use of Form W-2 (Wage and Tax Statement), Form 499R-2/W-2PR (Withholding Statement (Puerto Rico)), Form W-2VI (U.S. Virgin Islands Wage and Tax Statement), Form W-2GU (Guam Wage and Tax Statement), Form W-2AS (American Samoa Wage and Tax Statement), or other form treated as a form specified in this paragraph (b)(2) is required for the purpose of making an information return, the information required by the form must be submitted on magnetic media, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section. Returns described in this paragraph (b)(2) must be made in accordance with applicable Social Security Administration procedures or publications (which may be obtained from the local office of the Social Security Administration).

(3) The Commissioner may prescribe by revenue procedure that additional forms are treated, for purposes of this section, as forms specified in paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section.

(c) Exceptions—(1) Low-volume filers/250-threshold—(i) In general. No person is required to file information returns on magnetic media unless the person is required to file 250 or more returns during the calendar year. Persons filing fewer than 250 returns during the calendar year may make the returns on the prescribed paper form, or, alternatively, such persons may make returns on magnetic media in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Machine-readable forms. Returns made on a paper form under this paragraph (c)(1) shall be machine-readable if applicable revenue procedures provide for a machine-readable paper form.

(iii) No aggregation. Each type of information return described in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section is considered a separate return for purposes of this paragraph (c)(1). Therefore, the 250-threshold applies separately to each type of form required to be filed.

(iv) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. For the calendar year ending December 31, 1998, Company X is required to file 200 returns on Form 1099-INT and 350 returns on Form 1099-MISC. Company X is not required to file Forms 1099-INT on magnetic media but is required to file Forms 1099-MISC on magnetic media.

Example 2. During the calendar year ending December 31, 1998, Company Y has 275 employees in Puerto Rico and 50 employees in American Samoa. Company Y is required to file Forms 499R-2/W-2PR on magnetic media but is not required to file Forms W-2AS on magnetic media.

Example 3. For the calendar year ending December 31, 1998, Company Z files 300 original returns on Form 1099-DIV and later files 70 corrected returns on Form 1099-DIV. Company Z is required to file the original returns on magnetic media. However, Company Z is not required to file the corrected returns on magnetic media because the corrected returns fall under the 250-threshold. See §301.6721-1(a)(2)(ii).

(2) Waiver. (i) The Commissioner may waive the requirements of this section if hardship is shown in a request for waiver filed in accordance with this paragraph (c)(2)(i). The principal factor in determining hardship will be the amount, if any, by which the cost of filing the information returns in accordance with this section exceeds the cost of filing the returns on other media. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if an employer is required to make a final return on Form 941, or a variation thereof, and expedited filing of Forms W-2, Forms 499R-2/W-2PR, Forms W-2VI, Forms W-2GU, or Form W-2AS is required, the unavailability of the specifications for magnetic media filing will be treated as creating a hardship (see §31.6071(a)-1(a)(3)(ii) of this chapter). A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter). Pursuant to these procedures, a request for waiver should be filed at least 45 days before the due date of the information return in order for the Service to have adequate time to respond to the request for waiver. The waiver will specify the type of information return and the period to which it applies and will be subject to such terms and conditions regarding the method of reporting as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(ii) The Commissioner may prescribe rules that supplement the provisions of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(d) Paper form returns. Returns submitted on paper forms (whether or not machine-readable) permitted under paragraph (c) of this section shall be in accordance with applicable Internal Revenue Service or Social Security Administration procedures.

(e) Applicability of current procedures. Until procedures are prescribed which further implement the mandatory filing on magnetic media provided by this section, a return to which this section applies shall be made in the manner and shall be subject to the requirements and conditions (including the requirement of applying for consent to the magnetic medium) prescribed in the regulations, revenue procedures and Social Security Administration publications relating to the filing of such return on magnetic media.

(f) Failure to file. If a person fails to file an information return on magnetic media when required to do so by this section, the person is deemed to have failed to file the return. In addition, if a person making returns on a paper form under paragraph (c) of this section fails to file a return on machine-readable paper form when required to do so by this section, the person is deemed to have failed to file the return. See sections 6652, 6693, and 6721 for penalties for failure to file certain returns. See also section 6724 and the regulations under section 6721 for the specific rules and limitations regarding the penalty imposed under section 6721 for failure to file on magnetic media.

(g) Effective dates. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(2) or (3) of this section, this section applies to returns required to be filed after December 31, 1986.

(2) Paragraphs (a)(1), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(iii), (c)(1)(iv), (c)(2), (d), (e), and (f) of this section are effective for information returns required to be filed after December 31, 1996. For information returns required to be filed after December 31, 1989, and before January 1, 1997, see section 6011(e).

(3) This section applies to returns on Forms 1098-E, “Student Loan Interest Statement,” and 1098-T, “Tuition Statement,” filed after December 31, 2003.

[T.D. 8081, 51 FR 10348, Mar. 25, 1986, as amended by T.D. 8097, 51 FR 30352, Aug. 26, 1986; T.D. 8140, 52 FR 19137, May 21, 1987; T.D. 8636, 60 FR 66142, Dec. 21, 1995; T.D. 8772, 63 FR 35519, June 30, 1998; T.D. 8992, 67 FR 20907, Apr. 29, 2002; T.D. 9029, 67 FR 77687, Dec. 19, 2002; T.D. 9660, 79 FR 13231, Mar. 10, 2014]

§301.6011-3   Required use of magnetic media for partnership returns.

(a) Partnership returns required on magnetic media. If a partnership with more than 100 partners is required to file a partnership return pursuant to §1.6031(a)-1 of this chapter, the information required by the applicable forms and schedules must be filed on magnetic media, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section. Returns filed on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. In prescribing revenue procedures or publications, the Commissioner may determine that partnerships will be required to use any one form of magnetic media filing. For example, the Commissioner may determine that partnerships with more than 100 partners must file their partnership returns electronically. In filing its return, a partnership must register to participate in the magnetic media filing program in the manner prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service in applicable revenue procedures or publications.

(b) Waiver. The Commissioner may waive the requirements of this section if hardship is shown in a request for waiver filed in accordance with this paragraph (b). A determination of hardship will be based upon all of the facts and circumstances. One factor in determining hardship will be the reasonableness of the incremental cost to the partnership of complying with the magnetic media filing requirements. Other factors, such as equipment breakdowns or destruction of magnetic media filing equipment, also may be considered. A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. The waiver will specify the type of partnership return and the period to which it applies. The waiver will also be subject to such terms and conditions regarding the method of filing as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Failure to file. If a partnership fails to file a partnership return on magnetic media in the manner required and when required to do so by this section, the partnership will be deemed to have failed to file the return in the manner prescribed for purposes of the information return penalty under section 6721. See §301.6724-1(c)(3) for rules regarding the waiver of penalties for undue economic hardship relating to filing returns on magnetic media.

(d) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any magnetic media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, or publications. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media (such as electronic filing) specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, procedures, or publications.

(2) Partnership. The term partnership means a partnership as defined in §1.761-1(a) of this chapter.

(3) Partner. The term partner means a member of a partnership as defined in section 7701(a)(2).

(4) Partnership return. The term partnership return means a form in Series 1065 (including Form 1065, U.S. Partnership Return of Income, and Form 1065-B, U.S. Return of Income for Electing Large Partnerships), along with the corresponding Schedules K-1 and all other related forms and schedules that are required to be attached to the Series 1065 form.

(5) Partnerships with more than 100 partners. A partnership has more than 100 partners if, over the course of the partnership's taxable year, the partnership had more than 100 partners, regardless of whether a partner was a partner for the entire year or whether the partnership had over 100 partners on any particular day in the year. For purposes of this paragraph (d)(5), however, only those persons having a direct interest in the partnership must be considered partners for purposes of determining the number of partners during the partnership's taxable year.

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (d)(5) of this section. In the examples, the partnerships utilize the calendar year, and the taxable year in question is 2000:

Example 1. Partnership P had five general partners and 90 limited partners on January 1, 2000. On March 15, 2000, 10 more limited partners acquired an interest in P. On September 29, 2000, the 10 newest partners sold their individual partnership interests to C, a corporation which was one of the original 90 limited partners. On December 31, 2000, P had the same five general partners and 90 limited partners it had on January 1, 2000. P had a total of 105 partners over the course of partnership taxable year 2000. Therefore, P must file its 2000 partnership return on magnetic media.

Example 2. Partnership Q is a general partnership that had 95 partners on January 1, 2000. On March 15, 2000, 10 partners sold their individual partnership interests to corporation D, which was not previously a partner in Q. On September 29, 2000, corporation D sold one-half of its partnership interest in equal shares to five individuals, who were not previously partners in Q. On December 31, 2000, Q had a total of 91 partners, and on no date in the year did Q have more than 100 partners. Over the course of the year, however, Q had 101 partners. Therefore, Q must file its 2000 partnership return on magnetic media.

Example 3. Partnership G is a general partnership with 100 partners on January 1, 2000. There are no new partners added to G in 2000. One of G's partners, A, is a partnership with 53 partners. A is one partner, regardless of the number of partners A has. Therefore, G has 100 partners and is not required to file its 2000 partnership return on magnetic media.

(f) Effective date. In general, this section applies to partnership returns for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 2000. However, electing large partnerships under section 775 and partnerships using foreign addresses on their Series 1065 forms are not required to file using magnetic media for taxable years ending before January 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8843, 64 FR 61503, Nov. 12, 1999]

§301.6011-5   Required use of magnetic media for corporate income tax returns.

(a) Corporate income tax returns required on magnetic media—(1) A corporation required to file a corporate income tax return on Form 1120, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” under §1.6012-2 of this chapter must file its corporate income tax return on magnetic media if the corporation is required by the Internal Revenue Code or regulations to file at least 250 returns during the calendar year. Returns filed on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. In prescribing revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions, the Commissioner may direct the type of magnetic media filing. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.)

(2) All members of a controlled group of corporations must file their corporate income tax returns on magnetic media if the aggregate number of returns required to be filed by the controlled group of corporations is at least 250.

(b) Waiver. The Commissioner may grant waivers of the requirements of this section in cases of undue hardship. A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. The waiver also will be subject to the terms and conditions regarding the method of filing as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Failure to file. If a corporation fails to file a corporate income tax return on magnetic media when required to do so by this section, the corporation is deemed to have failed to file the return. (See section 6651 for the addition to tax for failure to file a return). In determining whether there is reasonable cause for failure to file the return, §301.6651-1(c) and rules similar to the rules in §301.6724-1(c)(3) (undue economic hardship related to filing information returns on magnetic media) will apply.

(d) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any magnetic media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, or publications. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media, such as electronic filing, specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(2) Corporation. The term corporation means a corporation as defined in section 7701(a)(3).

(3) Controlled group of corporations. The term controlled group of corporations means a group of corporations as defined in section 1563(a).

(4) Corporate income tax return. The term corporate income tax return means a Form 1120, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” along with all other related forms, schedules, and statements that are required to be attached to the Form 1120, and all members of the Form 1120 series of returns, including amended and superseding returns.

(5) Determination of 250 returns. For purposes of this section, a corporation or controlled group of corporations is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year ending with or within the taxable year of the corporation or the controlled group, the corporation or the controlled group is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns. In the case of a short year return, a corporation is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year which includes the short taxable year of the corporation, the corporation is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns. If the corporation is a member of a controlled group, the determination of the number of returns includes all returns required to be filed by all members of the controlled group during the calendar year ending with or within the taxable year of the controlled group.

(e) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d)(5) of this section:

Example. The taxable year of Corporation X, a fiscal year taxpayer with assets in excess of $10 million, ends on September 30. During the calendar year ending December 31, 2007, X was required to file one Form 1120, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” 100 Forms W-2, “Wage and Tax Statement,” 146 Forms 1099-DIV, “Dividends and Distributions,” one Form 940, “Employer's Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return,” and four Forms 941, “Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return.” Because X is required to file 252 returns during the calendar year that ended within its taxable year ending September 30, 2008, X is required to file its Form 1120 electronically for its taxable year ending September 30, 2008.

(f) Effective/applicability dates. This section applies to corporate income tax returns for corporations that report total assets at the end of the corporation's taxable year that equal or exceed $10 million on Schedule L of their Form 1120, for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 2006, except for the application of the short year rules in paragraph (d)(5) of this section, which is applicable for taxable years ending on or after November 13, 2007.

[T.D. 9363, 72 FR 63811, Nov. 13, 2007]

§301.6011-6   Statement of series and series organizations [Reserved]

§301.6011-7   Specified tax return preparers required to file individual income tax returns using magnetic media.

(a) Definitions.

(1) Magnetic media. For purposes of this section, the term magnetic media has the same meaning as in §301.6011-2(a)(1).

(2) Individual income tax return. The term individual income tax return means any return of tax imposed by subtitle A on individuals, estates, and trusts.

(3) Specified tax return preparer. The term specified tax return preparer means any person who is a tax return preparer, as defined in section 7701(a)(36) and §301.7701-15, unless that person reasonably expects to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns in a calendar year. If a person who is a tax return preparer is a member of a firm, that person is a specified tax return preparer unless the person's firm members in the aggregate reasonably expect to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns in a calendar year. Solely for the 2011 calendar year, a person will not be considered a specified tax return preparer if that person reasonably expects, or if the person is a member of a firm, the firm's members in the aggregate reasonably expect, to file fewer than 100 individual income tax returns in the 2011 calendar year. Solely for purposes of this section, a person is considered a member of a firm if the person is an employee, agent, member, partner, shareholder, or other equity holder of the firm.

(4) File or Filed. (i) For purposes of section 6011(e)(3) and these regulations only, an individual income tax return is considered to be “filed” by a tax return preparer or a specified tax return preparer if the preparer submits the individual income tax return to the IRS on the taxpayer's behalf, either electronically (by e-file or other magnetic media) or in non-electronic (paper) form. Submission of an individual income tax return by a tax return preparer or a specified tax return preparer in non-electronic form includes the transmission, sending, mailing or otherwise delivering of the paper individual income tax return to the IRS by the preparer, any member, employee, or agent of the preparer, or any member, employee, or agent of the preparer's firm.

(ii) An individual income tax return will not be considered to be filed, as defined in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section, by a tax return preparer or specified tax return preparer if the tax return preparer or specified tax return preparer who prepared the return obtains, on or prior to the date the individual income tax return is filed, a hand-signed and dated statement from the taxpayer (by either spouse if a joint return) that states the taxpayer chooses to file the individual income tax return in paper format, and that the taxpayer, and not the preparer, will submit the paper individual income tax return to the IRS. The IRS may provide guidance through forms, instructions or other appropriate guidance regarding how tax return preparers and specified tax return preparers can document a taxpayer's choice to file an individual income tax return in paper format.

(iii) The rules contained in this section do not alter or affect a taxpayer's obligation to file returns under any other provision of law. The definition of file or filed by a tax return preparer or specified tax return preparer contained in paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section applies only for the purposes of section 6011(e)(3) and these regulations and does not apply for any other purpose under any other provision of law.

(b) Magnetic media filing requirement. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(4)(ii) and (c) of this section, any individual income tax return prepared by a specified tax return preparer in a calendar year must be filed on magnetic media if the return is filed by the specified tax return preparer.

(c) Exclusions. The following exclusions apply to the magnetic media filing requirement in this section:

(1) Undue hardship waiver. The IRS may grant a waiver of the requirement of this section in cases of undue hardship. An undue hardship waiver may be granted upon application by a specified tax return preparer consistent with instructions provided in published guidance and as prescribed in relevant forms and instructions. A determination of undue hardship will be based upon all facts and circumstances. The undue hardship waiver provided to a specified tax return preparer may apply to a series or class of individual income tax returns or for a specified period of time, subject to the terms and conditions regarding the method of filing prescribed in such waiver.

(2) Administrative exemptions. The IRS may provide administrative exemptions from the requirement of this section for certain classes of specified tax return preparers, or regarding certain types of individual income tax returns, as the IRS determines necessary to promote effective and efficient tax administration. The IRS may provide administrative exemptions and any criteria or procedures necessary to claim an administrative exemption through forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance.

(d) Reasonably expect to file—(1) In general. The determination of whether a tax return preparer reasonably expects, or if the preparer is a member of a firm, the firm's members in the aggregate reasonably expect, to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns (or, in the case of the 2011 calendar year, fewer than 100 individual income tax returns) is made by adding together all of the individual income tax returns the tax return preparer and, if the preparer is a member of a firm, the firm's members reasonably expect to prepare and file in the calendar year. In making this determination, individual income tax returns that the tax return preparer reasonably expects will not be subject to the magnetic media filing requirement under paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section or are excluded from the requirement under (c)(2) of this section are not to be counted. Individual income tax returns excluded from the magnetic media filing requirement under paragraph (c)(1) of this section are to be counted for purposes of making this determination.

(2) Time for making determination of reasonable expectations. The determination regarding reasonable expectations is made separately for each calendar year in order to ascertain whether the magnetic media filing requirement applies to a tax return preparer for that year. For each calendar year, the determination of whether a tax return preparer and the preparer's firm reasonably expect to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns (or, in the case of the 2011 calendar year, fewer than 100 individual income tax returns) is made based on all relevant, objective, and demonstrable facts and circumstances prior to the time the tax return preparer and the preparer's firm first file an individual income tax return during the calendar year.

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section.

Example 1. Tax Return Preparer A is an accountant who recently graduated from college with an accounting degree and has opened his own practice. A has not prepared individual income tax returns for compensation in the past and does not plan to focus his practice on individual income tax return preparation. A intends instead to focus his practice on providing specialized accounting services to certain health care service providers. A has no plans to, and does not, employ or engage any other tax return preparers. A estimates that he may be asked by some clients to prepare and file their individual income tax returns for compensation, but A expects that the number of people who do ask him to provide this service will be no more than seven in 2012. In fact, A actually prepares and files six paper Forms 1040 (U.S. Individual Income Tax Return) in 2012. Due to a growing client base, and based upon his experience in 2012, A expects that the number of individual income tax returns he will prepare and file in 2013 will at least double, estimating he will prepare and file 12 Form 1040 returns in 2013. A does not qualify as a specified tax return preparer for 2012 because A reasonably expects to file 10 or fewer returns (seven) in 2012. Consequently, A is not required to electronically file the individual income tax returns he prepares and files in 2012. A's expectation is reasonable based on his business projections, individual income tax return filing history, and staffing decisions. A is a specified tax return preparer in 2013, however, because based on those same factors A reasonably expects to file more than 10 individual income tax returns (12) during that calendar year. A, therefore, must electronically file all individual income tax returns that A prepares and files in 2013 that are not otherwise excluded from the electronic filing requirement.

Example 2. Same facts as in Example 1, except three of Tax Return Preparer A's clients specifically chose to have A prepare their individual income tax returns in paper format in 2012 with the clients mailing their respective returns to the IRS. A expects that these three clients will similarly choose to have him prepare their returns in paper format in 2013, with the clients being responsible for mailing their returns to the IRS. A is not required to electronically file these three returns in 2013 because the taxpayers chose to file their returns in paper format. A obtained a hand-signed and dated statement from each of those taxpayers, indicating that they chose to file their returns in paper format. These three individual income tax returns are not counted in determining how many individual income tax returns A reasonably expects to file in 2013. Because the total number of individual income tax returns A reasonably expects to file in 2013 (nine) does not exceed 10, A is not a specified tax return preparer for calendar year 2013, and A is not required to electronically file any individual income tax return that he prepares and files in 2013.

Example 3. Tax Return Preparer B is a solo general practice attorney in a small county. Her practice includes the preparation of wills and assisting executors in administering estates. As part of her practice, B infrequently prepares and files Forms 1041 (U.S. Income Tax Return for Estates and Trusts) for executors. In the past three years, she prepared and filed an average of five Forms 1041 each year and never exceeded more than seven Forms 1041 in any year. Based on B's prior experience and her estimate for 2012, made prior to the time she first files an individual income tax return in 2012, she reasonably expects to prepare and file no more than five Forms 1041 in 2012. Due to the unforeseen deaths of several of her clients in late 2011, B actually prepares and files 12 Forms 1041 in 2012. B does not find out about these deaths until after she has already filed the first Form 1041 in 2012 for another client. B is not required to electronically file these returns in 2012. She does not qualify as a specified tax return preparer for calendar year 2012 because prior to the time she filed the first Form 1041 in 2012, she reasonably expected to file 10 or fewer individual income tax returns in 2012.

Example 4. Same facts as Example 3, except, in addition to the five Forms 1041 that she expects to prepare and file in 2012, Tax Return Preparer B also expects to prepare and file 10 paper Forms 1040 (U.S. Individual Income Tax Return) in 2012, based upon the requests that she has received from some of her clients. Because the total number of individual income tax returns B reasonably expects to file in 2012 (fifteen) exceeds 10, B is a specified tax return preparer for calendar year 2012, and B must electronically file all individual income tax returns that B prepares and files in 2012 that are not otherwise excluded from the electronic filing requirement.

Example 5. Firm X consists of two tax return preparers, Tax Return Preparer C who owns Firm X, and Tax Return Preparer D who is employed by C in Firm X. Based upon the firm's experience over the past three years, C and D reasonably expect to file nine and ten individual income tax returns for compensation, respectively, in 2012. Both C and D must electronically file the individual income tax returns that they prepare in 2012, unless the returns are otherwise excluded from the electronic filing requirement, because they are members of the same firm and the aggregated total of individual income tax returns that they reasonably expect to file in 2012 (nineteen), exceeds 10 individual income tax returns.

(f) Additional guidance. The IRS may implement the requirements of this section through additional guidance, including by revenue procedures, notices, publications, forms and instructions, including those issued electronically.

(g) Effective/applicability date. This section is effective on March 30, 2011, and applicable to individual income tax returns filed after December 31, 2010.

[T.D. 9518, 76 FR 17528, Mar. 30, 2011]

§301.6011(g)-1   Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.

(a) Requirement of disclosure—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, any taxable party (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) to a prohibited tax shelter transaction (as defined in section 4965(e) and §53.4965-3 of this chapter) must disclose by statement to each tax-exempt entity (as defined in section 4965(c) and §53.4965-2 of this chapter) that the taxable party knows or has reason to know is a party to such transaction (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section) that the transaction is a prohibited tax shelter transaction.

(2) Determining whether a taxable party knows or has reason to know. Whether a taxable party knows or has reason to know that a tax-exempt entity is a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction is based on all the facts and circumstances. If the taxable party knows or has reason to know that a prohibited tax shelter transaction involves a tax-exempt, tax indifferent or tax-favored entity, relevant factors for determining whether the taxable party knows or has reason to know that a specific tax-exempt entity is a party to the transaction include—

(i) The extent of the efforts made to determine whether a tax-exempt entity is facilitating the transaction by reason of its tax-exempt, tax indifferent or tax-favored status (or is identified in published guidance, by type, class or role, as a party to the transaction); and

(ii) If a tax-exempt entity is facilitating the transaction by reason of its tax-exempt, tax indifferent or tax-favored status (or is identified in published guidance, by type, class or role, as a party to the transaction), the extent of the efforts made to determine the identity of the tax-exempt entity.

(b) Definition of tax-exempt party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction. For purposes of section 6011(g), a tax-exempt entity is a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction if the entity is defined as such under §53.4965-4 of this chapter.

(c) Definition of taxable party—(1) In general. For purposes of this section, the term taxable party means—

(i) A person who has entered into and participates or expects to participate in the transaction under §§1.6011-4(c)(3)(i)(A), (B), or (C), 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter; or

(ii) A person who is designated as a taxable party by the Secretary in published guidance.

(2) Special rules—(i) Certain listed transactions. If a transaction that was otherwise not a prohibited tax shelter transaction becomes a listed transaction after the filing of a person's tax return (including an amended return) reflecting either tax consequences or a tax strategy described in the published guidance listing the transaction (or a tax benefit derived from tax consequences or a tax strategy described in the published guidance listing the transaction), the person is a taxable party beginning on the date the transaction is described as a listed transaction in published guidance.

(ii) Persons designated as non-parties. Published guidance may identify which persons, by type, class or role, will not be treated as a party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction for purposes of section 6011(g).

(d) Time for providing disclosure statement—(1) In general. A taxable party to a prohibited tax shelter transaction must make the disclosure required by this section to each tax-exempt entity that the taxable party knows or has reason to know is a party to the transaction within 60 days after the last to occur of—

(i) The date the person becomes a taxable party to the transaction within the meaning of paragraph (c) of this section;

(ii) The date the taxable party knows or has reason to know that the tax-exempt entity is a party to the transaction within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section; or

(iii) July 6, 2010.

(2) Termination of a disclosure obligation. A person shall not be required to provide the disclosure otherwise required by this section if the person does not know or have reason to know that the tax-exempt entity is a party to the transaction within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section on or before the first date on which the transaction is required to be disclosed by the person under §§1.6011-4, 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter.

(3) Disclosure is not required with respect to any prohibited tax shelter transaction entered into by a tax-exempt entity on or before May 17, 2006.

(e) Frequency of disclosure. One disclosure statement is required per tax-exempt entity per transaction. See paragraph (h) of this section for rules relating to designation agreements.

(f) Form and content of disclosure statement. The statement disclosing to the tax-exempt entity that the transaction is a prohibited tax shelter transaction must be a written statement that—

(1) Identifies the type of prohibited tax shelter transaction (including the published guidance citation for a listed transaction); and

(2) States that the tax-exempt entity's involvement in the transaction may subject either it or its entity manager(s) or both to excise taxes under section 4965 and to disclosure obligations under section 6033(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(g) To whom disclosure is made. The disclosure statement must be provided—

(1) In the case of a non-plan entity as defined in §53.4965-2(b) of this chapter, to—

(i) Any entity manager of the tax-exempt entity with authority or responsibility similar to that exercised by an officer, director or trustee of an organization; or

(ii) If a person described in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section is not known, to the primary contact on the transaction.

(2) In the case of a plan entity as defined in §53.4965-2(c) of this chapter, including a fully self-directed qualified plan, IRA, or other savings arrangement, to any entity manager of the plan entity who approved or otherwise caused the entity to become a party to the prohibited tax shelter transaction.

(h) Designation agreements. If more than one taxable party is required to disclose a prohibited tax shelter transaction under this section, the taxable parties may designate by written agreement a single taxable party to disclose the transaction. The transaction must then be disclosed in accordance with this section. The designation of one taxable party to disclose the transaction does not relieve the other taxable parties of their obligation to disclose the transaction to a tax-exempt entity that is a party to the transaction in accordance with this section, if the designated taxable party fails to disclose the transaction to the tax-exempt entity in a timely manner.

(i) Penalty for failure to provide disclosure statement. See section 6707A for the penalty applicable to the failure to disclose a prohibited tax shelter transaction in accordance with this section.

(j) Effective date/applicability date. This section will apply with respect to transactions entered into by a tax-exempt entity after May 17, 2006.

[T.D. 9492, 75 FR 38709, July 6, 2010]

Income Tax Returns

§301.6012-1   Persons required to make returns of income.

For provisions with respect to persons required to make returns of income, see §§1.6012-1 to 1.6012-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6013-1   Joint returns of income tax by husband and wife.

For provisions with respect to joint returns of income tax by husband and wife, see §§1.6013-1 to 1.6013-7, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, as amended by T.D. 7670, 45 FR 6932, Jan. 31, 1980]

§301.6014-1   Income tax return—tax not computed by taxpayer.

For provisions relating to the election not to show on an income tax return the amount of tax due in connection therewith, see §§1.6014-1 and 1.6014-2 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 7102, 36 FR 5498, Mar. 24, 1971]

§301.6015-1   Declaration of estimated income tax by individuals.

For provisions relating to requirements of declarations of estimated income tax by individuals, see §§1.6015 (a)-1 through 1.6015 (j)-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 7427, 41 FR 34033, Aug. 12, 1976]

§301.6016-1   Declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.

For provisions concerning the requirement of declarations of estimated income tax by corporations, see §§1.6016-1 to 1.6016-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6017-1   Self-employment tax returns.

For provisions relating to the requirement of self-employment tax returns, see §1.6017-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

Estate and Gift Tax Returns

§301.6018-1   Estate tax returns.

For provisions relating to requirement of estate tax returns, see §§20.6018-1 to 20.6018-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations).

§301.6019-1   Gift tax returns.

For provisions relating to requirement of gift tax returns, see §§25.6019-1 to 25.6019-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Gift Tax Regulations).

Miscellaneous Provisions

§301.6020-1   Returns prepared or executed by the Commissioner or other Internal Revenue Officers.

(a) Preparation of returns—(1) In general. If any person required by the Internal Revenue Code or by the regulations to make a return fails to make such return, it may be prepared by the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee provided such person consents to disclose all information necessary for the preparation of such return. The return upon being signed by the person required to make it shall be received by the Commissioner as the return of such person.

(2) Responsibility of person for whom return is prepared. A person for whom a return is prepared in accordance with paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall for all legal purposes remain responsible for the correctness of the return to the same extent as if the return had been prepared by him.

(b) Execution of returns—(1) In general. If any person required by the Internal Revenue Code or by the regulations to make a return (other than a declaration of estimated tax required under section 6654 or 6655) fails to make such return at the time prescribed therefore, or makes, willfully or otherwise, a false, fraudulent or frivolous return, the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee shall make such return from his own knowledge and from such information as he can obtain through testimony or otherwise. The Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee may make the return by gathering information and making computations through electronic, automated or other means to make a determination of the taxpayer's tax liability.

(2) Form of the return. A document (or set of documents) signed by the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee shall be a return for a person described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section if the document (or set of documents) identifies the taxpayer by name and taxpayer identification number, contains sufficient information from which to compute the taxpayer's tax liability, and purports to be a return. A Form 13496, “IRC Section 6020(b) Certification,” or any other form that an authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee signs and uses to identify a set of documents containing the information set forth in this paragraph as a section 6020(b) return, and the documents identified, constitute a return under section 6020(b). A return may be signed by the name or title of an Internal Revenue Officer or employee being handwritten, stamped, typed, printed or otherwise mechanically affixed to the return, so long as that name or title was placed on the document to signify that the Internal Revenue Officer or employee adopted the document as a return for the taxpayer. The document and signature may be in written or electronic form.

(3) Status of returns. Any return made in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section and signed by the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee shall be good and sufficient for all legal purposes except insofar as any Federal statute expressly provides otherwise. Furthermore, the return shall be treated as the return filed by the taxpayer for purposes of determining the amount of the addition to tax under sections 6651(a)(2) and (3).

(4) Deficiency procedures. For deficiency procedures in the case of income, estate, and gift taxes, see sections 6211 through 6216, inclusive, and §§301.6211-1 through 301.6215-1, inclusive.

(5) Employment status procedures. For pre-assessment procedures in employment taxes cases involving worker classification, see section 7436 (proceedings for determination of employment status).

(6) Examples. The application of this paragraph (b) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Individual A, a calendar-year taxpayer, fails to file his 2003 return. Employee X, an Internal Revenue Service employee, opens an examination related to A's 2003 taxable year. At the end of the examination, X completes a Form 13496, “IRC Section 6020(b) Certification,” and attached to it the documents listed on the form. Those documents explain examination changes and provide sufficient information to compute A's tax liability. The Form 13496 provides that the Service employee identified on the form certifies that the attached pages constitute a return under section 6020(b). When X signs the certification package, the package constitutes a return under paragraph (b) of this section because the package identifies A by name, contains A's taxpayer identifying number (TIN), has sufficient information to compute A's tax liability, and contains a statement stating that it constitutes a return under section 6020(b). In addition, the Service will determine the amount of the additions to tax under section 6651(a)(2) by treating the section 6020(b) return as the return filed by the taxpayer. Likewise, the Service will determine the amount of any addition to tax under section 6651(a)(3), which arises only after notice and demand for payment, by treating the section 6020(b) return as the return filed by the taxpayer.

Example 2. Same facts as in Example 1, except that, after performing the examination, X does not compile any examination documents together as a related set of documents. X also does not sign and complete the Form 13496 nor associate the forms explaining examination changes with any other document. Because X did not sign any document stating that it constitutes a return under section 6020(b) and the documents otherwise do not purport to be a section 6020(b) return, the documents do not constitute a return under section 6020(b). Therefore, the Service cannot determine the section 6651(a)(2) addition to tax against nonfiler A for A's 2003 taxable year on the basis of those documents.

Example 3. Individual C, a calendar-year taxpayer, fails to file his 2003 return. The Service determines through its automated internal matching programs that C received reportable income and failed to file a return. The Service, again through its automated systems, generates a Letter 2566, “30 Day Proposed Assessment (SFR-01) 910 SC/CG.” This letter contains C's name, TIN, and has sufficient information to compute C's tax liability. Contemporaneous with the creation of the Letter 2566, the Service, through its automated system, electronically creates and stores a certification stating that the electronic data contained as part of C's account constitutes a valid return under section 6020(b) as of that date. Further, the electronic data includes the signature of the Service employee authorized to sign the section 6020(b) return upon its creation. Although the signature is stored electronically, it can appear as a printed name when the Service requests a paper copy of the certification. The electronically created information, signature, and certification is a return under section 6020(b). The Service will treat that return as the return filed by the taxpayer in determining the amount of the section 6651(a)(2) addition to tax with respect to C's 2003 taxable year. Likewise, the Service will determine the amount of any addition to tax under section 6651(a)(3), which arises only after notice and demand for payment, by treating the section 6020(b) return as the return filed by the taxpayer.

Example 4. Corporation M, a quarterly taxpayer, fails to file a Form 941, “Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return,” for the second quarter of 2004. Q, a Service employee authorized to sign returns under section 6020(b), prepares a Form 941 by hand, stating Corporation M's name, address, and TIN. Q completes the Form 941 by entering line item amounts, including the tax due, and then signs the document. The Form 941 that Q prepared and signed constitutes a section 6020(b) return because the Form 941 purports to be a return under section 6020(b), the form contains M's name and TIN, and it includes sufficient information to compute M's tax liability for the second quarter of 2004.

(c) Cross references—(1) For provisions that a return executed by the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee will not start the running of the period of limitations on assessment and collection, see section 6501(b)(3) and §301.6501(b)-1(e).

(2) For determining the period of limitations on collection after assessment of a liability on a return executed by the Commissioner or other authorized Internal Revenue Officer or employee, see section 6502 and §301.6502-1.

(3) For additions to the tax and additional amounts for failure to file returns, see section 6651 and §301.6651-1, and section 6652 and §301.6652-1, respectively.

(4) For additions to the tax for failure to pay tax, see section 6651 and §301.6651-1.

(5) For criminal penalties for willful failure to make returns, see sections 7201, 7202 and 7203.

(6) For criminal penalties for willfully making false or fraudulent returns, see sections 7206 and 7207.

(7) For civil penalties for filing frivolous income tax returns, see section 6702.

(8) For authority to examine books and witnesses, see section 7602 and §301.7602-1.

(d) Effective/Applicability date. This section is applicable on February 20, 2008.

[T.D. 9380, 73 FR 9189, Feb. 20, 2008]

§301.6021-1   Listing by district directors of taxable objects owned by nonresidents of internal revenue districts.

Whenever there are in any internal revenue district any articles subject to tax, which are not owned or possessed by or under the care or control of any person within such district, and of which no list has been transmitted to the district director, as required by law or by regulations prescribed pursuant to law, the district director, or other authorized internal revenue officer or employee, shall enter the premises where such articles are situated, shall make such inspection of the articles as may be necessary, and shall make lists of the same according to the forms prescribed. Such lists, being subscribed by the district director or other authorized internal revenue officer or employee, shall be sufficient lists of such articles for all purposes.

information returns

Information Concerning Persons Subject to Special Provisions

§301.6031(a)-1   Return of partnership income.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of partnership income, see §1.6031(a)-1 of this chapter.

[T.D. 8841, 64 FR 61502, Nov. 12, 1999]

§301.6032-1   Returns of banks with respect to common trust funds.

For provisions relating to requirement of returns of banks with respect to common trust funds, see §1.6032-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6033-1   Returns by exempt organizations.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns by exempt organizations, see §1.6033-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6033-4   Required use of magnetic media for returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033.

(a) Returns by organizations required to file returns under section 6033 on magnetic media. An organization required to file a return under section 6033 on Form 990, “Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax,” or Form 990-PF, “Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Trust Treated as a Private Foundation,” must file its Form 990 or 990-PF on magnetic media if the organization is required by the Internal Revenue Code or regulations to file at least 250 returns during the calendar year ending with or within its taxable year. Returns filed on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. In prescribing revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions, the Commissioner may direct the type of magnetic media filing. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(b) Waiver. The Commissioner may grant waivers of the requirements of this section in cases of undue hardship. A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. The waiver also will be subject to the terms and conditions regarding the method of filing as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Failure to file. If an organization required to file a return under section 6033 fails to file an information return on magnetic media when required to do so by this section, the organization is deemed to have failed to file the return. (See section 6652 for the addition to tax for failure to file a return.) In determining whether there is reasonable cause for failure to file the return, §301.6652-2(f) and rules similar to the rules in §301.6724-1(c)(3) (undue economic hardship related to filing information returns on magnetic media) will apply.

(d) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any magnetic media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, or publications. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media, such as electronic filing, specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, procedures, publications, forms or instructions. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(2) Return required under section 6033. The term return required under section 6033 means a Form 990, “Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax,” and Form 990-PF, “Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Trust Treated as a Private Foundation,” along with all other related forms, schedules, and statements that are required to be attached to the Form 990 or Form 990-PF, and all members of the Form 990 series of returns, including amended and superseding returns.

(3) Determination of 250 returns. For purposes of this section, an organization is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year ending with or within the taxable year of the organization, the organization is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns. In the case of a short year return, an organization is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year which includes the short taxable year of the organization, the organization is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns.

(e) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d)(3) of this section. In the example, the organization is a calendar year taxpayer:

Example. In 2006, Organization T, with total assets in excess of $10 million, is required to file one Form 990, “Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax,” 200 Forms W-2, “Wage and Tax Statement,” one Form 940, “Employer's Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return,” four Forms 941, “Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return,” and 60 Forms 1099-MISC, “Miscellaneous Income.” Because T is required to file 266 returns during the calendar year, T must file its 2006 Form 990 electronically.

(f) Effective/applicability dates. This section applies to any organization required to file Form 990 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 2006, that has total assets as of the end of the taxable year of $10 million or more. This section applies to any organization required to file Form 990-PF for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 2006, except for the application of the short year rules in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, which is applicable for taxable years ending on or after November 13, 2007.

[T.D. 9363, 72 FR 63811, Nov. 13, 2007]

§301.6033-5   Disclosure by tax-exempt entities that are parties to certain reportable transactions.

(a) In general. For provisions relating to the requirement of the disclosure by a tax-exempt entity that it is a party to certain reportable transactions, see §1.6033-5 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

(b) Effective date/applicability date. This section applies with respect to transactions entered into by a tax-exempt entity after May 17, 2006.

[T.D. 9492, 75 FR 38710, July 6, 2010]

§301.6034-1   Returns by trusts described in section 4947(a)(2) or claiming charitable or other deductions under section 642(c).

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns by trusts described in section 4947(a)(2) or claiming charitable or other deductions under section 642(c), see §1.6034-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 8026, 50 FR 20757, May 20, 1985]

§301.6035-1   Returns of officers, directors, and shareholders of foreign personal holding companies.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns by officers, directors, and shareholders of foreign personal holding companies, see §§1.6035-1 to 1.6035-3, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6036-1   Notice required of executor or of receiver or other like fiduciary.

(a) Receivers and other like fiduciaries—(1) Exemption for bankruptcy proceedings. (i) A bankruptcy trustee, debtor in possession or other like fiduciary in a bankruptcy proceeding is not required by this section to give notice of appointment, qualification or authorization to act to the Secretary or his delegate. (However, see the notice requirements under the Bankruptcy Rules.)

(ii) Paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is effective for appointments, qualifications and authorizations to act made on or after January 29, 1988. For appointments, qualifications and authorizations to act made before the foregoing date, 26 CFR 301.6036-1 (a)(1) and (4)(i) (revised as of April 1, 1986) apply.

(2) Proceedings other than bankruptcy. A receiver in a receivership proceeding or a similar fiduciary in any proceeding (including a fiduciary in aid of foreclosure), designated by order of any court of the United States or of any State or Territory or of the District of Columbia as in control of all or substantially all the assets of a debtor or other party to such proceeding shall, on, or within 10 days of, the date of his appointment or authorization to act, give notice thereof in writing to the district director for the internal revenue district in which the debtor, or such other party, is or was required to make returns. Moreover, any fiduciary in aid of foreclosure not appointed by order of any such court, if he takes possession of all or substantially all the assets of the debtor, shall, on, or within 10 days of, the date of his taking possession, give notice thereof in writing to such district director.

(3) Assignment for benefit of creditors. An assignee for the benefit of a creditor or creditors shall, on, or within 10 days of, the date of an assignment, give notice thereof in writing to the district director for the internal revenue district in which the debtor is or was required to make returns. For purposes of this subparagraph, an assignee for the benefit of creditors shall be any person who, by authority of law, by the order of any court, by oral or written agreement, or in any other manner acquires control or possession of or title to all or substantially all the assets of a debtor, and who under such acquisition is authorized to use, reassign, sell, or in any manner dispose of such assets so that the proceeds from the use, sale, or other disposition may be paid to or may inure directly or indirectly to the benefit of a creditor or creditors of such debtor.

(4) Contents of notice—(i) Proceedings other than bankruptcy. The written notice required under paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall contain:

(a) The name and address of the person making such notice and the date of his appointment or of his taking possession of the assets of the debtor or other person whose assets are controlled,

(b) The name, address, and, for notices filed after December 21, 1972, the taxpayer identification number of the debtor or other person whose assets are controlled.

(c) In the case of a court proceeding:

(1) The name and location of the court in which the proceedings are pending,

(2) The date on which such proceedings were instituted,

(3) The number under which such proceedings are docketed, and

(4) When possible, the date, time, and place of any hearing, meeting of creditors, or other scheduled action with respect to such proceedings.

(ii) Assignment for benefit of creditors. The written notice required under subparagraph (3) of this paragraph shall contain:

(a) The name and address of, and the date the asset or assets were assigned to, the assignee,

(b) The name, address, and, for notice filed after December 21, 1972, the taxpayer identification number of the debtor whose assets were assigned.

(c) A brief description of the assets assigned,

(d) An explanation of the action expected to be taken with respect to such assets, and

(e) When possible, the date, time, and place of any hearing, meeting of creditors, sale, or other scheduled action with respect to such assets.

(iii) The notice required by this section shall be sent to the attention of the Chief, Special Procedures Staff, of the district office to which it is required to be sent.

(b) Executors, administrators, and persons in possession of property of decedent. For provisions relating to the requirement of filing, by an executor, administrator, or person in possession of property of a decedent, of a preliminary notice in the case of the estate of a decedent dying before January 1, 1971, see §20.6036-1 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations).

(c) Notice of fiduciary relationship. When a notice is required under §301.6903-1 of a person acting in a fiduciary capacity and is also required of such person under this section, notice given in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as complying with both sections.

(d) Suspension of period on assessment. For suspension of the running of the period of limitations on the making of assessments from the date a proceeding is instituted to a date 30 days after receipt of notice from a fiduciary in any proceeding under the Bankruptcy Act or from a receiver in any other court proceeding, see section 6872 and §301.6872-1.

(e) Applicability. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, the provisions of this section shall apply to those persons referred to in this section whose appointments, authorizations, or assignments occur on or after the date of publication of these regulations in the Federal Register as a Treasury decision.

(f) Cross references. (1) For criminal penalty for willful failure to supply information, see section 7203.

(2) For criminal penalties for willfully making false or fraudulent statements, see sections 7206 and 7207.

(3) For time for performance of acts where the last day falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday, see section 7503 and §301.7503-1.

[32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, as amended by T.D. 7218, 37 FR 24748, Nov. 21, 1972; T.D. 7238, 37 FR 28738, Dec. 29, 1972; T.D. 8172, 53 FR 2600, Jan. 29, 1988]

§301.6037-1   Return of electing small business corporation.

For provisions relating to requirement of return of electing small business corporation, see §1.6037-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6037-2   Required use of magnetic media for returns of electing small business corporation.

(a) Returns of electing small business corporation required on magnetic media. An electing small business corporation required to file an electing small business return on Form 1120S, “U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation,” under §1.6037-1 of this chapter must file its Form 1120S on magnetic media if the small business corporation is required by the Internal Revenue Code and regulations to file at least 250 returns during the calendar year ending with or within its taxable year. Returns filed on magnetic media must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. In prescribing revenue procedures, publications, forms, or instructions, the Commissioner may direct the type of magnetic media filing. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(b) Waiver. The Commissioner may grant waivers of the requirements of this section in cases of undue hardship. A request for waiver must be made in accordance with applicable revenue procedures or publications. The waiver also will be subject to the terms and conditions regarding the method of filing as may be prescribed by the Commissioner.

(c) Failure to file. If an electing small business corporation fails to file a return on magnetic media when required to do so by this section, the corporation is deemed to have failed to file the return. (See section 6651 for the addition to tax for failure to file a return.) In determining whether there is reasonable cause for failure to file the return, §301.6651-1(c) and rules similar to the rules in §301.6724-1(c)(3) (undue economic hardship related to filing information returns on magnetic media) will apply.

(d) Meaning of terms. The following definitions apply for purposes of this section:

(1) Magnetic media. The term magnetic media means any magnetic media permitted under applicable regulations, revenue procedures, or publications. These generally include magnetic tape, tape cartridge, and diskette, as well as other media, such as electronic filing, specifically permitted under the applicable regulations, procedures, publications, forms, or instructions. (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(2) Corporation. The term corporation means a corporation as defined in section 7701(a)(3).

(3) Electing small business corporation return. The term electing small business corporation return means a Form 1120S, “U.S. Income Tax Return for an S Corporation,” along with all other related forms, schedules, and statements that are required to be attached to the Form 1120S, and all members of the Form 1120S series of returns, including amended and superseding returns.

(4) Electing small business corporation. The term electing small business corporation means an S corporation as defined in section 1361(a)(1).

(5) Determination of 250 returns. For purposes of this section, a corporation is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year ending with or within the taxable year of the corporation, the corporation is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns. In the case of a short year return, a corporation is required to file at least 250 returns if, during the calendar year which includes the short taxable year of the corporation, the corporation is required to file at least 250 returns of any type, including information returns (for example, Forms W-2, Forms 1099), income tax returns, employment tax returns, and excise tax returns.

(e) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of paragraph (d)(5) of this section. In the example, the corporation is a calendar year taxpayer:

Example. In 2007, Corporation S, an electing small business corporation with assets in excess of $10 million, is required to file one Form 1120S, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” 100 Forms W-2, “Wage and Tax Statement,” 146 Forms 1099-DIV, “Dividends and Distributions,” one Form 940, “Employer's Annual Federal Unemployment (FUTA) Tax Return,” and four Forms 941, “Employer's Quarterly Federal Tax Return.” Because S is required to file 252 returns during the calendar year, S is required to file its 2007 Form 1120S electronically.

(f) Effective/applicability dates. This section applies to returns of electing small business corporations that report total assets at the end of the corporation's taxable year that equal or exceed $10 million on Schedule L of Form 1120S for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 2006, except for the application of the short year rules in paragraph (d)(5) of this section, which is applicable for taxable years ending on or after November 13, 2007.

[T.D. 9363, 72 FR 63812, Nov. 13, 2007]

§301.6038-1   Information returns required of U.S. persons with respect to certain foreign corporations.

For provisions relating to information returns required of U.S. persons with respect to certain foreign corporations, see §§1.6038-1 and 1.6038-2 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6039-1   Information returns and statements required in connection with certain options.

For provisions relating to information returns and statements required in connection with certain options, see §§1.6039-1 and 1.6039-2 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 7275, 38 FR 11346, May 7, 1973]

Information Concerning Transactions With Other Persons

§301.6041-1   Returns of information regarding certain payments.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding certain payments, see §§1.6041-1 to 1.6041-6, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6042-1   Returns of information regarding payments of dividends and corporate earnings and profits.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding payments of dividends and corporate earnings and profits, see §§1.6042-1 to 1.6042-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6043-1   Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or contraction.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding liquidations, dissolutions, terminations, or contracts, see §§l.6043-1, 1.6043-2, and 1.6043-3 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 7563, 43 FR 40222, Sept. 11, 1978]

§301.6044-1   Returns of information regarding payments of patronage dividends.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding payments of patronage dividends, see §§1.6044-1 to 1.6044-5, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6046-1   Returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock.

For provisions relating to requirement of returns as to organization or reorganization of foreign corporations and as to acquisitions of their stock, see §§1.6046-1 to 1.6046-3, inclusive, of this chapter. (Income Tax Regulations.)

§301.6047-1   Information relating to certain trusts and annuity and bond purchase plans.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding certain trusts and annuity and bond purchase plans, see §1.6047-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6048-1   Returns as to creation of or transfers to certain foreign trusts.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns as to creation of or transfers to certain foreign trusts, see §16.3-1 of this chapter (Temporary Regulations under the Revenue Act of 1962).

§301.6049-1   Returns regarding payments of interest.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns regarding payments of interest, see §§1.6049-1 to 1.6049-3, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6050A-1   Information returns regarding services performed by certain crewmen on fishing boats.

For provisions relating to the requirement of returns of information regarding services performed by certain crewmen on fishing boats, see §1.6050A-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations) and §301.6652-1 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

[T.D. 7716, 45 FR 57124, Aug. 27, 1980]

§301.6050M-1   Information returns relating to persons receiving contracts from certain Federal executive agencies.

For provisions relating to the requirements of returns of information relating to persons receiving contracts from certain Federal executive agencies, see §1.6050M-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

[T.D. 8275, 54 FR 50372, Dec. 6, 1989]

Information Regarding Wages Paid Employees

§301.6051-1   Receipts for employees.

For provisions relating to statements for employees regarding remuneration paid during calendar year, see §31.6051-1 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).

§301.6052-1   Information returns and statements regarding payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance.

For provisions relating to information returns and statements required in connection with the payment of wages in the form of group-term life insurance, see §§1.6052-1 and 1.6052-2 of this chapter (income tax regulations).

[T.D. 7275, 38 FR 11346, May 7, 1973]

§301.6056-1   Rules relating to reporting by applicable large employers on health insurance coverage offered under employer-sponsored plans.

(a) In general. Section 6056 requires an applicable large employer subject to the requirements of section 4980H to report certain health insurance coverage information to the Internal Revenue Service, and to furnish certain related employee statements to its full-time employees. Paragraph (b) of this section contains definitions for purposes of this section. Paragraph (c) of this section prescribes general rules for filing the required information with the IRS and furnishing the required employee statements to employees. Paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section describe the information required to be reported on a section 6056 information return and the time and manner for filing. Paragraph (f) of this section provides information about the statement required to be furnished to a full-time employee. Paragraph (g) of this section prescribes the time and manner of furnishing the statement, including extensions of time to furnish, to a full-time employee. Paragraph (h) addresses corrections of returns. Paragraph (i) of this section describes the information return penalties applicable to section 6056 returns. Paragraph (j) of this section describes alternative reporting methods available to certain applicable large employers with certain employees. Paragraph (k) of this section describes certain special rules applicable to applicable large employers that are governmental units.

(b) Definitions—(1) In general. The definitions in this paragraph (b) apply for purposes of this section.

(2) Applicable large employer. The term applicable large employer has the same meaning as in section 4980H(c)(2) and §54.4980H-1(a)(4) of this chapter.

(3) Applicable large employer member. The term applicable large employer member has the same meaning as in §54.4980H-1(a)(5) of this chapter.

(4) Dependent. The term dependent has the same meaning as in §54.4980H-1(a)(11) of this chapter.

(5) Eligible employer-sponsored plan. The term eligible employer-sponsored plan has the same meaning as in section 5000A(f)(2) and §1.5000A-2(c)(1) of this chapter.

(6) Full-time employee. The term full-time employee has the same meaning as in section 4980H and §54.5980H-1(a)(21) of this chapter, as applied to the determination and calculation of liability under section 4980H(a) and (b) with respect to any individual employee, and not as applied to the determination of status as an applicable large employer, if different.

(7) Governmental unit. The term governmental unit refers to the government of the United States, any State or political subdivision thereof, or any Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7701(a)(40)) or subdivision of an Indian tribal government (as defined in section 7871(d)).

(8) Agency or instrumentality of a governmental unit. [Reserved]

(9) Minimum essential coverage. The term minimum essential coverage has the same meaning as in section 5000A(f) and the regulations issued under that section.

(10) Minimum value. The term minimum value has the same meaning as in section 36B and any applicable regulations.

(11) Person. The term person has the same meaning as in section 7701(a)(1) and applicable regulations.

(c) Content and timing of reporting by applicable large employer members.—(1) In general. Each applicable large employer member required to make a return and furnish a related statement to its full-time employees under section 6056 for a calendar year must make a return and furnish the related statement using such form(s) as may be prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service. An applicable large employer member will satisfy its reporting requirements under section 6056 if it files with the Internal Revenue Service a return for each full-time employee using Form 1095-C or another form the IRS designates, and a transmittal form using Form 1094-C or another form the IRS designates, as prescribed in this section and in the instructions to the forms. Each Form 1095-C and the transmittal Form 1094-C will together constitute an information return to be filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

(2) Reporting facilitated by third parties. A separate section 6056 information return must be filed for each applicable large employer member. If more than one section 6056 information return is being filed for an applicable large employer member, there must be one authoritative section 6056 transmittal (Form 1094-C) reporting aggregate employer-level data for all full-time employees of the applicable large employer member, in accordance with forms and instructions. Additionally, there must be only one section 6056 employee statement (Form 1095-C) for each full-time employee with respect to that full-time employee's employment with the applicable large employer member, so that all required information for a particular full-time employee of the applicable large employer member is reflected on a single Form 1095-C.

(d) Information required to be reported to the Internal Revenue Service—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section (relating to alternative reporting methods for eligible applicable large employer members), every applicable large employer member must make a section 6056 information return with respect to each full-time employee. Each section 6056 information return must show—

(i) The name, address, and employer identification number of the applicable large employer member,

(ii) The name and telephone number of the applicable large employer member's contact person,

(iii) The calendar year for which the information is reported,

(iv) A certification as to whether the applicable large employer member offered to its full-time employees (and their dependents) the opportunity to enroll in minimum essential coverage under an eligible employer-sponsored plan, by calendar month,

(v) The months during the calendar year for which minimum essential coverage under the plan was available,

(vi) Each full-time employee's share of the lowest cost monthly premium (self-only) for coverage providing minimum value offered to that full-time employee under an eligible employer-sponsored plan, by calendar month;

(vii) The number of full-time employees for each month during the calendar year,

(viii) The name, address, and taxpayer identification number of each full-time employee during the calendar year and the months, if any, during which the employee was covered under the plan, and

(ix) Any other information specified in forms, instructions, or published guidance, see §§601.601(d) and 601.602 of this chapter.

(2) Form of the return. A return required under this paragraph (d) may be made on Forms 1094-C and 1095-C or other form(s) designated by the Internal Revenue Service, or a substitute form. A substitute form must include the information required to be reported on Forms 1094-C and 1095-C and must comply with applicable revenue procedures or other published guidance relating to substitute statements. See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.

(e) Time and manner for filing return. An applicable large employer member must file the return and transmittal form required under paragraph (d)(2) of this section on or before February 28 (March 31 if filed electronically) of the year succeeding the calendar year to which it relates in accordance with any applicable guidance and the instructions to the form. An applicable large employer member must file the return and transmittal form at the address specified on the return form or its instructions. For extensions of time for filing returns under this section, see §§1.6081-1 and 1.6081-8 of this chapter. See §301.6011-2 for rules relating to electronic filing.

(f) Statements required to be furnished to full-time employees—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (j) of this section, every applicable large employer member required to file a return under section 6056 must furnish to each of its full-time employees identified on the return a written statement showing—

(i) The name, address and employer identification number of the applicable large employer member, and

(ii) The information required to be shown on the section 6056 return with respect to the full-time employee.

(2) Form of the statement. A statement required under this paragraph (f) may be made either by furnishing to the full-time employee a copy of Form 1095-C or another form the IRS designates as prescribed in this section and in the instructions to such forms, or a substitute statement. A substitute statement must include the information required to be shown on the return filed with the IRS and must comply with requirements in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) relating to substitute statements. An IRS truncated taxpayer identification number may be used as the identifying number for an individual in lieu of the identifying number appearing on the corresponding information return filed with the IRS.

(g) Time and manner for furnishing statements—(1) Time for furnishing.—(i) In general. Each statement required by this section for a calendar year must be furnished to a full-time employee on or before January 31 of the year succeeding that calendar year in accordance with applicable Internal Revenue Service procedures and instructions

(ii) Extensions of time—(A) In general. For good cause upon written application of the person required to furnish statements under this section, the Internal Revenue Service may grant an extension of time not exceeding 30 days in which to furnish such statements. The application must be addressed to the Internal Revenue Service, and must contain a full recital of the reasons for requesting the extension to aid the Internal Revenue Service in determining the period of the extension, if any, that will be granted. A request in the form of a letter to the Internal Revenue Service, signed by the applicant, suffices as an application. The application must be filed on or before the date prescribed in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(B) Automatic extension of time. The Commissioner may, in appropriate cases, prescribe additional guidance or procedures, published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), for automatic extensions of time to furnish to one or more full-time employees the statement required under section 6056.

(2) Manner of furnishing. If mailed, the statement must be sent to the full-time employee's last known permanent address or, if no permanent address is known, to the employee's temporary address. For purposes of this paragraph (g), an applicable large employer member's first class mailing to the last known permanent address, or if no permanent address is known, the temporary address, discharges the requirement to furnish the statement. An applicable large employer member may furnish the statement electronically in accordance with §301.6056-2.

(h) Correction of returns. See §301.6056-1(i)(2).

(i) Penalties.—(1) In general. For provisions relating to the penalty for failure to file timely a correct information return required under section 6056, see section 6721 and the regulations under that section. For provisions relating to the penalty for failure to furnish timely a correct statement to full-time employees required under section 6056, see section 6722 and the regulations under that section. See section 6724 and the regulations under that section for rules relating to the waiver of penalties if a failure to file timely or accurately is due to reasonable cause and is not due to willful neglect.

(2) Application of section 6721 and 6722 penalties to section 6056 reporting. For purposes of section 6056 reporting, if the information reported on a return (including a transmittal) or a statement required by this section is incomplete or incorrect as a result of a change in circumstances (such as a retroactive change in coverage), a failure to timely file or furnish a corrected document is a failure to file or furnish a correct return or statement under sections 6721 and 6722.

(j) Alternative reporting methods for eligible applicable large employer members. In lieu of the general reporting method described in paragraph (d) of this section, eligible applicable large employer members may use the following alternative reporting methods described in this paragraph (j).

(1) Certification of qualifying offer. An applicable large employer member is an eligible applicable large employer member and is treated as meeting its reporting obligation under section 6056 if:

(i) The applicable large employer member certifies on the section 6056 transmittal form, in accordance with the form and the instructions to the form, that it made a qualifying offer. A qualifying offer is an offer to one or more of its full-time employees for all months during the year for which the employee was a full-time employee and which are not within a limited nonassessment period (as defined in §54.4980H-1(a)(26) of this chapter), of minimum essential coverage providing minimum value at an employee cost for employee-only coverage not exceeding 9.5 percent of the mainland single federal poverty line, and that includes an offer of minimum essential coverage to the employees' spouses and dependents. For this purpose, the applicable federal poverty line is the federal poverty line as defined in §54.4980H-1(a)(19) of this chapter, as calculated and applied to the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia;

(ii) The applicable large employer member provides on the Form 1095-C or other form as designated by the IRS, in accordance with the form and the instructions to the form, the information with respect to each full-time employee to whom a qualifying offer, as defined in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section, is made for all twelve months of the applicable calendar year;

(iii) The applicable large employer member provides a statement to each full-time employee to whom a qualifying offer (as defined in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section) was made for all twelve months of the applicable calendar year, in such form and manner as prescribed by the Secretary, or a copy of the Form 1095-C filed with the IRS with respect to that full-time employee; and

(D) The applicable large employer member files section 6056 returns and furnishes section 6056 employee statements with respect to all other full-time employees under the general reporting method described in paragraph (d) of this section, in accordance with forms and instructions.

(2) Option to report without separate identification of full-time employees if certain conditions related to offers of coverage are satisfied (98 percent offers). An applicable large employer member that otherwise meets its reporting obligation under section 6056 is not required to identify on its section 6056 return whether a particular employee is a full-time employee for one or more calendar months of the reporting year or report the total number of its full-time employees for the reporting year, if it certifies that it offered minimum essential coverage providing minimum value that was affordable under section 4980H to at least 98 percent of the employees (and their dependents) with respect to whom it reports for purposes of section 6056 in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section (regardless of whether the employee is a full-time employee for purposes of section 4980H for a calendar month during the year).

(k) Special rules for governmental units—(1) Person appropriately designated. In the case of any applicable large employer member that is a governmental unit or any agency or instrumentality thereof, the person or persons appropriately designated under section 6056(e) for purposes of the filing and furnishing requirements of section 6056 must be part of or related to the same governmental unit as the applicable large employer member. The applicable large employer member must make (or revoke) the designation before the earlier of the deadline for filing the returns or furnishing the statements required by this section. A person that has been appropriately designated under section 6056(e) must file a separate section 6056 return and transmittal for each applicable large employer member for which the person is reporting. The person appropriately designated under section 6056(e) assumes responsibility for the section 6056 requirements on behalf of the applicable large employer member for which the person is designated. Notwithstanding the designation, a separate section 6056 information return must be filed for each applicable large employer member that is a governmental unit. If more than one section 6056 information return is being filed for an applicable large employer member, there must be one authoritative section 6056 transmittal (Form 1094-C) reporting aggregate employer-level data for all full-time employees of the applicable large employer member, in accordance with forms and instructions. In addition, notwithstanding the designation, there must be only one section 6056 employee statement (Form 1095-C) for each full-time employee with respect to that full-time employee's employment with the applicable large employer member, so that all required information for a particular full-time employee of the applicable large employer member is reflected on a single Form 1095-C.

(2) Written designation. The designation under section 6056(e) must be made in writing, must be signed by both the applicable large employer member and the designated person, and must be effective under all applicable laws. The designation must set forth the name, address, and employer identification number of the designated person, and appoint such person as the person responsible for reporting under section 6056 on behalf of the applicable large employer member. The designation must contain information identifying the category of full-time employees (which may be full-time employees eligible for a specified health plan, or in a particular job category, as long as the specific employees covered by the designation can be identified) for which the designated person is responsible for reporting under section 6056 on behalf of the applicable large employer member. If the designated person is responsible for reporting under section 6056 for all full-time employees of an applicable large employer member, the designation must so indicate. The designation must contain language that the designated person agrees and certifies that it is the appropriately designated person under section 6056(e), and an acknowledgement that the designated person is responsible for reporting under section 6056 on behalf of the applicable large employer member and subject to the requirements of section 6056, including for purposes of information reporting requirements under sections 6721, 6722, and 6724. The designation must also set forth the name and employer identification number of the applicable large employer member, identifying the applicable large employer member as the person subject to the requirements of section 4980H. An equivalent applicable statutory or regulatory designation containing the language described in this paragraph (k)(2) will be treated as a written designation for purposes of section 6056(e) and this section. The designation will not be submitted to the IRS and should be maintained under the normal record-retention rules under section 6103.

(3) Application to alternative reporting methods. A person designated under this paragraph (k) may use the alternative reporting method identified in paragraph (j)(1) of this section for the full-time employees for which it is reporting with respect to a particular governmental unit if that particular governmental unit meets the eligibility requirements with respect to those employees, but may use the alternative reporting method identified in paragraph (j)(2) of this section only if the governmental unit on whose behalf it is reporting would itself be eligible to use that alternative reporting method.

(l) Additional guidance. The Commissioner may prescribe additional guidance of general applicability, published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) to provide additional rules under section 6056, including rules permitting use of alternative optional methods to meet reporting requirements.

(m) Effective/applicability date. This section applies for calendar years beginning after December 31, 2014. Reporting entities will not be subject to penalties under sections 6721 or 6722 for failure to comply with the section 6056 reporting requirements for 2014 (for information returns filed and for statements furnished to employees in 2015).

[T.D. 9661, 79 FR 13247, Mar. 10, 2014]

§301.6056-2   Electronic furnishing of statements.

(a) Electronic furnishing of statements—(1) In general. An applicable large employer member required by §301.6056-1 to furnish a statement (furnisher) to a full-time employee (a recipient) as required by section 6056 may furnish the section 6056 employee statement (the statement) in an electronic format in lieu of a paper format, provided that the furnisher meets the requirements of paragraphs (a)(2) through (a)(6) of this section. An applicable large employer member who meets the requirements of paragraphs (a)(2) through (6) of this section is treated as furnishing the statement in a timely manner.

(2) Consent—(i) In general. The recipient must have affirmatively consented to receive the statement in an electronic format. The recipient may make the consent electronically in any manner that reasonably demonstrates that the recipient can access the statement in the electronic format in which it will be furnished to the recipient. Alternatively, the recipient may make the consent in a paper document if the recipient confirms the consent electronically.

(ii) Withdrawal of consent. The consent requirement of this paragraph (a)(2) is not satisfied if the recipient withdraws the consent and the withdrawal takes effect before the statement is furnished. The furnisher may provide that a withdrawal of consent takes effect either on the date it is received by the furnisher or on a subsequent date. The furnisher may also provide that a recipient's request for a paper statement will be treated as a withdrawal of the recipient's consent.

(iii) Change in hardware or software requirements. If a change in the hardware or software required to access the statement creates a material risk that the recipient will not be able to access the statement, the furnisher must, prior to changing the hardware or software, provide the recipient with a notice. The notice must describe the revised hardware and software required to access the statement and inform the recipient that a new consent to receive the statement in the revised electronic format must be provided to the furnisher. After implementing the revised hardware and software, the furnisher must obtain from the recipient, in the manner described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, a new consent or confirmation of consent to receive the statement electronically.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (a)(2):

Example 1. Furnisher F sends Recipient R a letter stating that R may consent to receive the statement required under section 6056 electronically on a Web site instead of in a paper format. The letter contains instructions explaining how to consent to receive the statement electronically by accessing the Web site, downloading the consent document, completing the consent document and emailing the completed consent back to F. The consent document posted on the Web site uses the same electronic format that F will use for the electronically furnished statement. R reads the instructions and accesses the Web site, downloads and completes the consent document, and emails the completed consent back to F. R has consented to receive the statement required under section 6056 electronically in the manner described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

Example 2. Furnisher F sends Recipient R an email stating that R may consent to receive the statement required under section 6056 electronically instead of in a paper format. The email contains an attachment instructing R how to consent to receive the statement electronically. The email attachment uses the same electronic format that F will use for the electronically furnished statement. R opens the attachment, reads the instructions, and submits the consent in the manner provided in the instructions. R has consented to receive the statement required under section 6056 electronically in the manner described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

Example 3. Furnisher F posts a notice on its Web site stating that Recipient R may receive the statement required under section 6056 electronically instead of in a paper format. The Web site contains instructions on how R may access a secure Web page and consent to receive the statement electronically. The consent via the secure Web page uses the same electronic format that F will use for the electronically furnished statement. R accesses the Web site and follows the instructions for giving consent. R has consented to receive section 6056 statements electronically in the manner described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Required disclosures—(i) In general. Prior to, or at the time of, a recipient's consent, a furnisher must provide to the recipient a clear and conspicuous disclosure statement containing each of the disclosures described in paragraphs (a)(3)(ii) through (viii) of this section.

(ii) Paper statement. The furnisher must inform the recipient that the statement will be furnished on paper if the recipient does not consent to receive it electronically.

(iii) Scope and duration of consent. The furnisher must inform the recipient of the scope and duration of the consent. For example, the recipient must be informed whether the consent applies to each statement required to be furnished after the consent is given until it is withdrawn in the manner described in paragraph (a)(3)(v)(A) of this section or only to the first statement required to be furnished following the date of the consent.

(iv) Post-consent request for a paper statement. The furnisher must inform the recipient of any procedure for obtaining a paper copy of the recipient's statement after giving the consent described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section and whether a request for a paper statement will be treated as a withdrawal of consent.

(v) Withdrawal of consent. The furnisher must inform the recipient that—

(A) The recipient may withdraw a consent by writing (electronically or on paper) to the person or department whose name, mailing address, telephone number, and email address is provided in the disclosure statement,

(B) The furnisher will confirm the withdrawal and the date on which it takes effect in writing (either electronically or on paper), and

(C) A withdrawal of consent does not apply to a statement that was furnished electronically in the manner described in this paragraph (a) before the date on which the withdrawal of consent takes effect.

(vi) Notice of termination. The furnisher must inform the recipient of the conditions under which a furnisher will cease furnishing statements electronically to the recipient (for example, termination of the recipient's employment with furnisher-employer).

(vii) Updating information. The furnisher must inform the recipient of the procedures for updating the information needed to contact the recipient. The furnisher must inform the recipient of any change in the furnisher's contact information.

(viii) Hardware and software requirements. The furnisher must provide the recipient with a description of the hardware and software required to access, print, and retain the statement, and the date when the statement will no longer be available on the Web site. The furnisher must advice the recipient that the statement may be required to be printed and attached to a Federal, State, or local income tax return.

(4) Format. The electronic version of the statement must contain all required information and comply with applicable revenue procedures relating to substitute statements to recipients.

(5) Notice—(i) In general. If the statement is furnished on a Web site, the furnisher must notify the recipient that the statement is posted on a Web site. The notice may be delivered by mail, electronic mail, or in person. The notice must provide instructions on how to access and print the statement. The notice must include the following statement in capital letters, “IMPORTANT TAX RETURN DOCUMENT AVAILABLE.” If the notice is provided by electronic mail, the foregoing statement must be on the subject line of the electronic mail.

(ii) Undeliverable electronic address. If an electronic notice described in paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section is returned as undeliverable, and the correct electronic address cannot be obtained from the furnisher's records or from the recipient, then the furnisher must furnish the notice by mail or in person within 30 days after the electronic notice is returned.

(iii) Corrected statement. If the furnisher has corrected a recipient's statement as directed in §301.6056-1(k) and the original statement was furnished electronically, the furnisher must furnish the corrected statement to the recipient electronically. If the original statement was furnished through a Web site posting and the furnisher has corrected the statement, the furnisher must notify the recipient that it has posted the corrected statement on the Web site within 30 days of such posting in the manner described in paragraph (a)(5)(i) of this section. The corrected statement or the notice must be furnished by mail or in person if—

(A) An electronic notice of the Web site posting of an original statement or the corrected statement was returned as undeliverable, and

(B) The recipient has not provided a new email address.

(6) Access period. Statements furnished on a Web site must be retained on the Web site through October 15 of the year following the calendar year to which the statements relate (or the first business day after October 15, if October 15 falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday). The furnisher must maintain access to corrected statements that are posted on the Web site through October 15 of the year following the calendar year to which the statements relate (or the first business day after such October 15, if October 15 falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or legal holiday) or the date 90 days after the corrected forms are posted, whichever is later.

(7) Paper statements after withdrawal of consent. A furnisher must furnish a paper statement if a recipient withdraws consent to receive a statement electronically and the withdrawal takes effect before the statement is furnished. A paper statement furnished after the statement due date under this paragraph (a)(7) is timely if furnished within 30 days after the date the furnisher receives the withdrawal of consent.

(b) Effective/applicability date. This section applies for calendar years beginning after December 31, 2014. Reporting entities will not be subject to penalties under section 6722 with respect to the reporting requirements for 2014 (for statements furnished in 2015).

[T.D. 9661, 79 FR 13250, Mar. 10, 2014]

§301.6057-1   Employee retirement benefit plans; identification of participant with deferred vested retirement benefit.

(a) Annual registration statement—(1) In general. Under section 6057(a), the plan administrator (within the meaning of section 414(g)) of an employee retirement benefit plan must file with the Internal Revenue Service information relating to each plan participant who separates from service covered by the plan and is entitled to a deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, but is not paid this retirement benefit. Plans subject to this filing requirement are described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. Subparagraph (4) describes how the information is to be filed with the Internal Revenue Service. In the case of a plan to which only one employer contributes, the time for filing the information with respect to each separated participant is described in subparagraph (5). In the case of a plan to which more than one employer contributes the time for filing the information with respect to a participant is described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Paragraph (b) of this section also provides other rules applicable only to plans to which more than one employer contributes.

(2) Deferred vested retirement benefit. For purposes of this section, a plan participant's deferred retirement benefit is considered a vested benefit if it is vested under the terms of the plan at the close of the plan year described in paragraph (a)(5) or (b)(4) of this section (whichever is applicable) for which information relating to any deferred vested retirement benefit of the participant must be filed. A participant's deferred retirement benefit need not be a nonforfeitable benefit within the meaning of section 411(a) for the filing requirements described in this section to apply. Accordingly, information relating to a participant's deferred vested retirement benefit must be filed as required by this section notwithstanding that the benefit is subject to forfeiture by reason of an event or condition occurring subsequent to the close of the plan year described in paragraph (a)(5) or (b)(4) of this section (whichever is applicable) for which information relating to any deferred vested retirement benefit of the participant must be filed.

(3) Plans subject to filing requirement. The term “employee retirement benefit plan” means a plan to which the vesting standards of section 203 of part 2 of subtitle B of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (88 Stat. 854) apply for any day in the plan year. (For purposes of this section, “plan year” means the plan year as determined for purposes of the annual return required by section 6058(a)). Accordingly, a plan need not be a qualified plan within the meaning of section 401(a) to be subject to these filing requirements. A plan to which more than one employer contributes must file the report of deferred vested retirement benefits described in this section, but see paragraph (b) of this section for special rules applicable to such a plan. The filing requirements described in this section and §301.6057-2 (relating to notification of change in plan status) do not apply to a governmental or church plan described in section 414 (d) or (e).

(4) Filing requirements. Information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant must be filed on schedule SSA as an attachment to the Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan (form 5500 series). Schedule SSA shall be filed on behalf of an employee retirement benefit plan for each plan year for which information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant is filed under paragraph (a)(5) or (b)(2) of this section. There shall be filed on schedule SSA the name and social security number of the participant, a description of the nature, form, and amount of the deferred vested retirement benefit to which the participant is entitled, and such other information as is required by section 6057(a) or schedule SSA and the accompanying instructions. The form of the benefit reported on schedule SSA shall be the normal form of benefit under the plan, or, if the plan administrator (within the meaning of section 414(g)) considers it more appropriate, any other form of benefit.

(5) Time for reporting deferred vested retirement benefit—(i) In general. In the case of a plan to which only one employer contributes, information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant must be filed no later than on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year following the plan year within which the participant separates from service covered by the plan. Information relating to a separated participant may, at the option of the plan administrator, be reported earlier (that is, on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year in which the participant separates from service covered by the plan). For purposes of this paragraph a participant is not considered to separate from service covered by the plan solely because the participant incurs a break in service under the plan. In addition, for purposes of this paragraph, in the case of a plan which uses the elapsed time method described in Department of Labor regulations for crediting service for benefit accrual purposes, a participant is considered to separate from service covered by the plan on the date the participant severs from service covered by the plan.

(ii) Exception. Notwithstanding subdivision (i), no information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a separated participant is required to be filed on schedule SSA if, before the date such schedule SSA is required to be filed (including any extension of time for filing granted pursuant to section 6081), the participant (A) is paid some or all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, (B) returns to service covered by the plan, or (C) forfeits all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan.

(b) Plans to which more than one employer contributes—(1) Application. Section 6057 and this section apply to a plan to which more than one employer contributes with the modifications set forth in this paragraph. For purposes of section 6057 and this section, whether or not more than one employer contributes to a plan shall be determined by the number of employers who are required to contribute to the plan. Thus, for example, this paragraph applies to plans maintained by more than one employer which are collectively bargained as described in section 413(a), multiple-employer plans described in section 413(c) and the regulations thereunder, multiemployer plans described in section 414(f), and plans adopted by more than one employer of certain controlled and common control groups described in section 414 (b) and (c).

(2) Time for reporting deferred vested retirement benefit—(i) In general. In the case of a plan to which more than one employer contributes, information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant must be filed no later than on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year within which the participant completes the second of two consecutive one-year breaks in service (as defined in the plan for vesting percentage purposes) in service computation periods (as defined in the plan for vesting percentage purposes) which begin after December 31, 1974. At the option of the plan administrator, information relating to a participant's deferred vested retirement benefit may be filed earlier (that is, on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year in which the participant incurs the first one-year break in service or, in the case of a separated participant, on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year in which the participant separates from service).

(ii) Special rules—For purposes of this subparagraph (1)—

(A) For the definition of the term “1-year break in service” in the case of a plan which uses the elapsed time method described in Department of Labor Regulations for crediting service for vesting percentage purposes, see §1.411(a)-6(c)(2).

(B) In the case of a plan which does not define the term “1-year break in service” for vesting percentage purposes, a plan participant shall be deemed to incur a 1-year break in service under the plan in any plan year within which the participant does not complete more than 500 hours of service covered by the plan.

(iii) Transitional rule. Notwithstanding subdivision (i), if the second consecutive 1-year break in service described in subdivision (i) is incurred in a plan year beginning before January 1, 1978, information relating to the participant's deferred vested retirement benefit is not required to be filed earlier than on the schedule SSA filed for the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1977.

(iv) Exception. Notwithstanding subdivision (i) or (iii) of this subparagraph, no information relating to a participant's deferred vested retirement benefit is required to be filed on schedule SSA if, before the date such schedule SSA is required to be filed (including any extension of time for filing granted pursuant to section 6081), the participant (A) is paid some or all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, (B) accrues additional retirement benefits under the plan, or (C) forfeits all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan.

(3) Information relating to deferred vested retirement benefit—(i) Incomplete records. Section 6057(a) and paragraph (a)(4) of this section require the filing on schedule SSA of a description of the deferred vested retirement benefit to which the participant is entitled. If the plan administrator of a plan to which more than one employer contributes maintains records of a participant's service covered by the plan which are incomplete as of the close of the plan year with respect to which the plan administrator files information relating to the participant on schedule SSA, the plan administrator may elect to file the information required by schedule SSA based only upon these incomplete records. The plan administrator is not required, for purposes of completing schedule SSA, to compile from sources other than such records a complete record of a participant's years of service covered by the plan. Similarly, if retirement benefits under the plan are determined by taking into account a participant's service with an employer which is not service covered by the plan, but the plan administrator maintains records only with respect to periods of service covered by the plan, the plan administrator may complete schedule SSA taking into account only the participant's period of service covered by the plan.

(ii) Inability to determine correct amount of participant's deferred vested retirement benefit. If the amount of a participant's deferred vested retirement benefit which is filed on schedule SSA is computed on the basis of plan records maintained by the plan administrator which—

(A) Are incomplete with respect to the participant's service covered by the plan (as described in subdivision (i)), or

(B) Fail to account for the participant's service not covered by the plan which is relevant to a determination of the participant's deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan (as described in subdivision (i)),

then the plan administrator must indicate on schedule SSA that the amount of the deferred vested retirement benefit shown therein may be other than that to which the participant is actually entitled because the amount is based upon incomplete records.

(iii) Inability to determine whether participant vested in deferred retirement benefit. Where, as described in subdivision (i), information to be reported on schedule SSA is to be based upon records which are incomplete with respect to a participant's service covered by the plan or which fail to take into account relevant service not covered by the plan, the plan administrator may be unable to determine whether or not the participant is vested in any deferred retirement benefit. If, in view of information provided either by the incomplete records or the plan participant, there is a significant likelihood that the plan participant is vested in a deferred retirement benefit under the plan, information relating to the participant must be filed on schedule SSA with the notation that the participant may be entitled to a deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, but information relating to the amount of the benefit may be omitted. This subdivision (iii) does not apply in a case in which it can be determined from plan records maintained by the plan administrator that the participant is vested in a deferred retirement benefit. Subdivision (ii), however, may apply in such a case.

(c) Voluntary filing—(1) In general. The plan administrator of an employee retirement benefit plan described in paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or any other employee retirement benefit plan (including a governmental or church plan), may at its option, file on schedule SSA information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of any plan participant who separates at any time from service covered by the plan, including plan participants who separate from service in plan years beginning before 1976.

(2) Deleting previously filed information. If, after information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant is filed on schedule SSA, the plan participant—

(i) Is paid some or all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, or

(ii) Forfeits all of the deferred vested retirement benefit under the plan, the plan administrator may, at its option, file on schedule SSA (or such other form as may be provided for this purpose) the name and social security number of the participant with the notation that information previously filed relating to the participant's deferred vested retirement benefit should be deleted.

(d) Filing incident to cessation of payment of benefits—(1) In general. As described in this section, no information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit of a plan participant is required to be filed on schedule SSA if before the date such schedule SSA is required to be filed, some of the deferred vested retirement benefit is paid to the participant, and information relating to a participant's deferred vested retirement benefit which was previously filed on schedule SSA may be deleted if the participant is paid some of the deferred vested retirement benefit. If payment of the deferred vested retirement benefit ceases before all of the benefit to which the participant is entitled is paid to the participant, information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit to which the participant remains entitled shall be filed on the schedule SSA filed for the plan year following the last plan year within which a portion of the benefit is paid to the participant.

(2) Exception. Notwithstanding subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, no information relating to the deferred vested retirement benefit to which the participant remains entitled is required to be filed on schedule SSA if, before the date such schedule SSA is required to be filed (including any extension of time for filing granted pursuant to section 6081), the participant (i) returns to service covered by the plan, (ii) accrues additional retirement benefits under the plan, or (iii) forfeits the benefit under the plan.

(e) Individual statement to participant. The plan administrator of an employee retirement benefit plan defined in paragraph (a)(3) of this section must provide each participant with respect to whom information is required to be filed on schedule SSA a statement describing the deferred vested retirement benefit to which the participant is entitled. The description provided the participant must include the information filed with respect to the participant on schedule SSA. The statement is to be delivered to the participant or forwarded to the participant's last known address no later than the date on which any schedule SSA reporting information with respect to the participant is required to be filed (including any extension of time for filing granted pursuant to section 6081).

(f) Penalties. For amounts imposed in the case of failure to file the report of deferred vested retirement benefits required by section 6057(a) and paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, see section 6652(e)(1). For the penalty relating to a failure to provide the participant the individual statement of deferred vested retirement benefit required by section 6057(e) and paragraph (e) of this section, see section 6690.

(g) Effective dates—(1) Plans to which only one employer contributes. In the case of a plan to which only one employer contributes, this section is effective for plan years beginning after December 31, 1975, and with respect to a participant who separates from service covered by the plan in plan years beginning after that date.

(2) Plans to which more than one employer contributes. In the case of a plan to which more than one employer contributes, this section is effective for plan years beginning after December 31, 1977, and with respect to a participant who completes two consecutive 1-year breaks in service under the plan in service computation periods beginning after December 31, 1974.

[T.D. 7561, 43 FR 38004, Aug. 25, 1978]

§301.6057-2   Employee retirement benefit plans; notification of change in plan status.

(a) Change in plan status. The plan administrator (within the meaning of section 414(g)) of an employee retirement benefit plan defined in §301.6057-1(a)(3) (including a plan to which more than one employer contributes, as described in §301.6057-1(b)(1)) must notify the Internal Revenue Service of the following changes in plan status—

(1) A change in the name of the plan.

(2) A change in the name or address of the plan administrator,

(3) The termination of the plan, or

(4) The merger or consolidation of the plan with another plan or the division of the plan into two or more plans.

(b) Notification. A notification of a change in status described in paragraph (a) of this section, must be filed on the Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan (form 5500 series) for the plan year in which the change in status occurred. The notification must be filed at the time and place and in the manner prescribed in the form and any accompanying instructions.

(c) Penalty. For amounts imposed in the case of failure to file a notification of a change in plan status required by section 6057(b) and this section, see section 6652(e)(2).

(d) Effective date. This section is effective for changes in plan status occurring within plan years beginning after December 31, 1975.

[T.D. 7561, 43 FR 38006, Aug. 25, 1978]

§301.6058-1   Information required in connection with certain plans of deferred compensation.

(a) Reporting of information—(1) Annual return. For each funded plan of deferred compensation an annual return must be filed with the Internal Revenue Service. The annual return of the plan is the appropriate Annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan (Form 5500 series) as determined under these forms. The annual period for the annual return of the plan shall be either the plan year or the taxable year of the employer maintaining the plan as determined under these forms. These forms are hereinafter referred to as the “forms prescribed by section 6058(a).”

(2) Plans subject to requirements. For purposes of this section, the term “funded plan of deferred compensation” means each pension, annuity, stock bonus, profit-sharing, or other funded plan of deferred compensation described in part 1 of subchapter D of chapter 1. Accordingly, the term includes qualified plans under sections 401(a), 403(a), and 405(a); individual retirement accounts and annuities described in sections 408(a) and 408(b); and custodial accounts under section 403(b)(7). The term also includes: funded plans of deferred compensation which are not qualified plans; funded governmental plans and church plans, whether or not qualified (See sections 414(d) and 414(e)); and plans maintained outside the United States primarily for nonresident aliens (as described in subsection (b)(4) of section 4 of subtitle A of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974; (88 Stat. 840)). The term does not include annuity contracts described in section 403(b)(1) or individual retirement accounts (an individual participant or surviving beneficiary in such account must file under paragraph (d)(2) of this section) and bonds described in sections 408(c) and 409.

(3) Required information. The information required to be furnished on the forms prescribed by section 6058(a) shall include such information concerning the qualification of the plan, the financial condition of the trust, fund, or custodial or fiduciary account which is a part of the plan, and the operation of the plan as shall be required by the forms, applicable accompanying schedules and related instructions applicable to the annual period.

(4) Time of filing. The forms prescribed by section 6058(a) shall be filed in the manner and at the time as required by the forms and related instructions applicable to the annual period.

(b) Who must file—(1) In general. The annual return required to be filed under section 6058(a) and paragraph (a) of this section for the annual period shall be filed by either the employer maintaining the plan or the plan administrator (as defined in section 414(g)) of the plan for that annual period. Whether the employer or plan administrator files shall be determined under the forms prescribed by section 6058(a) and related instructions applicable to the annual period. Nothing in these forms shall preclude an employer from filing the return on behalf of the plan administrator, or the plan administrator from filing on behalf of the employer.

(2) Definition of employer. For purposes of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, the term “employer” includes a sole proprietor and a partnership.

(c) Other rules applicable to annual returns—(1) Extensions of time for filing. For rules relating to the extension of time for filing, see section 6081 and the regulations thereunder and the instructions on the forms prescribed by section 6058(a).

(2) Amended filing. Any form prescribed by this section may be filed as an amendment to a form previously filed under this section with respect to the same annual period pursuant to the instructions for such forms.

(3) Additional information. In addition to the information otherwise required to be furnished by this section, the district director may require any further information that is considered necessary to determine allowable deductions under section 404, qualification under section 401, or the financial condition and operation of the plan.

(4) Records. Records substantiating all data and information required by this section to be filed must be kept at all times available for inspection by internal revenue officers at the principal office or place of business of the employer or plan administrator.

(5) Relief from filing. Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, the Commissioner may, in his discretion, relieve an employer, or plan administrator, from reporting information on the forms prescribed by section 6058(a). This discretion includes the ability to relieve an employer, or plan administrator, from filing the applicable form.

(d) Special rules for individual retirement arrangements—(1) Application. This paragraph, in lieu of paragraph (a) of this section, applies to an individual retirement account described in section 408(a) and an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b), including such accounts and annuities for which a deduction is allowable under section 220 (spousal individual retirement arrangements).

(2) General rule. For each taxable year beginning after December 31, 1974, every individual who during such taxable year—

(i) Establishes or maintains an individual retirement account described in section 408(a) (including an individual who is a participant in an individual retirement account described in section 408(c)).

(ii) Purchases or maintains an individual retirement annuity described in section 408(b), or

(iii) Is a surviving beneficiary with respect to an account or annuity referred to in this subparagraph which is in existence during such taxable year, shall file Form 5329 (or any other form designated by the Commissioner for this purpose), as an attachment to or part of the Form 1040 filed by such individual for such taxable year, setting forth in full the information required by that form and the accompanying instructions.

(3) Special information returns. If an individual described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph is not required to file a Form 1040 for such taxable year, such individual shall file a Form 5329 (or any other designated form) with the Internal Revenue Service by the 15th day of the 4th month following the close of such individual's taxable year setting forth in full the information required by that form and the accompanying instructions.

(4) Relief from filing. The Commissioner may, in his discretion, relieve an individual from filing the form prescribed by this paragraph.

(5) Retirement bonds. An individual who purchases, holds, or maintains a retirement bond described in section 409 may be required to file a return under other provisions of the Code.

(e) Actuarial statement in case of mergers, etc. For requirements with respect to the filing of actuarial statements in the case of a merger, consolidation, or transfer of assets or liabilities, see section 6058(b) and section 414(l) and the regulations thereunder.

(f) Effective dates—(1) Section 6058 (a) requirements. The rules with respect to annual returns required under section 6058(a) (the rules in this section, other than paragraph (e) thereof) are effective for plan years beginning after September 2, 1974.

(2) Section 6058(b) requirements. The requirements of section 6058(b) relating to mergers, etc., and paragraph (e) of this section are effective on September 2, 1974, with respect to events described in section 6058(b) occurring on or after such date.

[T.D. 7551, 43 FR 29292, July 7, 1978]

§301.6059-1   Periodic report of actuary.

(a) In general. The actuarial report described in this section must be filed on behalf on a defined benefit plan to which the minimum funding standards of section 412 apply. The actuarial report must be filed by the plan administrator (within the meaning of section 414(g)) on Schedule B as an attachment to the annual Return/Report of Employee Benefit Plan (Form 5500 series). The instructions accompanying the Form 5500 series prescribe the place and date for filing Schedule B.

(b) Plan years for which report required. In the case of a plan in existence on January 1, 1974, Schedule B must be filed for the first plan year beginning after December 31, 1975, for which the minimum funding standards apply to the plan, and for each plan year thereafter for which the Schedule must be filed under the instructions accompanying the Schedule and the Form 5500 series. In the case of a plan not in existence on January 1, 1974, Schedule B must be filed for the first plan year beginning after September 2, 1974, for which the minimum funding standards apply to the plan, and for each plan year thereafter for which the Schedule must be filed under the instructions accompanying the Schedule and the Form 5500 series. For rules relating to when a plan is considered to be in existence, see §1.410(a)-2(c). For purposes of this section, “plan year” means the plan year as determined for purposes of the minimum funding standards.

(c) Contents of report. The actuarial report of a plan filed on Schedule B must contain—

(1) The date of the actuarial valuation applicable to the plan year for which the report is filed (see section 412(c)(9) for rules relating to the frequency with which an actuarial valuation of the plan is required to be made),

(2) A description of the funding method and actuarial assumptions used to determine costs under the plan,

(3) A certification of the contribution necessary to reduce the accumulated funding deficiency (as defined in section 412(a)) to zero,

(4) A statement by the enrolled actuary signing the report that to the best of the actuary's knowledge the report is complete and accurate,

(5) A statement by the enrolled actuary signing the report that in the actuary's opinion the actuarial assumptions used are in the aggregate (i) reasonably related to the experience of the plan and to reasonable expectations, and (ii) represent the actuary's best estimate of anticipated experience under the plan,

(6) Such other information as may be necessary to fully and fairly disclose the actuarial position of the plan, and

(7) Such other information as may be required by Schedule B or the instructions accompanying the Schedule and the Form 5500 series.

(d) Certification by enrolled actuary. The actuarial report filed on Schedule B must be signed by an enrolled actuary (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(35)) or there may be attached to the report a statement signed by the actuary that contains the statements described in paragraph (c) (4) and (5) of this section.

An actuarial report filed for a plan year ending after January 25, 1982, does not satisfy the requirements of this section if the actuary seeks to materially qualify such statements. For this purpose, the following are not considered to materially qualify a statement required by paragraph (c) (4) or (5) of this section:

(1) A statement that the report is based in part on information provided to the actuary by another person, that such information would customarily not be verified by the actuary, and that the actuary has no reason to doubt the substantial accuracy of the information (taking into account the facts and circumstances that are known or reasonably should be known to the actuary, including the contents of any other actuarial report prepared by the actuary for the plan),

(2) A statement that the report is based in part on information provided by another person, that the actuary believes such information is or may be inaccurate or incomplete, but that the inaccuracies or omissions are not material, the inaccuracies or omissions are not so numerous or flagrant as to suggest that there may be material inaccuracies, and that therefore the actuarial report is substantially accurate and complete and fairly discloses the actuarial position of the plan,

(3) A statement that the report reflects the requirement of a regulation or ruling, and that any statement regarding the actuarial position of the plan is made only in light of such requirement,

(4) A statement that the report reflects an interpretation of a statute, regulation or ruling, that the actuary has no reason to doubt the validity of that interpretation, and that any statement regarding the actuarial position of the plan is made only in light of such interpretation,

(5) A statement that in the opinion of the actuary the report fully reflects the requirements of an applicable statute, but does not conform to the requirements of a regulation or ruling promulgated under the statute that the actuary believes is contrary to the statute, or

(6) A statement furnished to comply with the requirements of paragraph (c)(6) of this section.

A statement otherwise described in a subparagraph of this paragraph (d) shall not be considered to satisfy the requirements of such subparagraph unless the statement identifies, with particularity, that matter to which the statement relates and the facts and circumstances surrounding the statement. In addition, a statement otherwise described in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph (d) shall not be considered to satisfy the requirements of that subparagraph unless the statement indicates whether an accumulated funding deficiency or a contribution that is not wholly deductible may result if the actuary's belief is determined to be incorrect.

(e) Relief from filing. Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, the Commissioner may, in the Commissioner's discretion, relieve a plan administrator from filing Schedule B or from reporting information required by Schedule B or paragraph (c) of this section.

(f) Penalty. For the penalty imposed in the case of a failure to file the actuarial report required by this section, see section 6692 and §301.6692-1.

(Secs. 6059 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (88 Stat. 947, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6059, 7805))

[T.D. 7798, 46 FR 57483, Nov. 24, 1981; 46 FR 60435, Dec. 10, 1981]

signing and verifying of returns and other documents

§301.6061-1   Signing of returns and other documents.

(a) In general. For provisions concerning the signing of returns and other documents, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

(b) Method of signing. The Secretary may prescribe in forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance the method of signing any return, statement, or other document required to be made under any provision of the internal revenue laws or regulations.

(c) Effective dates. The rule in paragraph (a) is effective December 12, 1996. The rule in paragraph (b) is effective on July 21, 1995.

[T.D. 8689, 61 FR 65320, Dec. 12, 1996]

§301.6062-1   Signing of corporation returns.

For provisions relating to the signing of corporation income tax returns, see §1.6062-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6063-1   Signing of partnership returns.

For provisions relating to the signing of returns of partnership income, see §1.6063-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6064-1   Signature presumed authentic.

An individual's name signed to a return, statement, or other document shall be prima facie evidence for all purposes that the return, statement, or other document was actually signed by him.

§301.6065-1   Verification of returns.

For provisions concerning the verification of returns and other documents, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

time for filing returns and other documents

§301.6071-1   Time for filing returns and other documents.

For provisions concerning the time for filing returns and other documents, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

§301.6072-1   Time for filing income tax returns.

For provisions relating to time for filing income tax returns, see §§1.6072-1 to 1.6072-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6073-1   Time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by individuals.

For provisions relating to time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by individuals, see §§1.6073-1 to 1.6073-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6074-1   Time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by corporations.

For provisions relating to time for filing declarations of estimated income tax by corporations, see §§1.6074-1 to 1.6074-3, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6075-1   Time for filing estate and gift tax returns.

For provisions relating to time for filing estate tax returns and gift tax returns, see §20.6075-1 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations) and §25.6075-1 of this chapter (Gift Tax Regulations), respectively.

extension of time for filing returns

§301.6081-1   Extension of time for filing returns.

For provisions concerning extensions of time for filing returns or other documents, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

§301.6081-2   Automatic extension of time for filing an information return with respect to certain foreign trusts.

(a) In general. A trust required to file a return on Form 3520-A, “Annual Information Return of Foreign Trust with a U.S. Owner,” will be allowed an automatic 6-month extension of time to file the return after the date prescribed for filing the return if the trust files an application under this section in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Requirements. To satisfy this paragraph (b), a trust must—

(1) Submit a complete application on Form 7004, “Application for Automatic Extension of Time to File Certain Business Income Tax, Information, and Other Returns,” or in any other manner prescribed by the Commissioner; and

(2) File the application on or before the date prescribed for filing the return with the Internal Revenue Service office designated in the application's instructions.

(c) Termination of automatic extension. The Commissioner may terminate an automatic extension at any time by mailing to the trust a notice of termination at least 10 days prior to the termination date designated in such notice. The Commissioner must mail the notice of termination to the address shown on the Form 7004 or to the trust's last known address. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2 of this chapter.

(d) Penalties. See section 6677 for failure to file information returns with respect to certain foreign trusts.

(e) Effective/applicability dates. This section is applicable for applications for an automatic extension of time to file an information return with respect to certain foreign trusts listed in paragraph (a) of this section filed after July 1, 2008.

[T.D. 9407, 73 FR 37371, July 1, 2008]

place for filing returns or other documents

§301.6091-1   Place for filing returns and other documents.

(a) General rule. For provisions concerning the place for filing returns, including hand-carried returns, see the regulations relating to the particular tax. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, for provisions concerning the place for filing documents other than returns, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

(b) Exception for hand-carried documents other than returns. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter—

(1) Persons other than corporations. If a document, other than a return, of a person (other than a corporation) is hand carried, and if the document is otherwise required to be filed with a service center, such document may be filed with any person assigned the responsibility to receive hand-carried returns in the local Internal Revenue Service office that serves the legal residence or principal place of business of such person, or, in the case of an estate, the local Internal Revenue Service office serving the domicile of the decedent at the time of his death. A document may also be filed by hand carrying such document to the appropriate service center, or, in the case of a document required to be filed with an office of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, by hand carrying as specified in regulations of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, see, 27 CFR chapter I, subchapter F.

(2) Corporations. If a document, other than a return, of a corporation is hand carried, and if the document is otherwise required to be filed with a service center, such document may be filed with any person assigned the responsibility to receive hand-carried returns in the local Internal Revenue Service office that serves the principal place of business or principal office or agency of the corporation. A document may also be filed by hand carrying such document to the appropriate service center, or, in the case of a document required to be filed with an office of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, by hand carrying as specified in regulations of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, see, 27 CFR chapter I, subchapter F.

(c) Definition of hand carried. For purposes of this section and section 6091(b)(4) and the regulations issued thereunder, a return or document will be considered to be hand carried if it is brought to the any person assigned the responsibility to receive hand-carried returns in the local Internal Revenue Service office by the person required to file the return or other document, or by his agent. Examples of persons who will be considered to be agents, for purposes of the preceding sentence, are: Members of the taxpayer's family, an employee of the taxpayer, the taxpayer's attorney, accountant, or tax advisor, and messengers employed by the taxpayer. A return or document will not be considered to be hand carried if it is sent to the Internal Revenue Service through the U.S. Mail.

[T.D. 6950, 33 FR 5359, Apr. 4, 1968, as amended by T.D. 7008, 34 FR 3673, Mar. 1, 1969; T.D. 7012, 34 FR 7697, May 15, 1969; T.D. 7188, 37 FR 12794, June 29, 1972; T.D. 7238, 37 FR 28739, Dec. 29, 1972; T.D. ATF-33, 41 FR 44038, Oct. 6, 1976; T.D. 7495, 42 FR 33727, July 1, 1977; T.D. 9156, 69 FR 55747, Sept. 16, 2004]

§301.6096-1   Designation by individuals for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.

(a) In general. Every individual (other than a nonresident alien) whose income tax liability, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, is one dollar or more may, at his option, designate that one dollar shall be paid over to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund, in accordance with the provisions of section 9006. In the case of a joint return of a husband and wife, each spouse may designate that one dollar be paid to the fund as provided in this paragraph only if the joint income tax liability of the husband and wife is two dollars or more.

(b) Income tax liability. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the income tax liability of an individual for any taxable year is the amount of the tax imposed by chapter 1 on such individual for the taxable year (as shown on his or her return) reduced by the sum of the credits (as shown on his or her return) allowable under sections 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 44, and 44A.

(c) Manner and time of designation. (1) A designation under paragraph (a) of this section may be made with respect to any taxable year at the time of the filing of the return of the tax imposed by chapter 1 for such taxable year, and shall be made either on the first page of the return or on the page bearing the taxpayer's signature, in accordance with the instructions applicable thereto.

(2) With respect to any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1972 for which no designation was made under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a designation may be made on the form furnished by the Internal Revenue Service for such purpose, filed within 20 and one half months after the due date for the original return for such taxable year. In the case of a joint return where neither spouse made a designation or where only one spouse made a designation, a designation may be made, as provided in this subparagraph, by the spouse or spouses who had not previously made a designation.

(3) A designation once made, whether by an original return or otherwise, may not be revoked.

(d) Effective date. This section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972.

[T.D. 7304, 39 FR 4476, Feb. 4, 1974, as amended by T.D. 7643, 44 FR 50338, Aug. 28, 1979]

§301.6096-2   Designation by individuals for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1972 and beginning before January 1, 1973.

(a) In general. (1) For taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1972 and beginning before January 1, 1973, every individual (other than a non-resident alien) whose income tax liability, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, is one dollar or more, may, at his option, designate that one dollar shall be paid over to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund, referred to in §301.6096-1 (a). Where in accordance with prior law, such a designation was made for the account of any candidate of any specified political party, or for a general account for all candidates for election to the offices of President and Vice President of the United States, such a designation shall be treated solely as a designation to such fund.

(2) In the case of a joint return of a husband and wife, each spouse may designate that one dollar be paid to the fund as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section only if the joint income tax liability of the husband and wife is two dollars or more.

(b) Income tax liability. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the income tax liability of an individual for any taxable year is the amount of the tax imposed by chapter 1 on such individual for such taxable year (as shown on his return), reduced by the sum of the credits (as shown on his return).

(c) Manner and time of designation. (1) A designation under paragraph (a) of this section may be made with respect to any such taxable year at the time of the filing of the return of the tax imposed by chapter 1 for such taxable year. If such designation is made at the time of filing the original return for such year, it shall be made by the individual on the form furnished by the Internal Revenue Service for such purpose in accordance with the instructions applicable thereto.

(2) With respect to any taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1972 and beginning before January 1, 1973, for which no designation was made under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a designation may be made on the form furnished by the Internal Revenue Service for such purpose, filed within 20 and one half months after the due date for the original return for such taxable year. In the case of a joint return where neither spouse made a designation or where only one spouse made a designation, a designation may be made, as provided in this subparagraph, by the spouse or spouses who had not previously made a designation.

(3) A designation once made, whether by an original return or otherwise, may not be revoked.

[T.D. 7304, 39 FR 4476, Feb. 4, 1974]

miscellaneous provisions

§301.6101-1   Period covered by returns or other documents.

For provisions concerning the period covered by returns or other documents, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

§301.6102-1   Computations on returns or other documents.

(a) Amounts shown on forms. To the extent permitted by any internal revenue form or instructions prescribed for use with respect to any internal revenue return, declaration, statement, other document, or supporting schedules, any amount required to be reported on such form shall be entered at the nearest whole dollar amount. The extent to which, and the conditions under which, such whole dollar amounts shall be entered on any form will be set forth in the instructions issued with respect to such form. For the purpose of the computation to the nearest dollar, a fractional part of a dollar shall be disregarded unless it amounts to one-half dollar or more, in which case the amount (determined without regard to the fractional part of a dollar) shall be increased by $1. The following illustrates the application of this paragraph:

Exact amountTo be reported as—
$18.49$18
$18.5019
$18.5119

(b) Election not to use whole dollar amounts—(1) Method of election. Where any internal revenue form, or the instructions issued with respect to such form, provide that whole dollar amounts shall be reported, any person making a return, declaration, statement, or other document on such form may elect not to use whole dollar amounts by reporting thereon all amounts in full, including cents.

(2) Time of election. The election not to use whole dollar amounts must be made at the time of filing the return, declaration, statement, or other document. Such election may not be revoked after the time prescribed for filing such return, declaration, statement, or other document, including extensions of time granted for such filing. Such election may be made on any return, declaration, statement, or other document which is filed after the time prescribed for filing (including extensions of time), and such an election is irrevocable.

(3) Effect of election. The taxpayer's election shall be binding only on the return, declaration, statement, or other document filed for a taxable year or period, and a new election may be made on the return, declaration, statement, or other document filed for a subsequent taxable year or period. An election by either a husband or a wife not to report whole dollar amounts on a separate income tax return shall be binding on any subsequent joint return filed under the provisions of section 6013(b).

(4) Fractional part of a cent. For treatment of the fractional part of a cent in the payment of taxes, see section 6313 and §301.6313-1.

(c) Inapplicability to computation of amount. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section apply only to amounts required to be reported on a return, declaration, statement, or other document. They do not apply to items which must be taken into account in making the computations necessary to determine such amounts. For example, each item of receipt must be taken into account at its exact amount, including cents, in computing the amount of total receipts required to be reported on an income tax return or supporting schedule. It is the amount of total receipts, so computed, which is to be reported at the nearest whole dollar on the return or supporting schedule.

(d) Effect on accounting method. Section 6102 and this section have no effect on any authorized accounting method.

§301.6103(a)-1   Disclosures after December 31, 1976, by officers and employees of Federal agencies of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed to such officers and employees by the Internal Revenue Service before January 1, 1977, for a purpose not involving tax administration.

(a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, a return or return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b) (1), (2), and (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, disclosed by the Internal Revenue Service before January 1, 1977, to an officer or employee of a Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) for a purpose not involving tax administration (as defined in section 6103(b)(4)) pursuant to the authority of section 6103 (or any order of the President under section 6103 or rules and regulations thereunder prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate and approved by the President) before amendment of such section by section 1202 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-455, 90 Stat. 1667) may be disclosed by, or on behalf of, such officer, employee, or agency after December 31, 1976, for any purpose authorized by such section (or such order or rules and regulations) before such amendment.

(b) Exception. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, a return or return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed before January 1, 1977, by the Service to an officer or employee of a Federal agency for a purpose unrelated to tax administration as described in paragraph (a) may, after December 31, 1976, be disclosed by, or on behalf of, such agency, officer, or employee in an administrative or judicial proceeding only if such proceeding is one described in section 6103(i)(4) of the Code and if the requirements of section 6103(i)(4) have first been met.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65566, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(a)-2   Disclosures after December 31, 1976, by attorneys of the Department of Justice and officers and employees of the Office of the Chief Counsel for the Internal Revenue Service of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed to such attorneys, officers, and employees by the Service before January 1, 1977, for a purpose involving tax administration.

(a) General rule. Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section and subject to the requirements of this paragraph, a return or return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b) (1), (2), and (3), of the Internal Revenue Code disclosed by the Internal Revenue Service before January 1, 1977, to an attorney of the Department of Justice (including a United States attorney) or to an officer or employee of the Office of the Chief Counsel for the Service for a purpose involving tax administration (as defined in section 6103(b)(4)) pursuant to the authority of section 6103 (or any order of the President under section 6103 or rules and regulations thereunder prescribed by the Secretary or his delegate and approved by the President) before amendment of such section by section 1202 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94-455, 90 Stat. 1667) may be disclosed by, or on behalf of, such attorney, officer, or employee after December 31, 1976, for any purpose authorized by such section (or such order or rules and regulations) before such amendment.

(b) Exception. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, a return or return information (including taxpayer return information) disclosed before January 1, 1977, by the Service to an attorney of the Department of Justice or to an officer or employee of the Office of the Chief Counsel for the Service for a purpose related to tax administration as described in paragraph (a) may, after December 31, 1976, be disclosed by, or on behalf of, such attorney, officer, or employee in an administrative or judicial proceeding only if such proceeding is one described in section 6103(h)(4) of the Code and if the requirements of section 6103 (h)(4) have first been met.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65567, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(c)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

(a) Overview. Subject to such requirements and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe by regulation, section 6103(c) of the Internal Revenue Code authorizes the Internal Revenue Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the taxpayer may designate in a request for or consent to such disclosure, or to any other person at the taxpayer's request to the extent necessary to comply with the taxpayer's request to such other person for information or assistance. This regulation contains the requirements that must be met before, and the conditions under which, the Internal Revenue Service may make such disclosures. Paragraph (b) of this section provides the requirements that are generally applicable to designate a third party to receive the taxpayer's returns and return information. Paragraph (c) of this section provides requirements under which the Internal Revenue Service may disclose information in connection with a taxpayer's written or nonwritten request for a third party to provide information or assistance with regard to a tax matter, for example, a Congressional inquiry. Paragraph (d) of this section provides the parameters for disclosure consents connected with electronic return filing programs and combined Federal-State filing. Finally, paragraph (e) of this section provides definitions and general rules related to requests for or consents to disclosure.

(b) Disclosure of returns and return information to person or persons designated in a written request or consent—(1) General requirements. Pursuant to section 6103(c) of the Internal Revenue Code, the Internal Revenue Service (or an agent or contractor of the Internal Revenue Service) may disclose a taxpayer's return or return information (in written or nonwritten form) to such person or persons as the taxpayer may designate in a request for or consent to such disclosure. A request for or consent to disclosure under this paragraph (b) must be in the form of a separate written document pertaining solely to the authorized disclosure. (For the meaning of separate written document, see paragraph (e)(1) of this section.) The separate written document must be signed (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section) and dated by the taxpayer who filed the return or to whom the return information relates. At the time it is signed and dated by the taxpayer, the written document must also indicate—

(i) The taxpayer's taxpayer identity information described in section 6103(b)(6);

(ii) The identity of the person or persons to whom the disclosure is to be made;

(iii) The type of return (or specified portion of the return) or return information (and the particular data) that is to be disclosed; and

(iv) The taxable year or years covered by the return or return information.

(2) Requirement that request or consent be received within one hundred twenty days of when signed and dated. The disclosure of a return or return information authorized by a written request for or written consent to the disclosure shall not be made unless the request or consent is received by the Internal Revenue Service (or an agent or contractor of the Internal Revenue Service) within 120 days following the date upon which the request or consent was signed and dated by the taxpayer.

(c) Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer to comply with a taxpayer's request for information or assistance. If a taxpayer makes a written or nonwritten request, directly to another person or to the Internal Revenue Service, that such other person (for example, a member of Congress, friend, or relative of the taxpayer) provide information or assistance relating to the taxpayer's return or to a transaction or other contact between the taxpayer and the Internal Revenue Service, the Internal Revenue Service (or an agent or contractor of the Internal Revenue Service or a Federal government agency performing a Federal tax administration function) may disclose returns or return information (in written or nonwritten form) to such other person under the circumstances set forth in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section.

(1) Written request for information or assistance. (i) The taxpayer's request for information or assistance may be in the form of a letter or other written document, which must be signed (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section) and dated by the taxpayer. The taxpayer must also indicate in the written request—

(A) The taxpayer's taxpayer identity information described in section 6103(b)(6);

(B) The identity of the person or persons to whom disclosure is to be made; and

(C) Sufficient facts underlying the request for information or assistance to enable the Internal Revenue Service to determine the nature and extent of the information or assistance requested and the returns or return information to be disclosed in order to comply with the taxpayer's request.

(ii) A person who receives a copy of a taxpayer's written request for information or assistance but who is not the addressee of the request, such as a member of Congress who is provided with a courtesy copy of a taxpayer's letter to another member of Congress or to the Internal Revenue Service, cannot receive returns or return information under paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(2) Nonwritten request or consent. (i) A request for information or assistance may also be nonwritten. Disclosure of returns and return information to a designee pursuant to a taxpayer's nonwritten request will be made only after the Internal Revenue Service has—

(A) Obtained from the taxpayer sufficient facts underlying the request for information or assistance to enable the Internal Revenue Service to determine the nature and extent of the information or assistance requested and the return or return information to be disclosed in order to comply with the taxpayer's request;

(B) Confirmed the identity of the taxpayer and the designee; and

(C) Confirmed the date, the nature, and the extent of the information or assistance requested.

(ii) Examples of disclosures pursuant to nonwritten requests for information or assistance under this paragraph (c)(2) include, but are not limited to, disclosures to a friend, relative, or other person whom the taxpayer brings to an interview or meeting with Internal Revenue Service officials, and disclosures to a person whom the taxpayer wishes to involve in a telephone conversation with Internal Revenue Service officials.

(iii) As long as the requirements of this paragraph (c)(2) are met, the taxpayer does not need to be present, either in person or as part of a telephone conversation, for disclosures of returns and return information to be made to the other person.

(3) Rules applicable to written and nonwritten requests for information or assistance. A return or return information will be disclosed to the taxpayer's designee as provided by this paragraph only to the extent considered necessary by the Internal Revenue Service to comply with the taxpayer's request or consent. Such disclosures shall not be made unless the request or consent is received by the Internal Revenue Service, its agent or contractor, or a Federal government agency performing a Federal tax administration function in connection with a request for advice or assistance relating to such function. This paragraph (c) does not apply to disclosures to a taxpayer's representative in connection with practice before the Internal Revenue Service (as defined in Treasury Department Circular No. 230, 31 CFR part 10). For disclosures in these cases, see section 6103(e)(6) and §§601.501 through 601.508 of this chapter.

(d) Acknowledgments of electronically filed returns and other documents; combined filing programs with State tax agencies. The requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section do not apply to this paragraph (d).

(1) Acknowledgment of, and notices regarding, electronically filed returns and other documents. When a taxpayer files returns or other documents or information with the Internal Revenue Service electronically, the taxpayer may consent to the disclosure of return information to the transmitter or other third party, such as the taxpayer's financial institution, necessary to acknowledge that the electronic transmission was received and either accepted or rejected by the Internal Revenue Service, the reason for any rejection, and such other information as the Internal Revenue Service determines is necessary to the operation of the electronic filing program. The consent must inform the taxpayer of the return information that will be transmitted and to whom disclosure will be made.

(2) Combined return filing programs with State tax agencies. (i) A taxpayer's participation in a combined return filing program between the Internal Revenue Service and a State agency, body, or commission (State agency) described in section 6103(d)(1) constitutes a consent to the disclosure by the Internal Revenue Service, to the State agency, of taxpayer identity information, signature, and items of common data contained on the return. For purposes of this paragraph, common data means information reflected on the Federal return required by State law to be attached to or included on the State return. Instructions accompanying the forms or published procedures involved in such program must indicate that by participating in the program, the taxpayer is consenting to the Internal Revenue Service's disclosure to the State agency of the taxpayer identity information, signature, and items of common data, and that such information will be treated by the State agency as if it had been directly filed with the State agency. Such instructions or procedures must also describe any verification that takes place before the taxpayer identity information, signature and common data is transmitted by the Internal Revenue Service to the State agency.

(ii) No disclosures may be made under this paragraph (d)(2) unless there are provisions of State law protecting the confidentiality of such items of common data.

(e) Definitions and rules applicable to this section—(1) Separate written document. (i) For the purposes of paragraph (b) of this section, separate written document means—

(A) Text appearing on one or more sheets of 812 -inch by 11-inch or larger paper, each of which pertains solely to the authorized disclosure, so long as such sheet or sheets, taken together, contain all the elements described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section;

(B) Text appearing on one or more computer screens, each of which pertains solely to the authorized disclosure, so long as such screen or, taken together, such screens—

(1) Contain all the elements described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section,

(2) Can be signed (see paragraph (e)(2) of this section) and dated by the taxpayer, and

(3) Can be reproduced, if necessary; or

(C) A consent on the record in an administrative or judicial proceeding, or a transcript of such proceeding recording such consent, containing the information required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(ii) A provision included in a taxpayer's application for a loan or other benefit authorizing the grantor of the loan or other benefit to obtain any financial information, including returns or return information, from any source as the grantor may request for purposes of verifying information supplied on the application, does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section because the provision is not a separate written document relating solely to the disclosure of returns and return information. In addition, the provision does not contain the other information specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) Method of signing. A request for or consent to disclosure may be signed by any method of signing the Secretary has prescribed pursuant to §301.6061-1(b) in forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance.

(3) Permissible designees and public forums. Permissible designees under this section include individuals; trusts; estates; corporations; partnerships; Federal, State, local and foreign government agencies or subunits of such agencies; or the general public. When disclosures are to be made in a public forum, such as in a courtroom or congressional hearing, the request for or consent to disclosure must describe the circumstances surrounding the public disclosure, e.g., congressional hearing, judicial proceeding, media, and the date or dates of the disclosure. When a designee is an individual, this section does not authorize disclosures to other individuals associated with such individual, such as employees of such individual or members of such individual's staff.

(4) Authority to execute a request for or consent to disclosure. Any person who may obtain returns under section 6103(e)(1) through (5), except section 6103(e)(1)(D)(iii), may execute a request for or consent to disclose a return or return information to third parties. For taxpayers that are legal entities, such as corporations and municipal bond issuers, any officer of the entity with authority under applicable State law to legally bind the entity may execute a request for or consent to disclosure. A person described in section 6103(e)(6) (a taxpayer's representative or individual holding a power of attorney) may not execute a request for or consent to disclosure unless the designation of representation or power of attorney specifically delegates such authority. A designee pursuant to this section does not have authority to execute a request for or consent to disclosure permitting the Internal Revenue Service to disclose returns or return information to another person.

(5) No disclosure of return information if impairment. A disclosure of return information shall not be made under this section if the Internal Revenue Service determines that the disclosure would seriously impair Federal tax administration (as defined in section 6103(b)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code).

(f) Applicability date. This section is applicable on April 29, 2003, except that paragraph (b)(2) is applicable to section 6103(c) authorizations signed on or after October 19, 2009.

(g) Effective date. This section is effective on April 29, 2003, except that paragraphs (b)(2) and (f) are effective on May 7, 2013.

[T.D. 9054, 68 FR 22598, Apr. 29, 2003, as amended by T.D. 9618, 78 FR 26507, May 7, 2013]

§301.6103(h)(2)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice for use in Federal grand jury proceeding, or in preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving tax administration.

(a) Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice. (1) Returns and return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b) (1), (2), and (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, shall, to the extent provided by section 6103(h)(2) (A), (B), and (C) and subject to the requirements of section 6103(h)(3), be open to inspection by or disclosure to officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including United States attorneys) personally and directly engaged in, and for their necessary use in, any Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for any proceeding (or for their necessary use in an investigation which may result in such a proceeding) before a Federal grand jury or any Federal or State court, in a matter involving tax administration (as defined in section 6103(b)(4)), including any such proceeding (or any such investigation) also involving the enforcement of a related Federal criminal statute which has been referred by the Secretary to the Department of Justice.

(2) Returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) inspected by or disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Justice as provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section may also be used by such officers and employees or disclosed by them to other officers and employees (including United States attorneys and supervisory personnel, such as Section Chiefs, Deputy Assistant Attorneys General, Assistant Attorneys General, the Deputy Attorney General, and the Attorney General), of the Department of Justice where necessary—

(i) In connection with any Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for any proceeding (or with an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), described in paragraph (a)(1), or

(ii) In connection with any Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for any proceeding (or with an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), described in paragraph (a)(1) which also involves enforcement of a specific Federal criminal statute other than one described in paragraph (a)(1) to which the United States is or may be a party, provided such matter involves or arises out of the particular facts and circumstances giving rise to the proceeding (or investigation) described in paragraph (a)(1) and further provided the tax portion of such proceeding (or investigation) has been duly authorized by or on behalf of the Assistant Attorney General for the Tax Division of the Department of Justice, pursuant to the request of the Secretary, as a proceeding (or investigation) described in paragraph (a)(1). If, in the course of a Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for a proceeding (or the conduct of an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), described in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, the tax administration portion thereof is terminated for any reason, any further use or disclosure of such returns or taxpayer return information in such Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation or investigation, with respect to the remaining portion may be made only pursuant to, and upon the grant of, a court order as provided by section 6103(i)(1)(A), provided, however, that the returns and taxpayer return information may in any event be used for purposes of obtaining the necessary court order.

(b) Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) by officers and employees of the Department of Justice. (1) Returns and return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b) (1), (2), and (3) of the Code, inspected by or disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Justice as provided by paragraph (a) of this section may be disclosed by such officers and employees to other persons, including, but not limited to, persons described in paragraph (b)(2), but only to the extent necessary in connection with a Federal grand jury proceeding, or the proper preparation for a proceeding (or in connection with an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), described in paragraph (a). Such disclosures may include, but are not limited to, disclosures—

(i) To properly accomplish any purpose or activity of the nature described in section 6103(k)(6) and the regulations thereunder which is essential to such Federal grand jury proceeding, or to such proper preparation (or to such investigation);

(ii) To properly interview, consult, depose, or interrogate or otherwise obtain relevant information from, the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates (or such taxpayer's legal representative) or from any witness who may be called to give evidence in the proceeding; or

(iii) To properly conduct negotiations concerning, or obtain authorization for, settlement or disposition of the proceeding, in whole or in part, or stipulations of fact in connection with the proceeding.

Disclosure of a return or return information to a person other than the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates or such taxpayer's legal representative to properly accomplish any purpose or activity described in this paragraph should be made, however, only if such purpose or activity cannot otherwise properly be accomplished without making such disclosure.

(2) Among those persons to whom returns and return information may be disclosed by officers and employees of the Department of Justice as provided by paragraph (a)(1) of this section are—

(i) Other officers and employees of the Department of Justice, such as personnel of an office, board, division, or bureau of such department (for example, the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration), clerical personnel (for example, secretaries, stenographers, docket and file room clerks, and mail room employees) and supervisory personnel (such as supervisory personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration);

(ii) Officers and employees of another Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) working under the direction and control of any such officers and employees of the Department of Justice; and

(iii) Court reporters.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65567, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(i)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to and by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or another Federal agency for use in Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for proceeding or investigation, involving enforcement of Federal criminal statute not involving tax administration.

(a) Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) to officers and employees of the Department of Justice or another Federal agency. Returns and return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b)(1), (2), and (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, shall, to the extent provided by section 6103(i) (1), (2), and (3) and subject to the requirements of section 6103(i) (1) and (2), be open to inspection by or disclosure to officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including United States attorneys) or of another Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) personally and directly engaged in, and for their necessary use in, any Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for any administration or judicial proceeding (or their necessary use in an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), pertaining to enforcement of a specifically designated Federal criminal statute not involving or related to tax administration to which the United States or such agency is or may be a party.

(b) Disclosure of returns and return information (including taxpayer return information) by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or another Federal agency. (1) Returns and return information (including taxpayer return information), as defined in section 6103(b) (1), (2), and (3) of the Code, disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Justice or other Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) as provided by paragraph (a) of this section may be disclosed by such officers and employees to other persons, including, but not limited to, persons described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, but only to the extent necessary in connection with a Federal grand jury proceeding, or the proper preparation for a proceeding (or in connection with an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), described in paragraph (a). Such disclosures may include, but are not limited to, disclosures where necessary—

(i) To properly obtain the services of persons having special knowledge or technical skills (such as, but not limited to, handwriting analysis, photographic development, sound recording enhancement, or voice identification);

(ii) To properly interview, consult, depose, or interrogate or otherwise obtain relevant information from, the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates (or such taxpayer's legal representative) or any witness who may be called to give evidence in the proceeding; or

(iii) To properly conduct negotiations concerning, or obtain authorization for, disposition of the proceeding, in whole or in part, or stipulations of fact in connection with the proceeding.

Disclosure of a return or return information to a person other than the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates or such taxpayer's legal representative to properly accomplish any purpose or activity described in this subparagraph should be made, however, only if such purpose or activity cannot otherwise properly be accomplished without making such disclosures.

(2) Among those persons to whom returns and return information may be disclosed by officers and employees of the Department of Justice or other Federal agency as provided by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph are—

(i) Other officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including an office, board, division, or bureau of such department, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration) or other Federal agency described in subparagraph (1), such as clerical personnel (for example, secretaries, stenographers, docket and file room clerks, and mail room employees) and supervisory personnel (for example, in the case of the Department of Justice, Section Chiefs, Deputy Assistant Attorneys General, Assistant Attorneys General, the Deputy Attorney General, the Attorney General, and supervisory personnel of the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the Drug Enforcement Administration);

(ii) Officers and employees of another Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) working under the direction and control of such officers and employees of the Department of Justice or other Federal agency described in subparagraph (1); and

(iii) Court reporters.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65568, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(j)(1)-1   Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Commerce for certain statistical purposes and related activities.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(j)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section, officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose return information (as defined by section 6103(b)(2) but not including return information described in section 6103(o)(2)) reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Commerce to the extent, and for such purposes as may be, provided by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Further, in the case of any disclosure of return information reflected on returns so provided by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, the tax period or accounting period to which such information relates will also be disclosed. “Return information reflected on returns” includes, but is not limited to, information on returns, information derived from processing such returns, and information derived from the Social Security Administration and other sources for the purposes of establishing and maintaining taxpayer information relating to returns.

(b) Disclosure of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census. (1) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose the following return information reflected on returns of individual taxpayers to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting and preparing, as authorized by chapter 5 of title 13, United States Code, intercensal estimates of population and income for all geographic areas included in the population estimates program and demographic statistics programs, censuses, and related program evaluation:

(i) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code), validity code with respect to the taxpayer identifying number (as described in section 6109), and taxpayer identity information of spouse and dependents, if reported.

(ii) Location codes (including area/district office and campus/service center codes).

(iii) Marital status.

(iv) Number and classification of reported exemptions.

(v) Wage and salary income.

(vi) Dividend income.

(vii) Interest income.

(viii) Gross rent and royalty income.

(ix) Total of—

(A) Wages, salaries, tips, etc.;

(B) Interest income;

(C) Dividend income;

(D) Alimony received;

(E) Business income;

(F) Pensions and annuities;

(G) Income from rents, royalties, partnerships, estates, trusts, etc.;

(H) Farm income;

(I) Unemployment compensation; and

(J) Total Social Security benefits.

(x) Adjusted gross income.

(xi) Type of tax return filed.

(xii) Entity code.

(xiii) Code indicators for Form 1040, Form 1040 (Schedules A, C, D, E, F, and SE), and Form 8814.

(xiv) Posting cycle date relative to filing.

(xv) Social Security benefits.

(xvi) Earned Income (as defined in section 32(c)(2)).

(xvii) Number of Earned Income Tax Credit-eligible qualifying children.

(2) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting, as authorized by chapter 5 of title 13, United States Code, demographic, economic, and agricultural statistics programs and censuses and related program evaluation—

(i) From the business master files of the Internal Revenue Service—the taxpayer name directory and entity records consisting of taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)) with respect to taxpayers engaged in a trade or business, the principal industrial activity code, the filing requirement code, the employment code, the physical location, the location codes (including area/district office and campus/service center codes), and monthly corrections of, and additions to, such entity records;

(ii) From Form SS-4—all information reflected on such form;

(iii) From an employment tax return—

(A) Taxpayer identifying number (as described in section 6109) of the employer;

(B) Total compensation reported;

(C) Master file tax account code (MFT);

(D) Taxable period covered by such return;

(E) Employer code;

(F) Document locator number;

(G) Record code;

(H) Total number of individuals employed in the taxable period covered by the return;

(I) Total taxable wages paid for purposes of chapter 21; and

(J) Total taxable tip income reported for purposes of chapter 21;

(iv) From Form 1040 (Schedule SE)—

(A) Taxpayer identifying number of self-employed individual;

(B) Business activities subject to the tax imposed by chapter 21;

(C) Net earnings from farming;

(D) Net earnings from nonfarming activities;

(E) Total net earnings from self-employment; and

(F) Taxable self-employment income for purposes of chapter 2;

(v) Total Social Security taxable earnings; and

(vi) Quarters of Social Security coverage.

(b)(3) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose the following business-related return information reflected on returns of taxpayers to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting and preparing, as authorized by chapter 5 of title 13, United States Code, demographic and economic statistics programs, censuses, and surveys. (The “returns of taxpayers” include, but are not limited to: Form 941; Form 990 series; Form 1040 series and Schedules C and SE; Form 1065 and all attending schedules and Form 8825; Form 1120 series and all attending schedules and Form 8825; Form 851; Form 1096; and other business returns, schedules and forms that the Internal Revenue Service may issue.):

(i) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)) including parent corporation, shareholder, partner, and employer identity information.

(ii) Gross income, profits, or receipts.

(iii) Returns and allowances.

(iv) Cost of labor, salaries, and wages.

(v) Total expenses or deductions.

(vi) Total assets.

(vii) Beginning- and end-of-year inventory.

(viii) Royalty income.

(ix) Interest income, including portfolio interest.

(x) Rental income, including gross rents.

(xi) Tax-exempt interest income.

(xii) Net gain from sales of business property.

(xiii) Other income.

(xiv) Total income.

(xv) Percentage of stock owned by each shareholder.

(xvi) Percentage of capital ownership of each partner.

(xvii) Principal industrial activity code, including the business description.

(xviii) Consolidated return indicator.

(xix) Wages, tips, and other compensation.

(xx) Social Security wages.

(xxi) Deferred wages.

(xxii) Social Security tip income.

(xxiii) Total Social Security taxable earnings.

(xxiv) Gross distributions from employer-sponsored and individual retirement plans from Form 1099-R.

(xxv) From Form 6765 (when filed with corporation income tax returns)—total qualified research expenses.

(xxvi) Social Security tip income.

(xxvii) Total Social Security taxable earnings.

(xxviii) Gross distributions from employer-sponsored and individual retirement plans from Form 1099-R.

(xxix) Total number of documents reported on Form 1096 transmitting Forms 1099-MISC.

(xxx) Total amount reported on Form 1096 transmitting Forms 1099-MISC.

(4) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose return information reflected on returns of taxpayers contained in the exempt organization master files of the Internal Revenue Service to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting and preparing, as authorized by chapter 5 of title 13, United States Code, economic censuses. This return information reflected on returns of taxpayers consists of taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)), activity codes, and filing requirement code, and monthly corrections of, and additions to, such information.

(5) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section and §301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1, officers or employees of the Social Security Administration to whom the following return information reflected on returns has been disclosed as provided by section 6103(l)(1)(A) or (l)(5) may disclose such information to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for necessary purposes described in paragraph (b)(2) or (3) of this section:

(i) From Form SS-4—all information reflected on such form.

(ii) From Form 1040 (Schedule SE)—

(A) Taxpayer identifying number of self-employed individual;

(B) Business activities subject to the tax imposed by chapter 21;

(C) Net earnings from farming;

(D) Net earnings from nonfarming activities;

(E) Total net earnings from self-employment; and

(F) Taxable self-employment income for purposes of chapter 2.

(iii) From Form W-2, and related forms and schedules—

(A) Social Security number;

(B) Employer identification number;

(C) Wages, tips, and other compensation;

(D) Social Security wages; and

(E) Deferred wages.

(iv) Total Social Security taxable earnings.

(v) Quarters of Social Security coverage.

(6)(i) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose the following return information (but not including return information described in section 6103(o)(2)) reflected on returns of corporations with respect to the tax imposed by chapter 1 to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, developing and preparing, as authorized by law, the Quarterly Financial Report:

(A) From the business master files of the Internal Revenue Service—

(1) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)), including parent corporation identity information;

(2) Document code;

(3) Location codes (including area/district office and campus/service center codes);

(4) Consolidated return and final return indicators;

(5) Principal industrial activity code;

(6) Partial year indicator;

(7) Annual accounting period;

(8) Gross receipts less returns and allowances; and

(9) Total assets.

(B) From Form SS-4—

(1) Month and year in which such form was executed;

(2) Taxpayer identity information; and

(3) Principal industrial activity, geographic, firm size, and reason for application codes.

(ii) Subject to the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section and §301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1, officers or employees of the Social Security Administration to whom return information reflected on returns of corporations described in paragraph (b)(6)(i)(B) of this section has been disclosed as provided by section 6103(l)(1)(A) or (l)(5) may disclose such information to officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for a purpose described in this paragraph (b)(6).

(iii) Return information reflected on employment tax returns disclosed pursuant to paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) (A), (B), (D), (I) and (J) of this section may be used by officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census for the purpose described in and subject to the limitations of this paragraph (b)(6).

(c) Disclosure of return information reflected on returns of corporations to officers and employees of the Bureau of Economic Analysis.

(1) As authorized by law for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting and preparing statistical analyses, the Internal Revenue Service will disclose to officers and employees of the Bureau of Economic Analysis all return information, regardless of format or medium and including edited information from the Statistics of Income sample, of designated classes or categories of corporations with respect to the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) The Internal Revenue Service will disclose the following return information reflected on returns filed by corporations to officers and employees of the Bureau of Economic Analysis:

(i) From the business master files of the Internal Revenue Service—

(A) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)) with respect to corporate taxpayers;

(B) Business or industry activity codes;

(C) Filing requirement code; and

(D) Physical location.

(ii) From Form SS-4, “Application for Employer Identification Number,” filed by an entity identifying itself on the form as a corporation or a private services corporation—

(A) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6), including legal, trade, and business name);

(B) Physical location;

(C) State or country of incorporation;

(D) Entity type (corporate only);

(E) Estimated highest number of employees expected in the next 12 months;

(F) Principal activity of the business;

(G) Principal line of merchandise;

(H) Posting cycle date relative to filing; and

(I) Document code.

(iii) From an employment tax return filed by a corporation—

(A) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6));

(B) Total compensation reported;

(C) Taxable wages paid for purposes of Chapter 21 to each employee;

(D) Master file tax account code (MFT);

(E) Total number of individuals employed in the taxable period covered by the return;

(F) Posting cycle date relative to filing;

(G) Accounting period covered; and

(H) Document code.

(iv) From returns of corporate taxpayers, including Form 1120, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return,” Form 851, “Affiliations Schedule,” and other business returns, schedules and forms that the Internal Revenue Service may issue—

(A) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)), including that of a parent corporation, affiliate, or subsidiary; a shareholder; a foreign corporation of which one or more U.S. shareholders (as defined in section 951(b)) own at least 10% of the voting stock; a foreign trust; and a U.S. agent of a foreign trust;

(B) Gross sales and receipts;

(C) Gross income, including life insurance company gross income;

(D) Gross income from sources outside the U.S.;

(E) Gross rents from real property;

(F) Other Gross Rents;

(G) Total Gross Rents;

(H) Returns and allowances;

(I) Percentage of foreign ownership of corporations and trusts;

(J) Fact of ownership of foreign partnerships;

(K) Fact of ownership of foreign entity disregarded as a foreign entity;

(L) Country of the foreign owner;

(M) Gross value of the portion of the foreign trust owned by filer;

(N) Country of incorporation;

(O) Cost of labor, salaries, and wages;

(P) Total assets;

(Q) The quantity of certain forms attached that are returns of U.S. persons with respect to foreign disregarded entities, partnerships, and corporations.

(R) Posting cycle date relative to filing;

(S) Accounting period covered;

(T) Master file tax account code (MFT);

(U) Document code; and

(V) Principal industrial activity code.

(d) Procedures and restrictions. Disclosure of return information reflected on returns by officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service or the Social Security Administration as provided by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section will be made only upon written request to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Secretary of Commerce describing—

(1) The particular return information reflected on returns to be disclosed;

(2) The taxable period or date to which such return information reflected on returns relates; and

(3)(i) The particular purpose for which the return information reflected on returns is to be used, and designating by name and title the officers and employees of the Bureau of the Census or the Bureau of Economic Analysis to whom such disclosure is authorized.

(ii) No such officer or employee to whom return information reflected on returns is disclosed pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (b) or (c) of this section shall disclose such information to any person, other than the taxpayer to whom such return information reflected on returns relates or other officers or employees of such bureau whose duties or responsibilities require such disclosure for a purpose described in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, except in a form which cannot be associated with, or otherwise identify, directly or indirectly, a particular taxpayer. If the Internal Revenue Service determines that the Bureau of the Census or the Bureau of Economic Analysis, or any officer or employee thereof, has failed to, or does not, satisfy the requirements of section 6103(p)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations or published procedures thereunder (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), the Internal Revenue Service may take such actions as are deemed necessary to ensure that such requirements are or will be satisfied, including suspension of disclosures of return information reflected on returns otherwise authorized by section 6103 (j)(1) and paragraph (b) or (c) of this section, until the Internal Revenue Service determines that such requirements have been or will be satisfied.

(e) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (b)(3)(xxv), (b)(3)(xxix), and (b)(3)(xxx) of this section apply to disclosures to the Bureau of the Census made on or after August 27, 2013. For rules that apply to disclosures to the Bureau of the Census before that date, see 26 CFR 301.6103(j)(1)-1 (revised as of April 1, 2013).

[T.D. 9037, 68 FR 2693, Jan. 21, 2003, as amended by T.D. 9188, 70 FR 12141, Mar. 11, 2005; T.D. 9267, 71 FR 38263, July 6, 2006; T.D. 9372, 72 FR 73262, Dec. 27, 2007; T.D. 9439, 73 FR 79361, Dec. 29, 2008; T.D. 9500, 75 FR 52459, Aug. 26, 2010; T.D. 9631, 78 FR 52857]

§301.6103(j)(5)-1   Disclosures of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture for conducting the census of agriculture.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(j)(5) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section, officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture to the extent, and for such purposes, as may be provided by paragraph (b) of this section. “Return information reflected on returns” includes, but is not limited to, information on returns, information derived from processing such returns, and information derived from other sources for the purposes of establishing and maintaining taxpayer information relating to returns.

(b) Disclosure of return information reflected on returns to officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture. (1) Officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose the following return information reflected on returns described in this paragraph (b) for individuals, partnerships and corporations with agricultural activity, as determined generally by industry code classification or the filing of returns for such activity, to officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, structuring, preparing, and conducting, as authorized by chapter 55 of title 7, United States Code, the census of agriculture.

(2) From Form 1040 “U.S. Individual Income Tax Return”, Form 1041 “U.S. Income Tax Return for Estates and Trusts”, Form 1065 “U.S. Return of Partnership Income” and Form 1065-B “U.S. Return of Income for Electing Large Partnerships” (Schedule F)—

(i) Taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code);

(ii) Spouse's Social Security Number;

(iii) Annual accounting period;

(iv) Principal Business Activity (PBA) code;

(v) Taxable cooperative distributions;

(vi) Income from custom hire and machine work;

(vii) Gross income;

(viii) Master File Tax (MFT) code;

(ix) Document Locator Number (DLN);

(x) Cycle posted;

(xi) Final return indicator;

(xii) Part year return indicator; and

(xiii) Taxpayer telephone number.

(3) From Form 943, “Employer's Annual Tax Return for Agricultural Employees”—

(i) Taxpayer identity information;

(ii) Annual accounting period;

(iii) Total wages subject to Medicare taxes;

(iv) MFT code;

(v) DLN;

(vi) Cycle posted;

(vii) Final return indicator; and

(viii) Part year return indicator.

(4) From Form 1120 series, “U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return”—

(i) Taxpayer identity information;

(ii) Annual accounting period;

(iii) Gross receipts less returns and allowances;

(iv) PBA code;

(v) MFT Code;

(vi) DLN;

(vii) Cycle posted;

(viii) Final return indicator;

(ix) Part year return indicator; and

(x) Consolidated return indicator.

(5) From Form 1065 series, “U.S. Return of Partnership Income”—

(i) Taxpayer identity information;

(ii) Annual accounting period;

(iii) PBA code;

(iv) Gross receipts less returns and allowances;

(v) Net farm profit (loss);

(vi) MFT code;

(vii) DLN;

(viii) Cycle posted;

(ix) Final return indicator; and

(x) Part year return indicator.

(c) Procedures and Restrictions. (1) Disclosure of return information reflected on returns by officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service as provided by paragraph (b) of this section will be made only upon written request designating, by name and title, the officers and employees of the Department of Agriculture to whom such disclosure is authorized, to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Secretary of Agriculture and describing—

(i) The particular return information reflected on returns for disclosure;

(ii) The taxable period or date to which such return information reflected on returns relates; and

(iii) The particular purpose for the requested return information reflected on returns.

(2)(i) No such officer or employee to whom the Internal Revenue Service discloses return information reflected on returns pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section shall disclose such information to any person, other than the taxpayer to whom such return information reflected on returns relates or other officers or employees of the Department of Agriculture whose duties or responsibilities require such disclosure for a purpose described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, except in a form that cannot be associated with, or otherwise identify, directly or indirectly, a particular taxpayer.

(ii) If the Internal Revenue Service determines that the Department of Agriculture, or any officer or employee thereof, has failed to, or does not, satisfy the requirements of section 6103(p)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations or published procedures, the Internal Revenue Service may take such actions as are deemed necessary to ensure that such requirements are or will be satisfied, including suspension of disclosures of return information reflected on returns otherwise authorized by section 6103(j)(5) and paragraph (b) of this section, until the Internal Revenue Service determines that such requirements have been or will be satisfied.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable on February 22, 2006.

[T.D. 9245, 71 FR 8945, Feb. 22, 2006]

§301.6103(k)(6)-1   Disclosure of return information by certain officers and employees for investigative purposes.

(a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(k)(6) and subject to the conditions of this section, an internal revenue employee or an Office of Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration (TIGTA) employee, in connection with official duties relating to any examination, administrative appeal, collection activity, administrative, civil or criminal investigation, enforcement activity, ruling, negotiated agreement, prefiling activity, or other proceeding or offense under the internal revenue laws or related statutes, or in preparation for any proceeding described in section 6103(h)(2) (or investigation which may result in such a proceeding), may disclose return information, of any taxpayer, to the extent necessary to obtain information relating to such official duties or to accomplish properly any activity connected with such official duties, including, but not limited to—

(i) Establishing or verifying the correctness or completeness of any return or return information;

(ii) Determining the responsibility for filing a return, for making a return if none has been made, or for performing such acts as may be required by law concerning such matters;

(iii) Establishing or verifying the liability (or possible liability) of any person, or the liability (or possible liability) at law or in equity of any transferee or fiduciary of any person, for any tax, penalty, interest, fine, forfeiture, or other imposition or offense under the internal revenue laws or related statutes or the amount thereof for collection;

(iv) Establishing or verifying misconduct (or possible misconduct) or other activity proscribed by the internal revenue laws or related statutes;

(v) Obtaining the services of persons having special knowledge or technical skills (such as, but not limited to, knowledge of particular facts and circumstances relevant to a correct determination of a liability described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section or skills relating to handwriting analysis, photographic development, sound recording enhancement, or voice identification) or having recognized expertise in matters involving the valuation of property if relevant to proper performance of official duties described in this paragraph;

(vi) Establishing or verifying the financial status or condition and location of the taxpayer against whom collection activity is or may be directed, to locate assets in which the taxpayer has an interest, to ascertain the amount of any liability described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section for collection, or otherwise to apply the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code relating to establishment of liens against such assets, or levy, seizure, or sale on or of the assets to satisfy any such liability;

(vii) Preparing for any proceeding described in section 6103(h)(2) or conducting an investigation which may result in such a proceeding; or

(viii) Obtaining, verifying, or establishing information concerned with making determinations regarding a taxpayer's liability under the Internal Revenue Code, including, but not limited to, the administrative appeals process and any ruling, negotiated agreement, or prefiling process.

(2) Disclosure of return information for the purpose of obtaining information to carry out properly the official duties described by this paragraph, or any activity connected with the official duties, is authorized only if the internal revenue or TIGTA employee reasonably believes, under the facts and circumstances, at the time of a disclosure, the information is not otherwise reasonably available, or if the activity connected with the official duties cannot occur properly without the disclosure.

(3) Internal revenue and TIGTA employees may identify themselves, their organizational affiliation (e.g., Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Criminal Investigation (CI) or TIGTA, Office of Investigations (OI)), and the nature of their investigation, when making an oral, written, or electronic contact with a third party witness. Permitted disclosures include, but are not limited to, the use and presentation of any identification media (such as a Federal agency badge, credential, or business card) or the use of an information document request, summons, or correspondence on Federal agency letterhead or which bears a return address or signature block that reveals affiliation with the Federal agency.

(4) This section does not address or affect the requirements under section 7602(c) (relating to contact of third parties).

(b) Disclosure of return information in connection with certain personnel or claimant representative matters. In connection with official duties relating to any investigation concerned with enforcement of any provision of the Internal Revenue Code, including enforcement of any rule or directive prescribed by the Secretary or the Commissioner of Internal Revenue under any provision of the Internal Revenue Code, or the enforcement of any provision related to tax administration, that affects or may affect the personnel or employment rights or status, or civil or criminal liability, of any former, current, or prospective employee of the Treasury Department, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, United States Customs Service, United States Secret Service, or any successor agency, or the rights of any person who is, or may be, a party to an administrative action or proceeding pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 330 (relating to practice before the Treasury Department), an internal revenue, TIGTA, or other Federal officer or employee who is responsible for investigating such employees and persons and is properly in possession of relevant return information is authorized to disclose such return information to the extent necessary for the purpose of obtaining, verifying, or establishing other information which is or may be relevant and material to the investigation.

(c) Definitions. The following definitions apply to this section—

(1) Disclosure of return information to the extent necessary means a disclosure of return information which an internal revenue or TIGTA employee, based on the facts and circumstances, at the time of the disclosure, reasonably believes is necessary to obtain information to perform properly the official duties described by this section, or to accomplish properly the activities connected with carrying out those official duties. The term necessary in this context does not mean essential or indispensable, but rather appropriate and helpful in obtaining the information sought. Nor does necessary in this context refer to the necessity of conducting an investigation or the appropriateness of the means or methods chosen to conduct the investigation. Section 6103(k)(6) does not limit or restrict internal revenue or TIGTA employees with respect to the decision to initiate or the conduct of an investigation. Disclosures under this paragraph (c)(1), however, may not be made indiscriminately or solely for the benefit of the recipient or as part of a negotiated quid pro quo arrangement. This paragraph (c)(1) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A revenue agent contacts a taxpayer's customer regarding the customer's purchases made from the taxpayer during the year under investigation. The revenue agent is able to obtain the purchase information only by disclosing the taxpayer's identity and the fact of the investigation. Depending on the facts and circumstances known to the revenue agent at the time of the disclosure, such as the way the customer maintains his records, it also may be necessary for the revenue agent to inform the customer of the date of the purchases and the types of merchandise involved for the customer to find the purchase information.

Example 2. A revenue agent contacts a third party witness to obtain copies of invoices of sales made to a taxpayer under examination. The third party witness provides copies of the sales invoices in question and then asks the revenue agent for the current address of the taxpayer because the taxpayer still owes money to the third party witness. The revenue agent may not disclose that current address because this disclosure would be only for the benefit of the third party witness and not necessary to obtain information for the examination.

Example 3. A revenue agent contacts a third party witness to obtain copies of invoices of sales made to a taxpayer under examination. The third party witness agrees to provide copies of the sales invoices in question only if the revenue agent provides him with the current address of the taxpayer because the taxpayer still owes money to the third party witness. The revenue agent may not disclose that current address because this disclosure would be a negotiated quid pro quo arrangement.

(2) Disclosure of return information to accomplish properly an activity connected with official duties means a disclosure of return information to carry out a function associated with official duties generally consistent with established practices and procedures. This paragraph (c)(2) is illustrated by the following example:

Example. A taxpayer failed to file an income tax return and pay the taxes owed. After the taxes were assessed and the taxpayer was notified of the balance due, a revenue officer filed a notice of federal tax lien and then served a notice of levy on the taxpayer's bank. The notices of lien and levy contained the taxpayer's name, social security number, amount of outstanding liability, and the tax period and type of tax involved. The taxpayer's assets were levied to satisfy the tax debt, but it was determined that, prior to the levy, the revenue officer failed to issue the taxpayer a notice of intent to levy, as required by section 6331, and a notice of right to hearing before the levy, as required by section 6330. The disclosure of the taxpayer's return information in the notice of levy is authorized by section 6103(k)(6) despite the revenue officer's failure to issue the notice of intent to levy or the notice of right to hearing. The ultimate validity of the underlying levy is irrelevant to the issue of whether the disclosure was authorized by section 6103(k)(6).

(3) Information not otherwise reasonably available means information that an internal revenue or TIGTA employee reasonably believes, under the facts and circumstances, at the time of a disclosure, cannot be obtained in a sufficiently accurate or probative form, or in a timely manner, and without impairing the proper performance of the official duties described by this section, without making the disclosure. This definition does not require or create the presumption or expectation that an internal revenue or TIGTA employee must seek information from a taxpayer or authorized representative prior to contacting a third party witness in an investigation. Neither the Internal Revenue Code, IRS procedures, nor these regulations require repeated contacting of an uncooperative taxpayer. Moreover, an internal revenue or TIGTA employee may make a disclosure to a third party witness to corroborate information provided by a taxpayer. This paragraph (c)(3) is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A revenue agent is conducting an examination of a taxpayer. The taxpayer refuses to cooperate or provide any information to the revenue agent. Information relating to the taxpayer's examination would be information not otherwise reasonably available because of the taxpayer's refusal to cooperate and supply any information to the revenue agent. The revenue agent may seek information from a third party witness.

Example 2. A special agent is conducting a criminal investigation of a taxpayer. The special agent has acquired certain information from the taxpayer. Although the special agent has no specific reason to disbelieve the taxpayer's information, the special agent contacts several third party witnesses to confirm the information. The special agent may contact third party witnesses to verify the correctness of the information provided by the taxpayer because the IRS is not required to rely solely on information provided by a taxpayer, and a special agent may take appropriate steps, including disclosures to third party witnesses under section 6103(k)(6), to verify independently or corroborate information obtained from a taxpayer.

(4) Internal revenue employee means, for purposes of this section, an officer or employee of the IRS or Office of Chief Counsel for the IRS, or an officer or employee of a Federal agency responsible for administering and enforcing taxes under Chapters 32 (Part III of Subchapter D), 51, 52, or 53 of the Internal Revenue Code, or investigating tax refund check fraud under 18 U.S.C. 510.

(5) TIGTA employee means an officer or employee of the Office of Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this section:

Example 1. A revenue agent is conducting an examination of a taxpayer. The taxpayer has been very cooperative and has supplied copies of invoices as requested. Some of the taxpayer's invoices show purchases that seem excessive in comparison to the size of the taxpayer's business. The revenue agent contacts the taxpayer's suppliers for the purpose of corroborating the invoices the taxpayer provided. In contacting the suppliers, the revenue agent discloses the taxpayer's name, the dates of purchase, and the type of merchandise at issue. These disclosures are permissible under section 6103(k)(6) because, under the facts and circumstances known to the revenue agent at the time of the disclosures, the disclosures were necessary to obtain information (corroboration of invoices) not otherwise reasonably available because suppliers would be the only source available for corroboration of this information.

Example 2. A revenue agent is conducting an examination of a taxpayer. The revenue agent asks the taxpayer for business records to document the deduction of the cost of goods sold shown on Schedule C of the taxpayer's return. The taxpayer will not provide the business records to the revenue agent, who contacts a third party witness for verification of the amount on the Schedule C. In the course of the contact, the revenue agent shows the Schedule C to the third party witness. This disclosure is not authorized under section 6103(k)(6). Section 6103(k)(6) permits disclosure only of return information, not the return (including schedules and attachments) itself. If necessary, a revenue agent may disclose return information extracted from a return when questioning a third party witness. Thus, the revenue agent could have extracted the amount of cost of goods sold from the Schedule C and disclosed that amount to the third party witness.

Example 3. A special agent is conducting a criminal investigation of a taxpayer, a doctor, for tax evasion. Notwithstanding the records provided by the taxpayer and the taxpayer's bank, the special agent decided to obtain information from the taxpayer's patients to verify amounts paid to the taxpayer for his services. Accordingly, the special agent sent letters to the taxpayer's patients to verify these amounts. In the letters, the agent disclosed that he was a special agent with IRS-CI and that he was conducting a criminal investigation of the taxpayer. Section 6103(k)(6) permits these disclosures (including the special agent disclosing his affiliation with CI and the nature of the investigation) to confirm the taxpayer's income. The decision whether to verify information already obtained is a matter of investigative judgment and is not limited by section 6103(k)(6).

Example 4. Corporation A requests a private letter ruling (PLR) as to the tax consequences of a planned transaction. Corporation A has represented that it is in compliance with laws administered by Agency B that may relate to the tax consequences of the proposed transaction. Further information is needed from Agency B relating to possible tax consequences. Under section 6103(k)(6), the IRS may disclose Corporation A's return information to Agency B to the extent necessary to obtain information from Agency B for the purpose of properly considering the tax consequences of the proposed transaction that is the subject of the PLR.

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable on July 11, 2006.

[T.D. 9274, 71 FR 38986, July 11, 2006, as amended by 71 FR 60827, Oct. 17, 2006; 71 FR 61833, Oct. 19, 2006]

§301.6103(k)(9)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information relating to payment of tax by credit card and debit card.

Officers and employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose to card issuers, financial institutions, or other persons such return information as the Commissioner deems necessary in connection with processing credit card and debit card transactions to effectuate payment of tax as authorized by §301.6311-2. Officers and employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose such return information to such persons as the Commissioner deems necessary in connection with billing or collection of the amounts charged or debited, including resolution of errors relating to the credit card or debit card account as described in §301.6311-2(d).

[T.D. 8969, 66 FR 64742, Dec. 14, 2001]

§301.6103(l)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information for purposes other than tax administration.

(a) Definition. For purposes of applying the provisions of section 6103(l) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable January 6, 2004.

[T.D. 9111, 69 FR 507, Jan. 6, 2004]

§301.6103(l)(2)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information to Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of research and studies.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, officers and employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose returns and return information (as defined by section 6103(b)) to officers and employees of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting research and studies authorized by title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.

(b) Procedures and restrictions. Disclosure of returns or return information by officers or employees of the Service as provided by paragraph (a) of this section will be made only upon written request to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Executive Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation describing the returns or return information to be disclosed, the taxable period or date to which such returns or return information relates, and the purpose for which the returns or return information is needed in the administration of title IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, and designating by title the officers and employees of such corporation to whom such disclosure is authorized. No such officer or employee to whom returns or return information is disclosed pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (a) shall disclose such returns or return information to any person, other than the taxpayer by whom the return was made or to whom the return information relates or other officers or employees of such corporation whose duties or responsibilities require such disclosure for a purpose described in paragraph (a), except in a form which cannot be associated with, or otherwise identify, directly or indirectly, a particular taxpayer.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65570, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(l)(2)-2   Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose returns and return information (as defined by section 6103(b)) to officers and employees of the Department of Labor for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, conducting research and studies authorized by section 513 of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.

(b) Procedures and restrictions. Disclosure of returns or return information by officers or employees of the Service as provided by paragraph (a) of this section will be made only upon written request to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Administrator of the Pension and Welfare Benefit Programs of the Department of Labor describing the returns or return information to be disclosed, the taxable period or date to which such returns or return information relates, and the purpose for which the returns or return information is needed in the administration of title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, and designating by title the officers and employees of such department to whom such disclosure is authorized. No such officer or employee to whom returns or return information is disclosed pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (a) shall disclose such returns or return information to any person, other than the taxpayer by whom the return was made or to whom the return information relates or other officers or employees of such department whose duties or responsibilities require such disclosure for a purpose described in paragraph (a), except in a form which cannot be associated with, or otherwise identify, directly or indirectly, a particular taxpayer.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65571, Oct. 3, 1980]

§301.6103(l)(2)-3   Disclosure to Department of Labor and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation of certain returns and return information.

(a) Disclosures following general requests. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the requirements of this paragraph, officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose the following returns and return information (as defined by section 6103(b)) to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, the administration of title I or IV of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (hereinafter referred to in this section as the Act)—

(1) Notification of receipt by the Service of an application by a particular taxpayer for a determination of whether a pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such a plan, or an annuity or bond purchase plan meets the applicable requirements of part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Code;

(2) Notification that a particular application described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph alleges that certain employees may be excluded from participation by reason of section 410(b)(2) (A) and (B) for the purpose of obtaining the finding necessary for the application of such section;

(3) An application by a particular taxpayer for a determination of whether a pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, or an annuity or bond purchase plan, meets the applicable requirements of part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Code with respect to a termination or proposed termination of the plan or to a partial termination or proposed partial termination of the plan, and any statement filed as provided by section 6058(b);

(4) Notification that the Service has determined that a plan or trust described in subparagraph (1) or (3) of this paragraph meets or does not meet the applicable requirements of part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Code and has issued a determination letter to such effect to a particular taxpayer or that an application for such a determination has been withdrawn by the taxpayer;

(5) If the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation has commented on an application upon which a determination letter described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph has been issued, a copy of the letter or document issued to the applicant;

(6) Notification to a particular taxpayer that the Service intends to disqualify a pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or bond purchase plan because such plan or trust does not meet the requirements of section 410(a) or 411 as of the date that such notification is issued;

(7) Notification required by section 3002(a) of the Act of the commencement of any proceeding to determine whether a particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or bond purchase plan meets the requirements of section 410(a) or 411;

(8) Prior to issuance of a notice of deficiency to a particular taxpayer under section 6212, notification that the Service has determined that a deficiency exists under section 6211 with respect to the tax imposed by section 4971 (a) or (b) on such taxpayer, except that if the Service determines that the collection of such tax is in jeopardy within the meaning of section 6861(a), such notification may be disclosed after issuance of the notice of deficiency or jeopardy assessment;

(9) Notification of receipt by the Service of, and action taken with respect to, an application by or on behalf of a particular taxpayer for a waiver of the tax imposed by section 4971 (b);

(10) Prior to issuance of a notice of deficiency to a particular taxpayer under section 6212, notification that a deficiency exists under section 6211 with respect to the tax imposed by section 4975 (a) or (b) on such taxpayer, except that if the Service determines that the collection of such tax is in jeopardy within the meaning of section 6861(a), such notification may be disclosed after issuance of the notice of deficiency or jeopardy assessment;

(11) Notification that the Service has waived the tax imposed by section 4975(b) on a particular taxpayer;

(12) Notification of applicability of section 4975 to a particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or stock purchase plan engaged in prohibited transactions within the meaning of section 4975(c);

(13) Notification to a plan administrator that the Service has determined that a pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, annuity, or stock purchase plan no longer meets the requirements of section 401(a) or 404(a)(2);

(14) Notification that the Service has determined that there has been a termination or partial termination of a particular pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, annuity, or stock purchase plan within the meaning of section 411(d)(3);

(15) Notification of the occurrence of an event (other than an event described in subparagraph (13), (14), or (18) of this paragraph) which the Service has determined to indicate that a particular pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus, annuity, or stock purchase plan may not be sound under section 4043(c)(2) of the Act;

(16) Notification that the Service has received and responded to a request on behalf of a particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or stock purchase plan for an extension of time for filing an annual return by such plan or trust;

(17) Notification that the Service has received and responded to a request on behalf of a particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or stock purchase plan to change the annual accounting period of such plan or trust;

(18) Notification that the Service has determined that a particular plan does not meet the requirements of section 412 without regard to whether such plan is one described in section 4021(a)(2) of the Act;

(19) Notification of the results of an investigation by the Service requested by the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or both, with respect to whether the tax described in section 4971 should be imposed on any employer named in such request or whether the tax imposed by section 4975 should be paid by any person named in the request;

(20) Notification of receipt by the Service of an application by a particular taxpayer for exemption under section 4975(c)(2) or of initiation by the Service of an administrative proceeding for such exemption;

(21) Notification of receipt by the Service of, and action taken with respect to, an application by or on behalf of a particular taxpayer for a waiver or variance of the minimum funding standard under section 303 of the Act or section 412(d);

(22) Notification that the Service intends to undertake, is undertaking, or has completed, an examination to determine whether—

(i) A particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or stock purchase plan meets the applicable requirements of part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the Code,

(ii) Any particular person is, or may be, liable for any tax imposed by section 4971 or 4975, or

(iii) A particular employee welfare benefit plan, as defined in section 3(1) of the Act, meets the applicable requirements of section 501(c) or 120, together with any completed Department of Labor or Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation form (and supplemental schedules) relating to such examination;

(23) Copies of initial pleadings indicating that the Service intends to intervene in a civil action under section 502(h) of the Act;

(24) Notification of receipt by the Service of a request for technical advice as to whether a particular pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, a trust which is a part of such plan, or an annuity or bond purchase plan should be disqualified because of fiduciary actions subject to part 4 of subtitle B of title I of the Act which may violate the exclusive benefit rule of section 401(a);

(25) Notification of receipt by the National Office of the Service of a request by or on behalf of a particular taxpayer for a ruling, opinion, variance, or waiver under any provision of title I of the Act and a copy of any such ruling, opinion, variance or waiver;

(26) Notification that the Service proposes to take substantive action which would significantly impact on or substantially affect collectively bargained plans and a description of such proposed substantive action; and

(27) Notification of receipt by the Service of, and action taken with respect to, a request by a particular taxpayer for a ruling under section 412(c)(8), 412(e), or 412(f).

Return information disclosed under this paragraph includes the taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)) of the plan or trust, the name and address of the sponsor and administrator of the plan or trustee of the trust, and the name and address of the person authorized to represent the plan or trust before the Service. Disclosure of returns or return information as provided by this paragraph will be made only following receipt by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his delegate of an annual written request for such disclosure by the Secretary of Labor or his delegate or the Executive Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or his delegate describing the categories of returns or return information to be disclosed by the Service and the particular purpose for which the returns or return information is needed in the administration of title I or IV of the Act, and designating by title the officers and employees of the Department of Labor or such corporation to whom such disclosure is authorized.

(b) Additional returns and return information subject to disclosure—(1) Returns and return information relating to automatic notification. (i) Subject to the requirements of subparagraph (3)(i) of this paragraph, officers or employees of the Service may disclose to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, the administration of title I or IV of the Act additional return and return information relating to any item described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(ii) Subject to the requirements of subparagraph (3)(ii) of this paragraph, in connection with the disclosure of any item as provided by paragraph (a) of this section, officers and employees of the Service may disclose to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation such additional returns and return information relating to such item as the Service determines are or may be necessary in the administration of title I or IV of the Act.

(2) Other returns and return information. Subject to the requirements of subparagraph (3)(i) of this paragraph, officers or employees of the Service may disclose to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation returns and return information (other than returns and return information disclosed as provided by paragraph (a) of this section or §301.6103(l)(2)-1 or §301.6103(l)(2)-2 for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, administration of title I or IV of the Act.

(3) Procedures. (i) Disclosure of returns or return information by officers or employees of the Service as provided by subparagraph (1)(i) or (2) of this paragraph will be made only following receipt by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his delegate of a written request for such disclosure by the Secretary of Labor or his delegate or the Executive Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or his delegate identifying the particular taxpayer by whom such return was made or to whom such return information relates, describing the particular returns or return information to be disclosed, stating the purpose for which the returns or return information is needed in the administration of title I or IV of the Act, and designating by title the officers and employees of such department or corporation to whom such disclosure is authorized.

(ii) Disclosure of returns or return information by officers or employees of the Service as provided by subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph will be made only following receipt by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue or his delegate of an annual written request for such disclosure by the Secretary of Labor or his delegate or the Executive Director of the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation or his delegate stating the purpose for which the returns or return information is needed in the administration of title I or IV of the Act, and designating by title the officers and employees of such department or corporation to whom such disclosure is authorized.

(c) Disclosure and use of returns and return information by officers and employees of Department of Labor, Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and Department of Justice—(1) Use by officers and employees of Department of Labor and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation. Returns and return information disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Labor and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation as provided by this section may be used by such officers and employees for purposes of, but only to the extent necessary in, administration of any provision of title I or IV of the Act, including any preparation for any administrative or judicial proceeding (or investigation which may result in such a proceeding) authorized by, or described in, title I or IV of the Act.

(2) Disclosure by officers and employees of Department of Labor and Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation to, and use by, other persons, including officers and employees of the Department of Justice. (i) Returns and return information disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation as provided by this section may be disclosed by such officers and employees to officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including United States attorneys) personally and directly engaged in, and for their necessary use in, any Federal grand jury proceeding, or preparation for any civil or criminal judicial proceeding (or for their necessary use in an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), authorized by, or described in, title I or IV of the Act.

(ii) Returns and return information disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Department of Justice as provided by this section may be disclosed by such officers and employees to other persons, including, but not limited to, persons described in subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph, but only to the extent necessary in connection with administration of the provisions of title I or IV of the Act, including a Federal grand jury proceeding, and proper preparation for a proceeding (or investigation), described in subparagraph (1) or (2)(i). Such disclosures may include, but are not limited to, disclosures where necessary—

(A) To properly obtain the services of persons having special knowledge or technical skills;

(B) To properly interview, consult, depose, or interrogate or otherwise obtain relevant information from the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates (or the legal representative of such taxpayer) or any witness who may be called to give evidence in the proceeding; or

(C) To properly conduct negotiations concerning, or obtain authorization for, settlement or disposition of the proceeding, in whole or in part, or stipulations of fact in connection with the proceeding.

Disclosure of a return or return information to a person other than the taxpayer to whom such return or return information relates (or the legal representative of such taxpayer) to properly accomplish any purpose or activity described in this subparagraph should be made, however, only if such purpose or activity cannot otherwise properly be accomplished without making such disclosure.

(iii) Among those persons to whom returns and return information may be disclosed by officers and employees of the Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Department of Justice as provided by subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph are:

(A) Other officers and employees of the Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, and the Department of Justice;

(B) Officers and employees of another Federal agency (as defined in section 6103(b)(9)) working under the direction and control of such officers and employees of the Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or the Department of Justice; and

(C) Court reporters.

Disclosure of returns or return information to other persons by officers and employees of the Department of Labor or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation as provided by subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph for purposes of conducting research, surveys, studies, and publications referred to in section 513(a), or authorized by title IV, of the Act shall be restricted, however, to disclosure to other officers and employees of such department or corporation to whom such disclosure is necessary in connection with such conduct or to the taxpayer by whom such return was made or to whom such return information relates if the return or return information can be associated with, or otherwise identify, directly or indirectly, a particular taxpayer.

(3) Disclosure in judicial proceedings. A return or return information disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Labor, the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, or the Department of Justice as provided by this section may be entered into evidence by such officers or employees in a civil or criminal judicial proceeding authorized by, or described in, title I or IV of the Act, provided that, in the case of a judicial proceeding described in section 6103(i)(4), the requirements of section 6103(i)(4) have first been met.

(d) Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with certain consultations between Departments of the Treasury and Labor. Upon general written request to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by the Secretary of Labor, officers and employees of the Service may disclose to officers and employees of the Department of Labor such returns and return information as may be necessary to properly carry out any consultation required by section 3002, 3003, or 3004 of the Act.

(e) Return information open to public inspection under section 6104. Nothing in these regulations shall be construed to deny officers and employees of the Department of Labor and the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation the right to inspect return information available to the public under section 6104 of the Code.

(Secs. 6103 and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (90 Stat. 1667, 1685, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6103 and 7805))

[T.D. 7723, 45 FR 65571, Oct. 3, 1980, as amended by T.D. 7757, 46 FR 6930, Jan. 22, 1981; T.D. 7911, 48 FR 40377, Sept. 7, 1983]

§301.6103(l)(14)-1   Disclosure of return information to United States Customs Service.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(14) of the Internal Revenue Code, officers and employees of the Internal Revenue Service may disclose to officers and employees of the United States Customs Service return information (as defined by section 6103(b)) with respect to taxes imposed by chapters 1 and 6 of the Internal Revenue Code solely for purposes of, and only to the extent necessary in—

(1) Ascertaining the correctness of any entry in audits as provided for in section 509 of the Tariff Act of 1930 or;

(2) Other actions to recover any loss of revenue, or to collect duties, taxes, and fees, determined to be due and owing pursuant to such audits.

(b) Procedures. Disclosure of return information by officers or employees of the Internal Revenue Service as provided by paragraph (a) of this section will be made only following receipt by the Internal Revenue Service of a written request for the disclosure by the Commissioner of the U.S. Customs Service identifying—

(1) The particular items of return information to be disclosed;

(2) The particular taxpayer to whom the return information relates;

(3) The taxable period or date to which the return information relates;

(4) The particular purpose for which each item of return information is needed, including an explanation as to how the requested information is necessary to accomplish that purpose. In addition, the request must designate by title the officers and employees of the Customs Service to whom the disclosure is authorized and certify that the Customs Service has initiated or intends to initiate, under section 509 of the Tariff Act of 1930, an audit of each taxpayer for whom return information is requested or that the taxpayer has a transactional or ownership relationship with the subject of such an audit.

(c) Return information subject to disclosure. Any return information requested must be necessary to a Customs determination of the correctness of any entry in audits conducted under section 509 of the Tariff Act of 1930. Taxpayers as to whom return information is requested must either be the subject of a Customs audit (or intended audit) or have a transactional or ownership relationship with the subject of a Customs audit. Requested information must relate to the declared value, classification or rate of duty applicable to entered merchandise. Requested information may also include any adjustment by the IRS to the items of return information described by this paragraph.

(d) Return information not subject to disclosure. The following return information may not be requested or disclosed pursuant to section 6103(l)(14) of the Internal Revenue Code: any Advance Pricing Agreement or information submitted to or generated by the IRS as part of the negotiation process for an Advance Pricing Agreement, or any information to the extent its disclosure would be inconsistent with a tax treaty or executive agreement with respect to which the United States is a party.

(e) Impairment of tax administration. Return information with respect to a taxpayer may not be disclosed pursuant to this section if the IRS determines that the disclosure would identify a confidential informant or seriously impair any civil or criminal tax investigation or proceeding.

(f) Use by Customs Service. Return information disclosed under this section may be used by the U.S. Customs Service to the extent necessary to ascertain or to document the correctness of any entry in audits as provided for in section 509 of the Tariff Act of 1930 and in any related administrative proceedings to recover any loss of revenue, or to collect duties, taxes or fees, determined to be due and owing pursuant to these audits. Uses may include, to the extent necessary, disclosure to the importer (or the legal representative of such importer) subject to the audit with respect to which the information was requested.

(g) Disclosure to, and use by, the Department of Justice. Return information disclosed to officers and employees of the U.S. Customs Service as provided by this section may be disclosed by these officers and employees to officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including United States attorneys) personally and directly engaged in, and solely for their necessary use in, advocating or defending the correctness of Customs determinations with respect to any entry, in any civil judicial proceeding, or any preparations therefor (or for their necessary use in an investigation which may result in such a proceeding), to recover any loss of revenue, or to collect duties, taxes or fees, determined to be due and owing as a consequence of an audit provided for in section 509 of the Tariff Act of 1930.

(h) Disclosure by officers and employees of the Department of Justice. Return information disclosed to officers and employees of the Department of Justice (including United States Attorneys) as provided by this section may be disclosed by these officers and employees to other persons as is necessary to properly accomplish the purposes or activities described in paragraph (g). Disclosure of return information to a person, other than the importer (or the legal representative of the importer) subject to the audit with respect to which the information was originally requested, to properly accomplish any purpose or activity described in paragraph (g) may be made, however, only if the purpose or activity cannot otherwise properly be accomplished without making the disclosure. Disclosures may include, but are not limited to, disclosures where necessary—

(1) To properly obtain the services of persons having special knowledge or technical skills;

(2) To properly interview, consult, depose, or interrogate or otherwise obtain relevant information from, the taxpayer (or the legal representative of the taxpayer) to whom the return information relates or any witness who may be called to give evidence in the proceeding; or

(3) To properly conduct negotiations concerning, or obtain authorization for, settlement or disposition of the proceeding, in whole or in part, or stipulations of fact in connection with the proceeding.

(i) Use in criminal judicial proceedings. Return information disclosed pursuant to this section may not be used in any criminal judicial proceeding, or any preparations therefor (or in a criminal investigation which may result in such a proceeding), involving the enforcement of a criminal statute, without compliance with the requirements of section 6103(i) (1) or (2) as appropriate. However, the return information may in any event be used for purposes of complying with the requirements of section 6103(i).

(j) Restrictions. Return information disclosed to officers and employees of the U.S. Customs Service or to the Department of Justice as provided by this section may not be used or disclosed for any purpose other than to ascertain, or advocate or defend the correctness of, Customs determinations with respect to, any entry in the audits for which the information was requested or in certain actions resulting from the audits as described above. Return information disclosed to officers and employees of the U.S. Customs Service or to the Department of Justice as provided by this section may not be disclosed to any person, including any contractor of the U.S. Customs Service, except as provided by this section, or as otherwise provided by section 6103 of the Internal Revenue Code.

[T.D. 8527, 59 FR 11548, Mar. 11, 1994. Redesignated by T.D. 8694, 61 FR 66220, Dec. 17, 1996]

§301.6103(l)(21)-1   Disclosure of return information to the Department of Health and Human Services to carry out eligibility requirements for health insurance affordability programs.

(a) General rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(21)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code, officers and employees of the Internal Revenue Service will disclose, upon written request, for each relevant taxpayer on a single application those items of return information that are described under section 6103(l)(21)(A) and paragraphs (a)(1) through (7) of this section, for the reference tax year, as applicable, to officers, employees, and contractors of the Department of Health and Human Services. Such information shall be provided solely for purposes of, and to the extent necessary in, establishing an individual's eligibility for participation in an Exchange established under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, verifying the appropriate amount of any premium tax credit under section 36B or cost-sharing reduction under section 1402 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or determining eligibility for the State programs described in section 6103(l)(21)(A).

(1) With respect to each relevant taxpayer for the reference tax year where the amount of social security benefits not included in gross income under section 86 of the Internal Revenue Code of that relevant taxpayer is unavailable:

(i) The aggregate amount of the following items of return information—

(A) Adjusted gross income, as defined by section 62 of the Internal Revenue Code;

(B) Any amount excluded from gross income under section 911 of the Internal Revenue Code; and

(C) Any amount of interest received or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year that is exempt from tax.

(ii) Information indicating that the amount of social security benefits not included in gross income under section 86 of the Internal Revenue Code is unavailable.

(2) Adjusted gross income, as defined by section 62 of the Internal Revenue Code, of a relevant taxpayer for the reference tax year, in circumstances where the modified adjusted gross income (MAGI), as defined by section 36B(d)(2)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code, of that relevant taxpayer is unavailable, as well as information indicating that the components of MAGI other than adjusted gross income must be taken into account to determine MAGI;

(3) The amount of social security benefits of the relevant taxpayer that is included in gross income under section 86 of the Internal Revenue Code for the reference tax year;

(4) Information indicating that certain return information of a relevant taxpayer is unavailable for the reference tax year because the relevant taxpayer jointly filed a U.S. Individual Income Tax Return for that year with a spouse who is not a relevant taxpayer listed on the same application;

(5) Information indicating that, although a return for an individual identified on the application as a relevant taxpayer for the reference tax year is available, return information is not being provided because of possible authentication issues with respect to the identity of the relevant taxpayer;

(6) Information indicating that a relevant taxpayer who is identified as a dependent for the tax year in which the premium tax credit under section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code would be claimed, did not have a filing requirement for the reference tax year based upon the U.S. Individual Income Tax Return the relevant taxpayer filed for the reference tax year; and

(7) Information indicating that a relevant taxpayer who received advance payments of the premium tax credit in the reference tax year did not file a tax return for the reference tax year reconciling the advance payments of the premium tax credit with any premium tax credit under section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code available for that year.

(b) Relevant taxpayer defined. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, a relevant taxpayer is defined to be any individual listed, by name and social security number, on an application submitted pursuant to Title I, Subtitle E, of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, whose income may bear upon a determination of any advance payment of any premium tax credit under section 36B of the Internal Revenue Code, cost-sharing reduction under section 1402 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, or eligibility for any program described in section 6103(l)(21)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) Reference tax year defined. For purposes of section 6103(l)(21)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code and this section, the reference tax year is the first calendar year or, where no return information is available in that year, the second calendar year, prior to the submission of an application pursuant to Title I, Subtitle E, of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to disclosures to the Department of Health and Human Services on or after August 14, 2013.

[T.D. 9628, 78 FR 49369, Aug. 14, 2013]

§301.6103(m)-1   Disclosure of taxpayer identity information.

(a) Definition. For purposes of applying the provisions of section 6103(m) of the Internal Revenue Code, the term agent includes a contractor.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable January 6, 2004.

[T.D. 9111, 69 FR 507, Jan. 6, 2004]

§301.6103(n)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information in connection with written contracts or agreements for the acquisition of property or services for tax administration purposes.

(a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(n) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the conditions of this section, officers and employees of the Treasury Department, a State tax agency, the Social Security Administration, or the Department of Justice, are authorized to disclose returns and return information (as defined in section 6103(b)) to any person (including, in the case of the Treasury Department, any person described in section 7513(a)), or to an officer or employee of the person, for purposes of tax administration (as defined in section 6103(b)(4)), to the extent necessary in connection with a written contract or agreement for the acquisition of—

(i) Equipment or other property; or

(ii) Services relating to the processing, storage, transmission, or reproduction of returns or return information, the programming, maintenance, repair, or testing of equipment or other property, or the providing of other services.

(2) Any person, or officer or employee of the person, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, may—

(i) Further disclose the returns or return information to another officer or employee of the person whose duties or responsibilities require the returns or return information for a purpose described in this paragraph (a); or

(ii) Further disclose the returns or return information, when authorized in writing by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), to the extent necessary to carry out the purposes described in this paragraph (a). Disclosures may include disclosures to an agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor.

(3) An agent or subcontractor, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section, may further disclose the returns or return information to another officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor whose duties or responsibilities require the returns or return information for a purpose described in this paragraph (a).

(4) Any person, or officer, employee, agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under this paragraph (a), may, subject to the provisions of §301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1 (concerning disclosures by a Federal, State, or local agency, or its agents or contractors), further disclose the returns or return information for a purpose authorized, and subject to all applicable conditions imposed, by section 6103.

(b) Limitations. (1) Disclosure of returns or return information in connection with a written contract or agreement for the acquisition of property or services described in paragraph (a) of this section will be treated as necessary only if the performance of the contract or agreement cannot otherwise be reasonably, properly, or economically carried out without the disclosure.

(2) Disclosure of returns or return information in connection with a written contract or agreement for the acquisition of property or services described in paragraph (a) of this section shall be made only to the extent necessary to reasonably, properly, or economically perform the contract. For example, disclosure of returns or return information to employees of a contractor for purposes of programming, maintaining, repairing, or testing computer equipment used by the IRS or a State tax agency shall be made only if the services cannot be reasonably, properly, or economically performed without the disclosure. If it is determined that disclosure of returns or return information is necessary, and if the services can be reasonably, properly, or economically performed by disclosure of only parts or portions of a return or if deletion of taxpayer identity information (as defined in section 6103(b)(6)) reflected on a return would not seriously impair the ability of the employees to perform the services, then only the parts or portions of the return, or only the return with taxpayer identity information deleted, may be disclosed.

(c) Penalties. Any person, or officer, employee, agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section, is subject to the civil and criminal penalty provisions of sections 7431, 7213, and 7213A for the unauthorized inspection or disclosure of the returns or return information.

(d) Notification requirements. Any person, or agent or subcontractor of the person, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section shall provide written notice to his, her, or its officers and employees receiving the returns or return information that—

(1) Returns or return information disclosed to the officer or employee may be used only for a purpose and to the extent authorized by paragraph (a) of this section and that the officer or employee is subject to the civil and criminal penalty provisions of sections 7431, 7213, and 7213A for the unauthorized inspection or disclosure of the returns or return information;

(2) Further inspection of any returns or return information for a purpose or to an extent not authorized by paragraph (a) of this section constitutes a misdemeanor, punishable upon conviction by a fine of as much as $1,000, or imprisonment for as long as 1 year, or both, together with costs of prosecution;

(3) Further disclosure of any returns or return information for a purpose or to an extent not authorized by paragraph (a) of this section constitutes a felony, punishable upon conviction by a fine of as much as $5,000, or imprisonment for as long as 5 years, or both, together with the costs of prosecution;

(4) Further inspection or disclosure of returns or return information by any person who is not an officer or employee of the United States for a purpose or to an extent not authorized by paragraph (a) of this section may result also in an award of civil damages against that person in an amount not less than $1,000 for each act of unauthorized inspection or disclosure; or the sum of actual damages sustained by the plaintiff as a result of the unauthorized inspection or disclosure plus, in the case of a willful inspection or disclosure or an inspection or disclosure that is the result of gross negligence, punitive damages. In addition, costs and reasonable attorneys fees may be awarded; and

(5) A conviction for an offense referenced in paragraph (d)(2) or (3) of this section shall, in addition to any other punishment, result in dismissal from office or discharge from employment if the person convicted is an officer or employee of the United States.

(e) Safeguards. (1) Any person, or agent or subcontractor of the person, who may receive returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section, shall agree, before disclosure of any returns or return information to the person, agent, or subcontractor, to permit an inspection by the IRS of his, her, or its site or facilities.

(2) Any person, or officer, employee, agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section, shall comply with all applicable conditions and requirements as the IRS may prescribe from time to time (prescribed requirements) for the purposes of protecting the confidentiality of returns and return information and preventing any disclosure or inspection of returns or return information in a manner not authorized by this section.

(3) The terms of any written contract or agreement for the acquisition of property or services as described in paragraph (a) of this section shall provide, or shall be amended to provide, that any person, or officer, employee, agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section, shall comply with the prescribed requirements. Any contract or agreement shall be made available to the IRS before execution of the contract or agreement. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3), a written contract or agreement shall include any contract or agreement between a person and an agent or subcontractor of the person to provide the property or services described in paragraph (a) of this section.

(4) If the IRS determines that any person, or officer, employee, agent or subcontractor of the person, or officer or employee of the agent or subcontractor, who receives returns or return information under paragraph (a) of this section, has failed to, or does not, satisfy the prescribed requirements, the IRS, consistent with the regulations under section 6103(p)(7), may take any actions it deems necessary to ensure that the prescribed requirements are or will be satisfied, including—

(i) Suspension of further disclosures of returns or return information by the IRS to the State tax agency, the Social Security Administration, or the Department of Justice, until the IRS determines that the conditions and requirements have been or will be satisfied;

(ii) Suspension of further disclosures by the Treasury Department otherwise authorized by paragraph (a) of this section; and

(iii) Suspension or termination of any duty or obligation arising under a contract or agreement with the Treasury Department.

(f) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) The term Treasury Department includes the IRS, the Office of the Chief Counsel for the IRS, and the Office of the Treasury Inspector General for Tax Administration;

(2) The term State tax agency means an agency, body, or commission described in section 6103(d); and

(3) The term Department of Justice includes offices of the United States Attorneys.

(g) Effective date. This section is applicable on June 5, 2007.

[T.D. 9327, 72 FR 30976, June 5, 2007]

§301.6103(n)-2   Disclosure of return information in connection with written contracts among the IRS, whistleblowers, and legal representatives of whistleblowers.

(a) General rule. (1) Pursuant to the provisions of sections 6103(n) and 7623 of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to the conditions of this section, an officer or employee of the Treasury Department is authorized to disclose return information (as defined in section 6103(b)(2)) to a whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, to the extent necessary in connection with a written contract among the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, for services relating to the detection of violations of the internal revenue laws or related statutes.

(2) The IRS shall have the discretion to determine whether to enter into a written contract pursuant to section 7623 with the whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, for services described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(b) Limitations. (1) Disclosure of return information in connection with a written contract for services described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall be made only to the extent the IRS deems it necessary in connection with the reasonable or proper performance of the contract. Disclosures may include, but are not limited to, disclosures to accomplish properly any purpose or activity of the nature described in section 6103(k)(6) and the regulations thereunder.

(2) If the IRS determines that the services of a whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, can be performed reasonably or properly by disclosure of only parts or portions of return information, then only the parts or portions of the return information shall be disclosed.

(3) Upon written request by a whistleblower, or a legal representative of a whistleblower, with whom the IRS has entered into a written contract for services as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the Director of the Whistleblower Office, or designee of the Director, may inform the whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, of the status of the whistleblower's claim for award under section 7623, including whether the claim is being evaluated for potential investigative action, or is pending due to an ongoing examination, appeal, collection action, or litigation. The information may be disclosed only if the IRS determines that the disclosure would not seriously impair Federal tax administration.

(4) Return information disclosed to a whistleblower and, if applicable, a legal representative of a whistleblower, under this section, shall not be further disclosed or otherwise used by the whistleblower or a legal representative of a whistleblower, except as expressly authorized in writing by the IRS.

(c) Penalties. Any whistleblower, or legal representative of a whistleblower, who receives return information under this section, is subject to the civil and criminal penalty provisions of sections 7431, 7213, and 7213A for the unauthorized inspection or disclosure of the return information.

(d) Safeguards. (1) Any whistleblower, or the legal representative of a whistleblower, who receives return information under this section, shall comply with all applicable conditions and requirements as the IRS may prescribe from time to time for the purposes of protecting the confidentiality of the return information and preventing any disclosure or inspection of the return information in a manner not authorized by this section (prescribed requirements).

(2) Any written contract for services as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall provide that any whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of a whistleblower, who has access to return information under this section, shall comply with the prescribed requirements.

(3) Any whistleblower, or the legal representative of a whistleblower, who may receive return information under this section, shall agree in writing, before any disclosure of return information is made, to permit an inspection of the whistleblower's or the legal representative's premises by the IRS relative to the maintenance of the return information disclosed under these regulations and, upon completion of services as described in the written contract with the IRS, to dispose of all return information by returning the return information, including any and all copies or notes made, to the IRS, or to the extent that it cannot be returned, by destroying the information in a manner consistent with prescribed requirements.

(4) If the IRS determines that any whistleblower, or the legal representative of a whistleblower, who has access to return information under this section, has failed to, or does not, satisfy the prescribed requirements, the IRS, using the procedures described in the regulations under section 6103(p)(7), may take any action it deems necessary to ensure that the prescribed requirements are or will be satisfied, including—

(i) Suspension of further disclosures of return information by the IRS to the whistleblower and, if applicable, the legal representative of the whistleblower, until the IRS determines that the conditions and requirements have been or will be satisfied; and

(ii) Suspension or termination of any duty or obligation arising under the contract with the IRS.

(e) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) The term Treasury Department includes the IRS and the Office of the Chief Counsel for the IRS.

(2) The term whistleblower means an individual who provides information to the IRS regarding violations of the tax laws or related statutes and submits a claim for an award under section 7623 with respect to the information.

(3) The term legal representative means any individual who is a member in good standing in the bar of the highest court of any state, possession, territory, commonwealth, or the District of Columbia, and who has a written power of attorney executed by the whistleblower.

(f) Effective/applicability date. This section is applicable on March 15, 2011.

[T.D. 9516, 76 FR 13882, Mar. 15, 2011]

§301.6103(p)(2)(B)-1   Disclosure of returns and return information by other agencies.

(a) General rule. Subject to the requirements of paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, returns or return information that have been obtained by a Federal, state or local agency, or its agents or contractors, in accordance with section 6103 (the first recipient) may be disclosed by the first recipient to another recipient authorized to receive such returns or return information under section 6103 (the second recipient).

(b) Approval by Commissioner. A disclosure described in paragraph (a) of this section may be made if the Commissioner of Internal Revenue (the Commissioner) determines, after receiving a written request under this section, that such returns or return information are more readily available from the first recipient than from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The disclosure authorization by the Commissioner shall be directed to the head of the first recipient and may contain such conditions or restrictions as the Commissioner may prescribe. The disclosure authorization may be revoked by the Commissioner at any time.

(c) Requirements and restrictions. The second recipient may receive only returns or return information as authorized by the provision of section 6103 applicable to such second recipient. Any returns or return information disclosed may be used by the second recipient only for a purpose authorized by and subject to any conditions imposed by section 6103 and the regulations thereunder, including, if applicable, safeguards imposed by section 6103(p)(4).

(d) Records and reports of disclosure. The first recipient shall maintain to the satisfaction of the IRS a permanent system of standardized records regarding such disclosure authorization described in paragraph (a) of this section and any disclosure of returns and return information made pursuant to such authorization, and shall provide such information as prescribed by the Commissioner in order to enable the IRS to comply with its obligations under section 6103(p)(3) to keep accountings for disclosures and to make annual reports of disclosures to the Joint Committee on Taxation. The information required for reports to the Joint Committee on Taxation must be provided within 30 days after the close of each calendar year. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to the disclosure of returns and return information as provided by paragraph (a) of this section which, had such disclosures been made directly by the IRS, would not have been subject to the recordkeeping requirements imposed by section 6103(p)(3)(A).

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable on January 21, 2003.

[T.D. 9036, 68 FR 2696, Jan. 21, 2003]

§301.6103(p)(4)-1   Procedures relating to safeguards for returns or return information.

For security guidelines and other safeguards for protecting returns and return information, see guidance published by the Internal Revenue Service. For procedures for administrative review of a determination that an authorized recipient has failed to safeguard returns or return information, see §301.6103(p)(7)-1.

[T.D. 9445, 74 FR 6830, Feb. 11, 2009]

§301.6103(p)(7)-1   Procedures for administrative review of a determination that an authorized recipient has failed to safeguard returns or return information.

(a) In general. Notwithstanding any section of the Internal Revenue Code (Code), the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may terminate or suspend disclosure of returns and return information to any authorized recipient specified in section (p)(4) of section 6103, if the IRS determines that:

(1) The authorized recipient has allowed an unauthorized inspection or disclosure of returns or return information and that the authorized recipient has not taken adequate corrective action to prevent the recurrence of an unauthorized inspection or disclosure; or

(2) The authorized recipient does not satisfactorily maintain the safeguards prescribed by section 6103(p)(4), and has made no adequate plan to improve its system to maintain the safeguards satisfactorily.

(b) Notice of IRS's intention to terminate or suspend disclosure. Prior to terminating or suspending authorized disclosures, the IRS will notify the authorized recipient in writing of the IRS's preliminary determination and of the IRS's intention to discontinue disclosure of returns and return information to the authorized recipient. Upon so notifying the authorized recipient, the IRS, if it determines that tax administration otherwise would be seriously impaired, may suspend further disclosures of returns and return information to the authorized recipient pending a final determination by the Commissioner or a Deputy Commissioner described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(c) Authorized recipient's right to appeal. An authorized recipient shall have 30 days from the date of receipt of a notice described in paragraph (b) of this section to appeal the preliminary determination described in paragraph (b) of this section. The appeal shall be made directly to the Commissioner.

(d) Procedures for administrative review. (1) To appeal a preliminary determination described in paragraph (b) of this section, the authorized recipient shall send a written request for a conference to: Commissioner of Internal Revenue (Attention: SE:S:CLD:GLD), 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20224. The request must include a complete description of the authorized recipient's present system of safeguarding returns or return information received by the authorized recipient (and its authorized contractors or agents, if any). The request must state the reason or reasons the authorized recipient believes that such system or practice (including improvements, if any, to such system or practice expected to be made in the near future) is or will be adequate to safeguard returns or return information.

(2) Within 45 days of the receipt of the request made in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner personally shall hold a conference with representatives of the authorized recipient, after which the Commissioner or Deputy Commissioner shall make a final determination with respect to the appeal.

(e) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to all authorized recipients of returns and return information that are subject to the safeguard requirements set forth in section 6103(p)(4) on or after February 11, 2009.

[T.D. 9445, 74 FR 6830, Feb. 11, 2009]

§301.6104(a)-1   Public inspection of material relating to tax-exempt organizations.

(a) Applications for exemption from Federal income tax, applications for a group exemption letter, and supporting documents. If the Internal Revenue Service determines that an organization described in section 501(c) or section 501(d) is exempt from Federal income tax for any taxable year, the application upon which the determination is based, together with any supporting documents, shall be open to public inspection. Such applications and supporting documents shall be open for public inspection even after any revocation of the Internal Revenue Service's determination that the organization is exempt from Federal income tax. In the past, some applications were destroyed and therefore are not available for inspection. For purposes of determining the availability for public inspection, a claim for exemption from Federal income tax filed to re-establish exempt status after denial thereof under the provisions of section 503 or 504 (as in effect on December 31, 1969), or under the corresponding provisions of any prior revenue law, is considered an application for exemption from Federal income tax.

(b) Notices of status filed by political organizations. If, in accordance with section 527(i), an organization notifies the Internal Revenue Service that it is a political organization as described in section 527, exempt from Federal income tax for any taxable year, the notice of status filed by the political organization shall be open to public inspection.

(c) Letters or documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to an application for exemption from Federal income tax. If an application for exemption from Federal income tax is filed with the Internal Revenue Service after October 31, 1976, and is open to public inspection under paragraph (a) of this section, then any letter or document issued to the applicant by the Internal Revenue Service that relates to the application is also open to public inspection. For rules relating to when a letter or document is issued, see §301.6110-2(h). Letters or documents to which this paragraph (c) applies include, but are not limited to—

(1) Favorable rulings and determination letters, including group exemption letters, issued in response to applications for exemption from Federal income tax;

(2) Technical advice memoranda issued with respect to the approval, or subsequent approval, of an application for exemption from Federal income tax;

(3) Letters issued in response to an application for exemption from Federal income tax (including applications for a group exemption letter) that propose a finding that the applicant is not entitled to be exempt from Federal income tax, if the applicant is subsequently determined, on the basis of that application, to be exempt from Federal income tax; and

(4) Any letter or document issued by the Internal Revenue Service relating to an organization's status as an organization described in section 509(a), 4940(d)(2), 4942(j)(3), or 4943(f), including a determination letter that the organization is or is not a private foundation.

(d) Requirement of exempt status. An application for exemption from Federal income tax (including applications for a group exemption letter), supporting documents, and letters or documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service that relate to the application shall not be open to public inspection before the organization is determined, on the basis of that application, to be exempt from Federal income tax for any taxable year. If an organization is determined to be exempt from Federal income tax for any taxable year, these materials shall not be withheld from public inspection on the basis that the organization is subsequently determined not to be exempt for any other taxable year.

(e) Documents included in the term “application for exemption from Federal income tax.” For purposes of this section—

(1) Prescribed application form. If a form is prescribed for an organization's application for exemption from Federal income tax, the application includes the form and all documents and statements that the Internal Revenue Service requires to be filed with the form, any amendments or revisions to the original application, or any resubmitted applications where the original application was submitted in draft form or was withdrawn. An application includes an application for reinstatement of tax-exempt status after an organization's tax-exempt status has been revoked pursuant to section 6033(j). An application submitted in draft form or an application submitted and later withdrawn is not considered an application.

(2) No prescribed application form. If no form is prescribed for an organization's application for exemption from Federal income tax, the application includes the submission by letter requesting recognition of tax exemption and any statements or documents as prescribed by Revenue Procedure 2011-9, IRB 2011-2 (January 10, 2011), or any successor guidance describing procedures for application for exempt status pursuant to section 501 and section 521 of the Internal Revenue Code. See §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b).

(3) Application for a Group Exemption Letter. The application for a group exemption letter includes the letter submitted by or on behalf of subordinate organizations that seek exempt status pursuant to a group exemption letter and any statements or documents as prescribed by Revenue Procedure 80-27, 1980-1 CB 677 (June 20, 1980), and any successor guidance. See §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b).

(4) Notice of status filed under section 527(i). For purposes of this section, documents included in the term “notice of status filed under section 527(i)” include—

(i) Form 8871, “Political Organization Notice of Section 527 Status;”

(ii) Form 8453-X, “Declaration of Electronic Filing of Notice of Section 527 Status;” and

(iii) Any other additional forms or documents that the Internal Revenue Service may prescribe.

(f) Material open to public inspection under section 6110. Under section 6110, certain written determinations, including negative determinations issued to organizations that applied for an exemption from Federal income tax, issued by the Internal Revenue Service are made available for public inspection. Section 6110 does not apply, however, to material that is open to public inspection under section 6104. See sections 6104(a)(1) and 6110(l)(1).

(g) Supporting documents defined. For purposes of this section, “supporting documents,” with respect to an application for exemption from Federal income tax, means any statement or document not described in paragraph (e) of this section that is submitted by the organization or group in support of its application prior to a determination described in paragraph (a) of this section. Items submitted in connection with an application in draft form, or with an application submitted and later withdrawn, are not supporting documents. There are no supporting documents with respect to Notices of Status filed by political organizations.

(h) Statement of exempt status. For efficient tax administration, the Internal Revenue Service may publish, in paper or electronic format, the names of organizations currently recognized as exempt from Federal income tax, including organizations recognized as exempt from Federal income tax under particular paragraphs of section 501(c) or section 501(d). In addition to having the opportunity to inspect material relating to an organization exempt from Federal income tax, a person may request a statement, or the Internal Revenue Service may disclose, in response to or in anticipation of a request, the following information—

(1) The subsection and paragraph of section 501 (or the corresponding provision of any prior revenue law) under which the organization or group has been determined, on the basis of an application open to public inspection, to qualify for exemption from Federal income tax; and

(2) Whether an organization or group is currently recognized as exempt from Federal income tax.

(i) Publication of non-exempt status. (1) For publication of the notice of the revocation of a determination that an organization is described in section 501(c)(3), see section 7428(c).

(2) For publication of a list including any organization the tax exemption of which is revoked for failure to file required returns or notices for three consecutive years, see section 6033(j).

(3) For publication of notice of suspension of tax exemption of terrorist organizations, see section 501(p).

(j) Withholding of certain information from public inspection. For rules relating to certain information contained in an application for exemption from Federal income tax and supporting documents that will be withheld from public inspection, see §301.6104(a)-5(a).

(k) Procedures for inspection. For rules relating to procedures for public inspection of applications for exemption from Federal income tax and supporting documents, see §301.6104(a)-6.

(l) Effective/applicability date. The rules of this section apply February 29, 2012.

[T.D. 9581, 77 FR 12203, Feb. 29, 2012]

§301.6104(a)-2   Public inspection of material relating to pension and other plans.

(a) Material open to inspection. Except as provided in §301.6104(a)-4 with respect to plans having fewer than 26 participants, an application for a determination letter which is filed with the Internal Revenue Service after September 2, 1974, together with supporting documents filed by the applicant in support of the application, will be open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B) (i) and (ii). An application for a determination letter and supporting documents will be open to public inspection whether or not the application is withdrawn by the applicant, and whether or not the Internal Revenue Service determines that the plan, account, or annuity to which the application relates is qualified or that any related trust or custodial account is exempt from tax.

(b) Documents included in the term “application for a determination letter”—(1) Employees' plans and individual retirement plans. For purposes of this section, the term “application for a determination letter” includes the documents that an applicant files with respect to a request that the Internal Revenue Service determine the qualification of—

(i) A pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan under section 401(a),

(ii) An annuity plan under section 403(a),

(iii) A bond purchase plan under section 405(a), or

(iv) An individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 (a), (b) or (c).

(2) Tax exempt trusts or custodial accounts. The term “application for a determination letter” also includes the documents an applicant files with respect to a request that the Internal Revenue Service determine the exemption from tax under section 501(a) of an organization forming part of a plan or account described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, or a custodial account described in section 401(f).

(3) Master, prototype and pattern plans. The term “application for a determination letter” also includes documents which an applicant files with respect to a request for approval of a master, prototype, pattern or other such plan or account.

(4) Prescribed forms and application letters. With respect to an application for a determination letter described in this paragraph (b) for which an application form is prescribed, the application for a determination letter includes the form and all documents and statements required to be filed in connection with the form. With respect to an application for a determination letter for which no application form is prescribed, the application for a determination letter includes the application letter and all documents and statements the Internal Revenue Service requires to be submitted with the application letter.

(c) Documents not constituting an “application for a determination letter”. The following are not applications for a determination letter for purposes of this section:

(1) An incomplete application that is returned without action for proper completion,

(2) An application that is returned without action to the applicant for failure to notify all interested parties in accordance with the regulations under section 7476 (relating to declaratory judgments), and

(3) A request for a ruling as to whether a proposed transaction is a prohibited transaction under section 4975.

(d) Supporting documents. “Supporting documents”, as used with respect to an application for a determination letter which is open to public inspection under this section, means any statement or document submitted in support of the application which is not specifically required by the application form or the Internal Revenue Service. For example, a legal brief submitted in support of an application for a determination letter is a supporting document.

(e) Applicant. For purposes of this section, §301.6104(a)-3 (relating to Internal Revenue Service letters and documents open to public inspection) and §301.6104(a)-5 (relating to the withholding of certain information from public inspection), an “applicant” includes, but is not limited to, an employer, plan administrator (as defined in section 414(g)), labor union, bank, or insurance company that files an application for a determination letter.

(Secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[T.D. 7845, 47 FR 50487, Nov. 8, 1982]

§301.6104(a)-3   Public inspection of Internal Revenue Service letters and documents relating to pension and other plans.

(a) In general. Except as provided in §301.6104(a)-4 with respect to plans having fewer than 26 participants, a letter or other document issued by the Internal Revenue Service after September 2, 1974, is open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section, if it is issued with respect to—

(1) The qualification of a pension, profit-sharing or stock bonus plan under section 401(a), an annuity plan under section 403(a), a bond purchase plan under section 405(a), or an individual retirement account or annuity described in section 408 (a), (b) or (c),

(2) The exemption from tax under section 501(a) of an organization forming part of such a plan or account, or a custodial account described in section 401(f), or

(3) The approval of a master, prototype, pattern or other such plan or account.

(b) Scope. Internal Revenue Service letters and documents open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section are not limited to those issued in response to an application for a determination letter described in §301.6104(a)-2. They are, however, limited to those issued by the Internal Revenue Service to the person or organization which either did or could file an application for a determination letter for the plan, account or annuity to which the letter or document relates. If such a person or organization designates a representative having a power of attorney, however, then the letter or document will be open to inspection if issued to the representative. For rules relating to when a letter or document is issued, see §301.6110-2(h). Internal Revenue Service letters and documents are open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section whether or not the Internal Revenue Service determines that the plan, account or annuity to which the letter or document relates is qualified or that any related trust or custodial account is exempt from tax.

(c) Letters and documents open to public inspection. Internal Revenue Service letters and documents open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section include, but are not limited to:

(1) Determination letters relating to the qualification of a plan, account or annuity described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section (see §601.201 (o)),

(2) Technical advice memoranda (see §601.201(n)(9)) relating to the issuance of such determination letters,

(3) Technical advice memoranda relating to the continuing qualification of a plan, account or annuity previously determined to be qualified, or to the qualification of a plan, account or annuity for which no determination letter has been issued,

(4) Letters or documents revoking or modifying any prior favorable determination letter or denying the qualification of a plan, account or annuity for which no determination letter has been issued,

(5) Determination letters relating to the exemption from tax of a trust or custodial account described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section (see §601.201 (o)(2)(i)(b)), or

(6) Opinion letters relating to the acceptability of the form of any master, prototype or other such plan or account (see §601.201 (p) and (q)) or notification letters issued with respect to pattern plans.

(d) Extent letter or document open to public inspection. A letter or document issued by the Internal Revenue Service is open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section only to the extent it relates directly to the qualification of a plan, account or annuity, the exemption from tax of a related organization or custodial account, or the approval of a master, prototype, pattern or other such plan. Any part of the letter or document which does not directly relate to such a qualification, exemption or approval is not open to public inspection. For example, a letter to an employer which concludes that an employee's plan is not qualified and the related trust is not tax exempt will be open to public inspection. However, that same letter may also assert an income tax deficiency because employer contributions to the trust are, therefore, not deductible. In such a case, that part of the letter relating to the tax deficiency will be deleted before the letter is opened to public inspection.

(e) Letters or documents issued with respect to tax return examination. In the case of an examination of a taxpayer's return or consideration of a taxpayer's claim for credit or refund, no letter or document issued to the taxpayer before the preliminary or “30-day” letter described in §601.105(d)(1) is issued to the taxpayer will be open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section. The “30-day” letter and any statutory notice of deficiency subsequently issued to the taxpayer under section 6212 will be open to public inspection to the extent provided in paragraph (d) of this section. If any letter or document other than a statutory notice of deficiency is issued to the taxpayer after the “30-day” letter is issued, such letter or document will be open to inspection to the extent provided in paragraph (d) of this section only if it finally resolves or otherwise disposes of a plan qualification or tax exemption issue raised in the “30-day” letter.

(f) Letters or documents issued after September 2, 1974. Section 6104(a)(1)(B)(iv) and this section apply to letters or documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service after September 2, 1974, even though the relevant application for a determination letter or other initiating correspondence from the applicant was filed with the Internal Revenue Service before September 2, 1974.

(Secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[47 FR 7845, 47 FR 50487, Nov. 8, 1982]

§301.6104(a)-4   Requirement for 26 or more plan participants.

(a) Inspection by plan participants. In the case of a plan, annuity or account described in §301.6104(a)-2(b) and §301.6104(a)-3(a) that has fewer than 26 participants, material described in §§301.6104(a)-2 and 301.6104(a)-3 as open to public inspection is only open to inspection by a plan participant or the participant's authorized representative. This limitation does not apply, however, with respect to documents which an applicant files with respect to a request for approval of a master, prototype, pattern or other such plan (see §301.6104 (a)-2 (b)(3)) or to opinion, notification or other such letters issued by the Internal Revenue Service with respect to such plans (see §301.6104 (a)-3 (a)(3)).

(b) Determining number of plan participants—(1) In general. For purposes of determining whether a plan has fewer than 26 participants, the number of plan participants will be the number indicated on the most recent annual return filed for the plan under section 6058. Where an annual return indicates the number of participants both at the beginning and end of the plan year, the number indicated on the return means the number at the end of the plan year. If no annual return has been filed for the plan, then the number of plan participants will be the number indicated on the most recent application for a determination letter filed for the plan. If, however, the number of plan participants is increased prior to final Internal Revenue Service action on the application, the number of plan participants will be that increased number.

(2) Decreasing number of plan participants. If a plan having 26 or more participants, as indicated on an annual return or application for a determination letter, subsequently files an annual return indicating fewer than 26 plan participants, then material relating to the plan which is issued or received by the Internal Revenue Service after the date the annual return is filed will be open to inspection only by plan participants or their authorized representatives. Similarly, if a plan having 26 or more participants as indicated on an annual return or an application for a determination letter, subsequently files an application for a determination letter which indicates fewer than 26 plan participants, then that application and related material, as well as any other material relating to the plan which is received or issued by the Internal Revenue Service after the date of receipt of that application, will be open to inspection only by plan participants or their authorized representatives. In either case, material open to public inspection pursuant to the number of plan participants indicated on previous annual returns or applications for a determination letter will remain open to public inspection.

(3) Increasing number of plan participants. If a plan having fewer than 26 plan participants, as indicated on an annual return or application for a determination letter, files a subsequent return or application indicating 26 or more plan participants, all the plan's prior applications and other material received or issued by the Internal Revenue Service after September 2, 1974, will be open to public inspection regardless of the number of plan participants indicated on any prior return or application.

(c) Plan participant. Solely for purposes of determining who is a plan participant permitted to inspect material relating to a plan having fewer than 26 participants, the term “plan participant” includes, but is not limited to, former employees (such as certain retired and terminated employees) who have a nonforfeitable right to benefits under the plan. An individual who is merely a beneficiary of an employee or former employee is not a plan participant, unless the individual is a beneficiary of a deceased former employee and is receiving benefits or entitled to receive future benefits under the plan. The term “plan participant” also includes the administrator, executor, or trustee of the estate of a deceased plan participant if such administrator, executor, or trustee is receiving benefits or entitled to receive future benefits under the plan in his or her official capacity. That material may be available for inspection to an individual under this paragraph does not constitute a determination by the Internal Revenue Service that the individual is a plan participant for any purpose other than inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B).

(d) Authorized representative. “Authorized representative” means the representative of a plan participant designated by the participant in writing to inspect material described in §§301.6104(a)-2 and 301.6104(a)-3. The document designating the authorized representative must be signed by the plan participant and must specify that the representative is authorized to inspect the material. The document, or a copy, must be filed with the office of the Internal Revenue Service in which the authorized representative is to inspect the material. A copy which is reproduced by a photographic process need not be certified as a true and correct copy of the original.

(Secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[T.D. 7845, 47 FR 50488, Nov. 8, 1982]

§301.6104(a)-5   Withholding of certain information from public inspection.

(a) Tax exempt organizations—(1) Trade secrets, patents, processes, styles of work, or apparatus. An organization whose application for tax exemption is open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(A) and §301.6104(a)-1 may in writing request the withholding of information contained in the application or supporting documents which relates to any trade secret, patent, process, style of work, or apparatus of the organization. The information will be withheld from public inspection if the Commissioner determines that the disclosure of such information would adversely affect the organization. Requests for withholding information from public inspection should be filed with the office with which the organization files the documents containing the information. The request must clearly identify the material desired to be withheld (the document, page, paragraph, and line) and must state why the information should not be open to public inspection. The organization will be notified of the Commissioner's determination as to whether the information will be withheld from public inspection. If the Commissioner determines that the information will be disclosed, the organization will be given 15 days after notification of the Commissioner's decision to contest that decision before the document is disclosed.

(2) National defense material. The Internal Revenue Service will withhold from public inspection any information which is submitted by an organization whose application for tax exemption is open to inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(A) and §301.6104(a)-1, if the Commissioner determines that public disclosure would adversely affect the national defense.

(b) Pension and other plans—(1) Applicant's exclusion of certain information. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, information that, in the opinion of the applicant, is of the type described in section 6104(a)(1) (C) or (D) should not be included in an application for a determination letter, supporting documents, or any other document open to inspection under section 6104(a)(1)(B). Accordingly, an applicant should not include in an application for a determination letter or supporting documents confidential compensation information as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph. Neither should an applicant include information relating to any trade secret, patent, process, style of work or apparatus, the disclosure of which would be adverse to the applicant.

(2) Exception for separate document. The rule that an applicant should exclude from an application for a determination letter or other documents information of the type in section 6104(a)(1) (C) or (D) does not apply—

(i) In the case of the separate schedule to certain applications for a determination letter which is provided for the purpose of setting forth confidential compensation information (as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph) which must be submitted by the applicant.

(ii) If the applicant determines that it is impossible to provide the Internal Revenue Service with sufficient information to support an application for a determination letter without submitting what is believed to be information of the type described in section 6104(a)(1) (C) or (D), or

(iii) If the Internal Revenue Service requests that the applicant submit information of the type described in section 6104(a)(1) (C) and (D).

In a case described in subdivision (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph, the applicant is to set forth the information in a document separate from the remainder of the application for a determination letter or other documents. The separate document is to state why the information is to be witheld from public inspection under section 6104(a)(1) (C) or (D). If the Internal Revenue Service has not requested the information, the separate document is to also state why it is impossible to provide the Internal Revenue Service sufficient information to support the application for a determination letter without including information which is to be withheld. The separate document should clearly identify the relevant portion of the application for a determination letter or other document (the document, page, paragraph, and line) to which the information set forth in the separate document relates. The Internal Revenue Service will withhold from public inspection (including inspection by a plan participant or authorized representative) information contained in the separate document if the Commissioner determines that the information is in fact information of the type described in section 6104(a)(1) (C) or (D), and, in the case of information relating to any trade secret, patent, process, style of work or apparatus, the Commissioner further determines that disclosure would be adverse to the applicant. If the Commissioner determines that the information will be disclosed, the organization will be given 15 days after notification of the Commissioner's decision to contest the decision before the document is disclosed.

(3) National defense material. The Internal Revenue Service will withhold from public inspection (including inspection by a plan participant or authorized representative) any information which is included in an application for a determination letter or supporting documents if the Commissioner determines that public disclosure would adversely affect the national defense. The information will be withheld whether or not submitted on a separate document pursuant to subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(4) Confidential compensation information. If an application for a determination letter, supporting document, or related letter or document referred to in section 6104(a)(1)(B) and §§301.6104(a)-2 and 301.6104(a)-3 contains information (including aggregate figures) from which an individual's compensation (including deferred compensation) may be ascertained, that information is not open to public inspection (including inspection by a plan participant or authorized representative). Confidential compensation information includes the amount of benefit a specific plan participant may expect to receive at normal or early retirement age and the amount of the employer's contributions under the plan that may be allocated to a specific plan participant. However, so long as a plan has more than one participant, the amount of benefit provided under the plan to plan participants, in general, at normal or early retirement age, or the amount of the employer's contributions under the plan that are allocable to plan participants, in general, does not constitute confidential compensation information. Further, a description of the numbers of individuals covered and not covered by a plan, listed by compensation range, does not constitute confidential compensation information.

(Secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[T.D. 7845, 47 FR 50489, Nov. 8, 1982]

§301.6104(a)-6   Procedural rules for inspection.

(a) Place of inspection; tax exempt organizations and pension and other plans. Material relating either to tax exempt organizations or to pension and other plans that is open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1) and §301.6104(a)-1 through §301.6104(a)-3 will be made available for inspection at the Freedom of Information Reading Room, National Office, Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, D.C. 20224, and in the office of any district director of internal revenue.

(b) Request for inspection—(1) Tax exempt organizations and pension and other plans; public inspection. Material relating to either tax exempt organizations or pension and other plans that is open to public inspection under section 6104(a)(1) and §§301.6104(a)-1 through §301.6104(a)-3 will be available for inspection only upon request. If inspection at the National Office is desired, a request should be made in writing to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Attention: Freedom of Information Reading Room, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 20224. Requests for inspection in the office of a district director should be made in writing to the district director's office. The request must describe the material to be inspected in reasonably sufficient detail so that Internal Revenue Service personnel can locate the material. If a tax-exempt organization has more than one application for tax exemption open to public inspection, or if a pension or other plan has more than one application for a determination letter open to public inspection, only the most recent application and related material will be made available for inspection unless the request states otherwise. Further, in the case of a pension or other plan, only Internal Revenue Service documents issued or delivered after the date of the filing of the most recent application for a determination letter will be made available for inspection, unless the request states otherwise.

(2) Pension and other plans; inspection by plan participant or authorized representative. As described in §301.6104(a)-4, material relating to plans having fewer than 26 participants is only open to inspection by a plan participant or authorized representative. In the case of such a plan, the rules described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph apply. The request for inspection must include satisfactory evidence that the person requesting inspection is a plan participant (see §301.6104(a)-4(c)) or an authorized representative of such a plan participant within the meaning of §301.6104(a)-4(d).

(c) Time and extent of inspection. A person requesting inspection will be notified when the material will be made available for inspection. The material will be made available for inspection at times that will not interfere with its use by the Internal Revenue Service or exclude other persons from inspecting it. In addition, the Commissioner or district director may limit the number of applications for tax exemption, applications for a determination letter, supporting documents, or letters and documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service that will be made available to any person for inspection on a given date. Inspection will be allowed only in the presence of an Internal Revenue Service employee and only during regular business hours.

(d) Copies. Notes may be taken of the material open for inspection. Copies may be made manually or, if a person provides the equipment, photographically at the place of inspection. Photographic copying is subject to reasonable supervision with regard to the facilities and equipment used. Any fees the Internal Revenue Service may charge for furnishing copies under this section shall be no more than under the fee schedule promulgated pursuant to section (a)(4)(A)(i) of the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, by the Commissioner from time to time. Copies will be certified upon request.

(Secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[T.D. 7845, 47 FR 50490, Nov. 8, 1982, as amended by T.D. 9070, 68 FR 40769, July 9, 2003]

§301.6104(b)-1   Publicity of information on certain information returns.

(a) In general. The following information, together with the name and address of the organization or trust furnishing such information, shall be a matter of public record:

(1) Except as otherwise provided in section 6104 and the regulations thereunder, the information required by section 6033.

(2) The information furnished pursuant to section 6034 (relating to returns by certain trusts) on Form 1041-A.

(3) The information required to be furnished by section 6058.

(b) Nondisclosure of certain information—(1) Names and addresses of contributors. The names and addresses of contributors to an organization other than a private foundation shall not be made available for public inspection under section 6104(b).

(2) Amounts of contributions. The amounts of contributions and bequests to an organization shall be available for public inspection unless the disclosure of such information can reasonably be expected to identify any contributor. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the amounts of contributions and bequests to a private foundation shall be available for public inspection.

(3) Foreign organizations. The names, addresses, and amounts of contributions or bequests of persons who are not citizens of the United States to a foreign organization described in section 4948(b) shall not be made available for public inspection under section 6104(b).

(4) Confidential business information. Confidential business information of contributors to any trust described in section 501(c)(21) (black lung trusts) shall not be available for public inspection under section 6104(b) provided:

(i) A request if filed with the office with which the trustee filed the documents in which the information to be withheld is contained.

(ii) Such request clearly specifies the information to be withheld and the reasons supporting the request for withholding, and

(iii) The Commissioner determines that such information is confidential business information.

Information such as the contributor's estimated total liability for black lung benefits, the contributor's coal pricing policies, or any background information necessary to establish estimated total liability or coal pricing policies are examples of confidential business information that shall not be disclosed to the public under this subparagraph.

(c) Place of inspection. Information furnished on the public portion of returns (as described in paragraph (a) of this section) shall be made available for public inspection at the Freedom of Information Reading Room. Internal Revenue Service, 1111 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, D.C. 20224, and at the office of any district director.

(d) Procedure for public inspection—(1) Requests for inspection. Information furnished on the public portion of returns (as described in paragraph (a) of this section) shall be available for public inspection only upon request. Requests for public inspection must be in writing to or at any of the offices mentioned in paragraph (c) of this section. Persons submitting requests for inspection must provide the name and address of the organization that filed the return, the type of return, and the year for which the organization filed.

(2) Time and extent of inspection. A person requesting public inspection in the manner specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall be notified by the Internal Revenue Service when the material he desires to inspect will be made available for his inspection. Information on returns required by sections 6033, 6034, and 6058 will be made available for public inspection at such reasonable and proper times, and under such conditions, that will not interfere with their use by the Internal Revenue Service and will not exclude other persons from inspecting them. In addition the Commissioner, Director of the Service Center, or district director may limit the number of returns to be made available to any person for inspection on a given date. Inspection will be allowed only in the presence of an internal revenue officer or employee and only during the regular hours of business of the Internal Revenue Service office.

(3) Returns available. Returns filed before January 1, 1970, shall be available for public inspection only pursuant to the provisions of section 6104 in effect for such years. The information furnished on all returns filed after December 31, 1969, purusant to the requirements of section 6033, 6034, or 6058, shall be available for public inspection in accordance with the provisions of section 6104.

(4) Copies. Notes may be taken of the material opened for inspection under this section. Copies may be made manually or, if a person provides the equipment, photographically at the place of inspection, subject to reasonable supervision with regard to the facilities and equipment to be employed. Copies of the material opened for inspection will be furnished by the Internal Revenue Service to any person making request therefor. Requests for such copies shall be made in the same manner as requests for inspection (see subparagraph (1) of this paragraph) to the office of the Internal Revenue Service in which such material is available for inspection as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. Copies may also be obtained by written request to the director of any service center. If made at the time of inspection, the request for copies need not be in writing. Any copies furnished will be certified upon request. Any fees the Internal Revenue Service may charge for furnishing copies under this section shall be no more than under the fee schedule promulgated pursuant to section (a)(4)(A)(i) of the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, by the Commissioner from time to time.

[T.D. 8026, 50 FR 20757, May 20, 1985, as amended by T.D. 9070, 68 FR 40769, July 9, 2003]

§301.6104(c)-1   Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

(a) Notification of determinations—(1) Automatic notification. Upon making a determination described in paragraph (c) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service will notify the Attorney General and the principal tax officer of each of the following States of such determination without application or request by such State officer—

(i) In the case of any organization described in section 501(c)(3), the State in which the principal office of the organization is located (as shown on the last-filed return required by section 6033, or on the application for exemption if no return has been filed), and the State in which the organization was incorporated, or if a trust, in which it was created, and

(ii) In the case of a private foundation, each State which the organization was required to list as an attachment to its last-filed return pursuant to §1.6033-2(a)(2)(iv).

(2) Applications for notification by other State officers. Other officers of States described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, and officers of States not described in such subparagraph, may request that they be notified (either generally or with respect to a particular organization or type of organization) of determinations described in paragraph (c) of this section. In such cases, these State officers must show that they are appropriate State officers within the meaning of section 6104(c)(2). The required showing may be made by presenting a letter from the Attorney General of the State setting forth (i) the functions and authority of the State officer under State law, and (ii) sufficient facts for the Internal Revenue Service to determine that such officer is an appropriate State officer within the meaning of section 6104(c)(2).

(3) Manner of notification. A State officer who is entitled to be notified of a determination under this paragraph will be notified by sending him a copy of the communication from the Internal Revenue Service to the organization which informs such organization of the determination.

(b) Inspection by State officers—(1) In general. After a determination described in paragraph (c) of this section has been made, appropriate State officers within the meaning of section 6104(c)(2) may inspect the material described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. Such material may be inspected at an office of the Internal Revenue Service which will be designated upon receipt of a request for inspection; the location of such office will be determined with due consideration of the needs of the Internal Revenue Service and the needs of the State officer entitled to inspect.

(2) State officers who may inspect material. Any State officer entitled to be notified of a determination without application (under paragraph (a)(1) of this section) may inspect the material described in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph upon demonstrating that he is so entitled. Any State officer who has in fact been notified by the Internal Revenue Service of a determination may inspect such material without further demonstration, unless it shall be determined by the Internal Revenue Service that such officer was not entitled to be so notified. Other State officers must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Internal Revenue Service that they are entitled to be notified under paragraph (a)(2) of this section before they may inspect such material.

(3) Material which may be inspected. (i) Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, a State officer who is so entitled under subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph will be permitted to inspect and copy all returns, filed statements, records, reports, and other information relating to a determination described in paragraph (c) of this section which is relevant to a determination under State law, and which is in the hands of the Internal Revenue Service.

(ii) The following material will not be made available for inspection by State officers under section 6104(c) and this section—

(a) Interpretations by the Internal Revenue Service or other federal agency of federal laws (including the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and its predecessors) which would not otherwise be made available to State officers under section 6103(d),

(b) Reports of informers, or any other material which would disclose the identity, or threaten the safety or anonymity, of an informer,

(c) Returns of persons (other than those exempt from taxation) which would not be available under section 6103(d) to the State officer requesting inspection, or

(d) Other material the disclosure of which the Commissioner has determined would prejudice the proper administration of the internal revenue laws.

(4) Statement by State officer. Before any State officer will be permitted to inspect material described in this paragraph, he must submit a statement to the Internal Revenue Service that he intends to use such material solely in fulfilling his functions under State law relating to organizations of the type described in section 501(c)(3); material is made available to State officers under this section in reliance on such statements. For provisions relating to penalties for misuse of information which is made available under section 6104(c) and this section, see 18 U.S.C. 1001.

(c) Determinations defined. For purposes of this section, a determination means a final determination by the Internal Revenue Service that—

(1) An organization is refused recognition as an organization described in section 501(c)(3), or has been operated in such a manner that it will not, or will no longer, be recognized as meeting the requirements for exemption under that section, or

(2) A deficiency of tax exists under section 507 or chapter 41 or 42.

For purposes of this paragraph, a determination by the Internal Revenue Service is not final until all administrative review with respect to such determination has been completed. For purposes of this section, a waiver of restrictions on assessment and collection of deficiency in tax is treated as a final determination that a deficiency of tax exists when such waiver has been finally accepted by the Internal Revenue Service. For example, a final determination that a deficiency of tax exists under section 507 or chapter 41 or 42 is made when the organization is sent a notice of deficiency with respect to such tax.

(d) Effective date. The provisions of this section apply with respect to all determinations made after December 31, 1969.

(Secs. 6033(a)(1), 6104(b), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (83 Stat. 519, 68A Stat. 755 as amended by 83 Stat. 530, and 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6033(a)(1), 6104(b), and 7805); secs. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), and 7805 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (72 Stat. 1660, 88 Stat. 940, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6104(a)(1)(A), 6104(a)(1)(B), 7805))

[T.D. 7122, 36 FR 11031, June 8, 1971, as amended by T.D. 7290, 38 FR 31835, Nov. 19, 1973; T.D. 7785, 46 FR 38508, July 28, 1981. Redesignated by T.D. 7845, 47 FR 50490, Nov. 8, 1982]

§301.6104(d)-0   Table of contents.

This section lists the major captions contained in §§301.6104(d)-1 through 301.6104(d)-3 as follows:

§301.6104(d)-1   Public inspection and distribution of applications for tax exemption and annual information returns of tax-exempt organizations.

(a) In general.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Tax-exempt organization.

(2) Private foundation.

(3) Application for tax exemption.

(i) In general.

(ii) No prescribed application form.

(iii) Exceptions.

(iv) Local or subordinate organizations.

(4) Annual information return.

(i) In general.

(ii) Exceptions.

(iii) Returns more than 3 years old.

(iv) Local or subordinate organizations.

(5) Regional or district offices.

(i) In general.

(ii) Site not considered a regional or district office.

(c) Special rules relating to public inspection.

(1) Permissible conditions on public inspection.

(2) Organizations that do not maintain permanent offices.

(d) Special rules relating to copies.

(1) Time and place for providing copies in response to requests made in person.

(i) In general.

(ii) Unusual circumstances.

(iii) Agents for providing copies.

(2) Request for copies in writing.

(i) In general.

(ii) Time and manner of fulfilling written requests.

(A) In general.

(B) Request for a copy of parts of document.

(C) Agents for providing copies.

(3) Fees for copies.

(i) In general.

(ii) Form of payment.

(A) Request made in person.

(B) Request made in writing.

(iii) Avoidance of unexpected fees.

(iv) Responding to inquiries of fees charged.

(e) Documents to be provided by regional and district offices.

(f) Documents to be provided by local and subordinate organizations.

(1) Applications for tax exemption.

(2) Annual information returns.

(3) Failure to comply.

(g) Failure to comply with public inspection or copying requirements.

(h) Effective date.

(1) In general.

(2) Private foundation annual information returns.

§301.6104(d)-2   Making applications and returns widely available.

(a) In general.

(b) Widely available.

(1) In general.

(2) Internet posting.

(i) In general.

(ii) Transition rule.

(iii) Reliability and accuracy.

(c) Discretion to prescribe other methods for making documents widely available.

(d) Notice requirement.

(e) Effective date.

§301.6104(d)-3   Tax-exempt organization subject to harassment campaign.

(a) In general.

(b) Harassment.

(c) Special rule for multiple requests from a single individual or address.

(d) Harassment determination procedure.

(e) Effect of a harassment determination.

(f) Examples.

(g) Effective date.

[T.D. 8861, 65 FR 2033, Jan. 13, 2000]

§301.6104(d)-1   Public inspection and distribution of applications for tax exemption and annual information returns of tax-exempt organizations.

(a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section, if a tax-exempt organization (as defined in paragraph (b)(1) of this section) filed an application for recognition of exemption under section 501, it shall make its application for tax exemption (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) available for public inspection without charge at its principal, regional and district offices during regular business hours. Except as otherwise provided in this section, a tax-exempt organization shall make its annual information returns (as defined in paragraph (b)(4) of this section) available for public inspection without charge in the same offices during regular business hours. Each annual information return shall be made available for a period of three years beginning on the date the return is required to be filed (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing) or is actually filed, whichever is later. In addition, except as provided in §§301.6104(d)-2 and 301.6104(d)-3, an organization shall provide a copy without charge, other than a reasonable fee for reproduction and actual postage costs, of all or any part of any application or return required to be made available for public inspection under this paragraph to any individual who makes a request for such copy in person or in writing. See paragraph (d)(3) of this section for rules relating to fees for copies.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of applying the provisions of section 6104(d), this section and §§301.6104(d)-2 and 301.6104(d)-3, the following definitions apply:

(1) Tax-exempt organization. The term tax-exempt organization means any organization that is described in section 501(c) or section 501(d) and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a). The term tax-exempt organization also includes any nonexempt charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) or nonexempt private foundation that is subject to the reporting requirements of section 6033 pursuant to section 6033(d).

(2) Private foundation. The term private foundation means a private foundation as defined in section 509(a) or a nonexempt charitable trust described in section 4947(a)(1) or a nonexempt private foundation subject to the information reporting requirements of section 6033 pursuant to section 6033(d).

(3) Application for tax exemption—(i) In general. Except as described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, the term application for tax exemption includes any prescribed application form (such as Form 1023 or Form 1024), all documents and statements the Internal Revenue Service requires an applicant to file with the form, any statement or other supporting document submitted by an organization in support of its application, and any letter or other document issued by the Internal Revenue Service concerning the application (such as a favorable determination letter or a list of questions from the Internal Revenue Service about the application). For example, a legal brief submitted in support of an application, or a response to questions from the Internal Revenue Service during the application process, is part of an application for tax exemption.

(ii) No prescribed application form. If no form is prescribed for an organization's application for tax exemption, the application for tax exemption includes—

(A) The application letter and copy of the articles of incorporation, declaration of trust, or other similar instrument that sets forth the permitted powers or activities of the organization;

(B) The organization's bylaws or other code of regulations;

(C) The organization's latest financial statements showing assets, liabilities, receipts and disbursements;

(D) Statements describing the character of the organization, the purpose for which it was organized, and its actual activities;

(E) Statements showing the sources of the organization's income and receipts and their disposition; and

(F) Any other statements or documents the Internal Revenue Service required the organization to file with, or that the organization submitted in support of, the application letter.

(iii) Exceptions. The term application for tax exemption does not include—

(A) Any application for tax exemption filed by an organization that the Internal Revenue Service has not yet recognized, on the basis of the application, as exempt from taxation under section 501 for any taxable year;

(B) Any application for tax exemption filed before July 15, 1987, unless the organization filing the application had a copy of the application on July 15, 1987;

(C) In the case of a tax-exempt organization other than a private foundation, the name and address of any contributor to the organization; or

(D) Any material, including the material listed in §301.6104(a)-1(i) and information that the Secretary would be required to withhold from public inspection, that is not available for public inspection under section 6104.

(iv) Local or subordinate organizations. For rules relating to applications for tax exemption of local or subordinate organizations, see paragraph (f)(1) of this section.

(4) Annual information return—(i) In general. Except as described in paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section, the term annual information return includes an exact copy of any return filed by a tax-exempt organization pursuant to section 6033. It also includes any amended return the organization files with the Internal Revenue Service after the date the original return is filed. Returns filed pursuant to section 6033 include Form 990, Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax, Form 990-PF, Return of Private Foundation, or any other version of Form 990 (such as Forms 990-EZ or 990-BL, except Form 990-T) and Form 1065. Each copy of a return must include all information furnished to the Internal Revenue Service on the return, as well as all schedules, attachments and supporting documents. For example, in the case of a Form 990, the copy must include Schedule A of Form 990 (containing supplementary information on section 501(c)(3) organizations), and those parts of the return that show compensation paid to specific persons (currently, Part V of Form 990 and Parts I and II of Schedule A of Form 990).

(ii) Exceptions. The term annual information return does not include Schedule A of Form 990-BL, Form 990-T, Exempt Organization Business Income Tax Return, Schedule K-1 of Form 1065 or Form 1120-POL, U.S. Income Tax Return For Certain Political Organizations. In the case of a tax-exempt organization other than a private foundation, the term annual information return does not include the name and address of any contributor to the organization.

(iii) Returns more than 3 years old. The term annual information return does not include any return after the expiration of 3 years from the date the return is required to be filed (including any extension of time that has been granted for filing such return) or is actually filed, whichever is later. If an organization files an amended return, however, the amended return must be made available for a period of 3 years beginning on the date it is filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

(iv) Local or subordinate organizations. For rules relating to annual information returns of local or subordinate organizations, see paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(5) Regional or district offices—(i) In general. A regional or district office is any office of a tax-exempt organization, other than its principal office, that has paid employees, whether part-time or full-time, whose aggregate number of paid hours a week are normally at least 120.

(ii) Site not considered a regional or district office. A site is not considered a regional or district office, however, if—

(A) The only services provided at the site further exempt purposes (such as day care, health care or scientific or medical research); and

(B) The site does not serve as an office for management staff, other than managers who are involved solely in managing the exempt function activities at the site.

(c) Special rules relating to public inspection—(1) Permissible conditions on public inspection. A tax-exempt organization may have an employee present in the room during an inspection. The organization, however, must allow the individual conducting the inspection to take notes freely during the inspection. If the individual provides photocopying equipment at the place of inspection, the organization must allow the individual to photocopy the document at no charge.

(2) Organizations that do not maintain permanent offices. If a tax-exempt organization does not maintain a permanent office, the organization shall comply with the public inspection requirements of paragraph (a) of this section by making its application for tax exemption and its annual information returns, as applicable, available for inspection at a reasonable location of its choice. Such an organization shall permit public inspection within a reasonable amount of time after receiving a request for inspection (normally not more than 2 weeks) and at a reasonable time of day. At the organization's option, it may mail, within 2 weeks of receiving the request, a copy of its application for tax exemption and annual information returns to the requester in lieu of allowing an inspection. The organization may charge the requester for copying and actual postage costs only if the requester consents to the charge. An organization that has a permanent office, but has no office hours or very limited hours during certain times of the year, shall make its documents available during those periods when office hours are limited or not available as though it were an organization without a permanent office.

(d) Special rules relating to copies—(1) Time and place for providing copies in response to requests made in-person—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section, a tax-exempt organization shall provide copies of the documents it is required to provide under section 6104(d) in response to a request made in person at its principal, regional and district offices during regular business hours. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, an organization shall provide such copies to a requester on the day the request is made.

(ii) Unusual circumstances. In the case of an in-person request, where unusual circumstances exist such that fulfilling the request on the same business day places an unreasonable burden on the tax-exempt organization, the organization must provide the copies no later than the next business day following the day that the unusual circumstances cease to exist or the fifth business day after the date of the request, whichever occurs first. Unusual circumstances include, but are not limited to, receipt of a volume of requests that exceeds the organization's daily capacity to make copies; requests received shortly before the end of regular business hours that require an extensive amount of copying; or requests received on a day when the organization's managerial staff capable of fulfilling the request is conducting special duties, such as student registration or attending an off-site meeting or convention, rather than its regular administrative duties.

(iii) Agents for providing copies. A principal, regional or district office of a tax-exempt organization subject to the requirements of this section may retain a local agent to process requests made in person for copies of its documents. A local agent must be located within reasonable proximity of the applicable office. A local agent that receives a request made in person for copies must provide the copies within the time limits and under the conditions that apply to the organization itself. For example, a local agent generally must provide a copy to a requester on the day the agent receives the request. When a principal, regional or district office of a tax-exempt organization using a local agent receives a request made in person for a copy, it must immediately provide the name, address and telephone number of the local agent to the requester. An organization that provides this information is not required to respond further to the requester. However, the penalty provisions of sections 6652(c)(1)(C), 6652(c)(1)(D), and 6685 continue to apply to the tax-exempt organization if the organization's local agent fails to provide the documents as required under section 6104(d).

(2) Request for copies in writing—(i) In general. A tax-exempt organization must honor a written request for a copy of documents (or the requested part) that the organization is required to provide under section 6104(d) if the request—

(A) Is addressed to, and delivered by mail, electronic mail, facsimile, or a private delivery service as defined in section 7502(f) to a principal, regional or district office of the organization; and

(B) Sets forth the address to which the copy of the documents should be sent.

(ii) Time and manner of fulfilling written requests—(A) In general. A tax-exempt organization receiving a written request for a copy shall mail the copy of the requested documents (or the requested parts of documents) within 30 days from the date it receives the request. However, if a tax-exempt organization requires payment in advance, it is only required to provide the copies within 30 days from the date it receives payment. For rules relating to payment, see paragraph (d)(3) of this section. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, a request or payment that is mailed shall be deemed to be received by an organization 7 days after the date of the postmark. A request that is transmitted to the organization by electronic mail or facsimile shall be deemed received the day the request is transmitted successfully. If an organization requiring payment in advance receives a written request without payment or with an insufficient payment, the organization must, within 7 days from the date it receives the request, notify the requester of its prepayment policy and the amount due. A copy is deemed provided on the date of the postmark or private delivery mark (or if sent by certified or registered mail, the date of registration or the date of the postmark on the sender's receipt). If an individual making a request consents, a tax-exempt organization may provide a copy of the requested document exclusively by electronic mail. In such case, the material is provided on the date the organization successfully transmits the electronic mail.

(B) Request for a copy of parts of document. A tax-exempt organization must fulfill a request for a copy of the organization's entire application for tax exemption or annual information return or any specific part or schedule of its application or return. A request for a copy of less than the entire application or less than the entire return must specifically identify the requested part or schedule.

(C) Agents for providing copies. A tax-exempt organization subject to the requirements of this section may retain an agent to process written requests for copies of its documents. The agent shall provide the copies within the time limits and under the conditions that apply to the organization itself. For example, if the organization received the request first (e.g., before the agent), the deadline for providing a copy in response to a request shall be determined by reference to when the organization received the request, not when the agent received the request. An organization that transfers a request for a copy to such an agent is not required to respond further to the request. If the organization's agent fails to provide the documents as required under section 6104(d), however, the penalty provisions of sections 6652(c)(1)(C), 6652(c)(1)(D), and 6685 continue to apply to the tax-exempt organization.

(3) Fees for copies—(i) In general. A tax-exempt organization may charge a reasonable fee for providing copies. A fee is reasonable only if it is no more than the total of the applicable per-page copying charge prescribed by the fee schedule promulgated pursuant to section (a)(4)(A)(i) of the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C. 552, by the Commissioner from time to time, and the actual postage costs incurred by the organization to send the copies. The applicable per-page copying charge shall be determined without regard to any applicable fee exclusion provided in the fee schedule for an initial or de minimis number of pages (e.g., the first 100 pages). Before the organization provides the documents, it may require that the individual requesting copies of the documents pay the fee. If the organization has provided an individual making a request with notice of the fee, and the individual does not pay the fee within 30 days, or if the individual pays the fee by check and the check does not clear upon deposit, the organization may disregard the request.

(ii) Form of payment—(A) Request made in person. If a tax-exempt organization charges a fee for copying (as permitted under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section), it shall accept payment by cash and money order for requests made in person. The organization may accept other forms of payment, such as credit cards and personal checks.

(B) Request made in writing. If a tax-exempt organization charges a fee for copying and postage (as permitted under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section), it shall accept payment by certified check, money order, and either personal check or credit card for requests made in writing. The organization may accept other forms of payment.

(iii) Avoidance of unexpected fees. Where a tax-exempt organization does not require prepayment and a requester does not enclose payment with a request, an organization must receive consent from a requester before providing copies for which the fee charged for copying and postage exceeds $20.

(iv) Responding to inquiries of fees charged. In order to facilitate a requester's ability to receive copies promptly, a tax-exempt organization shall respond to any questions from potential requesters concerning its fees for copying and postage. For example, the organization shall inform the requester of its charge for copying and mailing its application for exemption and each annual information return, with and without attachments, so that a requester may include payment with the request for copies.

(e) Documents to be provided by regional and district offices. Except as otherwise provided, a regional or district office of a tax-exempt organization must satisfy the same rules as the principal office with respect to allowing public inspection and providing copies of its application for tax exemption and annual information returns. A regional or district office is not required, however, to make its annual information return available for inspection or to provide copies until 30 days after the date the return is required to be filed (including any extension of time that is granted for filing such return) or is actually filed, whichever is later.

(f) Documents to be provided by local and subordinate organizations—(1) Applications for tax exemption. Except as otherwise provided, a tax-exempt organization that did not file its own application for tax exemption (because it is a local or subordinate organization covered by a group exemption letter referred to in §1.508-1 of this chapter) must, upon request, make available for public inspection, or provide copies of, the application submitted to the Internal Revenue Service by the central or parent organization to obtain the group exemption letter and those documents which were submitted by the central or parent organization to include the local or subordinate organization in the group exemption letter. However, if the central or parent organization submits to the Internal Revenue Service a list or directory of local or subordinate organizations covered by the group exemption letter, the local or subordinate organization is required to provide only the application for the group exemption ruling and the pages of the list or directory that specifically refer to it. The local or subordinate organization shall permit public inspection, or comply with a request for copies made in person, within a reasonable amount of time (normally not more than 2 weeks) after receiving a request made in person for public inspection or copies and at a reasonable time of day. In a case where the requester seeks inspection, the local or subordinate organization may mail a copy of the applicable documents to the requester within the same time period in lieu of allowing an inspection. In such a case, the organization may charge the requester for copying and actual postage costs only if the requester consents to the charge. If the local or subordinate organization receives a written request for a copy of its application for tax exemption, it must fulfill the request in the time and manner specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. The requester has the option of requesting from the central or parent organization, at its principal office, inspection or copies of the application for group exemption and the material submitted by the central or parent organization to include a local or subordinate organization in the group ruling. If the central or parent organization submits to the Internal Revenue Service a list or directory of local or subordinate organizations covered by the group exemption letter, it must make such list or directory available for public inspection, but it is required to provide copies only of those pages of the list or directory that refer to particular local or subordinate organizations specified by the requester. The central or parent organization must fulfill such requests in the time and manner specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(2) Annual information returns. A local or subordinate organization that does not file its own annual information return (because it is affiliated with a central or parent organization that files a group return pursuant to §1.6033-2(d) of this chapter) must, upon request, make available for public inspection, or provide copies of, the group returns filed by the central or parent organization. However, if the group return includes separate schedules with respect to each local or subordinate organization included in the group return, the local or subordinate organization receiving the request may omit any schedules relating only to other organizations included in the group return. The local or subordinate organization shall permit public inspection, or comply with a request for copies made in person, within a reasonable amount of time (normally not more than 2 weeks) after receiving a request made in person for public inspection or copies and at a reasonable time of day. In a case where the requester seeks inspection, the local or subordinate organization may mail a copy of the applicable documents to the requester within the same time period in lieu of allowing an inspection. In such a case, the organization may charge the requester for copying and actual postage costs only if the requester consents to the charge. If the local or subordinate organization receives a written request for a copy of its annual information return, it must fulfill the request by providing a copy of the group return in the time and manner specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. The requester has the option of requesting from the central or parent organization, at its principal office, inspection or copies of group returns filed by the central or parent organization. The central or parent organization must fulfill such requests in the time and manner specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section.

(3) Failure to comply. If an organization fails to comply with the requirements specified in this paragraph, the penalty provisions of sections 6652(c)(1)(C), 6652(c)(1)(D), and 6685 apply.

(g) Failure to comply with public inspection or copying requirements. If a tax-exempt organization denies an individual's request for inspection or a copy of an application for tax exemption or an annual information return as required under this section, and the individual wants to alert the Internal Revenue Service to the possible need for enforcement action, the individual may provide a statement to the district director for the key district in which the applicable tax-exempt organization's principal office is located (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) that describes the reason why the individual believes the denial was in violation of the requirements of section 6104(d).

(h) Effective date—(1) In general. For a tax-exempt organization, other than a private foundation, this section is applicable June 8, 1999. For a private foundation, this section is applicable (except as provided in paragraph (h)(2) of this section) beginning March 13, 2000.

(2) Private foundation annual information returns. This section does not apply to any private foundation return the due date for which (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing) is before the applicable date for private foundations specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section.

[T.D. 8818, 64 FR 17285, Apr. 9, 1999. Redesignated and amended by T.D. 8861, 65 FR 2033, 2034, Jan. 13, 2000, as amended by T.D. 9070, 68 FR 40769, July 9, 2003]

§301.6104(d)-2   Making applications and returns widely available.

(a) In general. A tax-exempt organization is not required to comply with a request for a copy of its application for tax exemption or an annual information return pursuant to §301.6104(d)-1(a) if the organization has made the requested document widely available in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. An organization that makes its application for tax exemption and/or annual information return widely available must nevertheless make the document available for public inspection as required under §301.6104(d)-1(a), as applicable.

(b) Widely available—(1) In general. A tax-exempt organization makes its application for tax exemption and/or an annual information return widely available if the organization complies with the requirements specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, and if the organization satisfies the requirements of paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Internet posting—(i) In general. A tax-exempt organization can make its application for tax exemption and/or an annual information return widely available by posting the document on a World Wide Web page that the tax-exempt organization establishes and maintains or by having the document posted, as part of a database of similar documents of other tax-exempt organizations, on a World Wide Web page established and maintained by another entity. The document will be considered widely available only if—

(A) the World Wide Web page through which it is available clearly informs readers that the document is available and provides instructions for downloading it;

(B) the document is posted in a format that, when accessed, downloaded, viewed and printed in hard copy, exactly reproduces the image of the application for tax exemption or annual information return as it was originally filed with the Internal Revenue Service, except for any information permitted by statute to be withheld from public disclosure. (See section 6104(d)(3) and §301.6104(d)-3(b)(3) and (4)); and

(C) any individual with access to the Internet can access, download, view and print the document without special computer hardware or software required for that format (other than software that is readily available to members of the public without payment of any fee) and without payment of a fee to the tax-exempt organization or to another entity maintaining the World Wide Web page.

(ii) Transition rule. A tax-exempt organization that posted its application for tax exemption or its annual information returns on a World Wide Web page on or before April 9, 1999 in a manner consistent with regulation project REG-246250-96 (1997 C.B. 627) (See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.) will be treated as satisfying the requirements of paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B) & (C) of this section until June 8, 2000 provided that an individual can access, download, view and print the document without payment of a fee to the tax-exempt organization or to another entity maintaining the World Wide Web page.

(iii) Reliability and accuracy. In order for the document to be widely available through an Internet posting, the entity maintaining the World Wide Web page must have procedures for ensuring the reliability and accuracy of the document that it posts on the page and must take reasonable precautions to prevent alteration, destruction or accidental loss of the document when posted on its page. In the event that a posted document is altered, destroyed or lost, the entity must correct or replace the document.

(c) Discretion to prescribe other methods for making documents widely available. The Commissioner, from time to time, may prescribe additional methods, other than an Internet posting meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, that a tax-exempt organization may use to make its documents widely available.

(d) Notice requirement. If a tax-exempt organization has made its application for tax exemption and/or an annual information return widely available it must notify any individual requesting a copy where the documents are available (including the address on the World Wide Web, if applicable). If the request is made in person, the organization shall provide such notice to the individual immediately. If the request is made in writing, the notice shall be provided within 7 days of receiving the request.

(e) Effective date. For a tax-exempt organization, other than a private foundation, this section is applicable June 8, 1999. For a private foundation, this section is applicable beginning March 13, 2000.

[T.D. 8818, 64 FR 17285, Apr. 9, 1999. Redesignated and amended by T.D. 8861, 65 FR 2034, Jan. 13, 2000]

§301.6104(d)-3   Tax-exempt organization subject to harassment campaign.

(a) In general. If the district director for the key district in which the organization's principal office is located (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) determines that the organization is the subject of a harassment campaign and compliance with the requests that are part of the harassment campaign would not be in the public interest, a tax-exempt organization is not required to fulfill a request for a copy (as otherwise required by §301.6104(d)-1(a)) that it reasonably believes is part of the campaign.

(b) Harassment. A group of requests for an organization's application for tax exemption or annual information returns is indicative of a harassment campaign if the requests are part of a single coordinated effort to disrupt the operations of a tax-exempt organization, rather than to collect information about the organization. Whether a group of requests constitutes such a harassment campaign depends on the relevant facts and circumstances. Facts and circumstances that indicate the organization is the subject of a harassment campaign include: a sudden increase in the number of requests; an extraordinary number of requests made through form letters or similarly worded correspondence; evidence of a purpose to deter significantly the organization's employees or volunteers from pursuing the organization's exempt purpose; requests that contain language hostile to the organization; direct evidence of bad faith by organizers of the purported harassment campaign; evidence that the organization has already provided the requested documents to a member of the purported harassing group; and a demonstration by the tax-exempt organization that it routinely provides copies of its documents upon request.

(c) Special rule for multiple requests from a single individual or address. A tax-exempt organization may disregard any request for copies of all or part of any document beyond the first two received within any 30-day period or the first four received within any one-year period from the same individual or the same address, regardless of whether the district director for the applicable key district (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) has determined that the organization is subject to a harassment campaign.

(d) Harassment determination procedure. A tax-exempt organization may apply for a determination that it is the subject of a harassment campaign and that compliance with requests that are part of the campaign would not be in the public interest by submitting a signed application to the district director for the key district where the organization's principal office is located (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate). The application shall consist of a written statement giving the organization's name, address, employer identification number, and the name, address and telephone number of the person to contact regarding the application. The application must describe in detail the facts and circumstances that the organization believes support a determination that the organization is subject to a harassment campaign. The organization may suspend compliance with respect to any request for a copy of its documents based on its reasonable belief that such request is part of a harassment campaign, provided that the organization files an application for a determination within 10 business days from the day the organization first suspends compliance with respect to a request that is part of the alleged campaign. In addition, the organization may suspend compliance with any request it reasonably believes to be part of the harassment campaign until it receives a response to its application for a harassment campaign determination.

(e) Effect of a harassment determination. If the appropriate district director (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) determines that a tax-exempt organization is the subject of a harassment campaign and it is not in the public interest to comply with requests that are part of the campaign, such organization is not required to comply with any request for copies that it reasonably believes is part of the campaign. This determination may be subject to other terms and conditions set forth by the district director (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate). A person (as defined in section 6652(c)(4)(C)) shall not be liable for any penalty under sections 6652(c)(1)(C), 6652(c)(1)(D) or 6685 for failing to timely provide a copy of documents in response to a request covered in a request for a harassment determination if the organization fulfills the request within 30 days of receiving a determination from the district director (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) that the organization is not subject to a harassment campaign. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, if the district director (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) further determines that the organization did not have a reasonable basis for requesting a determination that it was subject to a harassment campaign or reasonable belief that a request was part of the campaign, the person (as defined in section 6652(c)(4)(C)) remains liable for any penalties that result from not providing the copies in a timely fashion.

(f) Examples. The provisions of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. V, a tax-exempt organization, receives an average of 25 requests per month for copies of its three most recent information returns. In the last week of May, V is mentioned in a national news magazine story that discusses information contained in V's 1996 information return. From June 1 through June 30, 1997 V receives 200 requests for a copy of its documents. Other than the sudden increase in the number of requests for copies, there is no other evidence to suggest that the requests are part of an organized campaign to disrupt V's operations. Although fulfilling the requests will place a burden on V, the facts and circumstances do not show that V is subject to a harassment campaign. Therefore, V must respond timely to each of the 200 requests it receives in June.

Example 2. Y is a tax-exempt organization that receives an average of 10 requests a month for copies of its annual information returns. From March 1, 1997 to March 31, 1997, Y receives 25 requests for copies of its documents. Fifteen of the requests come from individuals Y knows to be active members of the board of organization X. In the past X has opposed most of the positions and policies that Y advocates. None of the requesters have asked for copies of documents from Y during the past year. Y has no other information about the requesters. Although the facts and circumstances show that some of the individuals making requests are hostile to Y, they do not show that the individuals have organized a campaign that will place enough of a burden on Y to disrupt its activities. Therefore, Y must respond to each of the 25 requests it receives in March.

Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that during March 1997, Y receives 100 requests. In addition to the fifteen requests from members of organization X's board, 75 of the requests are similarly worded form letters. Y discovers that several individuals associated with X have urged the X's members and supporters, via the Internet, to submit as many requests for a copy of Y's annual information returns as they can. The message circulated on the Internet provides a form letter that can be used to make the request. Both the appeal via the Internet and the requests for copies received by Y contain hostile language. During the same year but before the 100 requests were received, Y provided copies of its annual information returns to the headquarters of X. The facts and circumstances show that the 75 form letter requests are coordinated for the purpose of disrupting Y's operations, and not to collect information that has already been provided to an association representing the requesters' interests. Thus, the fact and circumstances show that Y is the subject of an organized harassment campaign. To confirm that it may disregard the 90 requests that constitute the harassment campaign, Y must apply to the applicable district director (or such other person as the Commissioner may designate) for a determination. Y may disregard the 90 requests while the application is pending and after the determination is received. However, it must respond within the applicable time limits to the 10 requests it received in March that were not part of the harassment campaign.

Example 4. The facts are the same as in Example 3, except that Y receives 5 additional requests from 5 different representatives of the news media who in the past have published articles about Y. Some of these articles were hostile to Y. Normally, the Internal Revenue Service will not consider a tax-exempt organization to have a reasonable belief that a request from a member of the news media is part of a harassment campaign absent additional facts that demonstrate that the organization could reasonably believe the particular requests from the news media to be part of a harassment campaign. Thus, absent such additional facts, Y must respond within the applicable time limits to the 5 requests that it received from representatives of the news media.

(g) Effective date. For a tax-exempt organization, other than a private foundation, this section is applicable June 8, 1999. For a private foundation, this section is applicable beginning March 13, 2000.

[T.D. 8818, 64 FR 17289, Apr. 9, 1999. Redesignated and amended by T.D. 8861, 65 FR 2034, Jan. 13, 2000]

§301.6105-1   Compilation of relief from excess profits tax cases.

Pursuant to and in accordance with the provisions of section 6105, the Commissioner shall make and publish in the Federal Register a compilation, for each fiscal year beginning after June 30, 1941, of all cases in which relief under the provisions of section 722 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, as amended, has been allowed during such fiscal year by the Commissioner and by the Tax Court of the United States.

§301.6106-1   Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§301.6103(a)-1, 301.6103 (b)-1, 301.6103(c)-1, 301.6103 (d)-1, and 301.6103(f)-1.

§301.6108-1   Publication of statistics of income.

Pursuant to and in accordance with the provisions of section 6108, statistics reasonably available with respect to the operation of the income tax laws shall be prepared and published annually by the Commissioner.

§301.6109-1   Identifying numbers.

(a) In general—(1) Taxpayer identifying numbers—(i) Principal types. There are several types of taxpayer identifying numbers that include the following: social security numbers, Internal Revenue Service (IRS) individual taxpayer identification numbers, IRS adoption taxpayer identification numbers, and employer identification numbers. Social security numbers take the form 000-00-0000. IRS individual taxpayer identification numbers and IRS adoption taxpayer identification numbers also take the form 000-00-0000 but include a specific number or numbers designated by the IRS. Employer identification numbers take the form 00-0000000.

(ii) Uses. Social security numbers, IRS individual taxpayer identification numbers, and IRS adoption taxpayer identification numbers are used to identify individual persons. Employer identification numbers are used to identify employers. For the definition of social security number and employer identification number, see §§301.7701-11 and 301.7701-12, respectively. For the definition of IRS individual taxpayer identification number, see paragraph (d)(3) of this section. For the definition of IRS adoption taxpayer identification number, see §301.6109-3(a). Except as otherwise provided in applicable regulations under this chapter or on a return, statement, or other document, and related instructions, taxpayer identifying numbers must be used as follows:

(A) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B) and (D) of this section, and §301.6109-3, an individual required to furnish a taxpayer identifying number must use a social security number.

(B) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(D) of this section and §301.6109-3, an individual required to furnish a taxpayer identifying number but who is not eligible to obtain a social security number must use an IRS individual taxpayer identification number.

(C) Any person other than an individual (such as corporations, partnerships, nonprofit associations, trusts, estates, and similar nonindividual persons) that is required to furnish a taxpayer identifying number must use an employer identification number.

(D) An individual, whether U.S. or foreign, who is an employer or who is engaged in a trade or business as a sole proprietor should use an employer identification number as required by returns, statements, or other documents and their related instructions.

(2) A trust that is treated as owned by one or more persons pursuant to sections 671 through 678—(i) Obtaining a taxpayer identification number—(A) General rule. Unless the exception in paragraph (a)(2)(i)(B) of this section applies, a trust that is treated as owned by one or more persons under sections 671 through 678 must obtain a taxpayer identification number as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(B) Exception for a trust all of which is treated as owned by one grantor or one other person and that reports under §1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(A) of this chapter. A trust that is treated as owned by one grantor or one other person under sections 671 through 678 need not obtain a taxpayer identification number, provided the trust reports pursuant to §1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(A) of this chapter. The trustee must obtain a taxpayer identification number as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section for the first taxable year that the trust is no longer owned by one grantor or one other person or for the first taxable year that the trust does not report pursuant to §1.671-4(b)(2)(i)(A) of this chapter.

(ii) Obligations of persons who make payments to certain trusts. Any payor that is required to file an information return with respect to payments of income or proceeds to a trust must show the name and taxpayer identification number that the trustee has furnished to the payor on the return. Regardless of whether the trustee furnishes to the payor the name and taxpayer identification number of the grantor or other person treated as an owner of the trust, or the name and taxpayer identification number of the trust, the payor must furnish a statement to recipients to the trustee of the trust, rather than to the grantor or other person treated as the owner of the trust. Under these circumstances, the payor satisfies the obligation to show the name and taxpayer identification number of the payee on the information return and to furnish a statement to recipients to the person whose taxpayer identification number is required to be shown on the form.

(3) Obtaining a taxpayer identification number for a trust, or portion of a trust, following the death of the individual treated as the owner—(i) In general—(A) A trust all of which was treated as owned by a decedent. In general, a trust all of which is treated as owned by a decedent under subpart E (section 671 and following), part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code as of the date of the decedent's death must obtain a new taxpayer identification number following the death of the decedent if the trust will continue after the death of the decedent.

(B) Taxpayer identification number of trust with multiple owners. With respect to a portion of a trust treated as owned under subpart E (section 671 and following), part I, subchapter J, chapter 1 (subpart E) of the Internal Revenue Code by a decedent as of the date of the decedent's death, if, following the death of the decedent, the portion treated as owned by the decedent remains part of the original trust and the other portion (or portions) of the trust continues to be treated as owned under subpart E by a grantor(s) or other person(s), the trust reports under the taxpayer identification number assigned to the trust prior to the decedent's death and the portion of the trust treated as owned by the decedent prior to the decedent's death (assuming the decedent's portion of the trust is not treated as terminating upon the decedent's death) continues to report under the taxpayer identification number used for reporting by the other portion (or portions) of the trust. For example, if a trust, reporting under §1.671-4(a) of this chapter, is treated as owned by three persons and one of them dies, the trust, including the portion of the trust no longer treated as owned by a grantor or other person, continues to report under the tax identification number assigned to the trust prior to the death of that person. See §1.671-4(a) of this chapter regarding rules for filing the Form 1041, “U.S. Income Tax Return for Estates and Trusts,” where only a portion of the trust is treated as owned by one or more persons under subpart E.

(ii) Furnishing correct taxpayer identification number to payors following the death of the decedent. If the trust continues after the death of the decedent and is required to obtain a new taxpayer identification number under paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section, the trustee must furnish payors with a new Form W-9, “Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification,” or an acceptable substitute Form W-9, containing the new taxpayer identification number required under paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section, the name of the trust, and the address of the trustee.

(4) Taxpayer identification number to be used by a trust upon termination of a section 645 election—(i) If there is an executor. Upon the termination of the section 645 election period, if there is an executor, the trustee of the former electing trust may need to obtain a taxpayer identification number. If §1.645-1(g) of this chapter regarding the appointment of an executor after a section 645 election is made applies to the electing trust, the electing trust must obtain a new TIN upon termination of the election period. See the instructions to the Form 1041 for whether a new taxpayer identification number is required for other former electing trusts.

(ii) If there is no executor. Upon termination of the section 645 election period, if there is no executor, the trustee of the former electing trust must obtain a new taxpayer identification number.

(iii) Requirement to provide taxpayer identification number to payors. If the trustee is required to obtain a new taxpayer identification number for a former electing trust pursuant to this paragraph (a)(4), or pursuant to the instructions to the Form 1041, the trustee must furnish all payors of the trust with a completed Form W-9 or acceptable substitute Form W-9 signed under penalties of perjury by the trustee providing each payor with the name of the trust, the new taxpayer identification number, and the address of the trustee.

(5) Persons treated as payors. For purposes of paragraphs (a)(2), (3), and (4) of this section, a payor is a person described in §§1.671-4(b)(4) of this chapter.

(6) Effective date. Paragraphs (a)(3), (4), and (5) of this section apply to trusts of decedents dying on or after December 24, 2002.

(b) Requirement to furnish one's own number—(1) U.S. persons. Every U.S. person who makes under this title a return, statement, or other document must furnish its own taxpayer identifying number as required by the forms and the accompanying instructions. A U.S. person whose number must be included on a document filed by another person must give the taxpayer identifying number so required to the other person on request. For penalties for failure to supply taxpayer identifying numbers, see sections 6721 through 6724. For provisions dealing specifically with the duty of employees with respect to their social security numbers, see §31.6011(b)-2 (a) and (b) of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations). For provisions dealing specifically with the duty of employers with respect to employer identification numbers, see §31.6011(b)-1 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).

(2) Foreign persons. The provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section regarding the furnishing of one's own number shall apply to the following foreign persons—

(i) A foreign person that has income effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business at any time during the taxable year;

(ii) A foreign person that has a U.S. office or place of business or a U.S. fiscal or paying agent at any time during the taxable year;

(iii) A nonresident alien treated as a resident under section 6013(g) or (h);

(iv) A foreign person that makes a return of tax (including income, estate, and gift tax returns), an amended return, or a refund claim under this title but excluding information returns, statements, or documents;

(v) A foreign person that makes an election under §301.7701-3(c);

(vi) A foreign person that furnishes a withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(2) or (3) of this chapter or §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv) or (3)(iii) of this chapter to the extent required under §1.1441-1(e)(4)(vii) of this chapter;

(vii) A foreign person whose taxpayer identifying number is required to be furnished on any return, statement, or other document as required by the income tax regulations under section 897 or 1445. This paragraph (b)(2)(vii) applies as of November 3, 2003; and

(viii) A foreign person that furnishes a withholding certificate described in §1.1446-1(c)(2) or (3) of this chapter or whose taxpayer identification number is required to be furnished on any return, statement, or other document as required by the income tax regulations under section 1446. This paragraph (b)(2)(viii) shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after May 18, 2005, or such earlier time as the regulations under §§1.1446-1 through 1.1446-5 of this chapter apply by reason of an election under §1.1446-7 of this chapter.

(c) Requirement to furnish another's number. Every person required under this title to make a return, statement, or other document must furnish such taxpayer identifying numbers of other U.S. persons and foreign persons that are described in paragraph (b)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (vi), (vii), or (viii) of this section as required by the forms and the accompanying instructions. The taxpayer identifying number of any person furnishing a withholding certificate referred to in paragraph (b)(2)(vi) or (viii) of this section shall also be furnished if it is actually known to the person making a return, statement, or other document described in this paragraph (c). If the person making the return, statement, or other document does not know the taxpayer identifying number of the other person, and such other person is one that is described in paragraph (b)(2)(i), (ii), (iii), (vi), (vii), or (viii) of this section, such person must request the other person's number. The request should state that the identifying number is required to be furnished under authority of law. When the person making the return, statement, or other document does not know the number of the other person, and has complied with the request provision of this paragraph (c), such person must sign an affidavit on the transmittal document forwarding such returns, statements, or other documents to the Internal Revenue Service, so stating. A person required to file a taxpayer identifying number shall correct any errors in such filing when such person's attention has been drawn to them. References in this paragraph (c) to paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after May 18, 2005, or such earlier time as the regulations under §§1.1446-1 through 1.1446-5 of this chapter apply by reason of an election under §1.1446-7 of this chapter.

(d) Obtaining a taxpayer identifying number—(1) Social security number. Any individual required to furnish a social security number pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section shall apply for one, if he has not done so previously, on Form SS-5, which may be obtained from any Social Security Administration or Internal Revenue Service office. He shall make such application far enough in advance of the first required use of such number to permit issuance of the number in time for compliance with such requirement. The form, together with any supplementary statement, shall be prepared and filed in accordance with the form, instructions, and regulations applicable thereto, and shall set forth fully and clearly the data therein called for. Individuals who are ineligible for or do not wish to participate in the benefits of the social security program shall nevertheless obtain a social security number if they are required to furnish such a number pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Employer identification number—(i) In general. Any person required to furnish an employer identification number must apply for one, if not done so previously, on Form SS-4. A Form SS-4 may be obtained from any office of the Internal Revenue Service, U.S. consular office abroad, or from an acceptance agent described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section. The person must make such application far enough in advance of the first required use of the employer identification number to permit issuance of the number in time for compliance with such requirement. The form, together with any supplementary statement, must be prepared and filed in accordance with the form, accompanying instructions, and relevant regulations, and must set forth fully and clearly the requested data.

(ii) Updating of application information—(A) Requirements. Persons issued employer identification numbers in accordance with the application process set forth in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section must provide to the Internal Revenue Service any updated application information in the manner and frequency required by forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance.

(B) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section applies to all persons possessing an employer identification number on or after January 1, 2014.

(iii) Special rule for Section 708(b)(1)(B) terminations. A new partnership that is formed as a result of the termination of a partnership under section 708(b)(1)(B) will retain the employer identification number of the terminated partnership. This paragraph (d)(2)(iii) applies to terminations of partnerships under section 708(b)(1)(B) occurring on or after May 9, 1997; however, this paragraph (d)(2)(iii) may be applied to terminations occurring on or after May 9, 1996, provided that the partnership and its partners apply this paragraph (d)(2)(iii) to the termination in a consistent manner.

(3) IRS individual taxpayer identification number—(i) Definition. The term IRS individual taxpayer identification number means a taxpayer identifying number issued to an alien individual by the Internal Revenue Service, upon application, for use in connection with filing requirements under this title. The term IRS individual taxpayer identification number does not refer to a social security number or an account number for use in employment for wages. For purposes of this section, the term alien individual means an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States.

(ii) General rule for obtaining number. Any individual who is not eligible to obtain a social security number and is required to furnish a taxpayer identifying number must apply for an IRS individual taxpayer identification number on Form W-7, Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number, or such other form as may be prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service. Form W-7 may be obtained from any office of the Internal Revenue Service, U.S. consular office abroad, or any acceptance agent described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section. The individual shall furnish the information required by the form and accompanying instructions, including the individual's name, address, foreign tax identification number (if any), and specific reason for obtaining an IRS individual taxpayer identification number. The individual must make such application far enough in advance of the first required use of the IRS individual taxpayer identification number to permit issuance of the number in time for compliance with such requirement. The application form, together with any supplementary statement and documentation, must be prepared and filed in accordance with the form, accompanying instructions, and relevant regulations, and must set forth fully and clearly the requested data.

(iii) General rule for assigning number. Under procedures issued by the Internal Revenue Service, an IRS individual taxpayer identification number will be assigned to an individual upon the basis of information reported on Form W-7 (or such other form as may be prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service) and any such accompanying documentation that may be required by the Internal Revenue Service. An applicant for an IRS individual taxpayer identification number must submit such documentary evidence as the Internal Revenue Service may prescribe in order to establish alien status and identity. Examples of acceptable documentary evidence for this purpose may include items such as an original (or a certified copy of the original) passport, driver's license, birth certificate, identity card, or immigration documentation.

(iv) Acceptance agents—(A) Agreements with acceptance agents. A person described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv)(B) of this section will be accepted by the Internal Revenue Service to act as an acceptance agent for purposes of the regulations under this section upon entering into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service, under which the acceptance agent will be authorized to act on behalf of taxpayers seeking to obtain a taxpayer identifying number from the Internal Revenue Service. The agreement must contain such terms and conditions as are necessary to insure proper administration of the process by which the Internal Revenue Service issues taxpayer identifying numbers to foreign persons, including proof of their identity and foreign status. In particular, the agreement may contain—

(1) Procedures for providing Form SS-4 and Form W-7, or such other necessary form to applicants for obtaining a taxpayer identifying number;

(2) Procedures for providing assistance to applicants in completing the application form or completing it for them;

(3) Procedures for collecting, reviewing, and maintaining, in the normal course of business, a record of the required documentation for assignment of a taxpayer identifying number;

(4) Procedures for submitting the application form and required documentation to the Internal Revenue Service, or if permitted under the agreement, submitting the application form together with a certification that the acceptance agent has reviewed the required documentation and that it has no actual knowledge or reason to know that the documentation is not complete or accurate;

(5) Procedures for assisting taxpayers with notification procedures described in paragraph (g)(2) of this section in the event of change of foreign status;

(6) Procedures for making all documentation or other records furnished by persons applying for a taxpayer identifying number promptly available for review by the Internal Revenue Service, upon request; and

(7) Provisions that the agreement may be terminated in the event of a material failure to comply with the agreement, including failure to exercise due diligence under the agreement.

(B) Persons who may be acceptance agents. An acceptance agent may include any financial institution as defined in section 265(b)(5) or §1.165-12(c)(1)(v) of this chapter, any college or university that is an educational organization as defined in §1.501(c)(3)-1(d)(3)(i) of this chapter, any federal agency as defined in section 6402(f) or any other person or categories of persons that may be authorized by regulations or Internal Revenue Service procedures. A person described in this paragraph (d)(3)(iv)(B) that seeks to qualify as an acceptance agent must have an employer identification number for use in any communication with the Internal Revenue Service. In addition, it must establish to the satisfaction of the Internal Revenue Service that it has adequate resources and procedures in place to comply with the terms of the agreement described in paragraph (d)(3)(iv)(A) of this section.

(4) Coordination of taxpayer identifying numbers—(i) Social security number. Any individual who is duly assigned a social security number or who is entitled to a social security number will not be issued an IRS individual taxpayer identification number. The individual can use the social security number for all tax purposes under this title, even though the individual is, or later becomes, a nonresident alien individual. Further, any individual who has an application pending with the Social Security Administration will be issued an IRS individual taxpayer identification number only after the Social Security Administration has notified the individual that a social security number cannot be issued. Any alien individual duly issued an IRS individual taxpayer identification number who later becomes a U.S. citizen, or an alien lawfully permitted to enter the United States either for permanent residence or under authority of law permitting U.S. employment, will be required to obtain a social security number. Any individual who has an IRS individual taxpayer identification number and a social security number, due to the circumstances described in the preceding sentence, must notify the Internal Revenue Service of the acquisition of the social security number and must use the newly-issued social security number as the taxpayer identifying number on all future returns, statements, or other documents filed under this title.

(ii) Employer identification number. Any individual with both a social security number (or an IRS individual taxpayer identification number) and an employer identification number may use the social security number (or the IRS individual taxpayer identification number) for individual taxes, and the employer identification number for business taxes as required by returns, statements, and other documents and their related instructions. Any alien individual duly assigned an IRS individual taxpayer identification number who also is required to obtain an employer identification number must furnish the previously-assigned IRS individual taxpayer identification number to the Internal Revenue Service on Form SS-4 at the time of application for the employer identification number. Similarly, where an alien individual has an employer identification number and is required to obtain an IRS individual taxpayer identification number, the individual must furnish the previously-assigned employer identification number to the Internal Revenue Service on Form W-7, or such other form as may be prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service, at the time of application for the IRS individual taxpayer identification number.

(e) Banks, and brokers and dealers in securities. For additional requirements relating to deposits, share accounts, and brokerage accounts, see 31 CFR 103.34 and 103.35.

(f) Penalty. For penalties for failure to supply taxpayer identifying numbers, see sections 6721 through 6724.

(g) Special rules for taxpayer identifying numbers issued to foreign persons—(1) General rule—(i) Social security number. A social security number is generally identified in the records and database of the Internal Revenue Service as a number belonging to a U.S. citizen or resident alien individual. A person may establish a different status for the number by providing proof of foreign status with the Internal Revenue Service under such procedures as the Internal Revenue Service shall prescribe, including the use of a form as the Internal Revenue Service may specify. Upon accepting an individual as a nonresident alien individual, the Internal Revenue Service will assign this status to the individual's social security number.

(ii) Employer identification number. An employer identification number is generally identified in the records and database of the Internal Revenue Service as a number belonging to a U.S. person. However, the Internal Revenue Service may establish a separate class of employer identification numbers solely dedicated to foreign persons which will be identified as such in the records and database of the Internal Revenue Service. A person may establish a different status for the number either at the time of application or subsequently by providing proof of U.S. or foreign status with the Internal Revenue Service under such procedures as the Internal Revenue Service shall prescribe, including the use of a form as the Internal Revenue Service may specify. The Internal Revenue Service may require a person to apply for the type of employer identification number that reflects the status of that person as a U.S. or foreign person.

(iii) IRS individual taxpayer identification number. An IRS individual taxpayer identification number is generally identified in the records and database of the Internal Revenue Service as a number belonging to a nonresident alien individual. If the Internal Revenue Service determines at the time of application or subsequently, that an individual is not a nonresident alien individual, the Internal Revenue Service may require that the individual apply for a social security number. If a social security number is not available, the Internal Revenue Service may accept that the individual use an IRS individual taxpayer identification number, which the Internal Revenue Service will identify as a number belonging to a U.S. resident alien.

(2) Change of foreign status. Once a taxpayer identifying number is identified in the records and database of the Internal Revenue Service as a number belonging to a U.S. or foreign person, the status of the number is permanent until the circumstances of the taxpayer change. A taxpayer whose status changes (for example, a nonresident alien individual with a social security number becomes a U.S. resident alien) must notify the Internal Revenue Service of the change of status under such procedures as the Internal Revenue Service shall prescribe, including the use of a form as the Internal Revenue Service may specify.

(3) Waiver of prohibition to disclose taxpayer information when acceptance agent acts. As part of its request for an IRS individual taxpayer identification number or submission of proof of foreign status with respect to any taxpayer identifying number, where the foreign person acts through an acceptance agent, the foreign person will agree to waive the limitations in section 6103 regarding the disclosure of certain taxpayer information. However, the waiver will apply only for purposes of permitting the Internal Revenue Service and the acceptance agent to communicate with each other regarding matters related to the assignment of a taxpayer identifying number, including disclosure of any taxpayer identifying number previously issued to the foreign person, and change of foreign status. This paragraph (g)(3) applies to payments made after December 31, 2001.

(h) Special rules for certain entities under §301.7701-3—(1) General rule. Any entity that has an employer identification number (EIN) will retain that EIN if its federal tax classification changes under §301.7701-3.

(2) Special rules for entities that are disregarded as entities separate from their owners—(i) When an entity becomes disregarded as an entity separate from its owner. Except as otherwise provided in regulations or other guidance, a single owner entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under §301.7701-3, must use its owner's taxpayer identifying number (TIN) for federal tax purposes.

(ii) When an entity that was disregarded as an entity separate from its owner becomes recognized as a separate entity. If a single owner entity's classification changes so that it is recognized as a separate entity for federal tax purposes, and that entity had an EIN, then the entity must use that EIN and not the TIN of the single owner. If the entity did not already have its own EIN, then the entity must acquire an EIN and not use the TIN of the single owner.

(3) Effective date. The rules of this paragraph (h) are applicable as of January 1, 1997.

(i) Special rule for qualified subchapter S subsidiaries (QSubs)—(1) General rule. Any entity that has an employer identification number (EIN) will retain that EIN if a QSub election is made for the entity under §1.1361-3 or if a QSub election that was in effect for the entity terminates under §1.1361-5.

(2) EIN while QSub election in effect. Except as otherwise provided in regulations or other published guidance, a QSub must use the parent S corporation's EIN for Federal tax purposes.

(3) EIN when QSub election terminates. If an entity's QSub election terminates, it may not use the EIN of the parent S corporation after the termination. If the entity had an EIN prior to becoming a QSub or obtained an EIN while it was a QSub in accordance with regulations or other published guidance, the entity must use that EIN. If the entity had no EIN, it must obtain an EIN upon termination of the QSub election.

(4) Effective date. The rules of this paragraph (i) apply on January 20, 2000.

(j) Effective date—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (j), the provisions of this section are generally effective for information that must be furnished after April 15, 1974. However, the provisions relating to IRS individual taxpayer identification numbers apply on and after May 29, 1996. An application for an IRS individual taxpayer identification number (Form W-7) may be filed at any time on or after July 1, 1996.

(2) Special rules—(i) Employer identification number of an estate. The requirement under paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(C) of this section that an estate obtain an employer identification number applies on and after January 1, 1984.

(ii) Taxpayer identifying numbers of certain foreign persons. The requirement under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section that certain foreign persons furnish a TIN on a return of tax is effective for tax returns filed after December 31, 1996.

(iii) Paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) introductory text, (a)(1)(ii)(A), and (a)(1)(ii)(B) of this section apply to income tax returns due (without regard to extensions) on or after April 15, 1998.

[T.D. 7306, 39 FR 9946, Mar. 15, 1974]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §301.6109-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§301.6109-2   Authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to collect employer identification numbers for purposes of the Food Stamp Act of 1977.

(a) In general. The Secretary of Agriculture may require each applicant retail food store or wholesale food concern to furnish its employer identification number in connection with the administration of section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2018) (relating to the determination of the qualifications of applicants under the Food Stamp Act).

(b) Limited purpose. The Secretary of Agriculture may have access to the employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, but only for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a list of the names and employer identification numbers of the stores and concerns for use in determining those applicants who have been previously sanctioned or convicted under section 12 or 15 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 2021 or 2024). The Secretary of Agriculture may use this determination of sanctions and convictions in administering section 9 of the Food Stamp Act of 1977.

(c) Sharing of information—(1) Sharing permitted with certain United States agencies and instrumentalities. The Secretary of Agriculture may share the information contained in the list described in paragraph (b) of this section with any other agency or instrumentality of the United States that otherwise has access to employer identification numbers, but only to the extent the Secretary of Agriculture determines sharing such information will assist in verifying and matching that information against information maintained by the other agency or instrumentality.

(2) Restrictions on the use of shared information. The information shared by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to this section may be used by any other agency or instrumentality of the United States only for the purpose of effective administration and enforcement of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 or for the purpose of investigation of violations of other Federal laws or enforcement of those laws.

(d) Safeguards—(1) Restrictions on access to employer identification numbers by individuals—(i) Numbers maintained by the Secretary of Agriculture. The individuals who are permitted access to employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section and maintained by the Secretary of Agriculture are officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access to such employer identification numbers for the purpose of effective administration or enforcement of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 or for the purpose of sharing the information in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(ii) Numbers maintained by any other agency or instrumentality. The individuals who are permitted access to employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section and maintained by any agency or instrumentality of the United States other than the Department of Agriculture are officers and employees of the United States whose duties or responsibilities require access to such employer identification numbers for the purpose of effective administration and enforcement of the Food Stamp Act of 1977 or for the purpose of investigation of violations of other Federal laws or enforcement of those laws.

(2) Other safeguards. The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any other agency or instrumentality referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, must provide for any additional safeguards that the Secretary of the Treasury determines to be necessary or appropriate to protect the confidentiality of the employer identification numbers. The Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any other agency or instrumentality referred to in paragraph (c) of this section, may also provide for any additional safeguards to protect the confidentiality of employer identification numbers, provided these safeguards are consistent with safeguards determined by the Secretary of the Treasury to be necessary or appropriate.

(e) Confidentiality and disclosure of employer identification numbers. Employer identification numbers obtained pursuant to paragraph (a) or (c) of this section are confidential. No officer or employee of the United States who has or had access to any such employer identification number may disclose that number in any manner to an individual not described in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (e), officer or employee includes a former officer or employee.

(f) Sanctions—(1) Unauthorized, willful disclosure of employer identification numbers. Sections 7213(a) (1), (2), and (3) apply with respect to the unauthorized, willful disclosure to any person of employer identification numbers that are maintained pursuant to this section by the Secretary of Agriculture, or any other agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, in the same manner and to the same extent as sections 7213(a) (1), (2), and (3) apply with respect to unauthorized disclosures of returns and return information described in those sections.

(2) Willful solicitation of employer identification numbers. Section 7213(a)(4) applies with respect to the willful offer of any item of material value in exchange for any employer identification number maintained pursuant to this section by the Secretary of Agriculture, or any other agency or instrumentality with which information is shared pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section, in the same manner and to the same extent as section 7213(a)(4) applies with respect to offers (in exchange for any return or return information) described in that section.

(g) Delegation. All references in this section to the Secretary of Agriculture are references to the Secretary of Agriculture or his or her delegate.

(h) Effective date. Except as provided in the following sentence, this section is effective on February 1, 1992. Any provisions relating to the sharing of information by the Secretary of Agriculture with any other agency or instrumentality of the United States are effective on August 15, 1994.

[T.D. 8369, 56 FR 49685, Oct. 1, 1991, as amended by T.D. 8621, 60 FR 51725, Oct. 3, 1995; 61 FR 1035, Jan. 11, 1996]

§301.6109-3   IRS adoption taxpayer identification numbers.

(a) In general—(1) Definition. An IRS adoption taxpayer identification number (ATIN) is a temporary taxpayer identifying number assigned by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to a child (other than an alien individual as defined in §301.6109-1(d)(3)(i)) who has been placed, by an authorized placement agency, in the household of a prospective adoptive parent for legal adoption. An ATIN is assigned to the child upon application for use in connection with filing requirements under the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder. When an adoption becomes final, the adoptive parent must apply for a social security number for the child. After the social security number is assigned, that number, rather than the ATIN, must be used as the child's taxpayer identification number on all returns, statements, or other documents required under the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Expiration and extension. An ATIN automatically expires two years after the number is assigned. However, upon request, the IRS may grant an extension if the IRS determines the extension is warranted.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Authorized placement agency has the same meaning as in §1.152-2(c) of this chapter;

(2) Prospective adoptive child or child means a child who has not been adopted, but who has been placed in the household of a prospective adoptive parent for legal adoption by an authorized placement agency; and

(3) Prospective adoptive parent or parent means an individual in whose household a prospective adoptive child is placed by an authorized placement agency for legal adoption.

(c) General rule for obtaining a number—(1) Who may apply. A prospective adoptive parent may apply for an ATIN for a child if—

(i) The prospective adoptive parent is eligible to claim a personal exemption under section 151 with respect to the child;

(ii) An authorized placement agency places the child with the prospective adoptive parent for legal adoption;

(iii) The Social Security Administration will not process an application for an SSN by the prospective adoptive parent on behalf of the child (for example, because the adoption is not final); and

(iv) The prospective adoptive parent has used all reasonable means to obtain the child's assigned social security number, if any, but has been unsuccessful in obtaining this number (for example, because the biological parent who obtained the number is not legally required to disclose the number to the prospective adoptive parent).

(2) Procedure for obtaining an ATIN. If the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of this section are satisfied, the prospective adoptive parent may apply for an ATIN for a child on Form W-7A, Application for Taxpayer Identification Number for Pending Adoptions (or such other form as may be prescribed by the IRS). An application for an ATIN should be made far enough in advance of the first intended use of the ATIN to permit issuance of the ATIN in time for such use. An application for an ATIN must include the information required by the form and accompanying instructions, including the name and address of each prospective adoptive parent and the child's name and date of birth. In addition, the application must include such documentary evidence as the IRS may prescribe to establish that a child was placed in the prospective adoptive parent's household by an authorized placement agency for legal adoption. Examples of acceptable documentary evidence establishing placement for legal adoption by an authorized placement agency may include—

(i) A copy of a placement agreement entered into between the prospective adoptive parent and an authorized placement agency;

(ii) An affidavit or letter signed by the adoption attorney or government official who placed the child for legal adoption pursuant to state law;

(iii) A document authorizing the release of a newborn child from a hospital to a prospective adoptive parent for adoption; and

(iv) A court document ordering or approving the placement of a child for adoption.

(d) Effective date. The provisions of this section apply to income tax returns due (without regard to extension) on or after April 15, 1998.

[T.D. 8839, 64 FR 51242, Sept. 22, 1999]

§301.6110-1   Public inspection of written determinations and background file documents.

(a) General rule. Except as provided in §301.6110-3, relating to deletion of certain information, §301.6110-5(b), relating to actions to restrain disclosure, paragraph (b)(2) of this section, relating to technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and jeopardy and termination assessments, and paragraph (b)(3) of this section, relating to general written determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, the text of any written determination (as defined in §301.6110-2(a)) issued pursuant to a request postmarked or hand delivered after October 31, 1976, shall be open to public inspection in the places provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The text of any written determination issued pursuant to a request postmarked or hand delivered before November 1, 1976, shall be open to public inspection pursuant to section 6110(h) and §301.6110-6, when funds are appropriated by Congress for such purpose. The procedures and rules set forth in §§301.6110-1 through 301.6110-5 and §301.6110-7 do not apply to written determinations issued pursuant to requests postmarked or hand delivered before November 1, 1976, unless §301.6110-6 states otherwise. There shall also be open to public inspection in each place of public inspection an index to the written determinations subject to inspection at such place. Each such index shall be arranged by section of the Internal Revenue Code, related statute or tax treaty and by subject matter description within such section in such manner as the Commissioner may from time to time provide. The Commissioner shall not be required to make any written determination or background file document open to public inspection pursuant to section 6110 or refrain from disclosure of any such documents or any information therein, except as provided by section 6110 or with respect to a discovery order made in connection with a judicial proceeding. The provisions of section 6110 shall not apply to material that is open to public inspection under section 6104. See section 6110(l)(1).

(b) Items that may be inspected only under certain circumstances—(1) Background file documents. A background file document (as such term is defined in §301.6110-2(g)) relating to a particular written determination issued pursuant to a request postmarked or hand delivered after October 31, 1976, shall not be subject to inspection until such written determination is open to public inspection or available for inspection pursuant to paragraph (b) (2) or (3) of this section, and then only if a written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section is made for inspection of such background file document. Background file documents relating to written determinations issued pursuant to requests postmarked or hand delivered before November 1, 1976, shall be subject to inspection pursuant to section 6110 (h) and §301.6110-6, when funds are appropriated by Congress for such purpose. The version of the background file document which is available for inspection shall be the version originally made available for inspection, as modified by any additional disclosure pursuant to section 6110(d)(3) and (f)(4).

(2) Technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, jeopardy and termination assessments. Any technical advice memorandum (as such term is defined in §301.6110-2(f) involving any matter that is the subject of a civil fraud or criminal investigation, a jeopardy assessment (as such term is defined in section 6861), or a termination assessment (as such term is defined in section 6851) shall not be subject to inspection until all actions relating to such investigation or assessment are completed and then only if a written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section is made for inspection of such technical advice memorandum. A “civil fraud investigation” is any administrative step or judicial proceeding in which an issue for determination is whether the Commissioner should impose additional tax pursuant to section 6653(b). A “criminal investigation” is any administrative step or judicial proceeding in which an issue for determination is whether a taxpayer should be charged with or is guility of criminal conduct. An action relating to a civil fraud or criminal investigation includes any such administrative step or judicial proceeding, the review of subsequent related activities and related returns of the taxpayer or related taxpayers, and any other administrative step or judicial procedure or proceeding or appellate process that is initiated as a consequence of the facts and circumstances disclosed by such investigation. An action relating to a jeopardy or termination assessment includes any administrative step or judicial proceeding that is initiated to determine whether to make such assessment, that is brought pursuant to section 7429 to determine the appropriateness or reasonableness of such assessment, or that is brought to resolve the legal consequences of the tax status or liability issue underlying the making of such assessment. Any action relating to a civil fraud or criminal investigation, a jeopardy assessment, or a termination assessment is not completed until all available administrative steps and judicial proceedings and remedies, including appeals, have been completed.

(3) Written determinations with respect to adoption of or change in certain accounting or funding periods and methods. Any general written determination (as defined in §301.6110-2(c) that relates solely to approval of any adoption of or change in—

(i) The funding method or plan year of a plan under section 412.

(ii) A taxpayer's annual accounting period under section 442.

(iii) A taxpayer's method of accounting under section 446(e), or

(iv) A partnership's or partner's taxable year under section 706

shall not be subject to inspection until such written determination would, but for this paragraph (b)(3), be open to public inspection pursuant to §301.6110-5(c) and then only if a written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section is made for inspection of such written determination.

(c) Procecure for public inspection—(1) Place of public inspection. The text of any ruling (as such term is defined in §301.6110-2(d) or technical advice memorandum that is open to public inspection pursuant to section 6110 shall be located in the National Office Reading Room. The text of any determination letter (as such term is defined in §301.6110-2(e)) that is open to public inspection pursuant to section 6110 shall be located in the Reading Room of the Regional Office in which is located the district office that issued such determination letter. Inspection of any written determination subject to inspection only upon written request shall be requested from the National Office Reading Room. Inspection of any background file document shall be requested only from the reading room in which the related written determination is either open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request. The locations and mailing addresses of the reading rooms are set forth in §601.702(b)(3)(ii) of this chapter.

(2) Time and manner of public inspection. The inspection authorized by section 6110 will be allowed only in the place provided for such inspection in the presence of an Internal Revenue officer or employee and only during the regular hours of business of the Internal Revenue Service office in which the reading room is located. The public will not be allowed to remove any record from a reading room. A person who wishes to inspect reading room material without visiting a reading room may submit a written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section for copies of any such material to the Internal Revenue Service reading room in which is located such material.

(3) Copies. Notes may be taken of any material open to public inspection under section 6110, and copies may be made manually. Copies of any material open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request will be furnished by the Internal Revenue Service to any person making requests therefor pursuant to paragraph (c)(4) of this section. If made at the time of inspection the request for copies need not be in writing, unless the material is not immediately available for copying. The Commissioner may prescribe fees pursuant to section 6110(j) for furnishing copies of material open or subject to inspection.

(4) Requests. Any request for copies of written determinations, for inspection of general written determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods or technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and jeopardy and termination assessments, for inspection or copies of background file documents, and for copies of the index shall be submitted to the reading room in which is located the requested material. If made in person, the request may be submitted to the internal revenue employee supervising the reading room. The request shall contain:

(i) Authorization for the Internal Revenue Service to charge the person making such request for making copies, searching for material, and making deletions therefrom;

(ii) The maximum amount of charges which the Internal Revenue Service may incur without further authorization from the person making such request;

(iii) With respect to requests for inspection and copies of background file documents, the file number of the written determination to which such background file document relates and a specific identification of the nature or type of the background file document requested;

(iv) With respect to requests for inspections of general written determinations relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, the day, week, or month of issuance of such written determination, and the applicable category as selected from a special summary listing of categories prepared by the Internal Revenue Service;

(v) With respect to requests for copies of written determinations, the file number of the written determination to be copied, which can be ascertained in the reading room or from the index;

(vi) With respect to requests for copies of portions of the index, the section of the Internal Revenue Code, related statute or tax treaty in which the person making such request is interested;

(vii) With respect to material which is to be mailed, the name, address, and telephone number of the person making such request and the address to which copies of the requested material should be sent; and

(viii) Such other information as the Internal Revenue Service may from time to time require in its operation of reading rooms.

(d) Effective/applicability date. The rules of paragraph (a) apply February 29, 2012.

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63412, Dec. 16, 1977, as amended by T.D. 9581, 77 FR 12205, Feb. 29, 2012]

§301.6110-2   Meaning of terms.

(a) Written determination. A “written determination” is a ruling, a determination letter, or a technical advice memorandum, as such terms are defined in paragraphs (d), (e), and (f) of this section, respectively. Notwithstanding paragraphs (d) through (f) of this section, a written determination does not include for example, opinion letters (as defined in §601.201(a)(4) of this chapter), information letters (as defined in §601.201(a)(5) of this chapter), technical information responses, technical assistance memoranda, notices of deficiency, reports on claims for refund, Internal Revenue Service decisions to accept taxpayers' offers in compromise, earnings and profits determinations, or documents issued by the Internal Revenue Service in the course of tax administration that are not disclosed to the persons to whose tax returns or tax liability the documents relate.

(b) Reference written determination. A “reference written determination” is any written determination that the Commissioner determines to have significant reference value. Any written determination that the Commissioner determines to be the basis for a published revenue ruling is a reference written determination until such revenue ruling is obsoleted, revoked, superseded or otherwise held to have no effect.

(c) General written determination. A “general written determination” is any written determination that is not a reference written determination.

(d) Ruling. A “ruling” is a written statement issued by the National Office to a taxpayer or to the taxpayer's authorized representative (as such term is defined in §601.201(e)(7) of this chapter) on behalf of the taxpayer, that interprets and applies tax laws to a specific set of facts. A ruling generally recites the relevant facts, sets forth the applicable provisions of law, and shows the application of the law to the facts.

(e) Determination letter. A “determination letter” is a written statement issued by a district director in response to a written inquiry by an individual or an organization that applies principles and precedents previously announced by the National Office to the particular facts involved.

(f) Technical advice memorandum. A “technical advice memorandum” is a written statement issued by the National Office to, and adopted by, a district director in connection with the examination of a taxpayer's return or consideration of a taxpayer's claim for refund or credit. A technical advice memorandum generally recites the relevant facts, sets forth the applicable law, and states a legal conclusion.

(g) Background file document—(1) General rule. A “background file document” is—(i) The request for a written determination.

(ii) Any written material submitted in support of such request by the person by whom or on whose behalf the request for a written determination is made,

(iii) Any written communication, or memorandum of a meeting, telephone communication, or other contact, between employees of the Internal Revenue Service or Office of its Chief Counsel and persons outside the Internal Revenue Service in connection with such request or written determination which is received prior to the issuance (as such term is defined in paragraph (h) of this section) of the written determination, but not including communications described in paragraph (g)(2) of this section, and

(iv) Any subsequent communication between the National Office and a district director concerning the factual circumstances underlying the request for a technical advice memorandum, or concerning a request by the district director for reconsideration by the National Office of a proposed technical advice memorandum.

(2) Limitations. Notwithstanding paragraph (g)(1) of this section, a “background file document” shall not include any—

(i) Communication between the Department of Justice and the Internal Revenue Service or the Office of its Chief Counsel relating to any pending civil or criminal case or investigation,

(ii) Communication between Internal Revenue Service employees and employees of the Office of its Chief Counsel,

(iii) Internal memorandum or attorney work product prepared by the Internal Revenue Service or Office of its Chief Counsel which relates to the development of the conclusion of the Internal Revenue Service in a written determination, including, with respect to a technical advice memorandum, the Transmittal Memorandum, as defined in §601.105(b)(5)(vi)(c) of this chapter,

(iv) Correspondence or any portion of correspondence between the Internal Revenue Service and any person relating solely to the making of or extent of deletions pursuant to section 6110(c), or a request pursuant to section 6110(g) (3) and (4) for postponement of the time at which a written determination is made open or subject to inspection,

(v) Material relating to (A) a request for a ruling or determination letter that is withdrawn prior to issuance thereof or that the Internal Revenue Service declines to answer, (B) a request for technical advice that the National Office declines to answer, or (C) the appeal of a taxpayer from the decision of a district director not to seek technical advice, or

(vi) Response to a request for technical advice which the district director declines to adopt, and the district director's request for reconsideration thereof.

(h) Issuance. “Issuance” of a written determination occurs, with respect to rulings and determination letters, upon the mailing of the ruling or determination letter to the person to whom it pertains. Issuance of a technical advice memorandum occurs upon the adoption of the technical advice memorandum by the district director.

(i) Person to whom written determination pertains. A “person to whom a written determination pertains” is the person by whom a ruling or determination letter is requested, but if requested by an authorized representative, the person on whose behalf the request is made. With respect to a technical advice memorandum, a “person to whom a written determination pertains” is the taxpayer whose return is being examined or whose claim for refund or credit is being considered.

(j) Person to whom a background file document relates. A “person to whom a background file document relates” is the person to whom the related written determination pertains, as such term is defined in paragraph (i) of this section.

(k) Person who has a direct interest in maintaining confidentiality. A “person who has a direct interest in maintaining the confidentiality of a written determination” is any person whose name and address is listed in the request for such written determination, as required by §601.201(e)(2) of this chapter. A “person who has a direct interest in maintaining the confidentiality of a background file document” is any person whose name and address is in such background file document, or who has a direct interest in maintaining the confidentiality of the written determination to which such background file document relates.

(l) Successor in interest. A “successor in interest” to any person to whom a written determination pertains or background file document relates is any person who acquires the rights and assumes the liabilities of such person with respect to the transaction which was the subject matter of the written determination, provided that the successor in interest notifies the Commissioner with respect to the succession in interest.

(d) Effective/applicability date. The rules of paragraph (a) apply February 29, 2012.

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63413, Dec. 16, 1977, as amended by T.D. 9581, 77 FR 12205, Feb. 29, 2012]

§301.6110-3   Deletion of certain information in written determinations open to public inspection.

(a) Information subject to deletion. There shall be deleted from the text of any written determination open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request and background file document subject to inspection upon written request pursuant to section 6110 the following types of information:

(1) Identifying details. (i) The names, addresses, and identifying numbers (including telephone, license, social security, employer identification, credit card, and selective service numbers) of any person, other than the identifying details of a person who makes a third-party communication described in §301.6110-4(a), and

(ii) Any other information that would permit a person generally knowledgeable with respect to the appropriate community to identify any person. The determination of whether information would permit identification of a particular person will be made in view of information available to the public at the time the written determination or background file document is made open or subject to inspection and in view of information that will subsequently become available, provided the Internal Revenue Service is made aware of such information and the potential that such information may identify any person. The “appropriate community” is that group of persons who would be able to associate a particular person with a category of transactions one of which is described in the written determination or background file document. The appropriate community may vary according to the nature of the transaction which is the subject of the written determination. For example, if a steel company proposes to enter a transaction involving the purchase and installation of blast furnaces, the “appropriate community” may include all steel producers and blast furnace manufacturers, but if the installation process is a unique process of which everyone in national industry is aware, the “appropriate community” might also include the national industrial community. On the other hand, if the steel company proposes to enter a transaction involving the purchase of land on which to construct a building to house the blast furnaces, the “appropriate community” may also include those residing or doing business within the geographical locale of the land to be purchased.

(2) Information concerning national defense and foreign policy. Information specifically authorized under criteria established by an Executive order to be kept secret in the interest of national defense or foreign policy and which is in fact properly classified pursuant to such order.

(3) Information exempted by other statutes and agency rules. Information specifically exempted from disclosure by any statute other than the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and 5 U.S.C. 552 which is applicable to the Internal Revenue Service, and any information obtained by the Internal Revenue Service solely and directly from another Federal agency subject to a nondisclosure rule of such agency. Deletion of information shall not be made solely because the same information was submitted to another Federal agency subject to a nondisclosure rule applicable only to such agency.

(4) Trade secrets and privileged or confidential commercial or financial information—(i) Deletions to be made. Any—

(A) Trade secrets, and

(B) Commercial or financial information obtained from any person which, despite the fact that identifying details are deleted pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, nonetheless remains privileged or confidential.

(ii) Trade secret. For purposes of paragraph (a)(4)(i)(A) of this section, a trade secret may consist of any formula, pattern, device or compilation of information that is used in one's business, and that gives one an opportunity to obtain an advantage over competitors who do not know or use it. It may be a formula for a chemical compound, a process of manufacturing, treating or preserving materials, a pattern for a machine or other device, or a list of customers. The subject of a trade secret must be secret, that is, it must not be of public knowledge or of a general knowledge in the trade or business. Novelty, in the patent law sense, is not required for a trade secret.

(iii) Privileged or confidential. For purposes of paragraph (a)(4)(i)(B) of this section, information is privileged or confidential if from examination of the request and supporting documents relating to a written determination, and in consideration of the fact that identifying details are deleted pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section, it is determined that disclosure of such information would cause substantial harm to the competitive position of any person. For example, while determining whether disclosure of certain information would cause substantial harm to X's competitive position, the Internal Revenue Service becomes aware that his information has previously been disclosed to the public. In this situation, the Internal Revenue Service will not agree with X's argument that disclosure of the information would cause substantial harm to X's competitive position. An example of information previously disclosed to the public is financial information contained in the published annual reports of widely held public corporations.

(5) Information within the ambit of personal privacy. Information the disclosure of which would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, despite the fact that identifying details are deleted pursuant to paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Personal privacy information encompasses embarrassing or sensitive information that a reasonable person would not reveal to the public under ordinary circumstances. Matters of personal privacy include, but are not limited to, details not yet public of a pending divorce, medical treatment for physical or mental disease or injury, adoption of a child, the amount of a gift, and political preferences. A clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy exists if from analysis of information submitted in support of the request for a written determination it is determined that the public interest purpose for requiring disclosure is outweighed by the potential harm attributable to such invasion of personal privacy.

(6) Information concerning agency regulation of financial institutions. Information contained in or related to reports prepared by, on behalf of, or for the use of an agency responsible for the regulation or supervision of financial institutions concerning examination, operation or condition of a financial institution, disclosure of which would damage the standing of such financial institution.

(7) Information concerning wells. Geological or geophysical information and data, including maps, concerning wells.

(b) Manner of deletions. Whenever information, which is not to be disclosed pursuant to section 6110(c), is deleted from the text of a written determination or background file document, substitutions therefore shall be made to the extent feasible if necessary for an understanding of the legal analysis developed in such written determination or to make the disclosed text of a background file document comprehensible. Wherever any material is deleted, an indication of such deletion, and of any substitution therefor, shall be made in such manner as the Commissioner deems appropriate.

(c) Limitations on the making of deletions. Any portion of a written determination or background file document that has been deleted will be restored to the text thereof—

(1) If pursuant to section 6110(d)(3) or (f)(4)(A) a court orders disclosure of such portion, or

(2) If pursuant, to §301.6110-5(d)(1) an agreement is reached to disclose information.

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63414, Dec. 16, 1977]

§301.6110-4   Communications from third parties.

(a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section a record will be made of any communication, whether written, by telephone, at a meeting, or otherwise, received by the Internal Revenue Service or Office of its Chief Counsel prior to the issuance of written determination from any person other than a person to whom the written determination pertains or the authorized representative of such person. This rule applies to any communication concerning such written determination, any communication concerning the request for such written determination, or any communication concerning other matters involving such written determination. A notation that such communication has been made shall be placed on such written determination when it is made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request pursuant to §301.6110-5. The notation to be placed on a written determination shall consist of the date on which the communication was received and the category of the person making such communication, for example, Congressional, Department of Commerce, Treasury, trade association, White House, educational institution. Any person may request the Internal Revenue Service to disclose the name of any person about whom a notation has been made pursuant to this paragraph.

(b) Limitations. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section shall not apply to communications received by the Internal Revenue Service from employee of the Internal Revenue Service or Office of its Chief Counsel, from the Chief of Staff of the Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation, from the Department of Justice with respect to any pending civil or criminal case or investigation, or from another government agency in response to a request made by the Internal Revenue Service to such agency for assistance involving the expertise of such agency.

(c) Action to obtain disclosure of identity of person to whom written determination pertains—(1) Creation of remedy. With respect to any written determination on which a notation has been placed pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, any person may file a petition in the United States Tax Court or file a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for an order requiring that the identity of any person to whom such written determination pertains be disclosed, but such petition or complaint must be filed within 36 months of the date such written determination is made open or subject to inspection.

(2) Necessary disclosure. Whenever an action is brought pursuant to section 6110(d)(3), the court may order that the identity of any person to whom the written determination pertains be disclosed. Such disclosure may be ordered if the court determines that there is evidence in the record from which it could reasonably be concluded that an impropriety occurred or undue influence was exercised with respect to such written determination by or on behalf of the person to whom the written determination pertains. The court may, pursuant to section 6110(d)(3), also order the disclosure of any material deleted pursuant to section 6110(c) if such disclosure is in the public interest. The written determination or background file document with respect to which the disclosure was sought shall be revised to disclose the information which the court orders to be disclosed.

(3) Required notice. If a proceeding is commenced pursuant to section 6110(d)(3) and paragraph (c)(1) of this section with respect to any written determination, the Secretary shall send notice of the commencement of such proceeding to any person whose identity is subject to being disclosed and to the person about whom a third-party communication notation has been made pursuant to section 6110(d)(1). Such notice shall be sent, by registered or certified mail, to the last known address of the persons described in this paragraph (c)(3) within 15 days after notice of the petition or complaint filed pursuant to section 6110(d)(3) is served on the Secretary. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2.

(4) Intervention. Any person who is entitled to receive notice pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this section shall have the right to intervene in any action brought pursuant to section 6110(d)(3). If appropriate such person shall be permitted to intervene anonymously.

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63415, Dec. 16, 1977, as amended by T.D. 8939, 66 FR 2819, Jan. 12, 2001]

§301.6110-5   Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional disclosure.

(a) Notice—(1) General rule. Before a written determination is made open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request, or before a background file document is subject to inspection upon written request, the person to whom the written determination pertains or background file document relates shall be notified by the Commissioner of intention to disclose such written determination or background file document. The notice with respect to a written determination, other than a written determination described in §301.6110-1(b) (2) or (3) shall be mailed when such written determination is issued. The notice with respect to any written determination relating to accounting or funding periods and methods, any technical advice memoranda involving civil fraud and criminal investigations, and jeopardy and termination assessments, and any background file document shall be mailed within a reasonable time after the receipt of the first written request for inspection thereof.

(2) Contents of notice. The notice required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section shall—

(i) Include a copy of the text of the written determination or background file document, which the Commissioner proposes to make open to public inspection or subject to inspection pursuant to a written request, on which is indicated (A) the material that the Commissioner proposes to delete pursuant to section 6110(c), (B) any substitutions proposed to be made therefor, and (C) any third-party communication notations required to be placed pursuant to §301.6110-4(a) on the face of the written determination.

(ii) State that the written determination or background file document is to be open to public inspection or subject to inspection pursuant to a written request pursuant to section 6110.

(iii) State that the recipient of the notice has the right to seek administrative remedies pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section and to commence judicial proceedings pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) within indicated time periods, and

(iv) Prominently indicate the date on which the notice is mailed.

(b) Actions to restrain disclosure—(1) Administrative remedies. Any person to whom a written determination pertains or background file document relates, and any successor in interest, executor or authorized representative of such person may pursue the administrative remedies described in §601.105(b)(5) (iii)(i) and (vi)(f) and §601.201(e) (11) and (16) of this chapter. Any person who has a direct interest in maintaining the confidentiality of any written determination or background file document or portion thereof may pursue the administrative remedies described in §601.105(b)(5)(vi)(f) and §601.201(e)(16) of this chapter. No person about whom a third-party communication notation has been made pursuant to §301.6110-4(a) may pursue any administrative remedy for the purpose of restraining disclosure of the identity of such person where such identity appears with respect to the making of such third-party communication.

(2) Judicial remedy. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, any person permitted to resort to administrative remedies pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section may, if such person proposes any deletion not made pursuant to §301.6110-3 by the Commissioner, file a petition in the United States Tax Court pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) for a determination with respect to such proposed deletion. If appropriate, such petition may be filed anonymously. Any petition filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) must be filed within 60 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose required by section 6110(f)(1).

(3) Limitations on right to bring judicial actions. No petition shall be filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) unless the administrative remedies provided by paragraph (b)(1) of this section have been exhausted. However, if the petitioner has responded within the prescribed time period to the notice pursuant to section 6110(f)(1) of intention to disclose, but has not received the final administrative conclusion of the Internal Revenue Service within 50 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose required by section 6110(f)(1), the petitioner may file a petition pursuant to section 6110(f)(3). No judicial action with respect to any written determination or background file document shall be commenced pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) by any person who has received a notice with respect to such written determination or background file document pursuant to paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(4) Required notice. If a proceeding is commenced pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) with respect to any written determination or background file document, the Secretary shall send notice of the commencement of such proceeding to any person to whom such written determination pertains or to whom such background file document relates. No notice is required to be sent to persons who have filed the petition that commenced the proceeding pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) with respect to such written determination or background file document. The notice shall be sent, by registered or certified mail, to the last known address of the persons described in this paragraph (b)(4) within 15 days after notice of the petition filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) is served on the Secretary. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2.

(5) Intervention. Any person who is entitled to receive notice pursuant to paragraph (b)(4) of this section shall have the right to intervene in any action brought pursuant to this section. If appropriate, such person shall be permitted to intervene anonymously.

(c) Time at which open to public inspection—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the text of any written determination or background file document open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request pursuant to section 6110 shall be made open to or available for inspection no earlier than 75 days and no later than 90 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. However, if an action is brought pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) to restrain disclosure of any portion of such written determination or background file document the disputed portion of such written determination or background file document shall be made open to or available for inspection pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(2) Limitations—(i) Court order. The portion of the text of any written determination or background file document that was subject to an action pursuant to section 6110(f)(3) to restrain disclosure in which the court determined that such disclosure should not be restrained shall be made open to or available for inspection within 30 days of the date that the court order becomes final. However, in no event shall such portion of the text of such written determination or background file document be made open to or available for inspection earlier than 75 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose required by section 6110(f)(1) and paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Such 30-day period may be extended for such time as the court finds necessary to allow the Commissioner to comply with its decision. Any portion of a written determination or background file document which a court orders open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) or disclosed pursuant to section 6110(d)(3) shall be made open or subject to inspection or disclosed within such time as the court provides.

(ii) Postponement based on incomplete status of underlying transaction—(A) Initial period not to exceed 90 days. The time period set forth in paragraph (c)(1) of this section within which a written determination shall be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request shall be extended, upon the written request of the person to whom such written determination pertains or the authorized representative of such person, until 15 days after the date on which the transaction set forth in the written determination is scheduled to be completed, but such day shall be no later than 180 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose.

(B) Additional period. The time period determined pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section shall be further extended upon an additional written request, if the Commissioner determines from the information contained in such request that good cause exists to warrant such extension. This further extension shall be until 15 days after the date on which the transaction set forth in the written determination is expected to be completed, but such day shall be no later than 360 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose. The good cause required by this paragraph (B) exists if the person requesting the delay in inspection demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that it is likely that the lack of such extension will cause interference with consummation of the pending transaction.

(C) Written request for extension. The written request for extension of the time when a written determination is to be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request shall set forth the date on which it is expected that the underlying transaction will be completed, and, with respect to the additional extension described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, set forth the reason for requesting such extension. A request for extension of time may not be submitted until the notice of intention to disclose is mailed and must be received by the Internal Revenue Service office which issued such written determination no later than—

(1) In the case of the initial extension, 60 days after the date on which the Commissioner mails the notice of intention to disclose, or

(2) In the case of the additional extension, 15 days before the day on which, for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, the transaction set forth in the written determination was expected to have been completed.

(D) Notice and determination of actual completion. If an extension of time for inspection has been granted, and the transaction is completed prior to the day on which it was expected to have been completed, the Internal Revenue Service office which issued such written determination shall be so notified by the person who requested such extension. In such event, the written determination shall be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request on the earlier of (1) 30 days after the day on which the Commissioner is notified that the transaction is completed, or (2) the day on which the written determination was scheduled to be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. Similarly, if the Commissioner determines that the transaction was completed prior to the day on which it was expected to have been completed, even if the person requesting such extension has not so notified the Internal Revenue Service, the written determination shall be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request on the earlier of (1) the day which is 30 days after the Commissioner ascertains that the transaction is completed sooner than has been expected, or (2) the day on which the written determination was scheduled to be made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(d) Actions to obtain additional disclosure—(1) Administrative remedies. Under section 6110(f)(4) any person may seek to obtain additional disclosure of information contained in any written determination or background file document that has been made open or subject to inspection. A request for such additional disclosure shall be submitted to the Internal Revenue Service office which issued such written determination, or to which the request for inspection of such background file document has been submitted pursuant to §301.6110-1(c)(4), and must contain the file number of the written determination or a description of the background file document (including the file number of the related written determination), the deleted information which in the opinion of such person should be open or subject to inspection, and the basis for such opinion. If the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request constitutes a request for disclosure of the name, address, or the identifying numbers described in §301.6110-3(a)(1)(i) of any person, it shall within a reasonable time notify the person requesting such disclosure that disclosure will not be made. If the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request or any portion thereof constitutes a request for disclosure of information other than the name, address, or the identifying numbers described in §301.6110-3(a)(1)(i) of any person, it shall send a notice that such additional disclosure has been requested to any person to whom the written determination pertains or background file document relates, and to all persons who are identified by name and address in the written determination or background file document. Notice that such persons have been contacted shall be sent to the person requesting the additional disclosure. The notice that additional disclosure has been requested shall state that the Internal Revenue Service has determined that additional disclosure of information other than the name, address, or the identifying numbers described in §301.6110-3(a)(1)(i) of any person has been requested, inform the recipient of the notice that the person seeking the additional disclosure has the right under section 6110(f)(4) to bring a judicial action to attempt to compel such disclosure, and request the recipient of the notice to reply within 20 days by submitting a statement of whether or not the recipient of the notice agrees to the requested disclosure or portion thereof. If all persons to whom a notice is sent pursuant to this paragraph (d)(1) of this section agree to disclose the requested information or any portion thereof, the person seeking such disclosure will be so informed; the written determination or background file document shall be accordingly revised to disclose the information with respect to which an agreement to disclose has been reached. If any of the persons to whom a notice is sent pursuant to this paragraph (d)(1) of this section do not agree to the additional disclosure or do not respond to such notice, the Internal Revenue Service shall within a reasonable time so notify the person requesting such disclosure, and deny the request for additional disclosure.

(2) Judicial remedy. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, any person who seeks to obtain additional disclosure of information contained in any written determination or background file document may file a petition pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) in the United States Tax Court or a complaint in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia for an order requiring that such information be made open or subject to inspection. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent the Commissioner from disposing of written determinations and related background file documents pursuant to §301.6110-7(a).

(3) Limitations on right to bring judicial action—(i) Exhaustion of administrative remedies. No petition or complaint shall be filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) unless the administrative remedies provided by paragraph (d)(1) of this section have been exhausted. However, if the Internal Revenue Service does not approve or deny the request for additional disclosure within 180 days after the request is submitted, the person making the request may file a petition pursuant to section 6110(f)(4).

(ii) Actions to obtain identity. No petition or complaint shall be filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) to obtain disclosure of the identity of any person to whom a written determination on which a third-party communication notation has been placed pursuant to §301.6110-4(a) pertains. Such actions shall be brought pursuant to section 6110(d)(3).

(4) Required notice. If a proceeding is commenced pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) with respect to any written determination or background file document, the Secretary shall send notice of the commencement of such proceeding to any person to whom the written determination pertains or background file document relates, and to all persons who are identified by name and address in the written determination or background file document. The notice shall be sent, by registered or certified mail, to the last known address of the persons described in this paragraph (d)(4) within 15 days after notice of the petition or complaint filed pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) is served on the Secretary.

(5) Intervention. Any person who is entitled to receive notice pursuant to paragraph (d)(4) of this section shall have the right to intervene in any action brought pursuant to this section. If appropriate, such person shall be permitted to intervene anonymously.

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63415, Dec. 16, 1977, as amended by T.D. 8939, 66 FR 2819, Jan. 12, 2001]

§301.6110-6   Written determinations issued in response to requests submitted before November 1, 1976.

(a) Inspection of written determinations and background file documents—(1) General rule. Except as provided in this section, the text of any written determination issued in response to a request postmarked or hand delivered before November 1, 1976 and any related background file document shall be open or subject to inspection in accordance with the rules in §§301.6110-1 through 301.6110-5 and 301.6110-7. However, the rules in §301.6110-4 do not apply to inspection under this section. The rules in §301.6110-5 (a), (b) and (c) also do not apply, except with respect to background file documents.

(2) Exclusions. The following written determinations are not open or subject to inspection under this section.

(i) Written determinations with respect to matters for which the determination of whether public inspection should occur is made under section 6104. Some of these matters are listed in §301.6110-1(a).

(ii) Written determinations issued before September 2, 1974, dealing with the qualification of a plan described in section 6104(a)(1)(B)(i) or the exemption from tax under section 501(a) of an organization forming part of such a plan.

(iii) Written determination issued pursuant to requests submitted before November 1, 1976 with respect to the exempt staus under section 501(a) of organizations described in section 501 (c) or (d), the status of organizations as private foundations under section 509(a), or the status of organizations as operating foundations under section 4942(j)(3).

(iv) General written determinations that relate solely to accounting or funding periods and methods, as defined in §301.6110-1(b)(3).

(v) Determination letters.

(3) Items that may be inspected only under certain circumstances—(i) Background file documents. A background file document relating to a particular written determination issued in response to a request submitted before November 1, 1976 shall not be subject to inspection until the related written determination is open to public inspection or available for inspection, and then only if a written request pursuant to §301.6110-1(c)(4) is made for inspection of the background file document. However, the following background file documents are not open or subject to inspection:

(A) Background file documents relating to general written determinations issued before July 5, 1967.

(B) Background file documents relating to written determinations described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) General written determinations issued before July 5, 1967. General written determinations issued before July 5, 1967 shall not be subject to inspection until all other written determinations issued in response to requests postmarked or hand delivered before November 1, 1976 that are open to inspection under this section have been made open to public inspection, and then only if a written request pursuant to §301.6110-1(c)(4) is made for inspection of the written determination. In this regard, the request for inspection must also contain the section of the Internal Revenue Code in which the requester is interested and the dates of issuance of the written determinations.

(b) Notice and time requirements, and actions to restrain disclosure—(1) Notice— (i) General rule. Before a written determination is made open to public inspection and before a particular written determination is subject to inspection in response to the first written request therefor, the Commissioner shall publish in the Federal Register a notice that the written determination is to be made open or subject to inspection. Notices with respect to written determinations, other than those described in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, shall be published at the earliest practicable time after this regulation is adopted as a Treasury decision. Notices with respect to written determinations subject to inspection upon written request shall be published within a reasonable time after the receipt of the first written request for inspection thereof, but no sooner than the day as of which all other written determinations open to public inspection under this section have been made open to public inspection. Notices with respect to background file documents shall be sent in accordance with the rules in §301.6110-5(a) and will be mailed by the Internal Revenue Service to the most recent addresses of the persons to whom the background file document relates that are in the written determination file.

(ii) Sequence of notices. Notices with respect to written determinations, other than general written determinations issued before July 5, 1967, shall be published in the following order. The first category is notices with respect to reference written determinations issued under the Internal Revenue Code of 1954. The second category is notices with respect to general written determinations issued after July 4, 1967. The third category is notices with respect to reference written determinations issued under the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or corresponding provisions of prior law. Within a category, the Commissioner may publish notices individually or for groups of written determinations arranged according to the jurisdictions of the ruling branches in the Office of the Assistant Commissioner (Technical) and the Assistant Commissioner (Employee Plans and Exempt Organizations), as the Commissioner may find reasonable. To the extent practicable, notices published individually shall be published in the reverse order of the issuance of the written determinations for which they are published, starting with the most recent written determination issued. To the extent practicable, each group shall consist of consecutively issued written determinations. Notices for groups shall be published, to the extent practicable, in the reverse order of the time period of issuance of the written determinations in each group, starting with the most recent time period.

(iii) Contents of notice. The notice required by paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section shall:

(A) Identify by subject matter description and dates of issuance the written determinations that the Commissioner proposes to make open or subject to inspection.

(B) State that the written determinations will be made open or subject to inspection pursuant to section 6110(h),

(C) State that the persons to whom the written determinations pertain have the right to seek administrative remedies under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section and to commence judicial proceedings under section 6110(h)(4) within indicated time periods,

(D) State that there exist the possibilities that someone might request additional disclosure under section 6110(f)(4) and that someone might request inspection of a related background file document, and

(E) State that any notice that must be mailed by the Internal Revenue Service will be sent to the most recent address of the person to whom the notice must be sent that is in the relevent written determination file.

(2) Actions to restrain disclosure—(i) Information on written determinations described by notice. Any person may, within 15 days after the Commissioner publishes in the Federal Register a notice of intention to disclose a written determination under section 6110(h), request the Internal Revenue Service to provide certain information. This information includes whether any of the written determinations described by the notice is one that was issued to the person requesting this information. The Internal Revenue Service will also inform the person whether any of the written determinations described by the notice is one that was issued to a person with respect to whom the person requesting this information is a successor in interest executor or authorized representative. However, in order to do so, the Internal Revenue Service must be given the name and taxpayer identifying number of this other person and documentation of the relationship between that person and the person requesting the information. If the person requesting this information is a person to whom a written determination described by the notice pertains, or a successor in interest, executor, or authorized representative of that person, the Internal Revenue Service will also provide the person with a copy of the written determination on which is indicated the material that the Commissioner proposes to delete under section 6110(c) and any substitution proposed to be made therefor.

(ii) Administrative remedies. Any person to whom a written determination described by the notice in the Federal Register pertains, and any successor in interest, executor or authorized representative of that person may pursue the administrative remedies described in this paragraph (b)(2)(ii). If after receiving the information described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, the person pursuing these administrative remedies desires to protest the disclosure of certain information in the written determination, that person must within 35 days after the notice is published submit a written statement identifying those deletions not made by the Internal Revenue Service which the person believes should have been made. The person pursuing these administrative remedies must also submit a copy of the version of the written determination proposed to be open or subject to inspection on which that person indicates, by the use of brackets, the deletions which the person believes should have been made. The Internal Revenue Service shall, within 20 days after receipt of the response by the person pursuing these administrative remedies, mail to that person its final administrative conclusion with respect to the deletions to be made.

(iii) Judicial remedy. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section, any person permitted to resort to administrative remedies under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section may, if that person proposed any deletion not made under section 6110(c) by the Commissioner, file a petition in the United States Tax Court under section 6110(h)(4) for a determination with respect to the proposed deletion. If appropriate, the petition may be filed anonymously. Any petition filed under section 6110(h)(4) must be filed within 75 days after the date on which the Commissioner publishes in the Federal Register the notice of intention to disclose required under section 6110(h)(4).

(iv) Limitations on right to bring judicial actions. No petition shall be filed under section 6110(h)(4) unless the administrative remedies provided by paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section have been exhausted. However, under two circumstances the petition may be filed even though the administrative remedies have not been exhausted. The first circumstance is if the petitioner requests the information described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section within 15 days after the notice of intention to disclose is published in the Federal Register, but does not receive it within 30 days after the notice is published. The other circumstance is if the petitioner submits the statement of deletions within 35 days after the notice is published, but does not receive the final administrative conclusion of the Internal Revenue Service within 65 days after the notice is published. No judicial action with respect to any written determination shall be commenced under section 6110(h)(4) by any person who has received a notice with respect to the written determination under paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section.

(v) Required notice. If a proceeding is commenced under section 6110(h)(4) with respect to any written determination, the Secretary shall send notice of the commencement of the proceeding to any person to whom the written determination pertains. No notice is required to be sent to persons who have filed the petition that commenced the proceeding under section 6110(h)(4) with respect to the written determination. The notice shall be sent, by registered or certified mail, to the last known address of the persons described in this paragraph (b)(2)(v) within 15 days after notice of the petition filed under section 6110(h)(4) is served on the Secretary. For further guidance regarding the definition of last known address, see §301.6212-2.

(vi) Intervention. Any person who is entitled to receive notice under paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section has the right to intervene in any action brought under this paragraph (b)(2). If appropriate, this person shall be permitted to intervene anonymously.

(vii) Background file documents. The following qualifications of the rules in §301.6110-5(b) apply with respect to the restraint of disclosure of background file documents related to written determinations to which this section applies. First, the administrative remedies described in §§601.105 (b)(5)(iii)(i) and 601.201(e)(11) of this chapter do not apply. Second, the rule in §§601.105(b)(5)(vi)(f) and 601.201(e)(16) that the Internal Revenue Service will not consider the deletion of material not proposed for deletion prior to the issuance of the written determination does not apply.

(3) Time at which open to public inspection—(i) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, the text of any written determination open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request under section 6110(h) shall be made open to or available for inspection no earlier than 90 days and no later than 120 days after the date on which the Commissioner publishes in the Federal Register the notice of intention to disclose required under section 6110(h)(4). However, if an action is brought under section 6110(h)(4) to restrain disclosure of any portion of a written determination, the disputed portion of that written determination shall be made open to or available for inspection under paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Limitation on account of court order. The portion of the text of any written determination that was subject to an action under section 6110(h)(4) to restrain disclosure in which the court determined that the disclosure should not be restrained shall be made open to or available for inspection within 30 days of the date that the court order becomes final. However, in no event shall that portion of the text of that written determination be made open to or available for inspection earlier than 90 days after the date on which the Commissioner publishes in the Federal Register the notice of intention to disclose required by section 6110(h)(4) and paragraph (b)(1) of this section. This 30-day period may be extended for such time as the court finds necessary to allow the Commissioner to comply with its decision. Any portion of a written determination which a court orders open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request under section 6110(f)(4) shall be open or subject to inspection within such time as the court provides.

(iii) Background file documents. The rules in §301.6110-5(c)(2)(ii) do not apply with respect to the time at which background file documents related to written determinations to which this section applies are subject to inspection.

[T.D. 7548, 43 FR 20791, May 15, 1978, as amended by T.D. 8939, 66 FR 2819, Jan. 12, 2001]

§301.6110-7   Miscellaneous provisions.

(a) Disposition of written determinations and background file documents—(1) Reference written determinations. The Internal Revenue Service shall not dispose of any reference written determinations or related background file documents. The Commissioner may reclassify reference written determinations as general written determinations if the classification as reference was erroneous or if the Commissioner determines that such written determination no longer has any significant reference value. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Commissioner shall not classify as a general written determination any written determination which is determined to be the basis for a published revenue ruling unless such revenue ruling is obsoleted, revoked, superseded or otherwise held to have no effect.

(2) General written determinations. The Internal Revenue Service may dispose of general written determinations and any background file document relating to such written determination pursuant to its established records disposition procedures. Disposition of a written determination shall not occur earlier than 3 years after the date on which such written determination is made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request. Disposition of a background file document shall not occur earlier than 3 years after the date on which the related written determination is made open to public inspection or available for inspection upon written request.

(b) Precedential status of written determinations open to public inspection. A written determination may not be used or cited as precedent, but the rule set forth in this paragraph shall not apply to change the precedential status, if any, of written determinations issued with respect to taxes imposed by subtitle D of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

(c) Civil remedies—(1) Liability for failure to make deletions or to conform to time limitations—(i) Creation of remedy. An exclusive remedy against the Commissioner shall exist in the Court of Claims for—

(A) The person to whom the written determination pertains whenever the Commissioner fails to act in accordance with the time requirements of section 6110(g), and

(B) The person to whom the written determination pertains and any person identified in such written determination whenever the Commissioner fails to make deletions required by section 6110(c) if as a consequence of such failure there is disclosed the identity of such person or other information with respect to such person that is required to be deleted pursuant to section 6110(c).

(ii) Limitations. The remedy provided in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section for failure to make deletions shall be available only if—

(A) The failure of the Commissioner to make the deletions required by section 6110(c) is intentional or willful,

(B) The Commissioner fails to make any deletion required by section 6110(c) which the Commissioner has agreed to make, or

(C) The Commissioner fails to make any deletion which a court has ordered to be made pursuant to section 6110(f)(3).

(iii) Damages. In any suit brought pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section in which the court determines that an employee of the Internal Revenue Service intentionally or willfully failed to make a deletion required by section 6110(c), or intentionally or willfully failed to act in accordance with the time requirements of section 6110(g), the United States shall be liable, to the person described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section who brought the action, in an amount equal to the sum of—

(A) Actual damages sustained by such person but in no case shall such person be entitled to receive less than the sum of $1,000.

(B) The costs of the action, and

(C) Reasonable attorney's fees as determined by the court.

(2) Liability for making additional disclosure of information. The Commissioner shall not be liable for making any additional disclosure ordered pursuant to an action described in §301.6110-5(d)(2) if the notice required by §301.6110-5(d)(4) is sent.

(3) Obligation to defend action for additional disclosure. The Commissioner shall not be required to defend any action brought to obtain additional disclosure pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) if the notice required by §301.6110-5(d)(4) is sent.

(4) Obligation to make deletions. The Commissioner shall be obligated to make only those deletions required by section 6110(c) which he has agreed to make, those which a court has ordered to be made pursuant to §301.6110-5(b)(2) and those the omission of which would be intentional or willful.

(d) Fees—(1) General rule—(i) Copies. The Commissioner may prescribe fees pursuant to §607.702(f)(4) of this chapter for the costs of furnishing copies of material open to public inspection or subject to inspection upon written request pursuant to section 6110.

(ii) Preparation of information available upon request. The Commissioner may prescribe fees pursuant to §601.702(f) of this chapter for the costs of searching for and making deletions from any written determinations and background if documents that are subject to inspection only upon written request pursuant to §301.6110-1(b).

(2) Reduction or waiver of fees—(i) Public interest. The Commissioner shall reduce or waive the fees described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section if the Commissioner determines that furnishing copies of, searching for, or making deletions from any written determination or background file document primarily benefits the general public, as described in §601.702(f)(2)(ii)(B) of this chapter.

(ii) Previous requests. The Commissioner may waive the fees described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for searching for any written determination or background file document if the search for such written determination or background file document was made pursuant to a previous request for inspection thereof. The Commissioner shall waive the fees described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for making deletions from any written determination or background file document if the making of such deletions from such written determination or background file document was made pursuant to a previous request for inspection thereof. Nothing in this (d)(2)(ii) shall prevent the Commissioner from prescribing fees for making additional deletions from such written determination or background file document pursuant to §301.6110-5(b).

[T.D. 7524, 42 FR 63417, Dec. 16, 1977]

§301.6111-1T   Questions and answers relating to tax shelter registration.

The following questions and answers relate to the tax shelter registration requirements of section 6111 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, as added by section 141(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (Pub. L. 98-369, 98 Stat. 678).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

The following table of contents is provided as part of these temporary regulations to help the reader locate relevant provisions. The headings are to be used only as a matter of convenience and have no substantive effect.

In General

Overview of tax shelter registration, A-1

Overview of applicable penalties, A-2

Effect of registration, A-3

Tax Shelter Defined

Definition of tax shelter, A-4

Tax Shelter Ratio

Definition of tax shelter ratio, A-5

Deductions and Credits Represented as Potentially Allowable

Definition of amount of deductions and credits, A-6

Definition of year, A-7

Definition of explicit representation, A-8

Definition of inferred representation, A-9

Effect of qualified representation, A-10

Representation regarding interest deduction, A-11

Representation regarding unintended events, A-12

Investment Base

Definition of investment base, A-13

Amounts eliminated from investment base, A-14

Tax Shelter Ratio—Miscellaneous

Effect of different ratios for different investors, A-15

Effect of alternate financing arrangements, A-16

Investments Subject to Securities Regulation

Federal law regulating securities, A-17

State law regulating securities, A-18

Exemptions from federal securities registration, A-19

Exemptions from state securities registration, A-20

Substantial Investment

Definition of substantial investment, A-21

Aggregation rules, A-22 and A-23

Exceptions From Tax Shelter Registration

Investments excepted from tax shelter registration, A-24

Certain persons not treated as investors, A-24A

Persons Required To Register a Tax Shelter

Tax shelter organizer, A-25 and A-26

Principal organizer, A-27

Participant in the organization, A-28 Manager, A-29

Exception for certain unrelated persons, A-30

Sellers, A-31

Absence of representations by organizer, A-32

Exception for suport services, A-33

Circumstances Under Which Tax Shelter Organizers Are Required To Register a Tax Shelter

Principal organizer and a participant in the organization, A-34

Manager who has not signed designation agreement, A-35

Seller who has not signed designation agreement, A-36

Person acting in multiple capacities, A-37

Designation agreement (designated organizer), A-38

Person who has signed designation agreement, A-39

Registration—General Rules

Date registration is required, A-40

Requirement to provide registration notice to sellers and others, A-41

Definition of sale of an interest, A-42

Definition of offering for sale, A-43

No requirement to submit revised registration form A-44—A-45

Information reported on an amended application, 45A

Effect of resale of an asset, A-46

When registration is complete, A-47

Separate forms required for certain aggregated investments, A-48

Applicability of section 7502, A-49

Required investor disclaimer, A-50

Furnishing Tax Shelter Registration Numbers to Investors

Who must furnish number, A-51

When number must be furnished, A-52

Form required to furnish number, A-53 and A-54

Including the Registration Number on Tax Returns

Requirement to include registration number on investor's return, A-55 and A-57

Projected Income Investments

Special rules for projected income investments, A-57A

Definitions relating to projected income, investments A57B—A-57D

Tax shelters ineligible for the special rules, A-57E

Consequences of bad faith or unreasonable projections, A-57F

When a tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, A-57G

Special rule for registration, A-57H

Special rule for furnishing registration number, A-57I

Special rule for including registration number on tax return, A-57J

Effective Dates

Effective dates, A-58 and A-60

In General

Q-1. What is tax shelter registration?

A-1. Tax shelter registration is a new provision of the Internal Revenue Code that affects organizers, sellers, investors, and certain other persons associated with investments that are considered tax shelters. The new provision imposes the following three requirements. First, a tax shelter must be registered by the tax shelter organizer. (See A-4 of this section for the definition of a tax shelter. See A-25 through A-39 of this section for rules relating to tax shelter organizers. See A-26 of this section for rules regarding when the seller of an interest in a tax shelter is treated as the tax shelter organizer.) Registration is accomplished by filing a properly completed Form 8264 with the Internal Revenue Service. The Internal Revenue Service will assign a registration number to each tax shelter that is registered. Second, any person who sells or otherwise transfers an interest in a tax shelter must furnish the registration number of the tax shelter to the purchaser or transferee of the interest. (See A-51 through A-54 of this section for the time and manner in which the number must be furnished.) Third, any person who claims a deduction, loss, credit, or other tax benefit or reports any income from the tax shelter must report the registration number of the tax shelter on any return on which the deduction, loss, credit, benefit, or income in included. (See A-55 through A-57 of this section for rules relating to the reporting of tax shelter registration numbers.)

Q-2. Are penalties provided for failure to comply with the requirements of tax shelter registration?

A-2. Yes. Separate penalties are provided for failure to satisfy any of the requirements set forth in A-1 of this section. See A-1 of §301.6707-1T for the penalty for failure to register a tax shelter and A-8 of §301.6707-1T for the penalty for filing false or incomplete information will respect to the registration of a tax shelter. See A-12 of §301.6707-1T for the penalty for failure to furnish the tax shelter registration number to purchasers or transferees. See A-13 of 301.6707-1T for the penalty for failure to report the tax shelter registration number on a tax return on which a deduction, loss, credit, income, or other tax benefit is included. In addition, criminal penalties may be imposed for willful noncompliance with the requirements of tax shelter registration. See, for example, section 7203, relating to willful failure to supply information, and section 7206, relating to fraudulent and false statements.

Q-3. Does registration of a tax shelter with the Internal Revenue Service indicate that the Internal Revenue Service has reviewed, examined, or approved the tax shelter or the claimed tax benefits?

A-3. No. Moreover, any representation to prospective investors that states that a tax shelter is registered with the Internal Revenue Service (or that registration is being sought) must include a legend stating that registration does not indicate that the Internal Revenue Service has reviewed, examined or approved the tax shelter or any of the claimed tax benefits. (See A-50 of this section for the form and content of the legend.)

Tax Shelter Defined

Q-4. What investments are tax shelters that are required to be registered with the Internal Revenue Service?

A-4. A tax shelter is any investment that meets the following two requirements:

(I) The investment must be one with respect to which a person could reasonably infer, from the representations made or to be made in connection with any offer for sale of any interest in the investment, that the tax shelter ratio for any investor may be greater than 2 to 1 as of the close of any of the first 5 years ending after the date on which the investment is offered for sale.

(II) The investment must be (i) required to be registered under a federal or state law regulating securities, (ii) sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice with a federal or state agency regulating the offering or sale of securities, or (iii) a substantial investment.

An investment that satisfies these two requirements is considered a tax shelter for registration purposes regardless of whether it is marketed or customarily designated as a tax shelter. See A-5 of this section for the definition of tax shelter ratio. See A-17 and A-18 of this section for the definition of an investment required to be registered under a federal or state law regulating securities. See A-19 and A-20 of this section for the definition of an investment sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice. See A-21 of this section for the definition of a substantial investment.

Tax Shelter Ratio

Q-5. What does the term “tax shelter ratio” mean?

A-5. The term “tax shelter ratio” means, with respect to any year, the ratio that the aggregate amount of deductions and 200 percent of the credits that are or will be represented as potentially allowable to an investor under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code for all periods up to (and including) the close of such year, bears to the investment base for such investor as of the close of such year.

Deductions and Credits Represented as Potentially Allowable

Q-6. What do the terms “amount of deductions” and “credits” mean?

A-6. The term “amount of deductions” means the amount of gross deductions and other similar tax benefits potentially allowable with respect to the investment. The gross deductions are not to be offset by any gross income to be derived or potentially derived from the investment. Thus, the term “amount of deductions” is not equivalent to the net loss, if any, attributable to the investment. The term “credits” means the gross amount of credits potentially allowable with respect to the investment without regard to any possible tax liability resulting from the investment or any potential recapture of the credits.

Q-7. What does the term “year” mean for purposes of determining the tax shelter ratio?

A-7. The term “year” means the taxable year of a tax shelter, or if the tax shelter has no taxable year, the calendar year.

Q-8. Under what circumstances is a deduction or credit considered to be represented as being potentially allowable to an investor?

A-8. A deduction or credit is considered to be represented as being potentially allowable to an investor if any statement is made (or will be made) in connection with the offering for sale of an interest in an investment indicating that a tax deduction or credit is available or may be used to reduce federal income tax or federal taxable income. Representations of tax benefits may be oral or written and include those made at the time of the initial offering for sale of interests in the investment, such as advertisements, written offering materials, prospectuses, or tax opinions, and those that are expected to be made subsequent to the initial offering. Representations are not confined solely to statements regarding actual dollar amounts of tax benefits, but also include general representations that tax benefits are available with respect to an investment. Thus, for example, an advertisement stating that “purchase of restaurant includes trade fixtures (5-year write-off and investment tax credit)” constitutes an explicit representation of tax benefits.

Q-9. If a deduction or credit is not explicitly represented as being potentially allowable to an investor may it be inferred as a represented tax benefit that is includible in the tax shelter ratio?

A-9. Yes. Although some explicit representation concerning tax benefits is necessary before an investment may be considered a tax shelter, once an explicit representation is made (or will be made) regarding any tax benefit, all deductions or credits typically associated with the investment will be inferred to have been represented as potentially allowable. Thus, the tax shelter ratio will be determined with reference to those tax benefits that are explicitly represented as being potentially allowable as well as all other tax benefits that are typically associated with the investment. The amount of each deduction or credit that is includible in the tax shelter ratio, if not specifically represented as to amount, should be reasonably estimated based on representations of economic value or economic projections, if any, or on any other information available to the tax shelter organizer. Reasonable estimates of deductions or credits may take into account past experience with similar investments. Reasonable estimates must assume use of the most accelerated allowable basis for cost recovery deductions.

As an example of the application of this A-9, assume that an advertisement explicitly states that a building is eligible for the investment tax credit for rehabilitation of a certified historic structure, but makes no mention of cost recovery deductions, amortization deductions for construction period interest and taxes, real estate taxes after construction, ongoing maintenance expenses, or other deductions or credits typically associated with a building. Reasonable estimates of all such deductions and credits must be included with the investment tax credit explicitly represented in determining the tax shelter ratio associated with any investor's acquisition of an interest in the building.

Q-10. Does the fact that representations are made (or to be made) indicating that a deduction may be offset by income from the investment or that a deduction or credit may be subject to recapture or may be disallowed on audit affect the computation of the tax shelter ratio?

A-10. No. Deductions and credits represented as being potentially allowable are taken into account in computing the tax shelter ratio regardless of whether any qualifying statements are made.

Q-11. Is interest to be paid by an investor with respect to a debt obligation incurred in connection with the acquisition of an interest in the tax shelter included in the aggregate amount of deductions?

A-11. If a deduction for such interest is explicitly represented (or will be represented) as being potentially allowable, the interest is includible in the aggregate amount of the deductions. In addition, any interest to be paid with respect to a debt obligation the proceeds of which reduce the investment base (see A-14 of this section), regardless of whether a deduction for such interest is explicitly represented as being allowable, will be considered a deduction typically associated with the investment (see A-9 of this section). Accordingly, such interest will be considered to be represented as being potentially allowable and must be taken into account in computing the tax shelter ratio. If interest to be paid with respect to a debt obligation the proceeds of which do not reduce the investment base (see A-14 of this section) is not explicitly represented as being potentially allowable, however, such interest will not be considered typically associated with the investment and will not be taken into account in computing the tax shelter ratio.

Q-12. If representations are made that part or all of an amount invested in a tax shelter will be deductible upon the occurrence of an unintended event, will the deduction be included in the aggregate amount of deductions?

A-12. No. Thus, for example, if representations are made that a person's investment in a tax shelter may give rise to a loss deduction if the investment becomes worthless, the amount of the loss deduction will not be included in the aggregate amount of deductions and will not be taken into account in computing the tax shelter ratio. Similarly, if representations are made that the costs of acquiring oil and gas lease interests may be deductible if the lease is proved worthless by abandonment, the amount of any loss deduction will not be included in the aggregate amount of deductions.

Investment Base

Q-13. What does the term “investment base” mean?

A-13. The term “investment base” means, with respect to any year (as defined in A-7 of this section), means the cumulative amount of money and the adjusted basis of other property (reduced by any liability to which such other property is subject) that is unconditionally required to be contributed or paid directly to the tax shelter on or before the close of such year by an investor.

Q-14. What amounts must be eliminated from the investment base?

A-14. The investment base must be reduced by the following amounts:

(1) Any amount borrowed by the investor, even if borrowed on a recourse basis, from any person who participated in the organization, sale, or management of the investment or who has an interest (other than an interest as a creditor) in the investment (“a participating person”) or from any person who is related (as defined in section 168 (e)(4)) to a participating person, unless the amount is unconditionally required to be repaid by the investor before the close of the year for which the determination is being made. An amount will be considered unconditionally required to be repaid by the investor only if any offering material in which the borrowed amount is described and any agreement to be entered into between a participating (or related) person and the investor provide that the amount must be repaid (without exception) by the end of the year for which the determination is being made. An amount that is to be repaid only from earnings of the investment is not an amount that is unconditionally required to be repaid and is thus excluded from the investment base. In addition, an amount is not unconditionally required to be repaid if the amount will be (or is expected to be) reloaned to the investor during the 5-year period ending after the date the investment is offered for sale.

(2) Any amount borrowed by the investor, even if borrowed on a recourse basis, from a person, if the loan is arranged by a participating (or related) person, unless the amount is unconditionally required to be repaid by the investor before the close of the year for which the determination is being made. Any borrowing that is represented (orally or in writing) as being available from a specific source will be treated as arranged by a participating (or related) person, if the participating (or related) person provides a list of investors, or information relating to the investment, to the lender or otherwise informs the lender about the investment. However, in the case of an amount borrowed on a recourse basis, the mere fact that a lender who is actively and regularly engaged in the business of lending money obtained information relating to the investment, from a participating (or related) person, solely in response to a lender's request made in connection with such borrowing or a prior loan to the investment, a participating (or related) person, or an investor, will not, by itself, result in a determination that the loans are arranged by a participating (or related) person. Financing may be treated as arranged by a participating (or related) person regardless of whether a commitment to provide the financing is made by the lender to the participating or related person.

For example, assume that a tax shelter organizer represents that the purchase of an interest in a tax shelter may be financed with the proceeds of a revolving loan, and the tax shelter organizer provides investors with the names of several banks or other lending institutions to which the tax shelter organizer has provided information about the investment. Assume further that the information was not provided in response to requests from such lending institutions made in connection with prior loans. The proceeds of the revolving loan will be excluded from the investment base because the loan is not unconditionally required to be repaid and it is treated as having been arranged by the tax shelter organizer.

(3) Any amount borrowed, directly or indirectly, from a lender located outside the United States (“foreign-connected financing”), of which a participating (or related) person knows or has reason to know.

(4) Any amounts to be held for the benefit of investors in cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities. An amount is to be held in cash equivalents if the amount is to be held in a checking account, savings account, mutual fund, certificate of deposit, book entry government obligation, or any other similar account or arrangement. Marketable securities are any securities that are part of an issue any portion of which is traded on an established securities market and any securities that are regularly quoted by brokers or dealers making a market.

(5) Any distributions (whether of cash or property) that will be made without regard to the income of the tax shelter, but only to the extent such distributions exceed the amount to be held as of the close of the year in cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities.

Tax Shelter Ratio—Miscellaneous

Q-15. Does an investment satisfy the requirement in A-4 (I) of this section (“the tax shelter ratio requirement”) if it may be inferred from the representations made or to be made to investors that the tax shelter ratio for some, but not all, of the investors may be greater than 2 to 1 as of the close of any one of the first five years?

A-15. Yes. If the tax shelter ratio for any one investor may be greater that 2 to 1, the investment satisfies the tax shelter ratio requirement and is a tax shelter if it also meets the requirement in A-4(II) of this section. Moreover, an investment will satisfy the tax shelter ratio requirement even if the tax shelter ratio for a single investor exceeds 2 to 1 as of the close of only one of the first five years.

For purposes of computing the tax shelter ratio for a year, all persons with interests in the investment are considered investors, except that general partners in a limited partnership will not be treated as investors in the partnership if the general partners' aggregate interest in each item of partnership income, gain, loss, deduction, and credit for such year is not expected to exceed 2 percent. In determining the general partners' interest in such items, limited partnership interests owned by general partners shall not be taken into account. For purposes other than the computation of the tax shelter ratio, however, all general partners will be treated as investors. Thus, for example, a general partner with a 1 percent interest in a limited partnership will be treated as an investor for the purpose of determining whether the partnership is a substantial investment.

Q-16. If a person could reasonably infer from the representations made or to be made about an investment that the tax shelter ratio for the investment may be greater than 2 to 1 under one arrangement for financing the purchase of an interest by an investor, but would be 2 to 1 or less under an alternative financing arrangement, does the investment satisfy the tax shelter ratio requirement of A-4 (I) of this section.

A-16. Yes. An investment satisfies the tax shelter ratio requirement of A-4 (I) of this section if a person could reasonably infer from the representations made or to be made that the tax shelter ratio for any person may be greater than 2 to 1 as of the close of any one of the first five years. The tax shelter ratio requirement is met if the tax shelter ratio may exceed 2 to 1 under any type of financing arrangement that is or will be represented as being available to investors.

Investments Subject to Securities Regulation

Q-17. What is an investment that is required to be registered under a federal law regulating securities?

A-17. An investment required to be registered under a federal law regulating securities is any public offering of an investment that is required to be registered under the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act), the Investment Company Act of 1940, or any other federal law regulating securities. An investment is required to be registered under the 1933 Act, the Investment Company Act, or any other federal law regulating securities, if failure to register the investment would result in a violations of the applicable federal law, whether or not the investment has in fact been registered and, if proper notice has not been filed, whether or not the investment could have been sold pursuant to an exemption listed in A-19 of this section if such notice had been filed.

Q-18. What is an investment required to be registered under a state law regulating securities?

A-18. An investment required to be registered under a state law regulating securities is any investment required to be registered under a blue sky law or other similar state statute regulating securities. The term “state” includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and possessions of the United States.

Q-19. What is an investment sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice with a federal agency regulating the offering or sale of securities?

A-19. An investment sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice with such a federal agency is any investment that is sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing or submission of a notice or other document with the Securities and Exchange Commission or any other federal agency regulating the offering or sale of securities, including the following exemptions (and applicable filing):

(1) Regulation A, as promulgated under section (3)(b) of the 1933 Act (Form 1(A)),

(2) Regulation B, as promulgated under section 3(b) of the 1933 Act (Schedules A through F),

(3) Regulation D, as promulgated under sections (3)(b) and 4(2) of the 1933 Act (Form D), and

(4) Any other statutory or regulatory exemption from registration requiring the filing or submission of a notice or other document.

Q-20. What is an investment sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice with a state agency regulating the offering or sale of securities?

A-20. An investment sold pursuant to an exemption from registration requiring the filing of a notice with such a state agency is any investment sold pursuant to an exemption under a blue sky law or other similar state statutory or regulatory scheme that requires the filing or submission of a notice or other document with such a state agency. See A-18 of this section for the definition of state.

Substantial Investment

Q-21. What is a substantial investment?

A-21. An investment is a substantial investment if the aggregate amount that may be offered for sale to all investors exceeds $250,000 and 5 or more investors are expected. The aggregate amount offered for sale is the aggregate amount to be received from the sale of interests in the investment and includes all cash, the fair market value of all property contributed, and the principal amount of all indebtedness received in exchange for interests in the investment, regardless of whether the proceeds of the indebtedness are included in the investment base under A-14 of this section. For purposes of determining whether 5 or more investors are expected in an investment involving real property (and related personal property) that is used as a farm (as defined in section 2032A(e)(4)) for farming purposes (as defined in section 2032A(e)(5)), interests in the investment expected to be held by a husband and wife, their children and parents, and the spouses of their children (or any of them) will be treated as if the interests were to be held by one investor. Thus, for example, interests in a farm that are offered to two brothers and their wives would be treated as interests offered to one investor. Such an investment could be a substantial investment only if four or more persons who were not members of the family were expected to be investors in the farm.

Q-22. Will an investment be considered a substantial investment if the investment involves a number of parts each including fewer than 5 investors or an aggregate amount of $250,000 or less?

A-22. Yes, under the circumstances described in this A-22. For purposes of determining whether investments are parts of a substantial investment, similar investments offered by the same person or related persons (as defined in section 168(e)(4)) are aggregated together. Investments are considered similar if they involve similar principal business assets and similar plans or arrangements. Investments that include no business assets will be considered similar if they involve similar plans or arrangements.

Similar investments are aggregated solely for the purpose of determining whether investments involving fewer than 5 investors or an aggregate amount of $250,000 or less are substantial investments. For this purpose, similar investments are aggregated even though some, but not all, of the investments are (i) required to be registered under a Federal or State law regulating securities or are sold pursuant to an exemption from securities registration requiring the filing of a notice with a Federal or State agency regulating the offering or sale of securities (i.e., required to be registered as tax shelters whether or not a substantial investment) or (ii) substantial investments without regard to aggregation.

Assume, for example, that a person develops similar arrangements involving 8 different partnerships, each investing in a separate but similar asset (such as a separate master recording or separate piece of similar real estate), each with a different general partner and each with 3 different limited partners. Assume further that the arrangements of all the partnerships are similar. These partnerships involving similar arrangements and similar assets would be aggregated together. Thus, if each partner is expected to invest $11,000, there will be 32 investors (1 general partner plus 3 limited partners times 8 partnerships) and an aggregate investment of $352,000 (32 partners times $11,000). Accordingly, each partnership will constitute part of a substantial investment. If representations are made that $1,000 in tax credits and $3,000 in deductions are available to each limited partner in the first year and $10,000 of the cash invested was expected to be the proceeds of a loan arranged by the organizer, the tax shelter ratio as of the close of the first year (assuming there are no deductions or credits typically associated with such investment, as described in A-9 of this section) would be 5 to 1 ($5,000 in total tax benefits and $1,000 investment base). Accordingly, the organizer would be required to register the partnerships with the Internal Revenue Service.

Q-23. If an investment involving fewer than 5 investors or an aggregate amount of $250,000 or less is offered for sale and, at the time of the offering, it is not known (and there is no reason to know) that subsequent similar investments will be offered by the person who made the first offering (or a related person), will subsequent similar investments offered by that person (or a related person) be aggregated with the first investment for purposes of determining whether the investments constitute a substantial investment?

A-23. No. However, a tax shelter organizer will be presumed to have known of any similar investments (as defined in A-22 of this section) offered during the 12 months following the first offering of an investment.

Exceptions From Tax Shelter Registration

Q-24. Are there any investments that will not be subject to tax shelter registration even if they satisfy the requirements of a tax shelter (as defined in A-4 of this section)?

A-24. Yes. The following investments are not subject to tax shelter registration:

(1) Sales of residences primarily to persons who are expected to use the residences as their principal place of residence,

(2) Sales or leases or tangible personal property (other than master sound recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes, lithograph plates, or other property relating to a literary, musical, or artistic composition) by the manufacturer (or a member of an affiliated group, within the meaning of section 1502, including the manufacturer) of the property primarily to persons who are expected to use the property in their principal active trade or business (see, however, A-32 and A-46 of this section for the additional rules applicable to a purchaser of property described in this A-24 who organizes an investment involving the property),

(3) Any other investment as specified by the Secretary in a rule-related notice published in the Federal Register.

Q-24A. Under what other circumstances are particular sales or leases of tangible personal property to certain persons or the performance of particular services for certain persons exempt from tax shelter registration?

A-24A. A person who, in the ordinary course of a trade or business, sells or leases tangible personal property (other than collectibles (as defined in section 408(m)(2)), master sound recordings, motion picture or television films, videotapes, lithograph plates, or other property that includes or relates to a literary, musical or artistic composition) to a purchaser or lessee who is reasonably expected to use the property either for a personal use or in the purchaser's or lessee's principal active trade or business is not required for any purpose to treat such a purchaser or lessee as an investor in a tax shelter. Property may be reasonably expected to be used by a purchaser or lessee for personal use only if sold or leased to the purchaser or lessee in a quantity that is customary for such use. Similarly, a person who performs services for another person in connection with the principal active trade or business of the recipient of the services or for the recipient's personal use is not required to treat the recipient as an investor in a tax shelter. Persons who are not reasonably expected to use property or services either in their principal active trade or business or for personal use must be treated as tax shelter investors in the event the sales, leases, or performance of services otherwise constitute a tax shelter.

Assume, for example, that an organizer forms Z corporation to feed cattle and to provide services in connection with the cattle feeding operations. Z will agree to serve customers with a minimum of 200 head of cattle. The fee for the services is $20 per head. Feed for cattle will cost $280 per head. Z represents that the service fee and the cost of the feed may be financed by $5,000 of cash and $55,000 of proceeds of a revolving recourse note that Z has arranged be available. Z provides its services to 100 customers. Ninety-five of the customers are persons whose principal active trade or business is reasonably expected to be farming (as defined in section 464(e)(1)). Five of the customers are not reasonably expected to engage in farming as their principal active trade or business. Although all the individual investments involve similar principal business assets and similar plans or arrangements, only the 5 customers who are not reasonably expected to be in the principal active trade or business of farming will be treated as investors in a tax shelter and aggregated to determine whether a substantial investment exists. Thus, there will be 5 investors and an aggregate investment of $300,000. If representations are made that the service fee and the cost of the feed are tax deductible, the tax shelter ratio (assuming there are no deductions or credits typically associated with such an investment, as described in A-9 of this section) would be 12 to 1 ($60,000 in total tax benefits and $5,000 investment base) and the organizer would be required to register the five aggregated feeding arrangements as a tax shelter. The registration number of the tax shelter must be provided to the five customers treated as investors in the tax shelter, but would not be required to be furnished to the customers whose principal active trade or business is reasonably expected to be farming.

Persons Required To Register a Tax Shelter

Q-25. Who has the legal obligation to register a tax shelter?

A-25. A tax shelter organizer is obligated to register the tax shelter.

Q-26. What is the definition of tax shelter organizer?

A-26. Several categories of persons may be tax shelter organizers. In general, the term tax shelter organizer means a person principally responsible for organizing a tax shelter. If a person principally responsible for organizing a tax shelter has not registered the tax shelter by the day on which interests in the shelter are first offered for sale, any other person who participated in the organization of the tax shelter will be treated as a tax shelter organizer. If neither a person principally responsible for organizing the tax shelter nor any other person who participated in the organization of a tax shelter has registered the tax shelter by the day on which interests in the tax shelter are first offered for sale, then any person who participates in the management of the tax shelter at a time when the tax shelter is not registered will be treated as a tax shelter organizer. Finally, if a person participates in the sale of a tax shelter at a time when the person knows or has reason to know that a tax shelter has not been registered, that person will be treated as a tax shelter organizer. See A-38 of this section for rules relating to the execution of an agreement among persons who may be treated as tax shelter organizers to designate one person to register a tax shelter.

Q-27. Who is a person principally responsible for organizing a tax shelter?

A-27. A person principally responsible for organizing a tax shelter (“principal organizer”) is any person who discovers, creates, investigates, or initiates the investment, devises the business or financial plans for the investment, or carries out those plans through negotiations or transactions with others.

Q-28. What constitutes participation in the organization of a tax shelter?

A-28. Participation in the organization of a tax shelter includes the performance of any act (directly or through an agent) related to the establishment of the tax shelter, including the following:

(1) Preparation of any document establishing the tax shelter (for example, articles of incorporation, a trust instrument, or a partnership agreement);

(2) Preparation of any document in connection with the registration (or exemption from registration) of the tax shelter with any federal, state, or local government body;

(3) Preparation of a prospectus, offering memorandum, financial statement, or other statement describing the tax shelter;

(4) Preparation of a tax or other legal opinion relating to the tax shelter;

(5) Preparation of an appraisal relating to the tax shelter;

(6) Negotiation or other participation on behalf of the tax shelter in the purchase of any property relating to the tax shelter.

Q-29. What constitutes participation in the management of a tax shelter?

A-29. Participation in the management of a tax shelter includes managing the assets of the tax shelter, directing the business activity of the tax shelter, or, depending on the form of the tax shelter, acting as a general partner who actively participates in the management of a partnership, a trustee of a trust, a director or an officer of a corporation (including a corporate general partner of a partnership), or performing activities similar to those performed by such a general partner, a trustee, a director, or an officer.

Q-30. Will the performance of any act described in A-27 through A-29 of this section constitute participation in the organization or management of a tax shelter if the person performing the act is unrelated to the tax shelter (or any principal organizer of the tax shelter) and does not participate in the entrepreneurial risks or benefits of the tax shelter?

A-30. No. The performance of an act described in A-27 through A-29 of this section will not constitute participation in the organization or management of a tax shelter unless the person performing the act is related to the tax shelter (or any principal organizer of the tax shelter) or the person participates in the entrepreneurial risks or benefits of the tax shelter. A person will be considered related to a tax shelter if the person is related to the tax shelter or a principal organizer of the tax shelter within the meaning of section 168(e)(4) or is employed by the tax shelter or a principal organizer of the tax shelter or has an interest (other than an interest as a creditor) in the tax shelter. A person will be considered a participant in the entrepreneurial risks or benefits of a tax shelter if the person's compensation for performing an act described in A-27 through A-29 of this section is contingent on any matter relating to the tax shelter (e.g., the compensation is based in whole or in part upon (i) whether interests in the tax shelter are actually sold or (ii) the number or value of the units in the tax shelter that are sold), or if the person will receive an interest in the tax shelter as part or all of the person's compensation.

For example, assume that A forms Z partnership, a tax shelter for which registration is required. Z hires the X law firm, none of the partners of which is related to the tax shelter, to prepare the documents necessary to register the offering of Z securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission. X charges $100 an hour for its services in connection with the preparation of the necessary documents, and payment of the fee is not contingent. X will not be treated as a participant in the organization of the tax shelter. If, however, X were to charge a fee equal to 1 percent of the value of the units in the tax shelter that are sold, X would be considered a participant in the organization of the shelter.

As another example, assume that individual C is an attorney employed by W corporation, the corporate general partner and principal organizer of Z, and that C prepares the documents necessary to register the tax shelter with the Securities and Exchange Commission. C will be treated as having participated in the organization of the tax shelter regardless of the way in which C's compensation is structured, because C, as an employee, is related to the principal organizer of the tax shelter.

Q-31. What constitutes participation in the sale of a tax shelter?

A-31. Participation in the sale of a tax shelter includes any marketing activities (directly or through an agent) with respect to an investment, including the following:

(1) Direct contact with a prospective purchaser of an interest, or with a representative or agent of a prospective purchaser, but only if the contract relates to the possible purchase of an interest in the tax shelter;

(2) Solicitation of investors using the mail, telephone, or other means, or by placing an advertisement for the tax shelter in a newspaper, magazine, or other publication or medium;

(3) Instructing or advising salespersons regarding the tax shelter or sales presentations.

Q-32. May persons be treated as tax shelter organizers if such persons do not make any representations of tax benefits to investors?

A-32. Yes. If a person described in A-26 of this section knows or has reason to know that representations of tax benefits have been made, that person may be treated as a tax shelter organizer. For example, a participant in the sale of a tax shelter may know or have reason to know that representations of tax benefits have been made by the principal organizer or others who participate in the organization of the tax shelter. In addition, a person who acquires property from a manufacturer in a transaction exempt from tax shelter registration under A-24 of this section and who organizes an investment involving the property may know or have reason to know of any representation of tax benefits made by the manufacturer.

Q-33. If a person performs support services such as typing, photocopying, or printing for a tax shelter (or a tax shelter organizer) or performs other ministerial functions for the tax shelter (or a tax shelter organizer), may the person be considered to have participated in the organization, management, or sale of the tax shelter?

A-33. No. Merely performing support services or ministerial functions will not be considered participation in the organization, management, or sale of a tax shelter.

Circumstances Under Which Tax Shelter Organizers Are Required To Register a Tax Shelter

Q-34. When is a principal organizer or a person who participates in the organization of a tax shelter required to register a tax shelter?

A-34. A principal organizer or a person who participates in the organization of a tax shelter (i.e., a person who could be treated as a tax shelter organizer within the meaning of A-26 of this section) is required to register the tax shelter by the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in the tax shelter occurs, unless the person has signed a designation agreement pursuant to A-38 of this section. If a group of persons who could be treated as tax shelter organizers has signed a designation agreement pursuant to A-38 of this section, the designated organizer is required to register the tax shelter by the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in the tax shelter occurs. See A-39 of this section for additional rules applicable to tax shelter organizers (other than a designated organizer) who have signed a designation agreement.

Q-35. When is a person who participates in the management of a tax shelter (“manager”) required to register a tax shelter?

A-35. A manager who has not signed a designation agreement pursuant to A-38 of this section must register the tax shelter if the manager participates in the management of the tax shelter on or after the first offering for sale of interests in the tax shelter at a time when the tax shelter has not been properly registered (i.e., the manager is treated as a tax shelter organizer within the meaning of A-26 of this section). Such a manager must register the tax shelter by the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in the tax shelter occurs, or by the day on which the manager's participation in the management of the tax shelter commences, whichever is later. See A-39 of this section for rules applicable to a manager who has signed a designation agreement.

Q-36. When is a person who participates in the sale of a tax shelter (“seller”) required to register the tax shelter?

A-36. A seller who has not signed a designation agreement pursuant to A-38 of this section must register the tax shelter if the seller participates in the sale of the tax shelter at a time when the seller knows or has reason to know that the tax shelter has not been properly registered (i.e., the seller is treated as a tax shelter organizer within the meaning of A-26 of this section). A seller who has not signed a designation agreement will be deemed to have reason to know that the tax shelter has not been properly registered if the seller does not receive a copy of the Internal Revenue Service tax shelter registration notice containing the registration number within the 30-day period after the seller first offers interests in the tax shelter for sale. A seller must register the tax shelter as soon as practicable after the seller first knows or has reason to know that the tax shelter has not been properly registered. See A-39 of this section for rules applicable to a seller who has signed a designation agreement.

Q-37. When is a person who acts in more than one capacity with respect to a tax shelter required to register the shelter?

A-37. A person who acts in more than one capacity with respect to a tax shelter (i.e., as two or more of the following: principal organizer, participant in the organization, manager, or seller) must register the tax shelter by the earliest day on which a tax shelter organizer acting in any of the person's several capacities would be required to register the tax shelter.

Q-38. May a group of persons who could be treated as tax shelter organizers under A-26 of this section designate one person to register the tax shelter?

A-38. Yes. A group of persons who could be treated as tax shelter organizers under A-26 of this section may enter into a written agreement designating one person as the tax shelter organizer responsible for registering the tax shelter (“designated organizer”). The designated organizer should ordinarily be a person principally responsible for organizing the tax shelter, but may be any person who participates in the organization of the tax shelter. Although persons who participate only in the sale or management of a tax shelter may sign a designation agreement, they may not be the designated organizer. In addition, the designated organizer may not be a person who is a resident in a country other than the United States. Any person who signs a designation agreement, other than the designated organizer, will not be liable for failing to register the tax shelter and will not be subject to a penalty, even if the designated organizer fails to register the tax shelter, unless the person fails to register the tax shelter when such registration is required under A-39 of this section. See A-7 of §301.6707-1T for additional rules relating to the reasonable cause exception applicable to persons who sign a designation agreement.

Q-39. Is a tax shelter organizer who has signed a designation agreement and who is not the designated organizer required to register the tax shelter under any circumstances?

A-39. Yes. If a tax shelter organizer who has signed a designation agreement pursuant to A-38 of this section knows or has reason to know on or after the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in a tax shelter occurs that the designated organizer failed to register the tax shelter, such tax shelter organizer must register the tax shelter as soon as practicable after he first knows or has reason to know of the failure. A tax shelter organizer who has signed a designation agreement is deemed to have reason to know that the designated organizer has failed to register the tax shelter if the tax shelter organizer does not receive a copy of the Internal Revenue Service registration notice containing the registration number from the designated organizer within the 60-day period after the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in the tax shelter occurs (or the person signs the designation agreement, if later). See A-41 of this section for the requirement that the designated organizer provide a copy of the registration notice and number to persons who have signed the designation agreement.

Registration—General Rules

Q-40. By what date must a tax shelter be registered?

A-40. A tax shelter must be registered not later than the day on which the first offering for sale of an interest in the tax shelter occurs.

Q-41. Is a tax shelter organizer (including a designated organizer) who registers a tax shelter responsible for performing any act with respect to tax shelter registration other than registering the tax shelter?

A-41. Yes. A tax shelter organizer (including a designated organizer) who registers a tax shelter must provide a copy of the Internal Revenue Service registration notice containing the registration number within 7 days after the notice is received from the Internal Revenue Service to the principal organizer (if a different person) and to any persons who the tax shelter organizer knows or has reason to know are participating in the sale of interests in the tax shelter (if such persons begin to participate after the registration number is received, they must be provided the notice within 7 days after they commence their participation). In addition, a designated organizer must provide a copy of the notice within 7 days after it is received to all persons who have signed the designation agreement.

Q-42. What is the sale of an interest in a tax shelter?

A-42. The sale of an interest in a tax shelter includes the sale of property, or any interest in property, the entry into a leasing arrangement, a consulting, management or other agreement for the performance of services, or the sale or entry into any other plan, investment, or arrangement.

Q-43. What does the term “offering for sale” mean?

A-43. The term “offering for sale” means making any representation, whether oral or written, relating to participation in a tax shelter as an investor. The term includes any advertisement relating to the tax shelter and any mail, telephonic, or other contact with prospective investors. A representation relating to participation in a tax shelter will be considered an offering for sale of an interest in the tax shelter even though there is included in the representation an explicit statement that the representation does not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy an interest in the tax shelter. In determining whether an offering for sale of an interest has occurred, federal and state laws regulating securities are not controlling.

Q-44. After a tax shelter has been registered, must it be registered again each year that it continues to be offered for sale?

A-44. No. Registration is effective for the year in which first accomplished and all subsequent years.

Q-45. If the facts relating to a tax shelter change after the tax shelter has been registered, must the tax shelter be registered again or must an amended application for registration be filed by the tax shelter organizer?

A-45. No. The tax shelter organizer, however, is permitted to file an amended application if a material change in facts occurs after the initial registration. A material change in facts is—

(1) A change in the identifying information relating to the tax shelter or tax shelter organizer,

(2) The acquisition or construction of a principal asset not reported on the initial application for registration,

(3) A change in the method of financing a minimum investment unit, or

(4) A change in the principal business activity.

In addition, a change in any tax shelter ratio reported on the initial application for registration that increases or decreases the reciprocal of the tax shelter ratio (i.e., the fraction in which the amount of the applicable investment base is the numerator and the amount of the applicable deductions and credits is the denominator) by 50 percent or more is a material change in facts. For example, if the tax shelter ratio increases from 2 to 1 to 4 to 1, the reciprocal of the tax shelter ratio decreases from 12 to 14 , a 50-percent decrease. Similarly, if the tax shelter ratio decreases from 6 to 1 to 4 to 1, the reciprocal of the tax shelter ratio increases from 16 to 14 , a 50-percent increase. In either case, there is a material change in facts and an amended application could be filed.

Q-45A. What information should be included on an amended application for registration?

A-45A. The tax shelter organizer must include the identifying information requested on Form 8264, Application for Registration of a Tax Shelter, and the tax shelter registration number that has been assigned to the tax shelter. In addition, the tax shelter organizer should include any other information requested on Form 8364(1) that has changed since the tax shelter was registered, or (2) that the tax shelter organizer did not know at the time the tax shelter was registered but has learned of since the registration.

For example, assume that A organizes partnership L, a blind pool that will invest in real estate. Before the real estate is identified or acquired, interests in L will be offered to the public in an offering that must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Although A does not know what real estate L will acquire and therefore is unable to calculate the tax shelter ratio with certainty, A concludes (based on representations made or to be made) that the tax shelter ratio will exceed 2 to 1 as to some of the investors. Accordingly, A registers L as a tax shelter. A attaches a statement to the application for registration, explaining that L is a blind pool organized to invest in real estate, but that L has not yet acquired any real estate. In addition, A attaches a statement explaining that although the tax shelter ratio is expected to exceed 2 to 1, A cannot compute the tax shelter ratio with certainty because L has not yet acquired any real estate. Several months after L is registered, L acquires a shopping center. A may file an amended application for registration. In addition to reporting the identifying information and the tax shelter registration number on the amended application, A should report the shopping center as the principal asset and the recomputed tax shelter ratio.

As another example, assume that C organizes a limited partnership that is a tax shelter. On the application for registration, C reports that the tax shelter ratio is 2.2 to 1. After the partnership has been registered, C finds that the partnership is unable to attract sufficient investors. To make investing in the partnership more attractive, C decides to offer financing for the purchase or interests in the partnership. As a result of the change in financing, the tax shelter ratio will be 5 to 1. Because there is a change in financing and a change in the tax shelter ratio that decreases the reciprocal of the tax shelter ratio by 50 percent or more, C may file an amended application for registration. In addition to reporting the identifying information and the tax shelter registration number on the amended application, C should report the recomputed tax shelter ratio and information relating to the change in financing.

Q-46. If assets constituting a tax shelter are sold (“original sale”) and, subsequently, either the assets or interests in the assets are offered for sale by the purchaser (“resale”), must the purchaser file a new application for registration if the resale is an offering or sale of interests in a tax shelter?

A-46. If the resale constitutes a tax shelter, the purchaser must file a new application for registration, unless the tax shelter organizer with respect to the original sale is also the tax shelter organizer with respect to the resale and the facts pertaining to the resale were reflected in the application for registration filed with respect to the original sale. For example, assume that A intends to sell a building with an estimated fair market value of $2.5 million to a group of 5 investors (i.e., a substantial investment, as defined in A-21 of this section). A also intends to make representations of tax benefits attributable to an investment in the building. Based on these representations and the investment base, the tax shelter ratio attributable to an investment in the building may be greater than 2 to 1. A therefore files an application for registration relating to the building with the Internal Revenue Service. The Internal Revenue Service issues a registration number for the investment, and A furnishes the registration number to each of the 5 investors in accordance with A-53 of this section. In an unrelated transaction, the 5 investors decide to syndicate the building and to offer interests in the syndicate to approximately 500 investors. In connection with this offer, the investors expect to make representations concerning tax benefits with respect to the syndication. If based on these representations and the investment base, the tax shelter ratio may be greater than 2 to 1 for an investor in the syndicate, the 5 investors must file an application for registration for the syndicate before interests in the syndicate may be offered for sale. The investors in the syndicate must be furnished with the new registration number and not the registration number issued with respect to A. On the other hand, if the original sale and the syndication were part of A's plan to sell interests in the building, A is a tax shelter organizer with respect to the syndication. If the facts pertaining to the syndication were reflected on A's application for registration with respect to the original sale, a second application for registration would not be required with respect to the syndication. However, the investors in the syndicate would have to be furnished with the tax shelter registration number issued to A.

Q-47. When is a tax shelter considered registered?

A-47. A tax shelter is considered registered when a properly completed Form 8264, Application for Registration of a Tax Shelter, is filed with the appropriate Internal Revenue Service Center. See A-7 of §301.6111-2T for rules relating to the information required to be included on the form, and A-8 of §301.6707-1T for rules relating to the penalty for filing incomplete information.

Q-48. Must a person registering a tax shelter that is a substantial investment only by reason of an aggregation of multiple investments under A-22 of this section complete a separate Form 8264 for each investment constituting part of the substantial investment?

A-48. A separate Form 8264 must be completed for each investment that differs from the other investments in a substantial investment with respect to any of the following:

(1) Principal asset,

(2) Accounting methods,

(3) Federal or state agencies with which the investment is registered or with which an exemption notice is filed,

(4) Methods of financing the purchase of an interest in the investment,

(5) Tax shelter ratio.

Such aggregated investments, however, are part of a single tax shelter.

Q-49. Do the rules of section 7502 of the Internal Revenue Code, regarding timely mailing, apply to the filing of registration forms?

A-49. Yes.

Q-50. After a tax shelter has been registered, may representations that the investment has been registered with the Internal Revenue Service be made to potential investors?

A-50. Investors may be informed that the investment has been registered with the Internal Revenue Service. Investors also must be informed, however, that registration does not imply that the Internal Revenue Service has reviewed, examined, or approved the investment or the claimed tax benefits. The disclaimer must be substantially in the form provided below:

ISSUANCE OF A REGISTRATION NUMBER DOES NOT INDICATE THAT THIS INVESTMENT OR THE CLAIMED TAX BENEFITS HAVE BEEN REVIEWED, EXAMINED, OR APPROVED BY THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE.

See A-53 of this section for rules relating to the legend that must be included on any statement on which the tax shelter registration number is furnished to investors.

Furnishing Tax Shelter Registration Numbers to Investors

Q-51. Who must furnish investors in a tax shelter with the registration number of the tax shelter?

A-51. Any person who sells (or otherwise transfers) an interest in a tax shelter is required to furnish the registration number assigned to that tax shelter to each person who purchases (or otherwise acquires) an interest in that tax shelter from the seller or transferor. For example, X, a tax shelter organizer, sells an interest in a tax shelter to A. One year later A sells A's interest in the shelter to B. X must furnish the tax shelter registration number to A, and A must furnish the number to B. If B sells or otherwise transfers the interest (by gift, for example), B must furnish the number to the purchaser or transferee of B's interest in the tax shelter.

Q-52. When must the registration number be furnished to purchasers of interests in the tax shelter?

A-52. The person who sells (or otherwise transfers) an interest in a tax shelter must furnish the registration number to the purchaser (or transferee) at the time of sale (or transfer) of the interest (or, if later, within 20 days after the seller or transferor receives the registration number). If the registration number is not furnished at the time of the sale (or other transfer), the seller (or transferor) must furnish the statement described in A-54 to the purchaser (or transferee) at the time of the sale (or other transfer). If interests in a tax shelter were sold before September 1, 1984, all investors who acquired their interests in the tax shelter before September 1, 1984, must be furnished with the registration number of the tax shelter by December 31, 1984. The registration number will be considered furnished to the investor if it is mailed to the investor at the last address of the investor known to the person required to furnish the number.

Q-53. How is a seller or transferor of an interest in a tax shelter required to furnish the registration number to investors?

A-53. The person who sells (or otherwise transfers) an interest in a tax shelter must furnish the registration number of the tax shelter to the tax shelter to the purchaser (or transferee) on a written statement. The written statement shall show the name, registration number, and taxpayer identification number of the tax shelter, and include a prominent legend in bold and conspicuous type stating that the registration number must be included on any return on which the investor claims any deduction, loss, credit, or other tax benefit, or reports any income, by reason of the tax shelter. The statment must also include a prominent legend in bold and conspicuous type stating that the issuance of the registration number does not indicate that the Internal Revenue Service has reviewed, examined, or approved the investment or the claimed tax benefits. The statement shall be substantially in the form provided below:

You have acquired an interest in [name and address of tax shelter] whose taxpayer identification number is [if any]. The Internal Revenue Service has issued [name of tax shelter] the following tax shelter registration number: [Number]

YOU MUST REPORT THIS REGISTRATION NUMBER TO THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, IF YOU CLAIM ANY DEDUCTION, LOSS, CREDIT, OR OTHER TAX BENEFIT OR REPORT ANY INCOME BY REASON OR YOUR INVESTMENT IN [NAME OF TAX SHELTER].

You must report the registration number (as well as the name, and taxpayer identification number of [name of tax shelter]) on Form 8271.

FORM 8271 MUST BE ATTACHED TO THE RETURN ON WHICH YOU CLAIM THE DEDUCTION, LOSS, CREDIT, OR OTHER TAX BENEFIT OR REPORT ANY INCOME.

ISSUANCE OF A REGISTRATION NUMBER DOES NOT INDICATE THAT THIS INVESTMENT OR THE CLAIMED TAX BENEFITS HAVE BEEN REVIEWED, EXAMINED, OR APPROVED BY THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE.

This statement may be modified as necessary if the tax shelter is not a separate entity (e.g., certain Schedule F or Schedule C activities) or has no name or taxpayer identification number.

Q-54. If a registration number has not been received by a seller (or transferor) from the person who registered the tax shelter by the time interests in the tax shelter are sold (or otherwise transferred), must the seller (or transferor) of the interests furnish the purchaser (or transferee) with any information regarding the registration?

A-54. Yes. At the time of the sale (or other transfer) the seller (or other transferor) must furnish the purchaser (or transferee) with a written statement in substantially the form prescribed in A-53 of this section, except that the second sentence of the form prescribed in A-53 shall be replaced by a statement in the form provided below:

On behalf of [name of tax shelter], [name of tax shelter organizer who has applied for registration] has applied to the Internal Revenue Service for a tax shelter registration number. The number will be furnished to you when it is received.

Including the Registration Number on Tax Returns

Q-55. Is an investor required to report the registration number of a tax shelter in which the investor has acquired an interest to the Internal Revenue Service?

A-55. Yes. Any person claiming any deduction, loss, credit, or other tax benefit by reason of a tax shelter must report the registration number of the tax shelter on Form 8271, Investor Reporting of Tax Shelter Registration Number, which must be attached to the return on which any deduction, loss credit, or other tax benefit attributable to the tax shelter is claimed. For purposes of determining whether the tax shelter registration number must be reported by an investor, income attributable to an investment, such as a partner's distributive share of income, constitutes a deduction or tax benefit that is claimed, because gross deductions and other tax benefits are included in the net income reported by the investor. Thus, the registration number also must be reported on any return on which an investor reports any income attributable to a tax shelter.

Q-56. What should the investor do if the investor has received a notice that a registration number for the tax shelter has been applied for, but the investor has not received the registration number by the time the investor files a return on which a deduction, loss credit, other tax benefit, or income attributable to the tax shelter is included?

A-56. The investor must attach to the return a Form 8271 with the words “Applied For” written in the space for the registration number and must include on the Form 8271 the name and taxpayer identification number (if any) of the tax shelter and the name of the person who has applied for registration of the tax shelter.

Q-57. Does the requirement to include the tax shelter registration number on a return apply to applications for tentative refund (Form 1045 and Form 1139) and amended returns (Form 1040X, Form 1120X)?

A-57. Yes. A completed Form 8271 must be attached to any such return on which any deduction, loss, credit, other tax benefit, or income relating to a tax shelter is included.

Projected Income Investments

Q-57A. Are the registration requirements suspended with respect to any tax shelters?

A-57A. Yes. If a tax shelter is a projected income investment, it is not required to be registered before the first offering for sale of an interest in the tax shelters occurs, but is subject only to the registration requirements set forth in A-57H through A-57J of this section. A tax shelter is a projected income investment if—

(a) The tax shelter is not expected to reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor for any year during the 5-year period described in A-4 (I) of this section; and

(b) The assets of the tax shelter do not include or relate to any property described in A-57E of this section.

Q-57B. Under what circumstances does a tax shelter satisfy the requirement of paragraph (a) of A-57A of this section?

A-57B. A tax shelter is not expected to reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor for any year during the 5-year period described in A-4 (I) of this section only if—

(a) A written financial projection or other written representation that is provided to investors before the sale of interests in the investment states (or leads a reasonable investor to believe) that the investment will not reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor with respect to any year (within the meaning of A-7 of this section) in such 5-year period; and

(b) No written or oral projections or representations, other than those related to circumstances that are highly unlikely to occur, state (or lead a reasonable investor to believe) that the investment may reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor with respect to any such year.

Thus, a tax shelter for which there are multiple written or oral financial projections or other representations is not a projected income investment if any such projection or representation that relates to circumstances that are not highly unlikely to occur states (or leads a reasonable investor to believe) that the investment may reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor. See A-57D and A-57F of this section for rules relating to financial projections or other representations that are not made in good faith, that are not based on reasonable economic and business assumptions, or that relate to circumstances that are highly unlikely.

Q-57C. When does an investment reduce the cumulative tax liability of an investor?

A-57C. (a) An investment reduces the cumulative tax liability of an investor with respect to a year during the 5-year period described in A-4 (I) of this section if, as of the close of such year, (i) cumulative projected deductions for the investor exceed cumulative projected income for the investor, or (ii) cumulative projected credits for the investor exceed cumulative projected tax liability (without regard to credits) for the investor.

(b) The cumulative projected deductions for an investor as of the close of a year are the gross deductions of the investor with respect to the investment, for all periods up to (and including) the end of such year, that are included in the financial projection or upon which the representation is based. The deductions with respect to an investment include all deductions explicitly represented as being allowable and all deductions typically associated (within the meaning of A-9 of this section) with the investment. Therefore, interest to be paid by the investor that is taken into account in determining the tax shelter ratio of the investment (see A-11 of this section) is treated as a deduction with respect to the investment.

(c) The cumulative projected income for an investor as of the close of a year is the gross income of the investor with respect to the investment, for all periods up to (and including) the end of such year, that is included in the financial projection or upon which the representation is based. For this purpose, income attributable to cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities (within the meaning of A-14 (4) of this section) may not be treated as income from the investment.

(d) The cumulative projected credits for an investor as of the close of a year are the gross credits of the investor with respect to the investment, for all periods up to (and including) the close of such year, that are included in the financial projection or upon which the representation is based. The credits with respect to an investment include all credits explicitly represented as being allowable and all credits typically associated (within the meaning of A-9 of this section) with the investment.

(e) The cumulative projected tax liability (without regard to credits) for an investor as of the close of a year is 50 percent of the excess of cumulative projected income for the investor over cumulative projected deductions for the investor with respect to the investment as of the close of such year.

(f) The following examples illustrate the application of the principles of this A-57C:

Example 1. The promotional material with respect to a tax shelter includes a written financial projection indicating that the expected income of the investment in each of its first 5 years is $800,000. In subsequent oral discussions, investors are advised that, in certain circumstances that are not highly unlikely, the income expected from the investment may be as little as $500,000 per year. The subsequent oral discussions are taken into account in determining whether any projections or representations state or lead a reasonable investor to believe that the investment may reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor. Thus, if the written financial projections indicate that the gross deductions attributable to the investment in each of its first 5 years are expected to be $600,000 and the subsequent oral discussions do not indicate that the amount of those deductions will change under the circumstances in which the income expected may be as little as $500,000, the subsequent oral discussions taken together with the written financial projections state (or lead a reasonable investor to believe) that the cumulative tax liability of an investor may be reduced (i.e., the subsequent oral discussions (taken together with the projections) state or lead a reasonable investor to believe that cumulative projected deductions may exceed cumulative projected income under circumstances that are not highly unlikely). Accordingly, under paragraph (b) of A-57B of this section, the tax shelter would not qualify as a projected income investment.

Example 2. The written promotional material with respect to a tax shelter states that certain deductions are allowable to an investor (without specifying their amount), but there is no written statement relating to the amount of income expected from the investment. Because there is no written financial projection or other written representation that states or leads a reasonable investor to believe that the investment will not reduce the investor's cumulative tax liability (i.e., the cumulative projected deductions, although not specified in the projections, may exceed the cumulative projected income (0)), the requirement of paragraph (a) of A-57B of this section would not be satisifed. The result in this example would be the same if there were only oral representations that the income to be derived from the investment would exceed the deductions with respect to the investment, because there would be no written statement as required by paragraph (a) of A-57B of this section. The tax shelter in this case would qualify as a projected income investment, however, if the written promotional material contains good-faith representations based on reasonable economic and business assumptions that state or lead reasonable investors to believe that the cumulative projected income from the investment will exceed the cumulative projected deductions allowable with respect to the investment for each year in the 5-year period, even though the amounts of income and deductions are not specified.

Example 3. The written promotional material with respect to a tax shelter includes a good-faith financial projection for the first 5 years of the investment. Based on reasonable economic and business assumptions, the projection indicates that the expected net income of the investment in each of its first 4 years is $100,000 ($500,000 of gross income and $400,000 of gross deductions), but as a result of the anticipated acquisition of new business assets a loss of $20,000 is expected in the fifth year of the investment ($500,000 of gross income and $520,000 of gross deductions). The projection also indicates that a credit of $50,000 is expected in the fifth year of the investment. Such a written financial projection would be considered to state that the investment will not reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor with respect to any year in the 5-year period described in A-4 (I) of this section. Although a loss and a credit are projected in the fifth year of the investment, as of the close of such year, cumulative projected income ($2,500,000) exceeds cumulative projected deductions ($2,120,000), and cumulative projected tax liability (without regard to credits) ($380,000 × 50 percent =$190,000) exceeds cumulative projected credits ($50,000). Assuming no contrary oral or written projections or representations are made, the tax shelter would thus be a projected income investment.

Example 4. The written promotional material with respect to a tax shelter states that an investor will be entitled to a “1.5 to 1 write-off” in the year of investment. This statement is a representation that the investment will reduce the cumulative tax liability of an investor with respect to the first year of the investment and, accordingly, the investment is not a projected income investment. The result in this example would be the same if any “write-off” were represented, even if the write-off were less than 1.5 to 1.

Q-57D. Are all financial projections and representations relating to the cumulative tax liability of an investor taken into account for purposes of A-57B of this section?

A-57D. (a) No. A financial projection or other representation relating to the cumulative tax liability of an investor is not taken into account for purposes of A-57B of this section unless it is made in good faith and is based on reasonable economic and business assumptions. In addition, a financial projection or other representation is not taken into account if it relates to circumstances that are highly unlikely. Moreover, a general statement or disclaimer indicating that projected income is not guaranteed or otherwise assured, standing alone, is not a projection or representation for purposes of paragraph (b) of A-57B of this section.

(b) The following example illustrates the application of the principles of this A-57D:

Example. The written promotional material with respect to a tax shelter contains a representation stating that the investment is projected to produce net income for all investors in each of its first five years and there are no credits potentially allowable with respect to the investment. This statement is based on reasonable economic and business assumptions. Such a written representation, if made in good faith, would be considered under paragraph (a) of A-57B of this section to state that the investment will not reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor with respect to any year in the 5-year period described in A-4(I) of this section. In addition, no oral or written statements or representations are communicated to investors that would indicate under paragraph (b) of A-57B of this section that the investment might reduce the cumulative tax liability of any investor with respect to any year in the 5-year period.

Assume the tax shelter organizer has knowledge of certain other facts that lead the tax shelter organizer to believe that it is more likely than not that the investment will produce a net loss in the first year. The representation projecting net income is thus contrary to the tax shelter organizer's belief that it is more likely than not that the investment will produce a net loss in the first year. Therefore, the representation is not made in good faith. Since representations not made in good faith are ignored under A-57D, the tax shelter would not be a projected income investment. If, on the other hand, the tax shelter organizer did not know of the other facts so that the tax shelter organizer did not believe that the investment would produce a net loss in the first year, the representation projecting income is made in good faith. In that case, the tax shelter would be a projected income investment.

Q-57E. What assets may not be held by a projected income investment?

A-57E. A tax shelter is not a projected income investment if more than an incidental amount of its assets include or relate to any interest in a collectible (as defined in section 408(m)(2)), a master sound recording, motion picture or television film, videotape, lithograph plate, copyright, or a literary, musical, or artistic composition.

Q-57F. What are the consequences if financial projections or other representations are not made in good faith or are not based on reasonable economic and business assumptions?

A-57F. If a tax shelter is not a projected income investment because the financial projections or other representations are not made in good faith or are not based on reasonable economic and business assumptions, it must be registered not later than the day on which the first offering for sale of an interest in the tax shelter occurs. If the tax shelter is not registered timely, the tax shelter organizer may be subject to a penalty. (See A-1 of §301.6707-1T.)

Q-57G. When does a tax shelter cease to be a projected income investment?

A-57G. A tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment on the last day of the first year (as defined in A-7 of this section) in the 5-year period described in A-4 (I) of this section for which, for any investor, (i) the gross deductions allocable to the investor for that year and prior years exceed the gross income allocable to the investor for such years, or (ii) the credit allocable to the investor for that year and prior years exceed 50 percent of the amount by which gross income allocable to the investor exceeds gross deductions allocable to the investor for such years. For purposes of determining when a tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, the tax shelter organizer is not required to take into account interest that may be incurred by an investor with respect to debt described in A-14 (2) or (3) of this section, but is required to take into account interest incurred by an investor with respect to debt described in A-14 (1) of this section. In addition, the tax shelter organizer may not take into account income attributable to cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities (within the meaning of A-14 (4) of this section).

Q-57H. How does the requirement to register apply with respect to a tax shelter that is a projected income investment?

A-57H. In the case of a tax shelter that is a projected income investment, registration is not required unless the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment under A-57G of this section. If the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, the tax shelter organizer must register the tax shelter in accordance with the rules set forth in A-1 through A-39 and A-41 through A-50 of this section. The tax shelter must be registered—

(a) Within 30 days after the date on which the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, and

(b) Before the date on which the tax shelter or a tax shelter organizer sends the investor any schedule of profit or loss, or income, deduction, or credit that may be used in preparing the investor's income tax return for the taxable year that includes the date on which the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment. If a tax shelter organizer fails to register timely as required by this A-57H, the tax shelter organizer may be subject to a penalty. (See A-1 of §301.6707-1T.) For example, assume that C is the principal organizer and general partner of a limited partnership. Interests in the partnership will be offered for sale in a public offering required to be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission. C knows that the tax shelter ratio (as defined in A-5 of this section) for the limited partners will be 5 to 1. Although C knows the partnership is a tax shelter, C does not register the partnership by the day on which the first offering for sale of an interest occurs because C believes the partnership is a projected income investment. In the second year of the partnership, the gross deductions allocable to each of the limited partners for the first two years of the partnership exceed the gross income allocable to the limited partners in such years. Thus, the partnership ceases to be a projected income investment under A-57G of this section. Assuming further that C continues as the general partner and knowingly fails to register the partnership as a tax shelter within the time prescribed in this A-57H, C will be subject to a penalty of 1 percent of the aggregate amount invested in the partnership. Because there is an intentional disregard of the registration requirements, the $10,000 limitation will not apply.

Q-57I. How does the requirement to furnish registration numbers (A-51 through A-54 of this section) apply in the case of a tax shelter that is a projected income investment?

A-57I. In the case of a tax shelter that is a projected income investment, a person who sells or transfers an interest in the tax shelter is not required to furnish a registration number under A-51 of this section or a notice under A-54 of this section unless the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment. If the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, the tax shelter organizer who registers the tax shelter is required to furnish the registration number to all persons who the tax shelter organizer knows or has reason to know are participating in the sale of interests in the tax shelter and to all persons who the tax shelter organizer knows or has reason to know have acquired interests in the tax shelter. A person who sold (or otherwise transferred) an interest in the tax shelter before the date on which the tax shelter ceased to be a projected income investment is required to furnish the registration number to the purchaser or transferee as provided in A-51 of this section only if the seller or transferor knows or has reason to know that the tax shelter has ceased to be a projected income investment and that the tax shelter organizer who registered the tax shelter has not provided a registration number to such purchaser or transferee. In the case of persons who acquired interests in the tax shelter before the date on which the tax shelter ceased to be a projected income investment, the registration number must be provided not later than the date described in paragraph (b) of A-57H of this section or, if the tax shelter does not provide any schedule described in paragraph (b) of A-57H of this section, within 60 days after the date on which the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment. Thus, for example, if a tax shelter that ceases to be a projected income investment is a partnership, the tax shelter organizer would be required to provide the registration number to each partner not later than the date the Schedule K-1 for the year in which the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment is provided to each partner.

The registration number must be provided in accordance with A-51 and A-52 of this section and must be accompanied by a statement explaining that the tax shelter has ceases to be a projected income investment and instructing the recipient to furnish the registration number to any persons to whom the recipient has sold or otherwise transferred interests in the tax shelter. A tax shelter organizer who fails to provide the registration number as provided in this A-57I may be subject to penalties. (See A-12 of §301.6707-1T.)

Q-57J. How does the requirement to include the registration number on tax returns (A-55 through A-57 of this section) apply in the case of a tax shelter that is a projected income investment?

A-57J. In the case of a tax shelter that is a projected income investment, an investor is not required to report a registration number on the investor's tax return unless the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment. If the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment, the requirements of A-55 through A-57 apply with respect to returns for taxable years ending on or after the date on which the tax shelter ceases to be a projected income investment.

Effective Dates

Q-58. On what date does the requirement to register a tax shelter become effective?

A-58. In general, a tax shelter must be registered if any interest in the tax shelter (other than an interest previously sold to an investor) is sold on or after September 1, 1984 (whether or not interests in the tax shelter were sold or offered for sale before September 1, 1984). The tax shelter must be registered with the Internal Revenue Service not later than the first day after August 31, 1984 on which an interest in the tax shelter is offered for sale.

Q-59. By what date must the tax shelter registration number be furnished to investors who acquired interests before September 1, 1984 in a tax shelter that is required to be registered.

A-59. All investors who acquired their interests in a tax shelter before September 1, 1984 must be supplied with the tax shelter registration number by December 31, 1984. See A-52 of this section for the date by which registration numbers must be furnished to investors who acquire their interests on or after September 1, 1984.

Q-60. What interests will be taken into account in determining whether an investment in which interests were sold before September 1, 1984, is a substantial investment?

A-60. The determination of whether an investment is a substantial investment will be made by taking into account only the interests that are offered for sale on or after September 1, 1984. An investment will be considered a substantial investment if there are expected to be 5 or more investors on or after September 1, 1984, and the aggregate amount offered for sale on or after September 1, 1984 is expected to exceed $250,000. Amounts received from the sale of interests before September 1, 1984, however, are taken into account in computing the amount of the penalty for failure to register.

(Secs. 6111 and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (98 Stat. 678, 26 U.S.C. 6111; 68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805); secs. 6111, 6112 and 7805, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (98 Stat. 678, 98 Stat. 681, 68A Stat. 917; 26 U.S.C. 6111, 6112 and 7805))

[T.D. 7964, 49 FR 32713, Aug. 15, 1984, as amended by T.D. 7990, 49 FR 43641, Oct. 31, 1984; T.D. 7964, 49 FR 44461, Nov. 7, 1984; T.D. 8078, 51 FR 7440, Mar. 25, 1986; T.D. 7964, 73 FR 73180, Dec. 2, 2008]

§301.6111-2   Confidential corporate tax shelters.

(a) In general. (1) Under section 6111(d) and this section, a confidential corporate tax shelter is treated as a tax shelter subject to the requirements of sections 6111 (a) and (b).

(2) A confidential corporate tax shelter is any transaction—

(i) A significant purpose of the structure of which is the avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax, as described in paragraph (b) of this section, for a direct or indirect corporate participant;

(ii) That is offered to any potential participant under conditions of confidentiality, as described in paragraph (c) of this section; and

(iii) For which the tax shelter promoters may receive fees in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate, as described in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) For purposes of this section, references to the term transaction include all of the factual elements relevant to the expected tax treatment of any investment, entity, plan, or arrangement, and include any series of steps carried out as part of a plan. For purposes of this section, the term substantially similar includes any transaction that is expected to obtain the same or similar types of tax consequences and that is either factually similar or based on the same or similar tax strategy. Receipt of an opinion regarding the tax consequences of the transaction is not relevant to the determination of whether the transaction is the same as or substantially similar to another transaction. Further, the term substantially similar must be broadly construed in favor of registration. For examples, see §1.6011-4(c)(4) of this chapter.

(4) A transaction described in paragraph (b) of this section is for a direct or an indirect corporate participant if it is expected to provide Federal income tax benefits to any corporation (U.S. or foreign) whether or not that corporation participates directly in the transaction.

(b) Transactions structured for avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax—(1) In general. The avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax will be considered a significant purpose of the structure of a transaction if the transaction is described in paragraph (b)(2) or (3) of this section. However, a transaction described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section need not be registered if the transaction is described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. For purposes of this section, Federal income tax benefits include deductions, exclusions from gross income, nonrecognition of gain, tax credits, adjustments (or the absence of adjustments) to the basis of property, status as an entity exempt from Federal income taxation, and any other tax consequences that may reduce a taxpayer's Federal income tax liability by affecting the amount, timing, character, or source of any item of income, gain, expense, loss, or credit.

(2) Listed transactions. A transaction is described in this paragraph (b)(2) if the transaction is the same as or substantially similar to one of the types of transactions that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) has determined to be a tax avoidance transaction and identified by notice, regulation, or other form of published guidance as a listed transaction. If a transaction becomes a listed transaction after the date on which registration would otherwise be required under this section, and if the transaction otherwise satisfies the confidentiality and fee requirements of paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, registration shall in all events be required with respect to any interests in the transaction that are offered for sale after the transaction becomes a listed transaction. However, because a transaction identified as a listed transaction is generally considered to have been structured for a significant tax avoidance purpose, such a transaction ordinarily will have been subject to registration under this section before becoming a listed transaction if the transaction previously satisfied the confidentiality and fee requirements of paragraphs (a)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section.

(3) Other tax-structured transactions. A transaction is described in this paragraph (b)(3) if it has been structured to produce Federal income tax benefits that constitute an important part of the intended results of the transaction and the tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this section) reasonably expects the transaction to be presented in the same or substantially similar form to more than one potential participant, unless the promoter reasonably determines that—

(i) The potential participant is expected to participate in the transaction in the ordinary course of its business in a form consistent with customary commercial practice (a transaction involving the acquisition, disposition, or restructuring of a business, including the acquisition, disposition, or other change in the ownership or control of an entity that is engaged in a business, or a transaction involving a recapitalization or an acquisition of capital for use in the taxpayer's business, shall be considered a transaction carried out in the ordinary course of a taxpayer's business); and

(ii) There is a generally accepted understanding that the expected Federal income tax benefits from the transaction (taking into account any combination of intended tax consequences) are properly allowable under the Internal Revenue Code for substantially similar transactions. There is no minimum period of time for which such a generally accepted understanding must exist. In general, however, a tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this section) cannot reasonably determine whether the intended tax treatment of a transaction has become generally accepted unless information relating to the tax treatment and tax structure of such transactions has been in the public domain (e.g., rulings, published articles, etc.) and widely known for a sufficient period of time (ordinarily a period of years) to provide knowledgeable tax practitioners and the IRS reasonable opportunity to evaluate the intended tax treatment. The mere fact that one or more knowledgeable tax practitioners have provided an opinion or advice to the effect that the intended tax treatment of the transaction should or will be sustained, if challenged by the IRS, is not sufficient to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii).

(4) Excepted transactions. The avoidance or evasion of Federal income tax will not be considered a significant purpose of the structure of a transaction if the transaction is described in either paragraph (b)(4)(i), (ii), or (iii) of this section.

(i) In the case of a transaction other than a transaction described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this section) reasonably determines that there is no reasonable basis under Federal tax law for denial of any significant portion of the expected Federal income tax benefits from the transaction. This paragraph (b)(4)(i) applies only if the tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this section) reasonably determines that there is no basis that would meet the standard applicable to taxpayers under §1.6662-3(b)(3) of this chapter under which the IRS could disallow any significant portion of the expected Federal income tax benefits of the transaction. Thus, the reasonable basis standard is not satisfied by an IRS position that would be merely arguable or that would constitute merely a colorable claim. However, the determination of whether the IRS would or would not have a reasonable basis for such a position must take into account the entirety of the transaction and any combination of tax consequences that are expected to result from any component steps of the transaction, must not be based on any unreasonable or unrealistic factual assumptions, and must take into account all relevant aspects of Federal tax law, including the statute and legislative history, treaties, administrative guidance, and judicial decisions that establish principles of general application in the tax law (e.g., Gregory v. Helvering, 293 U.S. 465 (1935)). The determination of whether the IRS would or would not have such a reasonable basis is qualitative in nature and does not depend on any percentage or other quantitative assessment of the likelihood that the taxpayer would ultimately prevail if a significant portion of the expected tax benefits were disallowed by the IRS.

(ii) The IRS makes a determination by published guidance that the transaction is not subject to the registration requirements of this section.

(iii) The IRS makes a determination by individual ruling under paragraph (b)(5) of this section that a specific transaction is not subject to the registration requirements of this section for the taxpayer requesting the ruling.

(5) Requests for ruling. If a tax shelter promoter (or other person who would be responsible for registration under this section) is uncertain whether a transaction is properly classified as a confidential corporate tax shelter or is otherwise uncertain whether registration is required under this section, that person may, on or before the date that registration would otherwise be required under this section, submit a request to the IRS for a ruling as to whether the transaction is subject to the registration requirements of this section. If the request fully discloses all relevant facts relating to the transaction, that person's potential obligation to register the transaction will be suspended during the period that the ruling request is pending and, if the IRS subsequently concludes that the transaction is a confidential corporate tax shelter subject to registration under this section, until the sixtieth day after the issuance of the ruling (or, if the request is withdrawn, sixty days from the date that the request is withdrawn). In the alternative, that person may register the transaction in accordance with the requirements of this section and append a statement to the Form 8264, “Application for Registration of a Tax Shelter”, which states that the person is uncertain whether the transaction is required to be registered as a confidential corporate tax shelter, and that the Form 8264 is being filed on a protective basis.

(6) Example. The following example illustrates the application of paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section. Assume, for purposes of the example, that the transaction is not the same as or substantially similar to any of the types of transactions that the IRS has identified as listed transactions under section 6111 and, thus, is not described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. The example is as follows:

Example. (i) Facts. Y has designed a combination of financial instruments to be issued as a package by corporations. The financial instruments are expected to be treated as equity for financial accounting purposes and as debt giving rise to allowable interest deductions for Federal income tax purposes. Y reasonably expects to present this method of raising capital to more than one potential corporate participant. Assume that, because of the unusual nature of the combination of financial instruments, Y cannot conclude either that the transaction represented by the financial instruments is in customary commercial form or that there is a generally accepted understanding that interest deductions are available to issuers of substantially similar combinations of financial instruments. Further, assume that Y cannot reasonably determine that the IRS would have no reasonable basis to deny the deductions.

(ii) Analysis. The transaction represented by this combination of financial instruments is a transaction described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. However, if Y is uncertain whether this transaction is described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, or is otherwise uncertain whether registration is required, Y may apply for a ruling under paragraph (b)(5) of this section, and Y will not be required to register the transaction while the ruling is pending or for sixty days thereafter.

(c) Conditions of confidentiality—(1) In general. All the facts and circumstances relating to the transaction will be considered when determining whether an offer is made under conditions of confidentiality as described in section 6111(d)(2), including prior conduct of the parties. Pursuant to section 6111(d)(2)(A), if an offeree's disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is limited in any manner by an express or implied understanding or agreement with or for the benefit of any tax shelter promoter, an offer is considered made under conditions of confidentiality, whether or not such understanding or agreement is legally binding. The tax treatment of a transaction is the purported or claimed Federal income tax treatment of the transaction. The tax structure of a transaction is any fact that may be relevant to understanding the purported or claimed Federal income tax treatment of the transaction. Pursuant to section 6111(d)(2)(B), an offer will also be considered made under conditions of confidentiality in the absence of any such understanding or agreement if any tax shelter promoter knows or has reason to know that the offeree's use or disclosure of information relating to the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is limited for the benefit of any person other than the offeree in any other manner, such as where the transaction is claimed to be proprietary or exclusive to the tax shelter promoter or any party other than the offeree.

(2) Exceptions—(i) Securities law. An offer is not considered made under conditions of confidentiality if disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is subject to restrictions reasonably necessary to comply with securities laws and such disclosure is not otherwise limited.

(ii) Mergers and acquisitions. In the case of a proposed taxable or tax-free acquisition of historic assets of a corporation (other than an investment company, as defined in section 351(e), that is not publicly traded) that constitute an active trade or business the acquirer intends to continue, or a proposed taxable or tax-free acquisition of more than 50 percent of the stock of a corporation (other than an investment company, as defined in section 351(e), that is not publicly traded) that owns historic assets used in an active trade or business the acquirer intends to continue, the transaction is not considered offered under conditions of confidentiality under paragraph (c)(1) of this section if the offeree is permitted to disclose the tax treatment and tax structure of the transaction no later than the earlier of the date of the public announcement of discussions relating to the transaction, the date of the public announcement of the transaction, or the date of the execution of an agreement (with or without conditions) to enter into the transaction. However, this exception is not available where the offeree's ability to consult any tax advisor (including a tax advisor independent from all other entities involved in the transaction) regarding the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is limited in any way.

(3) Presumption. Unless facts and circumstances indicate otherwise, an offer is not considered made under conditions of confidentiality if the tax shelter promoter provides express written authorization to each offeree permitting the offeree (and each employee, representative, or other agent of such offeree) to disclose to any and all persons, without limitation of any kind, the tax treatment and tax structure of the transaction, and all materials of any kind (including opinions or other tax analyses) that are provided to the offeree related to such tax treatment and tax structure. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, this presumption is available only in cases in which each written authorization permits the offeree to disclose the tax treatment and tax structure of the transaction immediately upon commencement of discussions with the tax shelter promoter providing the authorization and each written authorization is given no later than 30 days from the day the tax shelter promoter commenced discussions with the offeree. A transaction that is exclusive or proprietary to any party other than the offeree will not be considered offered under conditions of confidentiality if written authorization to disclose is provided to the offeree in accordance with this paragraph (c)(3) and the transaction is not otherwise confidential.

(d) Determination of fees. All the facts and circumstances relating to the transaction will be considered when determining the amount of fees, in the aggregate, that the tax shelter promoters may receive. For purposes of this paragraph (d), all consideration that tax shelter promoters may receive is taken into account, including contingent fees, fees in the form of equity interests, and fees the promoters may receive for other transactions as consideration for promoting the tax shelter. For example, if a tax shelter promoter may receive a fee for arranging a transaction that is a confidential corporate tax shelter and a separate fee for another transaction that is not a confidential corporate tax shelter, part or all of the fee paid with respect to the other transaction may be treated as a fee paid with respect to the confidential corporate tax shelter if the facts and circumstances indicate that the fee paid for the other transaction is in consideration for the confidential corporate tax shelter. For purposes of determining whether the tax shelter promoters may receive fees in excess of $100,000, the fees from all substantially similar transactions are considered part of the same tax shelter and must be aggregated.

(e) Registration—(1) Time for registering—(i) In general. A tax shelter must be registered not later than the day on which the first offering for sale of interests in the shelter occurs. An offer to participate in a confidential corporate tax shelter shall be treated as an offer for sale. If interests in a confidential corporate tax shelter were first offered for sale on or before February 28, 2000, the first offer for sale of interests in the shelter that occurs after February 28, 2000 shall be considered the first offer for sale under this section.

(ii) Special rule. If a transaction becomes a confidential corporate tax shelter (e.g., because of a change in the law or factual circumstances, or because the transaction becomes a listed transaction) subsequent to the first offering for sale after February 28, 2000, and the transaction was not previously required to be registered as a confidential corporate tax shelter under this section, the transaction must be registered under this section if interests are offered for sale after the transaction becomes a confidential corporate tax shelter. The transaction must be registered by the next offering for sale of interests in the shelter. If, subsequent to the first offering for sale, a transaction becomes a confidential corporate tax shelter because the transaction becomes a listed transaction on or after February 28, 2003, and the transaction was not previously required to be registered as a confidential corporate tax shelter under this section, the transaction must be registered under this section within 60 days after the transaction becomes a listed transaction/confidential corporate tax shelter if any interests were offered for sale within the previous six years.

(2) Procedures for registering. To register a confidential corporate tax shelter, the person responsible for registering the tax shelter must file Form 8264, “Application for Registration of a Tax Shelter”. (Form 8264 is also used to register tax shelters defined in section 6111(c).) Similar to the treatment provided under Q&A-22 and Q&A-48 of §301.6111-1T, transactions involving similar business assets and similar plans or arrangements that are offered to corporate taxpayers by the same person or related persons are aggregated and considered part of a single tax shelter. However, in contrast with the requirement of Q&A-48 of §301.6111-1T, the tax shelter promoter may file a single Form 8264 with respect to any such aggregated tax shelter, provided an amended Form 8264 is filed to reflect any material changes and to include any additional or revised written materials presented in connection with an offer to participate in the shelter. Furthermore, all transactions that are part of the same tax shelter and that are to be carried out by the same corporate participant (or one or more other members of the same affiliated group within the meaning of section 1504) must be registered on the same Form 8264.

(f) Definition of tax shelter promoter. For purposes of section 6111(d)(2) and this section, the term tax shelter promoter includes a tax shelter organizer and any other person who participates in the organization, management or sale of a tax shelter (as those persons are described in section 6111(e)(1) and §301.6111-1T (Q&A-26 through Q&A-33) or any person related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to such tax shelter organizer or such other person.

(g) Person required to register—(1) Tax shelter promoters. The rules in section 6111 (a) and (e) and §301.6111-1T (Q&A-34 through Q&A-39) determine who is required to register a confidential corporate tax shelter. A promoter of a confidential corporate tax shelter must register the tax shelter only if it is a person required to register under the rules in section 6111(a) and (e) and §301.6111-1T (Q&A-34 through Q&A-39).

(2) Persons who discuss the transaction; all promoters are foreign persons—(i) In general. If all of the tax shelter promoters of a confidential corporate tax shelter are foreign persons, any person who discusses participation in the transaction must register the shelter under this section within 90 days after beginning such discussions.

(ii) Exceptions. Registration by a person discussing participation in a transaction is not required if either—

(A) The person does not participate, directly or indirectly, in the shelter and notifies the tax shelter promoter in writing, within 90 days of beginning such discussions, that the person will not participate; or

(B) Within 90 days after beginning such discussions, the person obtains and reasonably relies on both—

(1) A written statement from one of the tax shelter promoters that such promoter has registered the tax shelter under this section; and

(2) A copy of the registration.

(iii) Determination of foreign status. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), a person must presume that all tax shelter promoters are foreign persons unless the person either—

(A) Discusses participation in the tax shelter with a promoter that is a United States person; or

(B) Obtains and reasonably relies on a written statement from one of the promoters that at least one of the promoters is a United States person.

(iv) Discussion. Discussing participation in a transaction includes discussing such participation with any person that conveys the tax shelter promoter's proposal. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), any person that participates directly or indirectly in a transaction will be treated as having discussed participation in the transaction not later than the date of the agreement to participate. Thus, a tax shelter participant will be treated as having discussed participation in the transaction even if all discussions were conducted by an intermediary and the agreement to participate was made indirectly through another person acting on the participant's behalf (for example, through an intermediary empowered to commit the participant to participate in the shelter).

(v) Special rule for controlled entities. A person (first person) will be treated as participating indirectly in a confidential corporate tax shelter if a foreign person controlled by the first person participates in the shelter, and a significant purpose of the shelter is the avoidance or evasion of the first person's Federal income tax. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2)(v), control of a foreign corporation or partnership will be determined under the rules of section 6038(e)(2) and (3), except that such section shall be applied by substituting “10” for “50” each place it appears and “at least” for “more than” each place it appears. In addition, section 6038(e)(2) shall be applied for these purposes without regard to the constructive ownership rules of section 318 and by treating stock as owned if it is owned directly or indirectly. Section 6038(e)(3) shall be applied for these purposes without regard to the last sentence of section 6038(e)(3)(B). Any beneficiary with a 10 percent or more interest in a foreign trust or estate shall be treated as controlling that trust or estate for purposes of this paragraph (g)(2)(v).

(vi) Other rules. (A) For purposes of the registration requirements under section 6111(d)(3), it is presumed that the tax shelter promoters will receive fees in excess of $100,000 in the aggregate unless the person responsible for registering the tax shelter can show otherwise.

(B) Any person treated as a tax shelter promoter under section 6111(d) solely by reason of being related (within the meaning of section 267 or 707) to a foreign promoter will be treated as a foreign promoter for purposes of this paragraph (g)(2).

(h) Effective dates. This section applies to confidential corporate tax shelters in which any interests are offered for sale after February 28, 2000. If an interest is sold after February 28, 2000, it is treated as offered for sale after February 28, 2000, unless the sale was pursuant to a written binding contract entered into on or before February 28, 2000. However, paragraphs (a) through (g) of this section apply to confidential corporate tax shelters in which any interests are offered for sale on or after February 28, 2003, and to transactions described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. The rules that apply to confidential corporate tax shelters in which any interests are offered for sale after February 28, 2000, and before February 28, 2003, are contained in §301.6111-2T in effect prior to February 28, 2003 (see 26 CFR part 301 revised as of April 1, 2002, 2002-28 I.R.B 91, and 2002-45 I.R.B. 823 (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter)).

[T.D. 9046, 68 FR 10170, Mar. 4, 2003]

§301.6111-3   Disclosure of reportable transactions.

(a) In general. Each material advisor, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, with respect to any reportable transaction, as defined in §1.6011-4(b) of this chapter, must file a return as described in paragraph (d) of this section by the date described in paragraph (e) of this section.

(b) Material advisor—(1) In general. A person is a material advisor with respect to a transaction if the person provides any material aid, assistance, or advice with respect to organizing, managing, promoting, selling, implementing, insuring, or carrying out any reportable transaction, and directly or indirectly derives gross income in excess of the threshold amount as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for the material aid, assistance, or advice. The term transaction includes all of the factual elements relevant to the expected tax treatment of any investment, entity, plan or arrangement, and includes any series of steps carried out as part of a plan.

(2) Material aid, assistance, or advice—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5) of this section, a person provides material aid, assistance, or advice with respect to organizing, managing, promoting, selling, implementing, insuring, or carrying out any transaction if the person makes or provides a tax statement to or for the benefit of—

(A) A taxpayer who either is required to disclose the transaction under §§1.6011-4, 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter because the transaction is a listed transaction or a transaction of interest, or would have been required to disclose the transaction under §§1.6011-4, 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter if the transaction had become a listed transaction or a transaction of interest within the period of limitations in §1.6011-4(e) of this chapter;

(B) A taxpayer who the potential material advisor knows is or reasonably expects to be required to disclose the transaction under §1.6011-4 of this chapter because the transaction is or is reasonably expected to become a transaction described in §1.6011-4(b)(3) through (5) or (7) of this chapter;

(C) A material advisor who is required to disclose the transaction under this section because it is a listed transaction or a transaction of interest; or

(D) A material advisor who the potential material advisor knows is or reasonably expects to be required to disclose the transaction under this section because the transaction is or is reasonably expected to become a transaction described in §1.6011-4(b)(3) through (5) or (7) of this chapter.

(ii) Tax statement—(A) In general. A tax statement is any statement (including another person's statement), oral or written, that relates to a tax aspect of a transaction that causes the transaction to be a reportable transaction as defined in §1.6011-4(b)(2) through (7) of this chapter. A tax statement under this section includes tax result protection that insures some or all of the tax benefits of a reportable transaction.

(B) Confidential transactions. A statement relates to a tax aspect of a transaction that causes it to be a confidential transaction if the statement concerns a tax benefit related to the transaction and either the taxpayer's disclosure of the tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction is limited in the manner described in §1.6011-4(b)(3) of this chapter by or for the benefit of the person making the statement, or the person making the statement knows the taxpayer's disclosure of the tax structure or tax aspects of the transaction is limited in the manner described in §1.6011-4(b)(3) of this chapter.

(C) Transactions with contractual protection. A statement relates to a tax aspect of a transaction that causes it to be a transaction with contractual protection if the statement concerns a tax benefit related to the transaction and either—

(1) The taxpayer has the right to a full or partial refund of fees paid to the person making the statement or the fees are contingent in the manner described in §1.6011-4(b)(4) of this chapter; or

(2) The person making the statement knows or has reason to know that the taxpayer has the right to a full or partial refund of fees (described in §1.6011-4(b)(4)(ii) of this chapter) paid to another if all or part of the intended tax consequences from the transaction are not sustained or that fees (as described in §1.6011-4(b)(4)(ii) of this chapter) paid by the taxpayer to another are contingent on the taxpayer's realization of tax benefits from the transaction in the manner described in §1.6011-4(b)(4) of this chapter.

(D) Loss transactions. A statement relates to a tax aspect of a transaction that causes it to be a loss transaction if the statement concerns an item that gives rise to a loss described in §1.6011-4(b)(5) of this chapter.

(E) [Reserved]

(iii) Special rules—(A) Capacity as an employee. A material advisor generally does not include a person who makes a tax statement solely in the person's capacity as an employee, shareholder, partner or agent of another person. Any tax statement made by that person will be attributed to that person's employer, corporation, partnership or principal. However, a person shall be treated as a material advisor if that person forms or avails of an entity with the purpose of avoiding the rules of section 6111 or 6112 or the penalties under section 6707 or 6708.

(B) Post-filing advice. A person will not be considered to be a material advisor with respect to a transaction if that person does not make or provide a tax statement regarding the transaction until after the first tax return reflecting tax benefit(s) of the transaction is filed with the IRS. However, this exception does not apply to a person who makes a tax statement with respect to the transaction if it is expected that the taxpayer will file a supplemental or amended return reflecting additional tax benefits from the transaction.

(C) Publicly filed statements. A tax statement with respect to a transaction that includes only information about the transaction contained in publicly available documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission no later than the close of the transaction will not be considered a tax statement to or for the benefit of a person described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Gross income derived for material aid, assistance, or advice—(i) Threshold amount—(A) In general. The threshold amount of gross income is $50,000 in the case of a reportable transaction substantially all of the tax benefits from which are provided to natural persons (looking through any partnerships, S corporations, or trusts). For all other transactions, the threshold amount is $250,000.

(B) Listed transactions and transactions of interest. For listed transactions described in §§1.6011-4, 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter, the threshold amounts in paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section are reduced from $50,000 to $10,000 and from $250,000 to $25,000. For transactions of interest described in §§1.6011-4, 20.6011-4, 25.6011-4, 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4, 53.6011-4, 54.6011-4, or 56.6011-4 of this chapter, the threshold amounts in paragraph (b)(3)(i)(A) of this section may be reduced as identified in the published guidance describing the transaction.

(C) [Reserved]

(D) Substantially all of the tax benefits. For purposes of this section, the determination of whether substantially all of the tax benefits from a reportable transaction are provided to natural persons is made based on all the facts and circumstances. Generally, unless the facts and circumstances prove otherwise, if 70 percent or more of the tax benefits from a reportable transaction are provided to natural persons (looking through any partnerships, S corporations, or trusts) then substantially all of the tax benefits will be considered to be provided to natural persons.

(ii) Gross income derived directly or indirectly for the material aid, assistance, or advice. In determining the amount of gross income a person derives directly or indirectly for material aid, assistance, or advice, all fees for a tax strategy or for services for advice (whether or not tax advice) or for the implementation of a reportable transaction are taken into account. Fees include consideration in whatever form paid, whether in cash or in kind, for services to analyze the transaction (whether or not related to the tax consequences of the transaction), for services to implement the transaction, for services to document the transaction, and for services to prepare tax returns to the extent return preparation fees are unreasonable in light of all of the facts and circumstances. A fee does not include amounts paid to a person, including an advisor, in that person's capacity as a party to the transaction. For example, a fee does not include reasonable charges for the use of capital or the sale or use of property. The IRS will scrutinize carefully all of the facts and circumstances in determining whether consideration received in connection with a reportable transaction constitutes gross income derived directly or indirectly for aid, assistance, or advice. For purposes of this section, the threshold amount must be met independently for each transaction that is a reportable transaction and aggregation of fees among transactions is not required.

(4) Date a person becomes a material advisor—(i) In general. A person will be treated as becoming a material advisor when all of the following events have occurred (in no particular order)—

(A) The person provides material aid, assistance or advice as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section;

(B) The person directly or indirectly derives gross income in excess of the threshold amount as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section; and

(C) The transaction is entered into by the taxpayer to whom or for whose benefit the person provided the tax statement, or in the case of a tax statement provided to another material advisor, when the transaction is entered into by a taxpayer to whom or for whose benefit that material advisor provided a tax statement.

(ii) Determining if the taxpayer entered into the transaction. Material advisors, including those who cease providing services before the time the transaction is entered into, must make reasonable and good faith efforts to determine whether the event described in paragraph (b)(4)(i)(C) of this section has occurred.

(iii) Listed transactions and transactions of interest. If a transaction that was not a reportable transaction is identified as a listed transaction or a transaction of interest in published guidance after the occurrence of the events described in paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, the person will be treated as becoming a material advisor on the date the transaction is identified as a listed transaction or a transaction of interest.

(5) Other persons designated as material advisors. Published guidance may identify other types or classes of persons as material advisors.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Reportable transaction. The term reportable transaction is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(1) of this chapter.

(2) Listed transaction. The term listed transaction is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(2) of this chapter. See also §§20.6011-4(a), 25.6011-4(a), 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4(a), 53.6011-4(a), 54.6011-4(a), or 56.6011-4(a) of this chapter.

(3) Derive. The term derive means receive or expect to receive.

(4) Person. The term person means any person described in section 7701(a)(1), including an affiliated group of corporations that join in the filing of a consolidated return under section 1501.

(5) Substantially similar. The term substantially similar is defined in §1.6011-4(c)(4) of this chapter.

(6) Tax. The term tax means Federal tax.

(7) Tax benefit. A tax benefit includes deductions, exclusions from gross income, nonrecognition of gain, tax credits, adjustments (or the absence of adjustments) to the basis of property, status as an entity exempt from Federal income taxation, and any other tax consequences that may reduce a taxpayer's Federal tax liability by affecting the amount, timing, character, or source of any item of income, gain, expense, loss, or credit.

(8) Tax return. The term tax return means a Federal tax return and a Federal information return.

(9) Tax structure. The tax structure of a transaction is any fact that may be relevant to understanding the purported or claimed Federal tax treatment of the transaction.

(10) Tax treatment. The tax treatment of a transaction is the purported or claimed Federal tax treatment of the transaction.

(11) Taxpayer. The term taxpayer is defined in §1.6011-4(c)(1) of this chapter.

(12) Tax result protection. The term tax result protection includes insurance company and other third party products commonly described as tax result insurance.

(13) Transaction of interest. The term transaction of interest is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(6) of this chapter. See also §§20.6011-4(a), 25.6011-4(a), 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4(a), 53.6011-4(a), 54.6011-4(a), or 56.6011-4(a) of this chapter.

(d) Form and content of material advisor's disclosure statement—(1) In general. A material advisor required to file a disclosure statement under this section must file a completed Form 8918, “Material Advisor Disclosure Statement” (or successor form) in accordance with this paragraph (d) and the instructions to the form. To be considered complete, the information provided on the form must describe the expected tax treatment and all potential tax benefits expected to result from the transaction, describe any tax result protection with respect to the transaction, and identify and describe the transaction in sufficient detail for the IRS to be able to understand the tax structure of the reportable transaction and the identity of any material advisor(s) whom the material advisor knows or has reason to know acted as a material advisor as defined in paragraph (b) of this section with respect to the transaction. An incomplete form containing a statement that information will be provided upon request is not considered a complete disclosure statement. A material advisor may file a single form for substantially similar transactions. An amended form must be filed if information previously provided is no longer accurate, if additional information that was not disclosed becomes available, or if there are material changes to the transaction. A material advisor is not required to file an additional form for each additional taxpayer that enters into the same or substantially similar transaction. If the form is not completed in accordance with the provisions in this paragraph (d) and the instructions to the form, the material advisor will not be considered to have complied with the disclosure requirements of this section.

(2) Reportable transaction number. The IRS will issue to a material advisor a reportable transaction number with respect to the disclosed reportable transaction. Receipt of a reportable transaction number does not indicate that the disclosure statement is complete, nor does it indicate that the transaction has been reviewed, examined, or approved by the IRS. Material advisors must provide the reportable transaction number to all taxpayers and material advisors for whom the material advisor acts as a material advisor as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. The reportable transaction number must be provided at the time the transaction is entered into, or, if the transaction is entered into prior to the material advisor receiving the reportable transaction number, within 60 calendar days from the date the reportable transaction number is mailed to the material advisor.

(e) Time of providing disclosure. The material advisor's disclosure statement for a reportable transaction must be filed with the Office of Tax Shelter Analysis (OTSA) by the last day of the month that follows the end of the calendar quarter in which the advisor became a material advisor with respect to the reportable transaction or in which the circumstances necessitating an amended disclosure statement occur. The disclosure statement must be sent to OTSA at the address provided in the instructions for Form 8918 (or a successor form).

(f) Designation agreements. If more than one material advisor is required to disclose a reportable transaction under this section, the material advisors may designate by written agreement a single material advisor to disclose the transaction. The transaction must be disclosed by the last day of the month following the end of the calendar quarter that includes the earliest date on which a material advisor who is a party to the agreement became a material advisor with respect to the transaction as described in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The designation of one material advisor to disclose the transaction does not relieve the other material advisors of their obligation to disclose the transaction to the IRS in accordance with this section, if the designated material advisor fails to disclose the transaction to the IRS in a timely manner.

(g) Protective disclosures. If a potential material advisor is uncertain whether a transaction must be disclosed under this section, the advisor may disclose the transaction in accordance with the requirements of this section and comply with all the provisions of this section, and indicate on the disclosure statement that the disclosure statement is being filed on a protective basis. The IRS will not treat disclosure statements filed on a protective basis any differently than other disclosure statements filed under this section. For a protective disclosure to be effective, the advisor must comply with the regulations under this section and §301.6112-1 by providing to the IRS all information requested by the IRS under these sections.

(h) Rulings. If a potential material advisor requests a ruling as to whether a specific transaction is a reportable transaction on or before the date that disclosure would otherwise be required under this section, the Commissioner in his discretion may determine that the submission satisfies the disclosure rules under this section for that transaction if the request fully discloses all relevant facts relating to the transaction which would otherwise be required to be disclosed under this section. The potential obligation of the person to disclose the transaction under this section (or to maintain or furnish the list under §301.6112-1) will not be suspended during the period that the ruling request is pending.

(i) Effective/applicability date—(1) In general. This section applies to transactions with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement on or after August 3, 2007. However, this section applies to transactions of interest entered into on or after November 2, 2006, with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement under this section on or after November 2, 2006. Paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(A), (b)(3)(i)(B), (c)(2), and (c)(13) of this section apply to transactions with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement under this section after November 14, 2011. Paragraph (h) of this section applies to ruling requests received on or after November 2, 2006. Otherwise, the rules that apply on or before November 14, 2011 are contained in this section in effect prior to November 14, 2011 (see 26 CFR part 301 revised as of April 1, 2011).

(2) [Reserved]

[T.D. 9351, 72 FR 43159, Aug. 3, 2007, as amended by T.D. 9556, 76 FR 70341, Nov. 14, 2011]

§301.6112-1   Material advisors of reportable transactions must keep lists of advisees, etc.

(a) In general. Each material advisor, as defined in §301.6111-3(b), with respect to any reportable transaction, as defined in §1.6011-4(b) of this chapter, shall prepare and maintain a list in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section and shall furnish such list to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

(b) Preparation and maintenance of lists—(1) In general. A separate list must be prepared and maintained for each reportable transaction. However, one list must be maintained for substantially similar transactions. A material advisor will have 30 calendar days from the date the list maintenance requirement first arises (see §301.6111-3(b)(4) and paragraph (a) of this section) with respect to a reportable transaction to prepare the list that must be maintained under this section with respect to that transaction. The Commissioner in his discretion also may provide in published guidance designating a transaction as a reportable transaction a list preparation time period greater than 30 calendar days. If a list is requested under this section during the list preparation time period, the request for the list will be treated as having been made on the day after the list preparation time period ends. A list must be maintained in a form that enables the IRS to determine without undue delay or difficulty the information required in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The Commissioner in his discretion may provide in published guidance a form or method for maintaining or furnishing the list.

(2) Persons required to be included on lists. A material advisor is required to maintain a list identifying each person with respect to whom the advisor acted as a material advisor with respect to the reportable transaction. However, a material advisor is not required to identify a person on the list if the person entered into a listed transaction or a transaction of interest more than 6 years before the transaction was identified in published guidance as a listed transaction or a transaction of interest.

(3) Contents. Each list must include the three components described in paragraph (b)(3)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section.

(i) Statement. An itemized statement containing the following information—

(A) The name of each reportable transaction, the citation to the published guidance number identifying the transaction if the transaction is a listed transaction or a transaction of interest, and the reportable transaction number obtained under section 6111;

(B) The name, address, and TIN of each person required to be included on the list;

(C) The date on which each person required to be included on the list entered into each reportable transaction, if known by the material advisor;

(D) The amount invested in each reportable transaction by each person required to be included on the list, if known by the material advisor;

(E) A summary or schedule of the tax treatment that each person is intended or expected to derive from participation in each reportable transaction; and

(F) The name of each other material advisor to the transaction, if known by the material advisor.

(ii) Description of the transaction. A detailed description of each reportable transaction that describes both the tax structure of the transaction and the purported tax treatment of the transaction.

(iii) Documents. The following documents—

(A) A copy of any designation agreement (as described in paragraph (f) of this section) to which the material advisor is a party; and

(B) Copies of any additional written materials, including tax analyses or opinions, relating to each reportable transaction that are material to an understanding of the purported tax treatment or tax structure of the transaction that have been shown or provided to any person who acquired or may acquire an interest in the transactions, or to their representatives, tax advisors, or agents, by the material advisor or any related party or agent of the material advisor. However, a material advisor is not required to retain earlier drafts of a document provided the material advisor retains a copy of the final document (or, if there is no final document, the most recent draft of the document) and the final document (or most recent draft) contains all the information in the earlier drafts of such document that is material to an understanding of the purported tax treatment or the tax structure of the transaction.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following terms are defined as:

(1) Material advisor. The term material advisor is defined in §301.6111-3(b).

(2) Reportable transaction. The term reportable transaction is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(1) of this chapter.

(3) Listed transaction. The term listed transaction is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(2) of this chapter. See also §§20.6011-4(a), 25.6011-4(a), 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4(a), 53.6011-4(a), 54.6011-4(a), or 56.6011-4(a) of this chapter.

(4) Substantially similar. The term substantially similar is defined in §1.6011-4(c)(4) of this chapter.

(5) Person. The term person is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(4).

(6) Related party. A person is a related party with respect to another person if such person bears a relationship to such other person described in section 267(b) or 707(b).

(7) Tax. The term tax is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(6).

(8) Tax benefit. The term tax benefit is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(7).

(9) Tax return. The term tax return is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(8).

(10) Tax structure. The term tax structure is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(9).

(11) Tax treatment. The term tax treatment is defined in §301.6111-3(c)(10).

(12) Transaction of interest. The term transaction of interest is defined in §1.6011-4(b)(6) of this chapter. See also §§20.6011-4(a), 25.6011-4(a), 26.6011-4, 31.6011-4(a), 53.6011-4(a), 54.6011-4(a), or 56.6011-4(a) of this chapter.

(d) Retention of lists. Each material advisor must maintain each component of the list described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section in a readily accessible form for seven years following the earlier of the date on which the material advisor last made a tax statement relating to the transaction, or the date the transaction was last entered into, if known. If the material advisor required to prepare, maintain, and furnish the list is a corporation, partnership, or other entity (entity) that has dissolved or liquidated before completion of the seven-year period, the person responsible under state law for winding up the affairs of the entity must prepare, maintain and furnish each component of the list on behalf of the entity, unless the entity submits the list to the Office of Tax Shelter Analysis (OTSA) within 60 days after the dissolution or liquidation. If state law does not specify any person as responsible for winding up the affairs, then each of the directors of the corporation, the general partners of the partnership, or the trustees, owners, or members of the entity are responsible for preparing, maintaining and furnishing each component of the list on behalf of the entity, unless the entity submits the list to the OTSA within 60 days after the dissolution or liquidation. The responsible person must also provide notice to OTSA of such dissolution or liquidation within 60 days after the dissolution or liquidation. The list and the notice provided to OTSA must be sent to: Internal Revenue Service, OTSA Mail Stop 4915, 1973 North Rulon White Blvd., Ogden, Utah 84404, or to such other address as provided by the Commissioner.

(e) Furnishing of lists—(1) In general. Each material advisor responsible for maintaining a list must, upon written request by the IRS, make each component of the list described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section available to the IRS. Each component of the list must be furnished to the IRS in a form that enables the IRS to determine without undue delay or difficulty the information required in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. If any component of the list is not in a form that enables the IRS to determine without undue delay or difficulty the information required in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the material advisor will not be considered to have complied with the list maintenance provisions in section 6112 and this section. A material advisor must make the list or each component of the list available to the IRS within the period prescribed in section 6708 or published guidance relating to section 6708.

(2) Claims of privilege. Each material advisor who is required to maintain a list with respect to a reportable transaction, must still maintain the list pursuant to the requirements of this section even if a person asserts a claim of privilege with respect to the information specified in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(B) of this section.

(f) Designation agreements. If more than one material advisor is required to maintain a list of persons for a reportable transaction, in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, the material advisors may designate by written agreement a single material advisor (the designated material advisor) to maintain the list or a portion of the list. A designation agreement does not relieve material advisors from their obligation to maintain a list in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section or to furnish their list to the IRS in accordance with paragraph (e)(1) of this section, but a designation agreement may allow one material advisor to maintain a list on behalf of the other material advisors who are a party to the designation agreement. A material advisor is not relieved from the requirement of this section because a material advisor is unable to obtain the list from any designated material advisor, any designated material advisor did not maintain a list, or the list maintained by any designated material advisor is not complete. The existence of a designation agreement does not affect the ability of the IRS to request a list from any party to the designation agreement. The IRS may request a list from any party to the designation agreement, and the party receiving the request must furnish their list to the IRS in accordance with paragraph (e)(1) of this section, regardless of whether their list was maintained by another party pursuant to the terms of a designation agreement.

(g) Effective/applicability date. In general, this section applies to transactions with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement under §301.6111-3 on or after August 3, 2007. However, this section applies to transactions of interest entered into on or after November 2, 2006, with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement under §301.6111-3 on or after November 2, 2006. Paragraphs (b)(1), (c)(3), (c)(12), and (f) of this section apply to transactions with respect to which a material advisor makes a tax statement under §301.6111-3 after November 14, 2011. Otherwise, the rules that apply on or before November 14, 2011 are contained in this section in effect prior to November 14, 2011 (see 26 CFR part 301 revised as of April 1, 2011).

[T.D. 9352, 72 FR 43155, Aug. 3, 2007, as amended by T.D. 9556, 76 FR 70341, Nov. 14, 2011]

§301.6114-1   Treaty-based return positions.

(a) Reporting requirement—(1) General rule. (i) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, if a taxpayer takes a return position that any treaty of the United States (including, but not limited to, an income tax treaty, estate and gift tax treaty, or friendship, commerce and navigation treaty) overrules or modifies any provision of the Internal Revenue Code and thereby effects (or potentially effects) a reduction of any tax incurred as any time, the taxpayer shall disclose such return position on a statement (in the form required in paragraph (d) of this section) attached to such return.

(ii) If a return of tax would not otherwise be required to be filed, a return must nevertheless be filed for purposes of making the disclosure required by this section. For this purpose, such return need include only the taxpayer's name, address, taxpayer identifying number, and be signed under penalties of perjury (as well as the subject disclosure). Also, the taxpayer's taxable year shall be deemed to be the calendar year (unless the taxpayer has previously established, or timely chooses for this purpose to establish, a different taxable year). In the case of a disclosable return position relating solely to income subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a) of this chapter), however, the statement required to be filed in paragraph (d) of this section must instead be filed at times and in accordance with procedures published by the Internal Revenue Service.

(2) Application. (i) A taxpayer is considered to adopt a “return position” when the taxpayer determines its tax liability with respect to a particular item of income, deduction or credit. A taxpayer may be considered to adopt a return position whether or not a return is actually filed. To determine whether a return position is a “treaty-based return position” so that reporting is required under this paragraph (a), the taxpayer must compare:

(A) The tax liability (including credits, carrybacks, carryovers, and other tax consequences or attributes for the current year as well as for any other affected tax years) to be reported on a return of the taxpayer, and

(B) The tax liability (including such credits, carrybacks, carryovers, and other tax consequences or attributes) that would be reported if the relevant treaty provision did not exist.

If there is a difference (or potential difference) in these two amounts, the position taken on a return is a treaty-based return position that must be reported.

(ii) In the event a taxpayer's return position is based on a conclusion that a treaty provision is consistent with a Code provision, but the effect of the treaty provision is to alter the scope of the Code provision from the scope that it would have in the absence of the treaty, then the return position is a treaty-based return position that must be reported.

(iii) A return position is a treaty-based return position unless the taxpayer's conclusion that no reporting is required under paragraphs (a)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section has a substantial probability of successful defense if challenged.

(3) Examples. The application of section 6114 and paragraph (a)(2) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1: X, a Country A corporation, claims the benefit of a provision of the income tax treaty between the United States and Country A that modifies a provision of the Code. This position does not result in a change of X's U.S. tax liability for the current tax year but does give rise to, or increases, a net operating loss which may be carried back (or forward) such that X's tax liability in the carryback (or forward) year may be affected by the position taken by X in the current year. X must disclose this treaty-based return position with its tax return for the current tax year.

Example 2: Z, a domestic corporation, is engaged in a trade or business in Country B. Country B imposes a tax on the income from certain of Z's petroleum activities at a rate significantly greater than the rate applicable to income from other activities. Z claims a foreign tax credit for this tax on its tax return. The tax imposed on Z is specifically listed as a creditable tax in the income tax treaty between the United States and Country B; however, there is no specific authority that such tax would otherwise be a creditable tax for U.S. purposes under sections 901 or 903 of the Code. Therefore, in the absence of the treaty, the creditability of this petroleum tax would lack a substantial probability of successful defense if challenged, and Z must disclose this treaty-based return position (see also paragraph (b)(7) of this section).

(b) Reporting specifically required. Reporting is required under this section except as expressly waived under paragraph (c) of this section. The following list is not a list of all positions for which reporting is required under this section but is a list of particular positions for which reporting is specifically required. These positions are as follows:

(1) That a nondiscrimination provision of a treaty precludes the application of any otherwise applicable Code provision, other than with respect to the making of or the effect of an election under section 897(i);

(2) That a treaty reduces or modifies the taxation of gain or loss from the disposition of a United States real property interest;

(3) That a treaty exempts a foreign corporation from (or reduces the amount of tax with respect to) the branch profits tax (section 884(a)) or the tax on excess interest (section 884(f)(1)(B));

(4) That, notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section,

(i) A treaty exempts from tax, or reduces the rate of tax on, interest or dividends paid by a foreign corporation that are from sources within the United States by reason of section 861(a)(2)(B) or section 884(f)(1)(A); or

(ii) A treaty exempts from tax, or reduces the rate of tax on, fixed or determinable annual or periodical income subject to withholding under section 1441 or 1442 that a foreign person receives from a U.S. person, but only if described in paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, or in paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(C) or (D) of this section as follows—

(A) the payment is not properly reported to the Service on a Form 1042S; and

(B) The foreign person is any of the following:

(1) A controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957) in which the U.S. person is a U.S. shareholder within the meaning of section 951(b);

(2) A foreign corporation that is controlled within the meaning of section 6038 by the U.S. person;

(3) A foreign shareholder of the U.S. person that, in the case of tax years beginning on or before July 10, 1989, is controlled within the meaning of section 6038A by the foreign shareholder, or, in the case of tax years beginning after July 10, 1989, is 25-percent owned within the meaning of section 6038A by the foreign shareholder; or

(4) With respect to payments made after October 10, 1990, a foreign related party, as defined in section 6038A (c)(2)(B), the U.S. person; or

(C) For payments made after December 31, 2000, with respect to a treaty that contains a limitation on benefits article, that—

(1) The treaty exempts from tax, or reduces the rate of tax on income subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a) of this chapter) that is received by a foreign person (other than a State, including a political subdivision or local authority) that is the beneficial owner of the income and the beneficial owner is related to the person obligated to pay the income within the meaning of sections 267(b) and 707(b), and the income exceeds $500,000; and

(2) A foreign person (other than an individual or a State, including a political subdivision or local authority) meets the requirements of the limitation on benefits article of the treaty; or

(D) For payments made after December 31, 2000, with respect to a treaty that imposes any other conditions for the entitlement of treaty benefits, for example as a part of the interest, dividends, or royalty article, that such conditions are met;

(5) That, notwithstanding paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, under a treaty—

(i) Income that is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business of a foreign corporation or a nonresident alien is not attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base of operations in the United States and, thus, is not subject to taxation on a net basis, or that

(ii) Expenses are allowable in determining net business income so attributable, notwithstanding an inconsistent provision of the Code;

(6) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section, that a treaty alters the source of any item of income or deduction;

(7) That a treaty grants a credit for a specific foreign tax for which a foreign tax credit would not be allowed by the Code; or

(8) For returns relating to taxable years for which the due date for filing returns (without extensions) is after December 15, 1997, that residency of an individual is determined under a treaty and apart from the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) Reporting requirement waived. (1) Pursuant to the authority contained in section 6114 (b), reporting is waived under this section with respect to any of the following return positions taken by the taxpayer:

(i) For amounts received on or after January 1, 2001, reporting under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) is waived, unless reporting is specifically required under paragraphs (b)(4)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section, paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(C) of this section, or paragraph (b)(4)(ii)(D) of this section;

(ii) Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(4) or (5) of this section, that a treaty has reduced the rate of withholding tax otherwise applicable to a particular type of fixed or determinable annual or periodical income subject to withholding under section 1441 or 1442, such as dividends, interest, rents, or royalties to the extent such income is beneficially owned by an individual or a State (including a political subdivision or local authority);

(iii) For returns relating to taxable years for which the due date for filing returns (without extensions) is on or before December 15, 1997, that residency of an individual is determined under a treaty and apart from the Internal Revenue Code.

(iv) That a treaty reduces or modifies the taxation of income derived from dependent personal services, pensions, annuities, social security and other public pensions, or income derived by artistes, athletes, students, trainees or teachers;

(v) That income of an individual is resourced (for purposes of applying the foreign tax credit limitation) under a treaty provision relating to elimination of double taxation;

(vi) That a nondiscrimination provision of a treaty allows the making of an election under section 897(i);

(vii) That a Social Security Totalization Agreement or a Diplomatic or Consular Agreement reduces or modifies the taxation of income derived by the taxpayer; or

(viii) That a treaty exempts the taxpayer from the excise tax imposed by section 4371, but only if:

(A) The person claiming such treaty-based return position is an insured, as defined in section 4372(d) (without the limitation therein referring to section 4371(1)), or a U.S. or foreign broker of insurance risks,

(B) Reporting under this section that would otherwise be required to be made by foreign insurers or reinsurers on a Form 720 on a quarterly basis is made on an annual basis on a Form 720 by a date no later than the date on which the return is due for the first quarter after the end of the calendar year, or

(C) A closing agreement relating to entitlement to the exemption from the excise tax has been entered into with the Service by the foreign insurance company that is the beneficial recipient of the premium that is subject to the excise tax.

(2) Reporting is waived for an individual if payments or income items otherwise reportable under this section (other than by reason of paragraph (b)(8) of this section), received by the individual during the course of the taxable year do not exceed $10,000 in the aggregate or, in the case of payments or income items reportable only by reason of paragraph (b)(8) of this section, do not exceed $100,000 in the aggregate.

(3) Reporting with respect to payments or income items the treatment of which is mandated by the terms of a closing agreement with the Internal Revenue Service, and that would otherwise be subject to the reporting requirements of this section, is also waived.

(4) If a partnership, trust, or estate that has the taxpayer as a partner or beneficiary discloses on its information return a position for which reporting is otherwise required by the taxpayer, the taxpayer (partner or beneficiary) is then excused from disclosing that position on a return.

(5) This section does not apply to a withholding agent with respect to the performance of its withholding functions.

(6)(i) For taxable years ending after December 31, 2004, except as provided in paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section, reporting under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is waived for amounts received by a related party, within the meaning of section 6038A(c)(2), from a withholding agent that is a reporting corporation, within the meaning of section 6038A(a), and that are properly reported on Form 1042-S.

(ii) Paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section does not apply to any amounts for which reporting is specifically required under the instructions to Form 8833.

(7)(i) For taxable years ending after December 31, 2004, except as provided in paragraph (c)(7)(iv) of this section, reporting under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is waived for amounts properly reported on Form 1042-S (on either a specific payee or pooled basis) by a withholding agent described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section if the beneficial owner is described in paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section.

(ii) A withholding agent described in this paragraph (c)(7)(ii) is a U.S. financial institution, as defined in §1.1441-1(c)(5) of this chapter, a qualified intermediary, as defined in §1.1441-1(e)(5)(ii) of this chapter, a withholding foreign partnership, as defined §1.1441-5(c)(2)(i) of this chapter, or a withholding foreign trust, as defined in §1.1441-5(e)(5)(v) of this chapter.

(iii) A beneficial owner described in this paragraph (c)(7)(iii) of this section is a direct account holder of a U.S. financial institution or qualified intermediary, a direct partner of a withholding foreign partnership, or a direct beneficiary or owner of a simple or grantor trust that is a withholding foreign trust. A beneficial owner described in this paragraph (c)(7)(iii) also includes an account holder to which a qualified intermediary has applied section 4A.01 or 4A.02 of the qualified intermediary agreement, contained in Revenue Procedure 2000-12 (2000-1 C.B. 387), (as amended by Revenue Procedure 2003-64, (2003-2 C.B. 306); Revenue Procedure 2004-21 (2004-1 C.B. 702); Revenue Procedure 2005-77 (2005-51 I.R.B. 1176) (see §601.601(b)(2) of this chapter) a partner to which a withholding foreign partnership has applied section 10.01 or 10.02 of the withholding foreign partnership agreement, and a beneficiary or owner to which a withholding foreign trust has applied section 10.01 or 10.02 of the withholding foreign trust agreement, contained in Revenue Procedure 2003-64, (2003-2 C.B. 306), (as amended by Revenue Procedure 2004-21 (2004-1 C.B. 702); Revenue Procedure 2005-77 (2005-51 I.R.B. 1176); (see §601.601(b)(2) of this chapter).

(iv) Paragraph (c)(7)(i) of this section does not apply to any amounts for which reporting is specifically required under the instructions to Form 8833.

(8)(i) For taxable years ending after December 31, 2004, except as provided in paragraph (c)(8)(ii) of this section, reporting under paragraph (b)(4)(ii) of this section is waived for taxpayers that are not individuals or States and that receive amounts of income that have been properly reported on Form 1042-S, that do not exceed $500,000 in the aggregate for the taxable year and that are not received through an account with an intermediary, as defined in §1.1441-1(c) (13), or with respect to interest in a flow-through entity, as defined in §1.1441-1(c)(23),

(ii) The exception contained in paragraph (c)(8)(i) of this section does not apply to any amounts for which reporting is specifically required under the instructions to Form 8833.

(d) Information to be reported—(1) Returns due after December 15, 1997. When reporting is required under this section for a return relating to a taxable year for which the due date (without extensions) is after December 15, 1997, the taxpayer must furnish, in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, as an attachment to the return, a fully completed Form 8833 (Treaty-Based Return Position Disclosure Under Section 6114 or 7701(b)) or appropriate successor form.

(2) Earlier returns. For returns relating to taxable years for which the due date for filing returns (without extensions) is on or before December 15, 1997, the taxpayer must furnish information in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section in effect prior to December 15, 1997 (see §301.6114-1(d) as contained in 26 CFR part 301, revised April 1, 1997).

(3) In general—(i) Permanent establishment. For purposes of determining the nature and amount (or reasonable estimate thereof) of gross receipts, if a taxpayer takes a position that it does not have a permanent establishment or a fixed base in the United States and properly discloses that position, it need not separately report its payment of actual or deemed dividends or interest exempt from tax by reason of a treaty (or any liability for tax imposed by reason of section 884).

(ii) Single income item. For purposes of the statement of facts relied upon to support each separate Treaty-Based Return Position taken, a taxpayer may treat payments or income items of the same type (e.g., interest items) received from the same ultimate payor (e.g., the obligor on a note) as a single separate payment or income item.

(iii) Foreign source effectively connected income. If a taxpayer takes the return position that, under the treaty, income that would be income effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business is not subject to U.S. taxation because it is income treated as derived from sources outside the United States, the taxpayer may treat payments or income items of the same type (e.g., interest items) as a single separate payment or income item.

(iv) Sales or services income. Income from separate sales or services, whether or not made or performed by an agent (independent or dependent), to different U.S. customers on behalf of a foreign corporation not having a permanent establishment in the United States may be treated as a single payment or income item.

(v) Foreign insurers or reinsurers. For purposes of reporting by foreign insurers or reinsurers, as described in paragraph (c)(1)(vii)(B) of this section, such reporting must separately set forth premiums paid with respect to casualty insurance and indemnity bonds (subject to section 4371(1)); life insurance, sickness and accident policies, and annuity contracts (subject to section 4371(2)); and reinsurance (subject to section 4371(3)). All premiums paid with respect to each of these three categories may be treated as a single payment or income item within that category. For reports first due before May 1, 1991, the report may disclose, for each of the three categories, the total amount of premiums derived by the foreign insurer or reinsurer in U.S. dollars (even if a portion of these premiums relate to risks that are not U.S. situs). Reasonable estimates of the amounts required to be disclosed will satisfy these reporting requirements.

(e) Effective date. This section is effective for taxable years of the taxpayer for which the due date for filing returns (without extensions) occurs after December 31, 1988. However, if—

(1) A taxpayer has filed a return for such a taxable year, without complying with the reporting requirement of this section, before November 13, 1989, or

(2) A taxpayer is not otherwise than by paragraph (a) of this section required to file a return for a taxable year before November 13, 1989,

Such taxpayer must file (apart from any earlier filed return) the statement required by paragraph (d) of this section before June 12, 1990, by mailing the required statement to the Internal Revenue Service, P.O. Box 21086, Philadelphia, PA 19114. Any such statement filed apart from a return must be dated, signed and sworn to by the taxpayer under the penalties of perjury. In addition, with respect to any return due (without extensions) on or before March 10, 1990, the reporting required by paragraph (a) of this section must be made no later than June 12, 1990. If a taxpayer files or has filed a return on or before November 13, 1989, that provides substantially the same information required by paragraph (d) of this section, no additional submission will be required. Foreign insurers and reinsurers subject to reporting described in paragraph (c)(7)(ii) of this section must so report for calendar years 1988 and 1989 no later than August 15, 1990.

(f) Cross reference. For the provisions concerning penalties for failure to disclose a treaty-based return position, see section 6712 and §301.6712-1.

[T.D. 8292, 55 FR 9440, Mar. 14, 1990; 55 FR 10237, Mar. 20, 1990, as amended by T.D. 8305, 55 FR 28609, July 12, 1990; T.D. 8733, 62 FR 53385, Oct. 14, 1997; T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53495, Oct. 14, 1997; T.D. 8804, 63 FR 72189, Dec. 31, 1998; T.D. 8856, 64 FR 73413, Dec. 30, 1999; T.D. 9253, 71 FR 13007, Mar. 14, 2006; 71 FR 27321, May 10, 2006]

Time and Place for Paying Tax

Place and Due Date for Payment of Tax

§301.6151-1   Time and place for paying tax shown on returns.

For provisions concerning the time and place for paying tax shown on returns with respect to a particular tax, see the regulations relating to such tax.

§301.6153-1   Installment payments of estimated income tax by individuals.

For provisions relating to installment payments of estimated income tax by individuals, see §§1.6153-1 to 1.6153-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6155-1   Payment on notice and demand.

Upon receipt of notice and demand from the district director (including the Director of International Operations) or the director of the regional service center, there shall be paid at the place and time stated in such notice the amount of any tax (including any interest, additional amounts, additions to the tax, and assessable penalties) stated in such notice and demand.

§301.6159-0   Table of contents.

This section lists the major captions that appear in the regulations under §301.6159-1.

§301.6159-1   Agreements for the payment of tax liabilities in installments.

(a) Authority.

(b) Procedures for submission and consideration of proposed installment agreements.

(c) Acceptance, form, and terms of installment agreements.

(d) Rejection of a proposed installment agreement.

(e) Modification or termination of installment agreements by the Internal Revenue Service.

(f) Effect of installment agreement or pending installment agreement on collection activity.

(g) Suspension of the statute of limitations on collection.

(h) Annual statement.

(i) Biennial review of partial payment installment agreements.

(j) Cross reference.

(k) Effective/applicability date.

[T.D. 9473, 74 FR 61528, Nov. 25, 2009]

§301.6159-1   Agreements for payment of tax liabilities in installments.

(a) Authority. The Commissioner may enter into a written agreement with a taxpayer that allows the taxpayer to make scheduled periodic payments of any tax liability if the Commissioner determines that such agreement will facilitate full or partial collection of the tax liability.

(b) Procedures for submission and consideration of proposed installment agreements—(1) In general. A proposed installment agreement must be submitted according to the procedures, and in the form and manner, prescribed by the Commissioner.

(2) When a proposed installment agreement becomes pending. A proposed installment agreement becomes pending when it is accepted for processing. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may not accept a proposed installment agreement for processing following reference of a case involving the liability that is the subject of the proposed installment agreement to the Department of Justice for prosecution or defense. The proposed installment agreement remains pending until the IRS accepts the proposal, the IRS notifies the taxpayer that the proposal has been rejected, or the proposal is withdrawn by the taxpayer. If a proposed installment agreement that has been accepted for processing does not contain sufficient information to permit the IRS to evaluate whether the proposal should be accepted, the IRS will request the taxpayer to provide the needed additional information. If the taxpayer does not submit the additional information that the IRS has requested within a reasonable time period after such a request, the IRS may reject the proposed installment agreement.

(3) Revised proposals of installment agreements submitted following rejection. If, following the rejection of a proposed installment agreement, the IRS determines that the taxpayer made a good faith revision of the proposal and submitted the revision within 30 days of the date of rejection, the provisions of this section shall apply to that revised proposal. If, however, the IRS determines that a revision was not made in good faith, the provisions of this section do not apply to the revision and the appeal period in paragraph (d)(3) of this section continues to run from the date of the original rejection.

(c) Acceptance, form, and terms of installment agreements—(1) Acceptance of an installment agreement—(i) In general. A proposed installment agreement has not been accepted until the IRS notifies the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative of the acceptance. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, the Commissioner has the discretion to accept or reject any proposed installment agreement.

(ii) Acceptance does not reduce liabilities. The acceptance of an installment agreement by the IRS does not reduce the amount of taxes, interest, or penalties owed. (However, penalties may continue to accrue at a reduced rate pursuant to section 6651(h).)

(iii) Guaranteed installment agreements. In the case of a liability of an individual for income tax, the Commissioner shall accept a proposed installment agreement if, as of the date the individual proposes the installment agreement—

(A) The aggregate amount of the liability (not including interest, penalties, additions to tax, and additional amounts) does not exceed $10,000;

(B) The taxpayer (and, if the liability relates to a joint return, the taxpayer's spouse) has not, during any of the preceding five taxable years—

(1) Failed to file any income tax return;

(2) Failed to pay any required income tax; or

(3) Entered into an installment agreement for the payment of any income tax;

(C) The Commissioner determines that the taxpayer is financially unable to pay the liability in full when due (and the taxpayer submits any information the Commissioner requires to make that determination);

(D) The installment agreement requires full payment of the liability within three years; and

(E) The taxpayer agrees to comply with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code for the period the agreement is in effect.

(2) Form of installment agreements. An installment agreement must be in writing. A written installment agreement may take the form of a document signed by the taxpayer and the Commissioner or a written confirmation of an agreement entered into by the taxpayer and the Commissioner that is mailed or personally delivered to the taxpayer.

(3) Terms of installment agreements. (i) Except as otherwise provided in this section, an installment agreement is effective from the date the IRS notifies the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative of its acceptance until the date the agreement ends by its terms or until it is superseded by a new installment agreement.

(ii) By its terms, an installment agreement may end upon the expiration of the period of limitations on collection in section 6502 and §301.6502-1, or at some prior date.

(iii) As a condition to entering into an installment agreement with a taxpayer, the Commissioner may require that—

(A) The taxpayer agree to a reasonable extension of the period of limitations on collection; and

(B) The agreement contain terms that protect the interests of the Government.

(iv) Except as otherwise provided in an installment agreement, all payments made under the installment agreement will be applied in the best interests of the Government.

(v) While an installment agreement is in effect, the Commissioner may request, and the taxpayer must provide, a financial condition update at any time.

(vi) At any time after entering into an installment agreement, the Commissioner and the taxpayer may agree to modify or terminate an installment agreement or may agree to a new installment agreement that supersedes the existing agreement.

(d) Rejection of a proposed installment agreement—(1) When a proposed installment agreement becomes rejected. A proposed installment agreement has not been rejected until the IRS notifies the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative of the rejection, the reason(s) for rejection, and the right to an appeal.

(2) Independent administrative review. The IRS may not notify a taxpayer or taxpayer's representative of the rejection of an installment agreement until an independent administrative review of the proposed rejection is completed.

(3) Appeal of rejection of a proposed installment agreement. The taxpayer may administratively appeal a rejection of a proposed installment agreement to the IRS Office of Appeals (Appeals) if, within the 30-day period commencing the day after the taxpayer is notified of the rejection, the taxpayer requests an appeal in the manner provided by the Commissioner.

(e) Modification or termination of installment agreements by the Internal Revenue Service—(1) Inadequate information or jeopardy. The Commissioner may terminate an installment agreement if the Commissioner determines that—

(i) Information which was provided to the IRS by the taxpayer or the taxpayer's representative in connection with either the granting of the installment agreement or a request for a financial update was inaccurate or incomplete in any material respect; or

(ii) Collection of any liability to which the installment agreement applies is in jeopardy.

(2) Change in financial condition, failure to timely pay an installment or another Federal tax liability, or failure to provide requested financial information. The Commissioner may modify or terminate an installment agreement if—

(i) The Commissioner determines that the financial condition of a taxpayer that is party to the agreement has significantly changed; or

(ii) A taxpayer that is party to the installment agreement fails to—

(A) Timely pay an installment in accordance with the terms of the installment agreement;

(B) Pay any other Federal tax liability when the liability becomes due; or

(C) Provide a financial condition update requested by the Commissioner.

(3) Request by taxpayer. Upon request by a taxpayer that is a party to the installment agreement, the Commissioner may terminate or modify the terms of an installment agreement if the Commissioner determines that the financial condition of the taxpayer has significantly changed. The taxpayer's request will not suspend the statute of limitations under section 6502 for collection of any liability. While the Commissioner is considering the request, the taxpayer shall comply with the terms of the existing installment agreement.

(4) Notice. Unless the Commissioner determines that collection of the tax is in jeopardy, the Commissioner will notify the taxpayer in writing at least 30 days prior to modifying or terminating an installment agreement pursuant to paragraph (e)(1) or (2) of this section. The notice provided pursuant to this section must briefly describe the reason for the intended modification or termination. Upon receiving notice, the taxpayer may provide information showing that the reason for the proposed modification or termination is incorrect.

(5) Appeal of modification or termination of an installment agreement. The taxpayer may administratively appeal the modification or termination of an installment agreement to Appeals if, following issuance of the notice required by paragraph (e)(4) of this section and prior to the expiration of the 30-day period commencing the day after the modification or termination is to take effect, the taxpayer requests an appeal in the manner provided by the Commissioner.

(f) Effect of installment agreement or pending installment agreement on collection activity—(1) In general. No levy may be made to collect a tax liability that is the subject of an installment agreement during the period that a proposed installment agreement is pending with the IRS, for 30 days immediately following the rejection of a proposed installment agreement, during the period that an installment agreement is in effect, and for 30 days immediately following the termination of an installment agreement. If, prior to the expiration of the 30-day period following the rejection or termination of an installment agreement, the taxpayer appeals the rejection or termination decision, no levy may be made while the rejection or termination is being considered by Appeals. This section will not prohibit levy to collect the liability of any person other than the person or persons named in the installment agreement.

(2) Exceptions. Paragraph (f)(1) of this section shall not prohibit levy if the taxpayer files a written notice with the IRS that waives the restriction on levy imposed by this section, the IRS determines that the proposed installment agreement was submitted solely to delay collection, or the IRS determines that collection of the tax to which the installment agreement or proposed installment agreement relates is in jeopardy.

(3) Other actions by the IRS while levy is prohibited—(i) In general. The IRS may take actions other than levy to protect the interests of the Government with regard to the liability identified in an installment agreement or proposed installment agreement. Those actions include, for example—

(A) Crediting an overpayment against the liability pursuant to section 6402;

(B) Filing or refiling notices of Federal tax lien; and

(C) Taking action to collect from any person who is not named in the installment agreement or proposed installment agreement but who is liable for the tax to which the installment agreement relates.

(ii) Proceedings in court. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (f)(3)(ii), the IRS will not refer a case to the Department of Justice for the commencement of a proceeding in court, against a person named in an installment agreement or proposed installment agreement, if levy to collect the liability is prohibited by paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Without regard to whether a person is named in an installment agreement or proposed installment agreement, however, the IRS may authorize the Department of Justice to file a counterclaim or third-party complaint in a refund action or to join that person in any other proceeding in which liability for the tax that is the subject of the installment agreement or proposed installment agreement may be established or disputed, including a suit against the United States under 28 U.S.C. 2410. In addition, the United States may file a claim in any bankruptcy proceeding or insolvency action brought by or against such person. If a person named in an installment agreement is joined in a proceeding, the United States obtains a judgment against that person, and the case is referred back to the IRS for collection, collection will continue to occur pursuant to the terms of the installment agreement. Notwithstanding the installment agreement, any claim or suit permitted will be for the full amount of the liabilities owed.

(g) Suspension of the statute of limitations on collection. The statute of limitations under section 6502 for collection of any liability shall be suspended during the period that a proposed installment agreement relating to that liability is pending with the IRS, for 30 days immediately following the rejection of a proposed installment agreement, and for 30 days immediately following the termination of an installment agreement. If, within the 30 days following the rejection or termination of an installment agreement, the taxpayer files an appeal with Appeals, the statute of limitations for collection shall be suspended while the rejection or termination is being considered by Appeals. The statute of limitations for collection shall continue to run if an exception under paragraph (f)(2) of this section applies and levy is not prohibited with respect to the taxpayer.

(h) Annual statement. The Commissioner shall provide each taxpayer who is party to an installment agreement under this section with an annual statement setting forth the initial balance owed at the beginning of the year, the payments made during the year, and the remaining balance as of the end of the year.

(i) Biennial review of partial payment installment agreements. The Commissioner shall perform a review of the taxpayer's financial condition in the case of a partial payment installment agreement at least once every two years. The purpose of this review is to determine whether the taxpayer's financial condition has significantly changed so as to warrant an increase in the value of the payments being made or termination of the agreement.

(j) Cross reference. Pursuant to section 6601(b)(1), the last day prescribed for payment is determined without regard to any installment agreement, including for purposes of computing penalties and interest provided by the Internal Revenue Code. For special rules regarding the computation of the failure to pay penalty while certain installment agreements are in effect, see section 6651(h) and §301.6651-1(a)(4).

(k) Effective/applicability date. This section is applicable on November 25, 2009.

[T.D. 9473, 74 FR 61528, Nov. 25, 2009]

Extension of Time for Payment

§301.6161-1   Extension of time for paying tax.

For provisions concerning the extension of time for paying a particular tax or for paying an amount determined as a deficiency, see the regulations relating to such tax.

§301.6162-1   Extension of time for payment of tax on gain attributable to liquidation of personal holding companies.

For provisions relating to the extension of time for payment of tax on gain attributable to liquidation of personal holding companies, see §1.6162-1 of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6163-1   Extension of time for payment of estate tax on value of reversionary or remainder interest in property.

For provisions relating to the extension of time for payment of estate tax on value of reversionary or remainder interest in property, see §20.6163-1 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations).

§301.6164-1   Extension of time for payment of taxes by corporations expecting carrybacks.

For provisions relating to the extension of time for payment of taxes by corporations expecting carrybacks, see §§1.6164-1 to 1.6164-9, inclusive, of this chapter (Income Tax Regulations).

§301.6165-1   Bonds where time to pay the tax or deficiency has been extended.

For provisions concerning bonds where time to pay a tax or deficiency has been extended, see the regulations relating to the particular tax.

§301.6166-1   Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business.

For provisions relating to the extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business, see §§20.6166-1 to 20.6166-4, inclusive, of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations).

Assessment

In General

§301.6201-1   Assessment authority.

(a) In general. The district director is authorized and required to make all inquiries necessary to the determination and assessment of all taxes imposed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 or any prior internal revenue law. The district director is further authorized and required, and the director of the regional service center is authorized, to make the determinations and the assessments of such taxes. However, certain inquiries and determinations are, by direction of the Commissioner, made by other officials, such as assistant regional commissioners. The term “taxes” includes interest, additional amounts, additions to the taxes, and assessable penalties. The authority of the district director and the director of the regional service center to make assessments includes the following:

(1) Taxes shown on return. The district director or the director of the regional service center shall assess all taxes determined by the taxpayer or by the district director or the director of the regional service center and disclosed on a return or list.

(2) Unpaid taxes payable by stamp. (i) If without the use of the proper stamp:

(a) Any article upon which a tax is required to be paid by means of a stamp is sold or removed for sale or use by the manufacturer thereof, or

(b) Any transaction or act upon which a tax is required to be paid by means of a stamp occurs;

The district director, upon such information as he can obtain, must estimate the amount of the tax which has not been paid and the district director or the director of the regional service center must make assessment therefor upon the person the district director determines to be liable for the tax. However, the district director or the director of the regional service center may not assess any tax which is payable by stamp unless the taxpayer fails to pay such tax at the time and in the manner provided by law or regulations.

(ii) If a taxpayer gives a check or money order as a payment for stamps but the check or money order is not paid upon presentment, then the district director or the director of the regional service center shall assess the amount of the check or money order against the taxpayer as if it were a tax due at the time the check or money order was received by the district director.

(3) Erroneous income tax prepayment credits. If the amount of income tax withheld or the amount of estimated income tax paid is overstated by a taxpayer on a return or on a claim for refund, the amount so overstated which is allowed against the tax shown on the return or which is allowed as a credit or refund shall be assessed by the district director or the director of the regional service center in the same manner as in the case of a mathematical error on the return. See section 6213 (b)(1), relating to exceptions to restrictions on assessment.

(b) Estimated income tax. Neither the district director nor the director of the regional service center shall assess any amount of estimated income tax required to be paid under section 6153 or 6154 which is unpaid.

(c) Compensation of child. Any income tax assessed against a child, to the extent of the amount attributable to income included in the gross income of the child solely by reason of section 73(a) or the corresponding provision of prior law, if not paid by the child, shall, for the purposes of the income tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Code (or the corresponding provisions of prior law), be considered as having also been properly assessed against the parent. In any case in which the earnings of the child are included in the gross income of the child solely by reason of section 73(a) or the corresponding provision of prior law, the parent's liability is an amount equal to the amount by which the tax assessed against the child (and not paid by him) has been increased by reason of the inclusion of such earnings in the gross income of the child. Thus, if for the calendar year 1954 the child has income of $1,000 from investments and of $3,000 for services rendered, and the latter amount is includible in the gross income of the child under section 73(a) and the child has no wife or dependents, the tax liability determined under section 3 is $625. If the child had only the investment income of $1,000, his tax liability would be $62. If the tax of $625 is assessed against the child, the difference between $625 and $62, or $563, is the amount of such tax which is considered to have been properly assessed against the parent, if not paid by the child.

§301.6203-1   Method of assessment.

The district director and the director of the regional service center shall appoint one or more assessment officers. The district director shall also appoint assessment officers in a Service Center servicing his district. The assessment shall be made by an assessment officer signing the summary record of assessment. The summary record, through supporting records, shall provide identification of the taxpayer, the character of the liability assessed, the taxable period, if applicable, and the amount of the assessment. The amount of the assessment shall, in the case of tax shown on a return by the taxpayer, be the amount so shown, and in all other cases the amount of the assessment shall be the amount shown on the supporting list or record. The date of the assessment is the date the summary record is signed by an assessment officer. If the taxpayer requests a copy of the record of assessment, he shall be furnished a copy of the pertinent parts of the assessment which set forth the name of the taxpayer, the date of assessment, the character of the liability assessed, the taxable period, if applicable, and the amounts assessed.

§301.6204-1   Supplemental assessments.

If any assessment is incomplete or incorrect in any material respect, the district director or the director of the regional service center, subject to the restrictions with respect to the assessment of deficiencies in income, estate, gift, chapter 41, 42, 43, and 44 taxes, and subject to the applicable period of limitation, may make a supplemental assessment for the purpose of correcting or completing the original assessment.

[T.D. 7838, 47 FR 44249, Oct. 7, 1982]

§301.6205-1   Special rules applicable to certain employment taxes.

For regulations under section 6205, see §31.6205-1 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).

Deficiency Procedures

§301.6211-1   Deficiency defined.

(a) In the case of the income tax imposed by subtitle A of the Code, the estate tax imposed by chapter 11, subtitle B, of the Code, the gift tax imposed by chapter 12, subtitle B, of the Code, and any excise tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 of the Code, the term “deficiency” means the excess of the tax, (income, estate, gift, or excise tax as the case may be) over the sum of the amount shown as such tax by the taxpayer upon his return and the amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency; but such sum shall first be reduced by the amount of rebates made. If no return is made, or if the return (except a return of income tax pursuant to sec. 6014) does not show any tax, for the purpose of the definition “the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer upon his return” shall be considered as zero. Accordingly, in any such case, if no deficiencies with respect to the tax have been assessed, or collected without assessment, and no rebates with respect to the tax have been made, the deficiency is the amount of the income tax imposed by subtitle A, the estate tax imposed by chapter 11, the gift tax imposed by chapter 12, or any excise tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44. Any amount shown as additional tax on an “amended return,” so-called (other than amounts of additional tax which such return clearly indicates the taxpayer is protesting rather than admitting) filed after the due date of the return, shall be treated as an amount shown by the taxpayer “upon his return” for purposes of computing the amount of a deficiency.

(b) For purposes of the definition, the income tax imposed by subtitle A and the income tax shown on the return shall both be determined without regard to the credit provided in section 31 for income tax withheld at the source and without regard to so much of the credit provided in section 32 for income taxes withheld at the source as exceeds 2 percent of the interest on tax-free covenant bonds described in section 1451. Payments on account of estimated income tax, like other payments of tax by the taxpayer, shall likewise be disregarded in the determination of a deficiency. Any credit resulting from the collection of amounts assessed under section 6851 or 6852 as the result of a termination assessment shall not be taken into account in determining a deficiency.

(c) The computation by the Internal Revenue Service, pursuant to section 6014, of the income tax imposed by subtitle A shall be considered as having been made by the taxpayer and the tax so computed shall be considered as the tax shown by the taxpayer upon his return.

(d) If so much of the credit claimed on the return for income taxes withheld at the source as exceeds 2 percent of the interest on tax-free convenant bonds is greater than the amount of such credit allowable, the unpaid portion of the tax attributable to such difference will be collected not as a deficiency but as an underpayment of the tax shown on the return.

(e) This section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. The amount of income tax shown by the taxpayer upon his return for the calendar year 1954 was $1,600. The taxpayer had no amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency. He claimed a credit in the amount of $2,050 for tax withheld at source on wages under section 3402, and a refund of $450 (not a rebate under section 6211) was made to him as an overpayment of tax for the taxable year. It is later determined that the correct tax for the taxable year is $1,850. A deficiency of $250 is determined as follows:

Tax imposed by subtitle A$1,850
Tax shown on return$1,600
Tax previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiencyNone
   Total1,600
Amount of rebates madeNone
Balance51,600
Deficiency250

Example 2. The taxpayer made a return for the calendar year 1954 showing a tax of $1,250 before any credits for tax withheld at the source. He claimed a credit in the amount of $800 for tax withheld at source on wages under section 3402 and $60 for tax paid at source under section 1451 upon interest on bonds containing a tax-free covenant. The taxpayer had no amounts previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency. The district director determines that the 2 percent tax paid at the source on tax-free covenant bonds is $40 instead of $60 as claimed by the taxpayer and that the tax imposed by subtitle A is $1,360 (total tax $1,400 less $40 paid at source on tax-free covenant bonds). A deficiency in the amount of $170 is determined as follows:

Tax imposed by subtitle A ($1,400 minus $40)$1,360
Tax shown on return ($1,250 minus $60)$1,190
Tax previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiencyNone
   Total1,190
Amount of rebates madeNone
Balance1,190
Deficiency170

(f) As used in section 6211, the term rebate means so much of an abatement, credit, refund, or other repayment as is made on the ground that the income tax imposed by subtitle A, the estate tax imposed by chapter 11, the gift tax imposed by chapter 12, or the excise tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44, is less than the excess of (1) the amount shown as the tax by the taxpayer upon the return increased by the amount previously assessed (or collected without assessment) as a deficiency over (2) the amount of rebates previously made. For example, assume that the amount of income tax shown by the taxpayer upon his return for the taxable year is $600 and the amount claimed as a credit under section 31 for income tax withheld at the source is $900. If the district director determines that the tax imposed by subtitle A is $600 and makes a refund of $300, no part of such refund constitutes a “rebate” since the refund is not made on the ground that the tax imposed by subtitle A is less than the tax shown on the return. If, however, the district director determines that the tax imposed by subtitle A is $500 and refunds $400, the amount of $100 of such refund would constitute a rebate since it is made on the ground that the tax imposed by subtitle A ($500) is less than the tax shown on the return ($600). The amount of such rebate ($100) would be taken into account in arriving at the amount of any deficiency subsequently determined.

[32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, as amended by T.D. 7102, 36 FR 5498, Mar. 24, 1971; T.D. 7575, 43 FR 58817, Dec. 18, 1978; T.D. 7838, 47 FR 44249, Oct. 7, 1982; T.D. 8628, 60 FR 62212, Dec. 5, 1995]

§301.6212-1   Notice of deficiency.

(a) General rule. If a district director or director of a service center (or regional director of appeals), determines that there is a deficiency in respect of income, estate, or gift tax imposed by subtitle A or B, or excise tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44, of the Code, such official is authorized to notify the taxpayer of the deficiency by either registered or certified mail.

(b) Address for notice of deficiency—(1) Income, gift, and chapter 41, 42, 43, and 44 taxes. Unless the district director for the district in which the return in question was filed has been notified under the provisions of section 6903 as to the existence of a fiduciary relationship, notice of a deficiency in respect of income tax, gift tax, or tax imposed by chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 shall be sufficient if mailed to the taxpayer at his last known address, even though such taxpayer is deceased, or is under a legal disability, or, in the case of a corporation, has terminated its existence.

(2) Joint income tax returns. If a joint income tax return has been filed by husband and wife, the district director (or assistant regional commissioner, appellate) may, unless the district director for the district in which such joint return was filed has been notified by either spouse that a separate residence has been established, send either a joint or separate notice of deficiency to the taxpayers at their last known address. If, however, the proper district director has been so notified, a separate notice of deficiency that is a duplicate original of the joint notice, must be sent by registered mail prior to September 3, 1958, and by either registered or certified mail on and after September 3, 1958, to each spouse at his or her last known address. The notice of separate residences should be addressed to the district director for the district in which the joint return was filed.

(3) Estate tax. In the absence of notice, under the provisions of section 6903 as to the existence of a fiduciary relationship, to the district director for the district in which the estate tax return was filed, notice of a deficiency in respect of the estate tax imposed by chapter 11, subtitle B, of the Code shall be sufficient if addressed in the name of the decedent or other person subject to liability and mailed to his last known address.

(c) Further deficiency letters restricted. If the district director or director of a service center (or regional director of appeals) mails to the taxpayer notice of a deficiency, and the taxpayer files a petition with the Tax Court within the prescribed period, no additional deficiency may be determined with respect to income tax for the same taxable year, gift tax for the same “calendar period” (as defined in §25.2502-1(c)(1)), estate tax with respect to the taxable estate of the same decedent, chapter 41, 43, or 44 tax of the taxpayer for the same taxable year, section 4940 tax for the same taxable year, or chapter 42 tax of the taxpayer (other than under section 4940) with respect to the same act (or failure to act) to which such petition relates. This restriction shall not apply in the case of fraud, assertion of deficiencies with respect to any qualified tax (as defined in paragraph (b) of §301.6361-4) in respect of which no deficiency was asserted for the taxable year in the notice, assertion of deficiencies with respect to the Federal tax when deficiencies with respect to only a qualified tax (and not the Federal tax) were asserted for the taxable year in the notice, assertion of greater deficiencies before the Tax Court as provided in section 6214(a), mathematical errors as provided in section 6213(b)(1), termination assessments in section 6851 or 6852, or jeopardy assessments as provided in section 6861(c). Solely for purposes of applying the restriction of section 6212(c), a notice of deficiency with respect to second tier tax under chapter 43 shall be deemed to be a notice of deficiency for the taxable year in which the taxable event occurs. See §53.4963-1(e)(7)(iii) or (iv) for the date on which the taxable event occurs.

[32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, as amended by T.D. 7238, 37 FR 28739, Dec. 29, 1972; T.D. 7579, 43 FR 59360, Dec. 20, 1978; T.D. 7838, 47 FR 44249, Oct. 7, 1982; T.D. 7910, 48 FR 40376, Sept. 7, 1983; T.D. 8084, 51 FR 16305, May 2, 1986; T.D. 8628, 60 FR 62212, Dec. 5, 1995]

§301.6212-2   Definition of last known address.

(a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, a taxpayer's last known address is the address that appears on the taxpayer's most recently filed and properly processed Federal tax return, unless the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is given clear and concise notification of a different address. Further information on what constitutes clear and concise notification of a different address and a properly processed Federal tax return can be found in Rev. Proc. 90-18 (1990-1 C.B. 491) or in procedures subsequently prescribed by the Commissioner.

(b) Address obtained from third party—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, change of address information that a taxpayer provides to a third party, such as a payor or another government agency, is not clear and concise notification of a different address for purposes of determining a last known address under this section.

(2) Exception for address obtained from the United States Postal Service—(i) Updating taxpayer addresses. The IRS will update taxpayer addresses maintained in IRS records by referring to data accumulated and maintained in the United States Postal Service (USPS) National Change of Address database that retains change of address information for thirty-six months (NCOA database). Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, if the taxpayer's name and last known address in IRS records match the taxpayer's name and old mailing address contained in the NCOA database, the new address in the NCOA database is the taxpayer's last known address, unless the IRS is given clear and concise notification of a different address.

(ii) Duration of address obtained from NCOA database. The address obtained from the NCOA database under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section is the taxpayer's last known address until one of the following events occurs—

(A) The taxpayer files and the IRS properly processes a Federal tax return with an address different from the address obtained from the NCOA database; or

(B) The taxpayer provides the Internal Revenue Service with clear and concise notification of a change of address, as defined in procedures prescribed by the Commissioner, that is different from the address obtained from the NCOA database.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(2) of this section:

Example 1. (i) A is an unmarried taxpayer. The address on A's 1999 Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, filed on April 14, 2000, and 2000 Form 1040 filed on April 13, 2001, is 1234 Anyplace Street, Anytown, USA 43210. On May 15, 2001, A informs the USPS of a new permanent address (9876 Newplace Street, Newtown, USA 12345) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail Forwarding Change of Address Form.” The change of address is included in the weekly update of the USPS NCOA database. On May 29, 2001, A's address maintained in IRS records is changed to 9876 Newplace Street, Newtown, USA 12345.

(ii) In June 2001 the IRS determines a deficiency for A's 1999 tax year and prepares to issue a notice of deficiency. The IRS obtains A's address for the notice of deficiency from IRS records. On June 15, 2001, the Internal Revenue Service mails the notice of deficiency to A at 9876 Newplace Street, Newtown, USA 12345. For purposes of section 6212(b), the notice of deficiency mailed on June 15, 2001, is mailed to A's last known address.

Example 2. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that instead of determining a deficiency for A's 1999 tax year in June 2001, the IRS determines a deficiency for A's 1999 tax year in May 2001.

(ii) On May 21, 2001, the IRS prepares a notice of deficiency for A and obtains A's address from IRS records. Because A did not inform the USPS of the change of address in sufficient time for the IRS to process and post the new address in Internal Revenue Service's records by May 21, 2001, the notice of deficiency is mailed to 1234 Anyplace Street, Anytown, USA 43210. For purposes of section 6212(b), the notice of deficiency mailed on May 21, 2001, is mailed to A's last known address.

Example 3. (i) C and D are married taxpayers. The address on C and D's 2000 Form 1040, U.S. Individual Income Tax Return, filed on April 13, 2001, and 2001 Form 1040 filed on April 15, 2002, is 2468 Spring Street, Little City, USA 97531. On August 15, 2002, D informs the USPS of a new permanent address (8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579) using the USPS Form 3575, “Official Mail Forwarding Change of Address Form.” The change of address is included in the weekly update of the USPS NCOA database. On August 29, 2002, D's address maintained in IRS records is changed to 8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579.

(ii) In October 2002 the IRS determines a deficiency for C and D's 2000 tax year and prepares to issue a notice of deficiency. The Internal Revenue Service obtains C's address and D's address for the notice of deficiency from IRS records. On October 15, 2002, the IRS mails a copy of the notice of deficiency to C at 2468 Spring Street, Little City, USA 97531, and to D at 8642 Peachtree Street, Big City, USA 13579. For purposes of section 6212(b), the notices of deficiency mailed on October 15, 2002, are mailed to C and D's respective last known addresses.

(c) Last known address for all notices, statements, and documents. The rules in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section apply for purposes of determining whether all notices, statements, or other documents are mailed to a taxpayer's last known address whenever the term last known address is used in the Internal Revenue Code or the regulations thereunder.

(d) Effective Date—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, this section is effective on January 29, 2001.

(2) Individual moves in the case of joint filers. In the case of taxpayers who file joint returns under section 6013, if the NCOA database contains change of address information for only one spouse, paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section will not apply to notices, statements, and other documents mailed before the processing of the taxpayers' 2000 joint return.

[T.D. 8939, 66 FR 2820, Jan. 12, 2001]

§301.6213-1   Restrictions applicable to deficiencies; petition to Tax Court.

(a) Time for filing petition and restrictions on assessment—(1) Time for filing petition. Within 90 days after notice of the deficiency is mailed (or within 150 days after mailing in the case of such notice addressed to a person outside the States of the Union and the District of Columbia), as provided in section 6212, a petition may be filed with the Tax Court of the United States for a redetermination of the deficiency. In determining such 90-day or 150-day period, Saturday, Sunday, or a legal holiday in the District of Columbia is not counted as the 90th or 150th day. In determining the time for filing a petition with the Tax Court in the case of a notice of deficiency mailed to a resident of Alaska prior to 12:01 p.m., e.s.t., January 3, 1959, and in the case of a notice of deficiency mailed to a resident of Hawaii prior to 4 p.m., e.d.s.t., August 21, 1959, the term “States of the Union” does not include Alaska or Hawaii, respectively, and the 150-day period applies. In determining the time within which a petition to the Tax Court may be filed in the case of a notice of deficiency mailed to a resident of Alaska after 12:01 p.m., e.s.t., January 3, 1959, and in the case of a notice of deficiency mailed to a resident of Hawaii after 4 p.m., e.d.s.t., August 21, 1959, the term “States of the Union” includes Alaska and Hawaii, respectively, and the 90-day period applies.

(2) Restrictions on assessment. Except as otherwise provided by this section, by sections 6851, 6852, and 6861(a) (relating to termination and jeopardy assessments), by section 6871(a) (relating to immediate assessment of claims for income, estate, and gift taxes in bankruptcy and receivership cases), or by section 7485 (in case taxpayer petitions for a review of a Tax Court decision without filing bond), no assessment of a deficiency in respect of a tax imposed by subtitle A or B or chapter 41, 42, 43, or 44 of the Code and no levy or proceeding in court for its collection shall be made until notice of deficiency has been mailed to the taxpayer, nor until the expiration of the 90-day or 150-day period within which a petition may be filed with the Tax Court, nor, if a petition has been filed with the Tax Court, until the decision of the Tax Court has become final. As to the date on which a decision of the Tax court becomes final, see section 7481. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 7421(a), the making of an assessment or the beginning of a proceeding or levy which is forbidden by this paragraph may be enjoined by a proceeding in the proper court. In any case where the running of the time prescribed for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to a tax imposed by chapter 42 or 43 is suspended under section 6213(e), no assessment of a deficiency in respect of such tax shall be made until expiration of the entire period for filing the petition.

(b) Exceptions to restrictions on assessment of deficiencies—(1) Mathematical errors. If a taxpayer is notified of an additional amount of tax due on account of a mathematical error appearing upon the return, such notice is not deemed a notice of deficiency, and the taxpayer has no right to file a petition with the Tax Court upon the basis of such notice, nor is the assessment of such additional amount prohibited by section 6213(a).

(2) Tentative carryback adjustments. (i) If the district director or the director of the regional service center determines that any amount applied, credited, or refunded under section 6411(b) with respect to an application for a tentative carryback adjustment is in excess of the overassessment properly attributable to the carryback upon which such application was based, the district director or the director of the regional service center may assess the amount of the excess as a deficiency as if such deficiency were due to a mathematical error appearing on the return. That is, the district director or the director of the regional service center may assess an amount equal to the excess, and such amount may be collected, without regard to the restrictions on assessment and collection imposed by section 6213(a). Thus, the district director or the director of the regional service center may assess such amount without regard to whether the taxpayer has been mailed a prior notice of deficiency. Either before or after assessing such an amount, the district director or the director of the regional service center will notify the taxpayer that such assessment has been or will be made. Such notice will not constitute a notice of deficiency, and the taxpayer may not file a petition with the Tax Court of the United States based on such notice. However, the taxpayer, within the applicable period of limitation, may file a regular claim for credit or refund based on the carryback, if he has not already filed such a claim, and may maintain a suit based on such claim if it is disallowed or if it is not acted upon by the Internal Revenue Service within 6 months from the date the claim was filed.

(ii) The method provided in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph to recover any amount applied, credited, or refunded in respect of an application for a tentative carryback adjustment which should not have been so applied, credited, or refunded is not an exclusive method. Two other methods are available to recover such amount: (a) By way of a deficiency notice under section 6212; or (b) by a suit to recover an erroneous refund under section 7405. Any one or more of the three available methods may be used to recover any amount which was improperly applied, credited, or refunded in respect of an application for a tentative carryback adjustment.

(3) Assessment of amount paid. Any payment made after the mailing of a notice of deficiency which is made by the taxpayer as a payment with respect to the proposed deficiency may be assessed without regard to the restrictions on assessment and collection imposed by section 6213(a) even though the taxpayer has not filed a waiver of restrictions on assessment as provided in section 6213(d). A payment of all or part of the deficiency asserted in the notice together with the assessment of the amount so paid will not affect the jurisdiction of the Tax Court. If any payment is made before the mailing of a notice of deficiency, the district director or the director of the regional service center is not prohibited by section 6213(a) from assessing such amount, and such amount may be assessed if such action is deemed to be proper. If such amount is assessed, the assessment is taken into account in determining whether or not there is a deficiency for which a notice of deficiency must be issued. Thus, if such a payment satisfies the taxpayer's tax liability, no notice of deficiency will be mailed and the Tax Court will have no jurisdiction over the matter. In any case in which there is a controversy as to the correct amount of the tax liability, the assessment of any amount pursuant to the provisions of section 6213(b)(3) shall in no way be considered to be the acceptance of an offer by the taxpayer to settle such controversy.

(4) Jeopardy. If the district director believes that the assessment or collection of a deficiency will be jeopardized by delay, such deficiency shall be assessed immediately, as provided in section 6861(a).

(c) Failure to file petition. If no petition is filed with the Tax Court within the period prescribed in section 6213(a), the district director or the director of the regional service center shall assess the amount determined as the deficiency and of which the taxpayer was notified by registered or certified mail and the taxpayer shall pay the same upon notice and demand therefor. In such case the district director will not be precluded from determining a further deficiency and notifying the taxpayer thereof by registered or certified mail. If a petition is filed with the Tax Court the taxpayer should notify the district director who issued the notice of deficiency that the petition has been filed in order to prevent an assessment of the amount determined to be the deficiency.

(d) Waiver of restrictions. The taxpayer may at any time by a signed notice in writing filed with the district director waive the restrictions on the assessment and collection of the whole or any part of the deficiency. The notice must in all cases be filed with the district director or other authorized official under whose jurisdiction the audit or other consideration of the return in question is being conducted. The filing of such notice with the Tax Court does not constitute filing with the district director within the meaning of the Code. After such waiver has been acted upon by the district director and the assessment has been made in accordance with its terms, the waiver cannot be withdrawn.

(e) Suspension of filing period for certain chapter 42 and chapter 43 taxes. The period prescribed by section 6213(a) for filing a petition in the Tax Court with respect to the taxes imposed by section 4941,4942, 4943, 4944, 4945, 4951, 4952, 4955, 4958, 4971, or 4975, shall be suspended for any other period which the Commissioner has allowed for making correction under §53.4963-1(e)(3). Where the time for filing a petition with the Tax Court has been suspended under the authority of this paragraph (e), the extension shall not be reduced as a result of the correction being made prior to expiration of the period allowed for making correction.

[32 FR 15241, Nov. 3, 1967, as amended by T.D. 7838, 47 FR 44250, Oct. 7, 1982; T.D. 8084, 51 FR 16035, May 2, 1986; T.D. 8628, 60 FR 62212, Dec. 5, 1995; T.D. 8920, 66 FR 2171, Jan. 10, 2001]

§301.6215-1   Assessment of deficiency found by Tax Court.

Where a petition has been filed with the Tax Court, the entire amount redetermined as the deficiency by the decision of the Tax Court which has become final shall be assessed by the district director or the director of the regional service center and the unpaid portion of the amount so assessed shall be paid by the taxpayer upon notice and demand therefor.

§301.6221-1   Tax treatment determined at partnership level.

(a) In general. A partner's treatment of partnership items on the partner's return may not be changed except as provided in sections 6222 through 6231 and the regulations thereunder. Thus, for example, if a partner treats an item on the partner's return consistently with the treatment of the item on the partnership return, the IRS generally cannot adjust the treatment of that item on the partner's return except through a partnership-level proceeding. Similarly, the taxpayer may not put partnership items in issue in a proceeding relating to nonpartnership items. For example, the taxpayer may not offset a potential increase in taxable income based on changes to nonpartnership items by a potential decrease based on partnership items.

(b) Restrictions inapplicable after items become nonpartnership items. Section 6221 and paragraph (a) of this section cease to apply to items arising from a partnership with respect to a partner when those items cease to be partnership items with respect to that partner under section 6231(b).

(c) Penalties determined at partnership level. Any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item shall be determined at the partnership level. Partner-level defenses to such items can only be asserted through refund actions following assessment and payment. Assessment of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item shall be made based on partnership-level determinations. Partnership-level determinations include all the legal and factual determinations that underlie the determination of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount, other than partner-level defenses specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) Partner-level defenses. Partner-level defenses to any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item may not be asserted in the partnership-level proceeding, but may be asserted through separate refund actions following assessment and payment. See section 6230(c)(4). Partner-level defenses are limited to those that are personal to the partner or are dependent upon the partner's separate return and cannot be determined at the partnership level. Examples of these determinations are whether any applicable threshold underpayment of tax has been met with respect to the partner or whether the partner has met the criteria of section 6664(b) (penalties applicable only where return is filed), or section 6664(c)(1) (reasonable cause exception) subject to partnership-level determinations as to the applicability of section 6664(c)(2).

(e) Cross-references. See §§301.6231(c)-1 and 301.6231(c)-2 for special rules relating to certain applications and claims for refund based on losses, deductions, or credits from abusive tax shelter partnerships.

(f) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6221-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50544, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6222(a)-1   Consistent treatment of partnership items.

(a) In general. The treatment of a partnership item on the partner's return must be consistent with the treatment of that item by the partnership on the partnership return in all respects including the amount, timing, and characterization of the item.

(b) Treatment must be consistent with partnership return. The treatment of a partnership item on the partner's return must be consistent with the treatment of that item on the partnership return. Thus, a partner who treats an item consistently with a schedule or other information furnished to the partner by the partnership has not satisfied the requirement of paragraph (a) of this section if the treatment of that item is inconsistent with the treatment of the item on the partnership return actually filed. For rules relating to the election to be treated as having reported the inconsistency where the partner treats an item consistently with an incorrect schedule, see §301.6222(b)-3.

(c) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this section:

Example 1. B is a partner of Partnership P. Both B and P use the calendar year as the taxable year. In December 2001, P receives an advance payment for services to be performed in 2002 and reports this amount as income for calendar year 2001. However, B reports B's distributive share of this amount on B's income tax return for 2002 and not on B's return for 2001. B's treatment of this partnership item is inconsistent with the treatment of the item by P.

Example 2. Partnership P incurred certain start-up costs before P was actively engaged in its business. P capitalized these costs. C, a partner in P, deducted C's proportionate share of these start-up costs. C's treatment of the partnership expenditure is inconsistent with the treatment of that item by P.

Example 3. D is a partner in partnership P. P reports a loss of $100,000 on its return, $5,000 of which it reports on the Schedule K-1 attached to its return as D's distributive share. However, P reports $15,000 as D's distributive share of P's loss on the Schedule K-1 furnished to D. D reports the $15,000 loss on D's income tax return. D has not satisfied the consistent reporting requirement. See, however, §301.6222(b)-3 for an election to be treated as having reported the inconsistency.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001.

For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6222(a)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50545, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6222(a)-2   Application of consistent reporting and notification rules to indirect partners.

(a) In general. The consistent reporting requirement of §301.6222(a)-1 is generally applied with respect to the source partnership. For purposes of this section, the term source partnership means the partnership (within the meaning of section 6231(a)(1)) from which the partnership item originates.

(b) Indirect partner files consistently with source partnership. An indirect partner who treats an item from a source partnership in a manner consistent with the treatment of that item on the source partnership's return satisfies the consistency requirement of section 6222(a) regardless of whether the indirect partner treats that item in a manner consistent with the treatment of that item by the pass-thru partner through which the indirect partner holds the interest in the source partnership. Under these circumstances, therefore, the Internal Revenue Service shall not send to the indirect partner the notice described in section 6231(b)(1)(A).

(c) Indirect partner files inconsistently with source partnership—(1) Indirect partner notifies the Internal Revenue Service of inconsistency. An indirect partner who—

(i) Treats an item from a source partnership in a manner inconsistent with the treatment of that item on the source partnership's return; and

(ii) Files a statement identifying the inconsistency with the source partnership in accordance with §301.6222(c)-1, shall not be subject to a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of that item to the treatment of that item on the return of the source partnership.

(2) Indirect partner does not notify the Internal Revenue Service of inconsistency. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, an indirect partner who—

(i) Treats an item from a source partnership in a manner inconsistent with the treatment of that item on the source partnership's return; and

(ii) Fails to file a statement identifying the inconsistency with the source partnership in accordance with §301.6222(b)-1, is subject to a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of that item to the treatment of that item on the return of the source partnership.

(3) Indirect partner files consistently with a pass-thru partner that notifies the Internal Revenue Service of the inconsistency. If an indirect partner treats an item from a source partnership in a manner consistent with the treatment of that item by a pass-thru partner through which the indirect partner holds the interest in the source partnership and that pass-thru partner—

(i) Treats that item in a manner inconsistent with the treatment of that item on the source partnership's return; and

(ii) Files a statement identifying the inconsistency with the source partnership in accordance with §301.6222(b)-1, the indirect partner is not subject to a computational adjustment to conform to the treatment of that item on the return of the source partnership.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this section:

Example 1. One of the partners in Partnership A is Partnership B, which has four equal partners C, D, E, and F. Both A and B are partnerships within the meaning of section 6231(a)(1). On its return, A reports $100,000 as B's distributive share of A's ordinary income. B, however, reports only $80,000 as its distributive share of the income and does not notify the Internal Revenue Service of this inconsistent treatment with respect to A. C reports $20,000 as its distributive share of the item. Although C reports the item consistently with B, C is subject to a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of that item on C's return to the treatment of that item on A's return.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that B notified the Internal Revenue Service of its inconsistent treatment with respect to source partnership A. C is not subject to a computational adjustment.

Example 3. Assume the same facts as in Example 1. D reports only $15,000 as D's distributive share of the income and does not report the inconsistency. F reports only $9,000 as its distributive share of the item but reports this inconsistency with respect to source partnership A. D is subject to a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of that item on D's return to the treatment of that item on A's return. F is not subject to a computational adjustment.

Example 4. Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except that F reported the inconsistency with respect to B and did not report the inconsistency with respect to source partnership A. F is subject to a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of that item on F's return to the treatment of that item on A's return.

Example 5. Assume the same facts as in Example 1. E reports $25,000 as its distributive share of the item. Regardless of whether E reports the inconsistency between its treatment of the item and that by B, E is neither subject to a computational adjustment to conform E's treatment of that item to that of B nor subject to the notice described in section 6231(b)(1)(A) with respect to any such notification of inconsistent treatment.

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6222(a)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50545, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6222(b)-1   Notification to the Internal Revenue Service when partnership items are treated inconsistently.

(a) In general. The statement identifying an inconsistency described in section 6222(b)(1)(B) shall be filed by filing the form prescribed for that purpose in accordance with the instructions accompanying that form.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6222(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50546, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6222(b)-2   Effect of notification of inconsistent treatment.

(a) In general. Generally, if a partner treats a partnership item on the partner's return in a manner inconsistent with the treatment of that item on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service may make a computational adjustment to conform the treatment of the item by the partner with the treatment of that item on the partnership return. Any additional tax resulting from that computational adjustment may be assessed without either the commencement of a partnership proceeding or notification to the partner that all partnership items arising from that partnership will be treated as nonpartnership items. However, if a partner notifies the Internal Revenue Service of the inconsistent treatment of a partnership item in the manner prescribed in §301.6222(b)-1, the Internal Revenue Service generally may not make an adjustment with respect to that partnership item unless the Internal Revenue Service—

(1) Conducts a partnership-level proceeding; or

(2) Notifies the partner under section 6231(b)(1)(A) that all partnership items arising from that partnership will be treated as nonpartnership items. See, however, §§301.6231(c)-1 and 301.6231(c)-2 for special rules relating to certain applications and claims for refund based on losses, deductions, or credits from abusive tax shelter partnerships.

(b) Partner protected only to extent of notification. (1) A partner who reports the inconsistent treatment of partnership items on the partner's return is protected from computational adjustments under section 6222(c) only with respect to those partnership items the inconsistent treatment of which is reported. Thus, if a partner notifying the Internal Revenue Service with respect to one item fails to report the inconsistent treatment of another item, the partner is subject to a computational adjustment with respect to that other item.

(2) The following example illustrates the principles of this paragraph (b):

Example. Partner A of Partnership P treats a deduction and a capital gain arising from P on A's return in a manner that is inconsistent with the treatment of those items by P. A reports the inconsistent treatment of the deduction but not of the gain. A is subject to a computational adjustment under section 6222(c) with respect to the gain.

(c) Adjustments in a separate proceeding not limited to conforming adjustments. (1) If the Internal Revenue Service conducts a separate proceeding with a partner whose partnership items are treated as nonpartnership items under section 6231(b), the Internal Revenue Service is not limited to making adjustments that merely conform the partner's return to the partnership return.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this paragraph (c):

Example. Partnership P allocates to E, one of its partners, a loss of $8,000. E, however, claims a loss of $9,000 and reports the inconsistent treatment. The Internal Revenue Service notifies E that it will treat all of E's partnership items arising from P as nonpartnership items. As a result of a separate proceeding with E, the Internal Revenue Service may issue a deficiency notice which could include reducing the loss to $3,000.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6222(b)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50546, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6222(b)-3   Partner receiving incorrect schedule.

(a) In general. A partner shall be treated as having complied with section 6222(b)(1)(B) and §301.6222(b)-1 with respect to a partnership item if the partner—

(1) Demonstrates that the treatment of the partnership item on the partner's return is consistent with the treatment of that item on the schedule prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service and furnished to the partner by the partnership showing the partner's share of income, credits, deductions, etc.; and

(2) Elects in accordance with the rules prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section to have this section apply with respect to that item.

(b) Election provisions—(1) Time and manner of making election. The election described in paragraph (a) of this section shall be made by filing a statement with the Internal Revenue Service office issuing the notice of computational adjustment within 30 days after the notice is mailed to the partner.

(2) Contents of statement. The statement described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall be—

(i) Clearly identified as an election under section 6222(b)(2);

(ii) Signed by the partner making the election; and

(iii) Accompanied by copies of the schedule furnished to the partner by the partnership and of the notice of computational adjustment. The partner need not enclose a copy of the notice of computational adjustment, however, if the partner clearly identifies the notice of computational adjustment. Generally, the requirement described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section will be satisfied by attaching to the statement a copy of the schedule furnished to the partner by the partnership. However, if it is not clear from the information contained on the schedule that the treatment of the partnership item on the schedule is consistent with the partner's treatment of such item on the partner's return the statement shall also include an explanation of how the treatment of such item on the schedule is consistent with the treatment on the partner's return with respect to the characterization, timing, and amount of such item.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6222(b)-3T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50546, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(a)-1   Notice sent to tax matters partner.

(a) In general. For purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code, a notice is treated as mailed to the tax matters partner on the earlier of—

(1) The date on which the notice is mailed to “THE TAX MATTERS PARTNER” at the address of the partnership (as provided on the partnership return, except as updated under §301.6223(c)-1); or

(2) The date on which the notice is mailed to the person who is the tax matters partner at the address of that person (as provided on the partner's return, except as updated under §301.6223(c)-1) or the partnership. See §301.6223(c)-1 for rules relating to the information used by the Internal Revenue Service in providing notices, etc.

(b) Example. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Partnership P designates B as its tax matters partner in accordance with §301.6231(a)(7)-1(b). On December 1 a notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding is mailed to “THE TAX MATTERS PARTNER” at the address of P. On January 10, a copy of the notice is mailed to B at B's address. December 1 is treated as the date that the notice was mailed to the tax matters partner.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(a)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50547, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(a)-2   Withdrawal of notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding.

(a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service, within 45 days after the day on which the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1) is mailed to the tax matters partner, decides not to propose any adjustments to the partnership return as filed, the Internal Revenue Service may withdraw the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1) by mailing a letter to that effect to the tax matters partner within that 45-day period. Even if the Internal Revenue Service does not withdraw the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1), the Internal Revenue Service is not required to issue a notice of final partnership administrative adjustment. If the Internal Revenue Service withdraws the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1), neither the Internal Revenue Service nor the tax matters partner is required to furnish any notice with respect to that proceeding to any other partner. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, a notice specified in section 6223(a)(1) which has been withdrawn shall be treated for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code as if that notice had never been mailed to the tax matters partner.

(b) Internal Revenue Service may not reissue notice except under certain circumstances. If the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1) was mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to a partnership taxable year and that notice was later withdrawn as provided in paragraph (a) of this section, the Internal Revenue Service shall not mail a second notice specified in section 6223(a)(1) with respect to that taxable year unless—

(1) There is evidence of fraud, malfeasance, collusion, concealment, or misrepresentation of a material fact;

(2) The prior proceeding involved the misapplication or erroneous interpretation of an established Internal Revenue Service position existing at the time of the previous examination, or the failure to make an adjustment based on such a position; or

(3) Other circumstances exist which indicate that failure to reissue the notice would be a serious administrative omission.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(a)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50547, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(b)-1   Notice group.

(a) In general. If a group of partners having in the aggregate a 5 percent or more interest in the profits of a partnership requests and designates one of their members to receive the notices described in section 6223(a)(1) and (2), the member so designated shall be treated as a partner to whom section 6223(a) applies. Thus, the designated representative is entitled to receive any notice described in section 6223(a) that is mailed to the tax matters partner 30 days or more after the day on which the Internal Revenue Service receives the request from the group.

(b) Request for notice—(1) In general. The Internal Revenue Service shall mail to the member of the notice group designated to receive such notice any notice described in section 6223(a) that is mailed to the tax matters partner 30 days or more after the day on which the Internal Revenue Service receives the request for notice from the group if such request for notice is made in accordance with the rules prescribed in this paragraph (b).

(2) Content of request. The request for notice from a notice group shall—

(i) Identify the partnership by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(ii) Specify the taxable year or years for which the notice group is formed;

(iii) Designate the member of the group to receive the notices;

(iv) Set out the name, address, taxpayer identification number, and profits interest of each member of the group; and

(v) Be signed by all partners comprising the notice group.

(3) Place for filing. The request for notice from a notice group generally must be filed with the service center where the partnership return is filed. However, if the notice group representative knows that the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement should be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed that notice.

(4) Copy to be sent to the tax matters partner. A copy of the request for notice from a notice group shall be provided to the tax matters partner by the notice group representative within 30 days after the request is filed with the Internal Revenue Service.

(5) Years covered by request. A request for notice by a notice group may relate only to partnership taxable years that have ended before the request is filed. A request, however, may relate to more than one partnership taxable year if the 5 percent or more profits interest requirement of section 6223(b)(2) is satisfied for each year to which the request relates.

(c) Composition of notice group—(1) In general. A notice group shall be comprised only of persons who were partners at some time during the partnership taxable year for which the group is formed. If a notice group is formed for more than one taxable year, each member of the group must have been a partner at some time during at least one of the taxable years for which the group is formed. A notice group may include a partner entitled to separate notice. See section 6231(d) and §301.6231(d)-1 for rules relating to determining the interest of a partner in the profits of a partnership for a partnership taxable year for purposes of section 6223(b). See paragraph (c)(6) of this section for rules relating to indirect and pass-thru partners.

(2) Partner may be a member of only one group. A partner cannot be a member of more than one notice group with respect to the same partnership for the same partnership taxable year. See paragraph (c)(6) of this section for rules relating to indirect and pass-thru partners.

(3) Partner may join group after formation. A partner may join a notice group at any time after the formation of that group by filing with the Internal Revenue Service office where the notice group filed its request a statement that it is joining the notice group. The statement shall identify the partner joining the notice group, the partnership, and the members of the notice group by name, address, and taxpayer identification number and shall be signed by the joining partner. A copy of the statement shall be provided by the joining partner to both the tax matters partner and the notice group representative within 30 days after the request is filed with the Internal Revenue Service. The partner shall become a member of the notice group for each partnership taxable year for which the group was formed and for which the partner was a partner at any time during such partnership taxable year.

(4) Date on which a partner becomes a member of notice group. A partner shall become a member of a notice group on the 30th day after the day on which the Internal Revenue Service receives—

(i) A request for notice from a notice group that identifies that partner as a member of that notice group; or

(ii) A statement filed in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this section that states that the partner is joining the notice group.

(5) No withdrawal from notice group. A partner who has signed a notice group request filed with the Internal Revenue Service remains a member of that notice group until the group terminates. A partner cannot withdraw from the notice group.

(6) Indirect and pass-thru partners—(i) Pass-thru partners and unidentified indirect partners. A pass-thru partner may become a member of a notice group as provided in this section. For purposes of applying the aggregate interest requirement specified in paragraph (a) of this section to a pass-thru partner, the partnership interest held by the pass-thru partner shall not include any interest held through the pass-thru partner by an indirect partner that has been identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1 before the date on which the pass-thru partner becomes a member of the notice group.

(ii) Indirect partners identified before the pass-thru partner joins a notice group. An indirect partner may become a member of a notice group with respect to a partnership taxable year only if—

(A) The indirect partner held an interest in the partnership (either directly or through one or more pass-thru partners) at some time during that taxable year; and

(B) The indirect partner was identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1 on or before the date on which the pass-thru partner became a member of a notice group.

(d) Termination of notice group. Unless the original request for notice from the notice group or a subsequent statement filed by the representative (in accordance with paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section) designates a successor to the designated group representative, the group terminates if the representative dies (or, in the case of an entity, if the entity is dissolved), resigns, or is adjudicated incompetent.

(e) Notice group is not a 5-percent group. The forming of a notice group under this section does not constitute the forming of a 5-percent group for purposes of litigation. A notice group is formed solely for the purpose of receiving notices. A 5-percent group is formed solely for the purpose of filing a petition for judicial review or appealing a judicial determination. See §301.6226(b)-1. Thus, a member of a notice group may choose not to join a 5-percent group formed by other members of the notice group.

(f) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50547, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(c)-1   Additional information regarding partners furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

(a) In general. In addition to the names, addresses, and profits interests as shown on the partnership return, the Internal Revenue Service will use additional information as provided in this section for purposes of administering subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(b) Procedure for furnishing additional information—(1) In general. Any person may furnish additional information at any time by filing a written statement with the Internal Revenue Service. However, the information contained in the statement will be considered for purposes of determining whether a partner is entitled to a notice described in section 6223(a) only if the Internal Revenue Service receives the statement at least 30 days before the date on which the Internal Revenue Service mails the notice to the tax matters partner. Similarly, information contained in the statement generally will not be taken into account for other purposes by the Internal Revenue Service until 30 days after the statement is received.

(2) Where statement must be filed. A statement furnished under this section generally must be filed with the service center where the partnership return is filed. However, if the person filing the statement knows that the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement should be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed such notice.

(3) Contents of statement. The statement shall—

(i) Identify the partnership, each partner for whom information is supplied, and the person supplying the information by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(ii) Explain that the statement is furnished to correct or supplement earlier information with respect to the partners in the partnership;

(iii) Specify the taxable year to which the information relates;

(iv) Set out the corrected or additional information; and

(v) Be signed by the person supplying the information.

(c) No incorporation by reference to previously furnished documents. Incorporation by reference of information contained in another document previously furnished to the Internal Revenue Service will not be given effect for purposes of section 6223(c) or 6229(e). For example, reference to a return filed by a pass-thru partner which contains identifying information with respect to the indirect partners of that pass-thru partner is not sufficient to identify the indirect partners unless a copy of the document referred to is attached to the statement. Furthermore, reference to a prior general notification to the Internal Revenue Service that a partner who would otherwise be the tax matters partner is a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding or has had a receiver appointed for the partner in a receivership proceeding is not sufficient unless a copy of the notification document referred to is attached to the statement.

(d) Information supplied by a person other than the tax matters partner. The Internal Revenue Service may require appropriate verification in the case of information furnished by a person other than the tax matters partner. The 30-day period referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall not begin until that verification is supplied.

(e) Power of attorney—(1) In general. This paragraph (e) applies to powers of attorney with respect to proceedings under subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code (chapter 63C) that begin on or after January 2, 2002.

(2) Specifically for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code. A power of attorney specifically for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code shall be furnished in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(3) Existing power of attorney. A power of attorney granted to another person by a partner for other tax purposes shall not be given effect for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 unless the partner specifically requests that the power be given such effect in a statement furnished to the Internal Revenue Service in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) Internal Revenue Service may use other information. In addition to the information on the partnership return and that supplied on statements filed under this section, the Internal Revenue Service may use other information in its possession (for example, a change in address reflected on a partner's return) in administering subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code. However, the Internal Revenue Service is not obligated to search its records for information not expressly furnished under this section.

(g) Effective date. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, this section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(c)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50548, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(e)-1   Effect of Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice.

(a) Notice group. Section 6223(e)(1)(B)(ii) applies with respect to a notice group only if the request for notice described in §301.6223(b)-1 is received by the Internal Revenue Service at least 30 days before the notice is mailed to the tax matters partner.

(b) Indirect partners—(1) In general. For purposes of section 6223(e), the Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice to a pass-thru partner entitled to notice under section 6223(b) is deemed a failure to provide notice to indirect partners holding an interest in the partnership through the pass-thru partner. However, this rule does not apply if the indirect partner—

(i) Receives notice from the Internal Revenue Service;

(ii) Is identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1 at least 30 days before the notice is mailed to the tax matters partner; or

(iii) Is a member of a notice group entitled to notice under paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Examples. The provisions of paragraph (b)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Partnership ABC has as one of its partners, A, a partnership with three partners, X, Y, and Z. ABC does not have more than 100 partners, and partnership A is entitled to notice under section 6223(a). In addition, Z was identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1 on May 1, 2002. The Internal Revenue Service mailed a notice to the tax matters partner of ABC on July 1, 2002, but failed to provide notice to partnership A. Notwithstanding the Internal Revenue Service's notice to the tax matters partner, the Internal Revenue Service is deemed to have failed to provide notice to X and Y. The Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice to A, however, has no effect on Z; whether notice was provided to Z is determined independently.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that the Internal Revenue Service provided notice to partnership A but did not provide separate notice to Z. Notwithstanding the Internal Revenue Service's notice to partnership A, the Internal Revenue Service is deemed to have failed to provide notice to Z.

Example 3. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that partnership ABC has more than 100 partners and partnership A is entitled to notice under section 6223(b) because it had at least a 1 percent profits interest in partnership ABC. In addition, X became a member of a notice group on June 1, 2002, and the Internal Revenue Service mailed a notice to the designated member of that notice group. The Internal Revenue Service also mailed a separate notice to Z. The Internal Revenue Service's failure to provide notice to partnership A only affects Y, who is deemed not to have been provided notice by the Internal Revenue Service.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50549, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(e)-2   Elections if Internal Revenue Service fails to provide timely notice.

(a) In general. This section applies in any case in which the Internal Revenue Service fails to timely mail any notice described in section 6223(a) of the Internal Revenue Code to a partner entitled to such notice within the period specified in section 6223(d). The failure to issue any notice within the period specified in section 6223(d) does not invalidate the notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding or final partnership administrative adjustment (FPAA). An untimely FPAA enables the recipient of the untimely notice to make the elections described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. The period within which to make the elections described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section commences with the mailing of an FPAA to the partner. In the absence of an election, paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section provide for the treatment of a partner's partnership items.

(b) Proceeding finished. If at the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA—

(1) The period within which a petition for review of the FPAA under section 6226 may be filed has expired and no petition has been filed; or

(2) The decision of a court in an action begun by such a petition has become final, the partner may elect in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section to have that adjustment, that decision, or a settlement agreement described in section 6224(c)(2) with respect to the partnership taxable year to which the adjustment relates apply to that partner. If the partner does not make an election in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, the partnership items of the partner for the partnership taxable year to which the proceeding relates shall be treated as having become nonpartnership items as of the day on which the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner the FPAA.

(c) Proceeding still going on. If at the time the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner an FPAA, paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section do not apply, the partner shall be a party to the proceeding unless the partner elects, in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section, to have—

(1) A settlement agreement described in section 6224(c)(2) with respect to the partnership taxable year to which the proceeding relates apply to the partner; or

(2) The partnership items of the partner for the partnership taxable year to which the proceeding relates treated as having become nonpartnership items as of the day on which the Internal Revenue Service mails the partner the FPAA.

(d) Election—(1) In general. The election described in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section shall be made in the manner prescribed in this paragraph (d). The election shall apply to all partnership items for the partnership taxable year to which the election relates.

(2) Time and manner of making election. The election shall be made by filing a statement with the Internal Revenue Service office mailing the FPAA within 45 days after the date on which the FPAA was mailed to the partner making the election.

(3) Contents of statement. The statement shall—

(i) Be clearly identified as an election under section 6223(e)(2) or (3);

(ii) Specify the election being made (that is, application of final partnership administrative adjustment, court decision, consistent settlement agreement, or nonpartnership item treatment);

(iii) Identify the partner making the election and the partnership by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(iv) Specify the partnership taxable year to which the election relates; and

(v) Be signed by the partner making the election.

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(e)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50550, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(f)-1   Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

(a) In general. Section 6223(f) does not prohibit the Internal Revenue Service from issuing a duplicate copy of the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the original notice is lost).

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(f)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50550, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(g)-1   Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

(a) Notices described in section 6223(a)—(1) Notice of beginning of proceeding. Except as otherwise provided in §301.6223(a)-2, the tax matters partner shall, within 75 days after the Internal Revenue Service mails the notice specified in section 6223(a)(1), forward a copy of that notice to each partner not entitled to notice from the Internal Revenue Service under section 6223. See §301.6230(e)-1 for information to be furnished to the Internal Revenue Service.

(2) Notice of final partnership administrative adjustment. The tax matters partner shall, within 60 days after the Internal Revenue Service mails the notice specified in section 6223(a)(2), forward a copy of that notice to each partner not entitled to notice from the Internal Revenue Service under section 6223.

(3) Requirement inapplicable in certain cases. The tax matters partner is not required to send notice to a partner if—

(i) Before the expiration of the applicable 75-day or 60-day period the partnership items of that partner have become nonpartnership items (for example, by settlement);

(ii) That partner is an indirect partner and has not been identified to the tax matters partner at least 30 days before the tax matters partner is required to send such notice;

(iii) That partner is treated as a partner solely by virtue of §301.6231(a)(2)-1;

(iv) That partner was a member of a notice group as of the date on which the notice was mailed to the tax matters partner (see §301.6223(b)-1(c)(4) for the date on which a partner becomes a member of a notice group);

(v) The notice has already been provided to that partner by another person; or

(vi) The notice is withdrawn by the Internal Revenue Service under §301.6223(a)-2.

(b) Other notices or information—(1) In general. The tax matters partner shall furnish to the partners specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section information with respect to the following—

(i) Closing conference with the examining agent;

(ii) Proposed adjustments, rights of appeal, and requirements for filing of a protest;

(iii) Time and place of any Appeals conference;

(iv) Acceptance by the Internal Revenue Service of any settlement offer;

(v) Consent to the extension of the period of limitations with respect to all partners;

(vi) Filing of a request for administrative adjustment (including a request for substituted return treatment under §301.6227(c)-1) on behalf of the partnership;

(vii) Filing by the tax matters partner or any other partner of any petition for judicial review under sections 6226 or 6228(a);

(viii) Filing of any appeal with respect to any judicial determination provided for in sections 6226 or 6228(a); and

(ix) Final judicial redetermination.

(2) Partners to be notified. The tax matters partner shall provide information with respect to any action or other matter specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section to all notice group representatives and all other partners except partners—

(i) Whose partnership items become nonpartnership items before the expiration of the period specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for furnishing that information;

(ii) Who are indirect partners and who are not identified to the tax matters partner at least 30 days before the tax matters partner is required to provide the information;

(iii) Who are treated as partners solely by virtue of §301.6231(a)(2)-1;

(iv) Who are members of a notice group as of the date on which the tax matters partner takes that action or receives information with respect to that matter (see §301.6223(b)-1(c)(4) for the date on which a partner becomes a member of a notice group); or

(v) Who have already received information with respect to the action or matter from any other person.

(3) Time for furnishing information. The tax matters partner shall furnish information with respect to an action or other matter described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section within 30 days of taking the action or receiving information with respect to that matter.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(g)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50550, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6223(h)-1   Responsibilities of pass-thru partner.

(a) In general. The pass-thru partner shall, within 30 days of receiving notice or any other information regarding a partnership proceeding from the Internal Revenue Service, the tax matters partner, or another pass-thru partner, forward a copy of that notice or information to the person or persons holding an interest through the pass-thru partner in the profits or losses of the partnership for the partnership taxable year to which the notice or information relates. In the case of a pass-thru partner that is a partnership within the meaning of section 6231(a)(1), the tax matters partner of such partnership shall forward copies of the notice or information to the partners of such partnership.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50551, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6224(a)-1   Participation in administrative proceedings.

(a) In general. Every partner in the partnership, including an indirect partner, has the right to participate in any phase of administrative proceedings. However, except as provided in section 6223 and the regulations thereunder, neither the Internal Revenue Service nor the tax matters partner is required to provide notice of any proceeding to the partners. Consequently, a partner who wishes, for example, to be present during a preliminary discussion between an examining agent and the tax matters partner should make special arrangements with the tax matters partner to obtain information as to the time and place of the discussion. The Internal Revenue Service and the tax matters partner will determine the time and place for all administrative proceedings. Arrangements will generally not be changed merely for the convenience of another partner.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6224(a)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50551, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6224(b)-1   Partner may waive rights.

(a) In general. A partner may at any time waive any right that the partner has or any restriction on action by the Internal Revenue Service under subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(b) Form and manner of making waiver. The waiver described in paragraph (a) of this section shall be made by a written statement. If the Internal Revenue Service furnishes a form to be used for this purpose, the partner may make the waiver by completing the form in accordance with the form's instructions. If such a form is not furnished, the statement shall—

(1) Be clearly identified as a waiver under section 6224(b);

(2) Identify the partner and the partnership by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(3) Specify the right or restriction being waived and the taxable year(s) to which the waiver applies;

(4) Be signed by the partner making the waiver; and

(5) Be filed with the service center where the partnership return is filed. However, if the person filing the statement knows that the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement shall be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed such notice.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6224(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50551, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6224(c)-1   Tax matters partner may bind nonnotice partners.

(a) In general. In the absence of a showing of fraud, malfeasance, or misrepresentation of fact, if the tax matters partner enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to partnership items, including partnership-level determinations relating to any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amounts that relate to adjustments to partnership items, and expressly states that the agreement shall be binding on the other partners, then that agreement shall be binding on all partners except those who—

(1) Are, as of the day on which the agreement is entered into, either notice partners or members of a notice group (see §301.6223(b)-1(c)(4) for the date on which a partner becomes a member of a notice group); or

(2) Have, at least 30 days before the day on which the agreement is entered into, filed with the Internal Revenue Service the statement described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Indirect partners—(1) In general. If, under paragraph (a) of this section, a pass-thru partner is not bound by an agreement entered into by the tax matters partner, all indirect partners holding an interest in the partnership through that pass-thru partner shall not be bound by that agreement. If, however, the pass-thru partner is bound by an agreement entered into by the tax matters partner, paragraph (a) of this section shall be applied separately to each indirect partner holding an interest in the partnership through the pass-thru partner to determine whether the indirect partner is also bound by the agreement.

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this section:

Example. Partnership P has over 100 partners. Partnership J is a partner in partnership P with a profits interest of less than 1 percent. Partnership J has three partners, A, B, and C. A is a member of a notice group with respect to partnership P, but B and C are not. On July 1, 2002, B filed the statement described in paragraph (c) of this section not to be bound by any settlement agreement entered into by the tax matters partner of partnership P. On August 1, 2002, the tax matters partner of partnership P enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service and states that the agreement is binding on other partners as provided in section 6224(c)(3). Because partnership J is bound by the settlement agreement, paragraph (a) of this section is applied separately to each of the indirect partners to determine whether they are bound. A is not bound by the agreement because A was a member of a notice group on the day the agreement was entered into and B is not bound because B filed the statement not to be bound at least 30 days before the agreement was entered into. C is bound by the settlement agreement.

(c) Statement not to be bound—(1) Contents of statement. The statement referred to in paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall—

(i) Be clearly identified as a statement to deny settlement authority to the tax matters partner under section 6224(c)(3)(B);

(ii) Identify the partner and partnership by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(iii) Specify the taxable year or years to which the statement applies; and

(iv) Be signed by the partner filing the statement.

(2) Place where statement is to be filed. The statement described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section generally shall be filed with the Internal Revenue Service service center where the partnership return is filed. However, if the partner knows that the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement shall be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed that notice.

(3) Consolidated statements. The statement described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be filed with respect to more than one partner if the requirements of that paragraph (c)(1) (including signatures) are satisfied with respect to each partner.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6224(c)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50551, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6224(c)-2   Pass-thru partner binds indirect partners.

(a) Pass-thru partner binds unidentified indirect partners—(1) In general. If a pass-thru partner enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to partnership items, that agreement binds all indirect partners holding an interest in that partnership through the pass-thru partner except those indirect partners who have been identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1 at least 30 days before the date on which the agreement is entered into. A settlement with respect to partnership items includes partnership-level determinations relating to any penalty, addition to tax, and additional amounts that relate to adjustments to partnership items. However, if, in addition to the interest in the partnership held through the pass-thru partner entering into a settlement agreement, an indirect partner holds a separate interest in that partnership, either directly or indirectly through a different pass-thru partner, then the indirect partner shall not be bound by that settlement agreement with respect to the interests held directly or indirectly through a pass-thru partner other than the pass-thru partner entering into the settlement agreement.

(2) Example. The provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Partnership J is a partner in partnership P. C is a partner in J but has not been identified as provided in section 6223(c)(3) and §301.6223(c)-1. The only interest that C holds in P is through J. The tax matters partner of J enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to partnership items arising from P. C is bound by the settlement agreement entered into by the tax matters partner of J.

(b) Person in pass-thru partner authorized to enter into settlement agreement that binds indirect partners. In the case of a pass-thru partner that is—

(1) A partnership within the meaning of section 6231(a)(1), the tax matters partner of that partnership;

(2) A partnership other than a partnership described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, any general partner of that partnership;

(3) An S corporation, any officer of that S corporation; or

(4) A trust, estate, or nominee, any person authorized in writing to act on behalf of that trust, estate, or nominee, may enter into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service on behalf of its respective entity that would bind the unidentified indirect partners that hold a partnership interest through the pass-thru partner.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6224(c)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50552, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6224(c)-3   Consistent settlements.

(a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any partner with respect to partnership items, whether comprehensive or partial, the Internal Revenue Service shall offer to any other partner who so requests in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into.

(b) Requirements for consistent settlement terms—(1) In general. Consistent settlement terms are those based on the same determinations with respect to partnership items. However, consistent settlement terms also may include partnership-level determinations of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to partnership items. Settlements with respect to partnership items shall be self-contained; thus, a concession by one party with respect to a partnership item may not be based upon a concession by another party with respect to any item that is not a partnership item other than a partnership-level determination of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item. Consistent agreements must be identical to the original settlement (that is, the settlement upon which the offered settlement terms are based). A consistent agreement must mirror the original settlement and may not be limited to selected items from the original settlement. Once a partner has settled a partnership item, or a partnership-level determination of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item, that partner may not subsequently request settlement terms consistent with a settlement that contains the previously settled item. The requirement for consistent settlement terms applies only if—

(i) The items were partnership items (or a partnership-level determination of any related penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount) for the partner entering into the original settlement immediately before the original settlement; and

(ii) The items are partnership items (or a partnership-level determination of any related penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount) for the partner requesting the consistent settlement at the time the partner files the request.

(2) Effect of consistent agreement. Consistent settlement terms are reflected in a consistent agreement. A consistent agreement is not a settlement agreement that gives rise to further consistent settlement rights because it is required to be given without volitional agreement of the Secretary. Therefore, a consistent agreement required to be offered to a requesting taxpayer is not a settlement agreement under section 6224(c)(2) or paragraph (c)(3) of this section which starts a new period for requesting consistent settlement terms. For all other purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, however, (e.g., binding effect under section 6224(c)(1) and conversion to nonpartnership items under section 6231(b)(1)(C)), a consistent agreement is treated as a settlement agreement.

(c) Time and manner of requesting consistent settlements—(1) In general. A partner desiring settlement terms consistent with the terms of any settlement agreement entered into between any other partner and the Internal Revenue Service shall submit a written statement to the Internal Revenue Service office that entered into the settlement.

(2) Contents of statement. Except as otherwise provided in instructions to the taxpayer from the Internal Revenue Service, the written statement described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section shall—

(i) Identify the statement as a request for consistent settlement terms under section 6224(c)(2);

(ii) Contain the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of the partnership and of the partner requesting the settlement offer (and, in the case of an indirect partner, of the pass-thru partner through which the indirect partner holds an interest);

(iii) Identify the earlier agreement to which the request refers; and

(iv) Be signed by the partner making the request.

(3) Time for filing request. The statement shall be filed not later than the later of—

(i) The 150th day after the day on which the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment is mailed to the tax matters partner; or

(ii) The 60th day after the day on which the settlement agreement was entered into.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of this section:

Example 1. The Internal Revenue Service seeks to disallow a $100,000 loss reported by Partnership P $20,000 of which was allocated to partner X, and $10,000 of which was allocated to partner Y. The Internal Revenue Service agrees to a settlement with X in which the Internal Revenue Service allows $12,000 of the loss, accepts the treatment of all other partnership items on the partnership return, and imposes a penalty for negligence related to the $8,000 loss disallowance. Partner Y requests settlement terms consistent with the settlement made between X and the Internal Revenue Service. The items are partnership items (or a related penalty) for X immediately before X enters into the settlement agreement and are partnership items (or a related penalty) for Y at the time of the request. The Internal Revenue Service must offer Y settlement terms allowing a $6,000 loss, a negligence penalty on the $4,000 disallowance, and otherwise reflecting the treatment of partnership items on the partnership return.

Example 2. F files inconsistently with Partnership P and reports the inconsistency. The Internal Revenue Service notifies F that it will treat all partnership items arising from P as nonpartnership items with respect to F. Later, the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement with F on these items. The Internal Revenue Service is not required to offer the other partners of P settlement terms consistent with the settlement reached between F and the Internal Revenue Service because the items arising from P are not partnership items with respect to F.

Example 3. G, a partner in Partnership P, filed suit under section 6228(b) after the Internal Revenue Service failed to allow an administrative adjustment request with respect to a partnership item arising from P for a taxable year. Under section 6231(b)(1)(B), the partnership items of G for the partnership taxable year became nonpartnership items as of the date G filed suit. After G filed suit, another partner and the Internal Revenue Service entered into a settlement agreement with respect to items arising from P in that year. G is not entitled to consistent settlement terms because, at the time of the settlement, the items arising from P are no longer partnership items with respect to G.

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6224(c)-3T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50552, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6226(a)-1   Principal place of business of partnership.

(a) In general. The principal place of a partnership's business for purposes of determining the appropriate district court in which a petition for a readjustment of partnership items may be filed is its principal place of business as of the date the petition is filed.

(b) Example. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. The principal place of Partnership A's business on the day that the notice of the final partnership administrative adjustment was mailed to A's tax matters partner was Cincinnati, Ohio. However, by the day on which a petition seeking judicial review of that adjustment was filed, A had moved its principal place of business to Louisville, Kentucky. For purposes of section 6226(a)(2), A's principal place of business is Louisville.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6226(a)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50553, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6226(b)-1   5-percent group.

(a) In general. All members of a 5-percent group shall join in filing any petition for judicial review. The designation of a partner as a representative of a notice group does not authorize that partner to file a petition for a readjustment of partnership items on behalf of the notice group.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6226(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50553, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6226(e)-1   Jurisdictional requirement for bringing an action in District Court or United States Court of Federal Claims.

(a) Amount to be deposited—(1) In general. The jurisdictional amount that the filing partner (or, in the case of a petition filed by a 5-percent group, each member of the group, or, for civil actions beginning on or after April 2, 2002, in the case of a petition filed by a pass-thru partner, each indirect partner holding an interest through the pass-thru partner) shall deposit is the amount by which the tax liability of the partner would be increased if the treatment of the partnership items on the partner's return were made consistent with the treatment of partnership items on the partnership return, as adjusted by the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment. The partner is not required to pay other outstanding liabilities in order to deposit a jurisdictional amount.

(2) Example. The provisions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A files a petition for readjustment of partnership items in the United States Court of Federal Claims. A's tax liability would be increased by $4,000 if partnership items on A's return were conformed to the partnership return, as adjusted by the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment. A has an unpaid liability of $10,000 attributable to nonpartnership items. A is required to deposit $4,000 in order to satisfy the jurisdictional requirement.

(b) Deposit taken into account in computing interest. The amount deposited is treated as a payment of tax for purposes of chapter 67 of the Internal Revenue Code (relating to interest).

(c) Deposit generally not treated as payment of tax. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an amount deposited under section 6226(e) shall not be treated as a payment of tax. Thus, the Internal Revenue Service may proceed against the depositor for a deficiency based on nonpartnership items without regard to this deposit.

(d) Amount deposited may be applied against assessment. If the restriction on assessment provided under section 6225(a) lapses with respect to a deficiency attributable to partnership items for a partnership taxable year while an amount is on deposit under section 6226(e) in connection with a petition relating to those items, the Internal Revenue Service may apply the amount deposited against any such deficiency that is assessed.

(e) Effective date. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, this section is applicable to civil actions beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For civil actions beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6226(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50554, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6226(f)-1   Scope of judicial review.

(a) In general. A court reviewing a notice of final partnership administrative adjustment has jurisdiction to determine all partnership items for the taxable year to which the notice relates and the proper allocation of such items among the partners. Thus, the review is not limited to the items adjusted in the notice. In addition, the court has jurisdiction in the partnership-level proceeding to determine any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item. However, the court does not have jurisdiction in the partnership-level proceeding to consider any partner-level defenses to any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item. See section 6230(c)(4) and §301.6221-1(c) and (d).

(b) Example. The provisions of paragraph (a) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. The Internal Revenue Service issues a notice of final partnership administrative adjustment with respect to Partnership ABC in which the only item adjusted is depreciation. A petition for judicial review of that notice is filed. During the judicial proceeding, a partner of ABC, in accordance with the applicable court rules, raises an issue relating to the treatment of intangible drilling costs. The court reviewing the notice has jurisdiction to determine the intangible drilling cost issue in addition to the depreciation issue.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6226(f)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50554, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6227(c)-1   Administrative adjustment request by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership.

(a) In general. A request for an administrative adjustment filed by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership shall be filed on the form prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service for that purpose in accordance with that form's instructions. Except as otherwise provided in that form's instructions, the request shall be—

(1) Filed with the service center where the original partnership return was filed (but, if the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement should be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed such notice);

(2) Signed by the tax matters partner; and

(3) Accompanied by revised schedules showing the effects of the proposed changes on each partner and an explanation of the changes.

(b) Denied request for treatment as a substituted return remains administrative adjustment request. An administrative adjustment request filed by the tax matters partner on behalf of the partnership for which substituted return treatment is requested but not granted remains an administrative adjustment request. Thus, for example, the tax matters partner may file suit under section 6228(a) if the Internal Revenue Service fails to take timely action on the request.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6227(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50554, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6227(d)-1   Administrative adjustment request filed on behalf of a partner.

(a) In general. A request for an administrative adjustment on behalf of a partner shall be filed on the form prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service for that purpose in accordance with that form's instructions. Except as otherwise provided in that form's instructions, the request shall—

(1) Be filed in duplicate, the original copy filed with the partner's amended income tax return (on which the partner computes the amount by which the partner's tax liability should be adjusted if the request is granted) and the other copy filed with the service center where the partnership return is filed (but, if the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement should be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed such notice);

(2) Identify the partner and the partnership by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(3) Specify the partnership taxable year to which the administrative adjustment request applies;

(4) Relate only to partnership items; and

(5) Relate only to one partnership and one partnership taxable year.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6227(c)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50555, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6229(b)-1   Extension by agreement.

(a) In general. Any partnership may authorize any person to extend the period described in section 6229(a) with respect to all partners by filing a statement to that effect with the service center where the partnership return is filed (but, if the notice described in section 6223(a)(1) (beginning of an administrative proceeding) has already been mailed to the tax matters partner, the statement should be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that mailed such notice). The statement shall—

(1) Provide that it is an authorization for a person other than the tax matters partner to extend the assessment period with respect to all partners;

(2) Identify the partnership and the person being authorized by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(3) Specify the partnership taxable year or years for which the authorization is effective; and

(4) Be signed by all persons who were general partners (or, in the case of an LLC, member-managers, as those terms are defined in §301.6231(a)(7)-2(b)) at any time during the year or years for which the authorization is effective.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6229(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50555, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6229(b)-2   Special rule with respect to debtors in title 11 cases.

(a) In general. Notwithstanding any other law or rule of law, if an agreement is entered into under section 6229(b)(1)(B), and the agreement is signed by a person who would be the tax matters partner but for the fact that, at the time that the agreement is executed, the person is a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding under title 11 of the United States Code, such agreement shall be binding on all partners in the partnership unless the Internal Revenue Service has been notified of the bankruptcy proceeding in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Procedures for notifying the Internal Revenue Service of a partner's bankruptcy proceeding. (1) The Internal Revenue Service shall be notified of the bankruptcy proceeding of the tax matters partner in accordance with the procedures set forth in §301.6223(c)-1.

(2) In addition to the information specified in §301.6223(c)-1, notification that a person is (or was) a debtor in a bankruptcy proceeding shall include the date the bankruptcy proceeding was filed, the name and address of the court in which the bankruptcy proceeding exists (or took place), the caption of the bankruptcy proceeding (including the docket number or other identification number used by the court), and the status of the proceeding as of the date of notification.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6229(b)-2T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50555, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6229(c)(2)-1   Substantial omission of income.

(a) Partnership return—(1) General rule. (i) If any partnership omits from the gross income stated in its return an amount properly includible therein and that amount is described in clause (i) of section 6501(e)(1)(A), subsection (a) of section 6229 shall be applied by substituting “6 years” for “3 years.”

(ii) For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, the term gross income, as it relates to a trade or business, means the total of the amounts received or accrued from the sale of goods or services, to the extent required to be shown on the return, without reduction for the cost of those goods or services.

(iii) For purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section, the term gross income, as it relates to any income other than from the sale of goods or services in a trade or business, has the same meaning as provided under section 61(a), and includes the total of the amounts received or accrued, to the extent required to be shown on the return. In the case of amounts received or accrued that relate to the disposition of property, and except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, gross income means the excess of the amount realized from the disposition of the property over the unrecovered cost or other basis of the property. Consequently, except as provided in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section, an understated amount of gross income resulting from an overstatement of unrecovered cost or other basis constitutes an omission from gross income for purposes of section 6229(c)(2).

(iv) An amount shall not be considered as omitted from gross income if information sufficient to apprise the Commissioner of the nature and amount of the item is disclosed in the return, including any schedule or statement attached to the return.

(b) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years with respect to which the period for assessing tax was open on or after September 24, 2009.

[T.D. 9511, 75 FR 78898, Dec. 17, 2010]

§301.6229(e)-1   Information with respect to unidentified partner.

(a) In general. A partner who is not properly identified on the partnership return (including an indirect partner) remains an unidentified partner for purposes of section 6229(e) until identifying information is furnished as provided in §301.6223(c)-1.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6229(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50555, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6229(f)-1   Special rule for partial settlement agreements.

(a) In general. If a partner enters into a settlement agreement with the Internal Revenue Service with respect to the treatment of some of the partnership items or partnership-level determinations of any penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount in dispute for a partnership taxable year, but one or more other partnership items or determinations remain in dispute, the period of limitations for assessing any tax attributable to the settled items shall be determined as if such agreement had not been entered into.

(b) Other items remaining in dispute. Pursuant to section 6226(c), a partner is a party to a partnership-level judicial proceeding with respect to partnership items and partnership-level determinations of penalties, additions to tax or additional amounts. When a partner settles partnership items, the settled partnership items convert to nonpartnership items under section 6231(b)(1)(C) and will not be subject to any future or pending partnership-level proceeding pursuant to section 6226(d)(1). The remaining unsettled partnership items, as well as any unsettled penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item (regardless of whether the partnership item to which it relates has been settled), however, will remain subject to determination under partnership-level administrative and judicial procedures. Consequently, any remaining unsettled items, including any unsettled penalty, addition to tax, or additional amount that relates to an adjustment to a partnership item, will be deemed to remain in dispute. Thus, the period for assessing any tax attributable to the settled items will be governed by the period for assessing any tax attributable to the remaining unsettled items.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6229(f)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50555, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6230(b)-1   Request that correction not be made.

(a) In general. The request that a correction not be made under section 6230(b)(2) shall be in writing and shall—

(1) State that it is a request that a correction not be made under section 6230(b);

(2) Identify the partnership and the partner filing the request by name, address, and taxpayer identification number;

(3) Be signed by the partner filing the request; and

(4) Be filed with the Internal Revenue Service office that provided the notice of the correction of the error.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6230(b)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50556, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6230(c)-1   Claim arising out of erroneous computation, etc.

(a) In general. A claim for refund under section 6230(c) shall state the grounds for the claim and shall be filed with the service center where the partner's return is filed.

(b) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6230(c)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50556, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6230(e)-1   Tax matters partner required to furnish names.

(a) In general. If a notice of the beginning of an administrative proceeding is mailed to the tax matters partner with respect to any partnership taxable year, the tax matters partner shall furnish to the Internal Revenue Service office that issued the notice the name, address, profits interest, and taxpayer identification number of each person who was a partner in the partnership at any time during that taxable year if that information was not provided on the partnership return filed for that year.

(b) Revised or additional information. If the tax matters partner discovers that any information furnished to the Internal Revenue Service on the partnership return or under paragraph (a) of this section was incorrect or incomplete, the tax matters partner shall furnish revised or additional information to the Internal Revenue Service within 15 days of discovering that the information furnished to the Internal Revenue Service was incorrect or incomplete.

(c) Information required with respect to indirect partners. The requirements of this section for identifying information apply with respect to indirect partners to the extent that the tax matters partner has such information.

(d) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6230(e)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50556, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6231(a)(1)-1   Exception for small partnerships.

(a) In general. For purposes of the exception for small partnerships under section 6231(a)(1)(B), the rules contained in this section shall apply.

(1) 10 or fewer. The 10 or fewer limitation described in section 6231(a)(1)(B)(i) is applied to the number of natural persons, C corporations, and estates of deceased partners that were partners at any one time during the partnership taxable year. Thus, for example, a partnership that at no time during the taxable year had more than 10 partners may be treated as a small partnership even if, because of transfers of interests in the partnership, 11 or more natural persons, C corporations, or estates of deceased partners owned interests in the partnership for some portion of the taxable year. See section 1361(a)(2) for the definition of a C corporation. For purposes of section 6231(a)(1)(B) and this section, a husband and wife (and their estates) are treated as one person.

(2) Pass-thru partner. The exception provided in section 6231(a)(1)(B) does not apply to a partnership for a taxable year if any partner in the partnership during that taxable year is a pass-thru partner as defined in section 6231(a)(9). For purposes of this paragraph (a)(2), an estate shall not be treated as a pass-thru partner.

(3) Determination made annually. The determination of whether a partnership meets the requirements for the exception for small partnerships under section 6231(a)(1)(B) and this paragraph (a) shall be made with respect to each partnership taxable year. Thus, a partnership that does not qualify as a small partnership in one taxable year may qualify as a small partnership in another taxable year if the requirements for the exception under section 6231(a)(1)(B) and this paragraph (a) are met with respect to that other taxable year.

(b) Election to have subchapter C of chapter 63 apply—(1) In general. Any partnership that meets the requirements set forth in section 6231(a)(1)(B) and paragraph (a) of this section (relating to the exception for small partnerships) may elect under paragraph (b)(2) of this section to have the provisions of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code apply with respect to that partnership.

(2) Method of election. A partnership shall make the election described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section by attaching a statement to the partnership return for the first taxable year for which the election is to be effective. The statement shall be identified as an election under section 6231(a)(1)(B)(ii), shall be signed by all persons who were partners of that partnership at any time during the partnership taxable year to which the return relates, and shall be filed at the time (determined with regard to any extension of time for filing) and place prescribed for filing the partnership return. However, for any partnership taxable year for which the due date of the return (determined without regard to extensions) is before January 2, 2002, the partnership may file the statement described in the preceding sentence on or before the date which is one year before the date specified in section 6229(a) for the expiration of the period of limitations with respect to that partnership (determined with regard to extensions of that period under section 6229(b)).

(3) Years covered by election. The election shall be effective for the partnership taxable year to which the return relates and all subsequent partnership taxable years unless revoked with the consent of the Commissioner.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6231(a)(1)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001.

[T.D. 8965, 66 FR 50556, Oct. 4, 2001]

§301.6231(a)(2)-1   Persons whose tax liability is determined indirectly by partnership items.

(a) Spouse filing joint return with individual holding a separate interest—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (a), a spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership shall be treated as a partner for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code. Thus, the spouse who files a joint return with a partner will be permitted to participate in administrative and judicial proceedings.

(2) Counting rules. A spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership shall not be counted as a partner for purposes of applying section 6223(b) (relating to special rules for partnerships with more than 100 partners) and section 6231(a)(1)(B) (relating to the exception for small partnerships).

(3) Notice rules—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, for purposes of subchapter C of chapter 63 of the Internal Revenue Code, a spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership shall be treated as receiving any notice received by the individual holding the separate interest.

(ii) Spouse identified on partnership return or by statement. Paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section shall not apply to a spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership if that spouse—

(A) Is identified on the partnership return; or

(B) Is identified as a partner entitled to notice as provided in §301.6223(c)-1(b).

(4) Conversion of partnership items—(i) Individual holding a separate interest. A spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership shall cease to be treated as a partner in the partnership under paragraph (a)(1) of this section upon the conversion of the partnership items of the individual holding the separate interest in the partnership to nonpartnership items pursuant to section 6231(b). If each spouse holds a separate interest in the partnership, the previous sentence shall be applied separately with respect to each partnership interest.

(ii) Spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership. A spouse who files a joint return with an individual holding a separate interest in the partnership shall cease to be treated as a partner in the partnership under paragraph (a)(1) of this section upon the occurrence of an event that would convert the partnership items of the spouse to nonpartnership items if the spouse were the owner of a separate interest.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of paragraph (a)(4) of this section:

Example 1. Husband owns a separate interest in ABC partnership and files a joint return with Wife. Husband files for bankruptcy. Pursuant to §301.6231(c)-7, upon filing for bankruptcy, the partnership items of the debtor convert to nonpartnership items. Thus, Husband's partnership items converted to nonpartnership items upon the filing of Husband's bankruptcy petition. Pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(i) of this section, Wife is no longer treated as a partner of ABC partnership as of the date the partnership items of Husband converted to nonpartnership items.

Example 2. Wife owns a separate interest in XYZ partnership and files a joint return with Husband. Husband files for bankruptcy. Because the filing of the bankruptcy petition by Husband is an event that would convert Husband's partnership items to nonpartnership items if Husband were the owner of a separate interest, Husband shall no longer be treated as a partner as of the filing of the bankruptcy petition. Pursuant to paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, the partnership items of Wife are not affected by Husband's bankruptcy.

(5) Cross-reference. See §301.6231(a)(12)-1 for special rules relating to spouses holding a joint interest in a partnership.

(b) Shareholder of C corporation. A shareholder of a C corporation (as defined in section 1361(a)(2)) is not a partner in a partnership merely because the C corporation is a partner in that partnership.

(c) Effective date. This section is applicable to partnership taxable years beginning on or after October 4, 2001. For years beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see §301.6231