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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

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e-CFR Data is current as of October 28, 2014

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 23


TITLE 14—Aeronautics and Space

CHAPTER I—FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

SUBCHAPTER C—AIRCRAFT

PART 23—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES

rule
Appendix
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 23

Subpart A—GENERAL

§23.1
Applicability.
§23.2
Special retroactive requirements.
§23.3
Airplane categories.
rule

Subpart B—FLIGHT

General

§23.21
Proof of compliance.
§23.23
Load distribution limits.
§23.25
Weight limits.
§23.29
Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
§23.31
Removable ballast.
§23.33
Propeller speed and pitch limits.

Performance

§23.45
General.
§23.49
Stalling speed.
§23.51
Takeoff speeds.
§23.53
Takeoff performance.
§23.55
Accelerate-stop distance.
§23.57
Takeoff path.
§23.59
Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
§23.61
Takeoff flight path.
§23.63
Climb: General.
§23.65
Climb: All engines operating.
§23.66
Takeoff climb: One-engine inoperative.
§23.67
Climb: One engine inoperative.
§23.69
Enroute climb/descent.
§23.71
Glide: Single-engine airplanes.
§23.73
Reference landing approach speed.
§23.75
Landing distance.
§23.77
Balked landing.

Flight Characteristics

§23.141
General.

Controllability and Maneuverability

§23.143
General.
§23.145
Longitudinal control.
§23.147
Directional and lateral control.
§23.149
Minimum control speed.
§23.151
Acrobatic maneuvers.
§23.153
Control during landings.
§23.155
Elevator control force in maneuvers.
§23.157
Rate of roll.

Trim

§23.161
Trim.

Stability

§23.171
General.
§23.173
Static longitudinal stability.
§23.175
Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
§23.177
Static directional and lateral stability.
§23.181
Dynamic stability.

Stalls

§23.201
Wings level stall.
§23.203
Turning flight and accelerated turning stalls.
§23.207
Stall warning.

Spinning

§23.221
Spinning.

Ground and Water Handling Characteristics

§23.231
Longitudinal stability and control.
§23.233
Directional stability and control.
§23.235
Operation on unpaved surfaces.
§23.237
Operation on water.
§23.239
Spray characteristics.

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements

§23.251
Vibration and buffeting.
§23.253
High speed characteristics.
§23.255
Out of trim characteristics.
rule

Subpart C—STRUCTURE

General

§23.301
Loads.
§23.302
Canard or tandem wing configurations.
§23.303
Factor of safety.
§23.305
Strength and deformation.
§23.307
Proof of structure.

Flight Loads

§23.321
General.
§23.331
Symmetrical flight conditions.
§23.333
Flight envelope.
§23.335
Design airspeeds.
§23.337
Limit maneuvering load factors.
§23.341
Gust loads factors.
§23.343
Design fuel loads.
§23.345
High lift devices.
§23.347
Unsymmetrical flight conditions.
§23.349
Rolling conditions.
§23.351
Yawing conditions.
§23.361
Engine torque.
§23.363
Side load on engine mount.
§23.365
Pressurized cabin loads.
§23.367
Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
§23.369
Rear lift truss.
§23.371
Gyroscopic and aerodynamic loads.
§23.373
Speed control devices.

Control Surface and System Loads

§23.391
Control surface loads.
§23.393
Loads parallel to hinge line.
§23.395
Control system loads.
§23.397
Limit control forces and torques.
§23.399
Dual control system.
§23.405
Secondary control system.
§23.407
Trim tab effects.
§23.409
Tabs.
§23.415
Ground gust conditions.

Horizontal Stabilizing and Balancing Surfaces

§23.421
Balancing loads.
§23.423
Maneuvering loads.
§23.425
Gust loads.
§23.427
Unsymmetrical loads.

Vertical Surfaces

§23.441
Maneuvering loads.
§23.443
Gust loads.
§23.445
Outboard fins or winglets.

Ailerons and Special Devices

§23.455
Ailerons.
§23.459
Special devices.

Ground Loads

§23.471
General.
§23.473
Ground load conditions and assumptions.
§23.477
Landing gear arrangement.
§23.479
Level landing conditions.
§23.481
Tail down landing conditions.
§23.483
One-wheel landing conditions.
§23.485
Side load conditions.
§23.493
Braked roll conditions.
§23.497
Supplementary conditions for tail wheels.
§23.499
Supplementary conditions for nose wheels.
§23.505
Supplementary conditions for skiplanes.
§23.507
Jacking loads.
§23.509
Towing loads.
§23.511
Ground load; unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.

Water Loads

§23.521
Water load conditions.
§23.523
Design weights and center of gravity positions.
§23.525
Application of loads.
§23.527
Hull and main float load factors.
§23.529
Hull and main float landing conditions.
§23.531
Hull and main float takeoff condition.
§23.533
Hull and main float bottom pressures.
§23.535
Auxiliary float loads.
§23.537
Seawing loads.

Emergency Landing Conditions

§23.561
General.
§23.562
Emergency landing dynamic conditions.

Fatigue Evaluation

§23.571
Metallic pressurized cabin structures.
§23.572
Metallic wing, empennage, and associated structures.
§23.573
Damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.
§23.574
Metallic damage tolerance and fatigue evaluation of commuter category airplanes.
§23.575
Inspections and other procedures.
rule

Subpart D—DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

§23.601
General.
§23.603
Materials and workmanship.
§23.605
Fabrication methods.
§23.607
Fasteners.
§23.609
Protection of structure.
§23.611
Accessibility provisions.
§23.613
Material strength properties and design values.
§23.619
Special factors.
§23.621
Casting factors.
§23.623
Bearing factors.
§23.625
Fitting factors.
§23.627
Fatigue strength.
§23.629
Flutter.

Wings

§23.641
Proof of strength.

Control Surfaces

§23.651
Proof of strength.
§23.655
Installation.
§23.657
Hinges.
§23.659
Mass balance.

Control Systems

§23.671
General.
§23.672
Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.
§23.673
Primary flight controls.
§23.675
Stops.
§23.677
Trim systems.
§23.679
Control system locks.
§23.681
Limit load static tests.
§23.683
Operation tests.
§23.685
Control system details.
§23.687
Spring devices.
§23.689
Cable systems.
§23.691
Artificial stall barrier system.
§23.693
Joints.
§23.697
Wing flap controls.
§23.699
Wing flap position indicator.
§23.701
Flap interconnection.
§23.703
Takeoff warning system.

Landing Gear

§23.721
General.
§23.723
Shock absorption tests.
§23.725
Limit drop tests.
§23.726
Ground load dynamic tests.
§23.727
Reserve energy absorption drop test.
§23.729
Landing gear extension and retraction system.
§23.731
Wheels.
§23.733
Tires.
§23.735
Brakes.
§23.737
Skis.
§23.745
Nose/tail wheel steering.

Floats and Hulls

§23.751
Main float buoyancy.
§23.753
Main float design.
§23.755
Hulls.
§23.757
Auxiliary floats.

Personnel and Cargo Accommodations

§23.771
Pilot compartment.
§23.773
Pilot compartment view.
§23.775
Windshields and windows.
§23.777
Cockpit controls.
§23.779
Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
§23.781
Cockpit control knob shape.
§23.783
Doors.
§23.785
Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.
§23.787
Baggage and cargo compartments.
§23.791
Passenger information signs.
§23.803
Emergency evacuation.
§23.805
Flightcrew emergency exits.
§23.807
Emergency exits.
§23.811
Emergency exit marking.
§23.812
Emergency lighting.
§23.813
Emergency exit access.
§23.815
Width of aisle.
§23.831
Ventilation.

Pressurization

§23.841
Pressurized cabins.
§23.843
Pressurization tests.

Fire Protection

§23.851
Fire extinguishers.
§23.853
Passenger and crew compartment interiors.
§23.855
Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.
§23.856
Thermal/acoustic insulation materials.
§23.859
Combustion heater fire protection.
§23.863
Flammable fluid fire protection.
§23.865
Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

Electrical Bonding and Lightning Protection

§23.867
Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity.

Miscellaneous

§23.871
Leveling means.
rule

Subpart E—POWERPLANT

General

§23.901
Installation.
§23.903
Engines.
§23.904
Automatic power reserve system.
§23.905
Propellers.
§23.907
Propeller vibration and fatigue.
§23.909
Turbocharger systems.
§23.925
Propeller clearance.
§23.929
Engine installation ice protection.
§23.933
Reversing systems.
§23.934
Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.
§23.937
Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.
§23.939
Powerplant operating characteristics.
§23.943
Negative acceleration.

Fuel System

§23.951
General.
§23.953
Fuel system independence.
§23.954
Fuel system lightning protection.
§23.955
Fuel flow.
§23.957
Flow between interconnected tanks.
§23.959
Unusable fuel supply.
§23.961
Fuel system hot weather operation.
§23.963
Fuel tanks: General.
§23.965
Fuel tank tests.
§23.967
Fuel tank installation.
§23.969
Fuel tank expansion space.
§23.971
Fuel tank sump.
§23.973
Fuel tank filler connection.
§23.975
Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
§23.977
Fuel tank outlet.
§23.979
Pressure fueling systems.

Fuel System Components

§23.991
Fuel pumps.
§23.993
Fuel system lines and fittings.
§23.994
Fuel system components.
§23.995
Fuel valves and controls.
§23.997
Fuel strainer or filter.
§23.999
Fuel system drains.
§23.1001
Fuel jettisoning system.

Oil System

§23.1011
General.
§23.1013
Oil tanks.
§23.1015
Oil tank tests.
§23.1017
Oil lines and fittings.
§23.1019
Oil strainer or filter.
§23.1021
Oil system drains.
§23.1023
Oil radiators.
§23.1027
Propeller feathering system.

Cooling

§23.1041
General.
§23.1043
Cooling tests.
§23.1045
Cooling test procedures for turbine engine powered airplanes.
§23.1047
Cooling test procedures for reciprocating engine powered airplanes.

Liquid Cooling

§23.1061
Installation.
§23.1063
Coolant tank tests.

Induction System

§23.1091
Air induction system.
§23.1093
Induction system icing protection.
§23.1095
Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
§23.1097
Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.
§23.1099
Carburetor deicing fluid system detail design.
§23.1101
Induction air preheater design.
§23.1103
Induction system ducts.
§23.1105
Induction system screens.
§23.1107
Induction system filters.
§23.1109
Turbocharger bleed air system.
§23.1111
Turbine engine bleed air system.

Exhaust System

§23.1121
General.
§23.1123
Exhaust system.
§23.1125
Exhaust heat exchangers.

Powerplant Controls and Accessories

§23.1141
Powerplant controls: General.
§23.1142
Auxiliary power unit controls.
§23.1143
Engine controls.
§23.1145
Ignition switches.
§23.1147
Mixture controls.
§23.1149
Propeller speed and pitch controls.
§23.1153
Propeller feathering controls.
§23.1155
Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
§23.1157
Carburetor air temperature controls.
§23.1163
Powerplant accessories.
§23.1165
Engine ignition systems.

Powerplant Fire Protection

§23.1181
Designated fire zones; regions included.
§23.1182
Nacelle areas behind firewalls.
§23.1183
Lines, fittings, and components.
§23.1189
Shutoff means.
§23.1191
Firewalls.
§23.1192
Engine accessory compartment diaphragm.
§23.1193
Cowling and nacelle.
§23.1195
Fire extinguishing systems.
§23.1197
Fire extinguishing agents.
§23.1199
Extinguishing agent containers.
§23.1201
Fire extinguishing systems materials.
§23.1203
Fire detector system.
rule

Subpart F—EQUIPMENT

General

§23.1301
Function and installation.
§23.1303
Flight and navigation instruments.
§23.1305
Powerplant instruments.
§23.1306
Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§23.1307
Miscellaneous equipment.
§23.1308
High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.
§23.1309
Equipment, systems, and installations.
§23.1310
Power source capacity and distribution.

Instruments: Installation

§23.1311
Electronic display instrument systems.
§23.1321
Arrangement and visibility.
§23.1322
Warning, caution, and advisory lights.
§23.1323
Airspeed indicating system.
§23.1325
Static pressure system.
§23.1326
Pitot heat indication systems.
§23.1327
Magnetic direction indicator.
§23.1329
Automatic pilot system.
§23.1331
Instruments using a power source.
§23.1335
Flight director systems.
§23.1337
Powerplant instruments installation.

Electrical Systems and Equipment

§23.1351
General.
§23.1353
Storage battery design and installation.
§23.1357
Circuit protective devices.
§23.1359
Electrical system fire protection.
§23.1361
Master switch arrangement.
§23.1365
Electric cables and equipment.
§23.1367
Switches.

Lights

§23.1381
Instrument lights.
§23.1383
Taxi and landing lights.
§23.1385
Position light system installation.
§23.1387
Position light system dihedral angles.
§23.1389
Position light distribution and intensities.
§23.1391
Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of position lights.
§23.1393
Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of position lights.
§23.1395
Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of position lights.
§23.1397
Color specifications.
§23.1399
Riding light.
§23.1401
Anticollision light system.

Safety Equipment

§23.1411
General.
§23.1415
Ditching equipment.
§23.1416
Pneumatic de-icer boot system.
§23.1419
Ice protection.

Miscellaneous Equipment

§23.1431
Electronic equipment.
§23.1435
Hydraulic systems.
§23.1437
Accessories for multiengine airplanes.
§23.1438
Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
§23.1441
Oxygen equipment and supply.
§23.1443
Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
§23.1445
Oxygen distribution system.
§23.1447
Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
§23.1449
Means for determining use of oxygen.
§23.1450
Chemical oxygen generators.
§23.1451
Fire protection for oxygen equipment.
§23.1453
Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
§23.1457
Cockpit voice recorders.
§23.1459
Flight data recorders.
§23.1461
Equipment containing high energy rotors.
rule

Subpart G—OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

§23.1501
General.
§23.1505
Airspeed limitations.
§23.1507
Operating maneuvering speed.
§23.1511
Flap extended speed.
§23.1513
Minimum control speed.
§23.1519
Weight and center of gravity.
§23.1521
Powerplant limitations.
§23.1522
Auxiliary power unit limitations.
§23.1523
Minimum flight crew.
§23.1524
Maximum passenger seating configuration.
§23.1525
Kinds of operation.
§23.1527
Maximum operating altitude.
§23.1529
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.

Markings And Placards

§23.1541
General.
§23.1543
Instrument markings: General.
§23.1545
Airspeed indicator.
§23.1547
Magnetic direction indicator.
§23.1549
Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
§23.1551
Oil quantity indicator.
§23.1553
Fuel quantity indicator.
§23.1555
Control markings.
§23.1557
Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§23.1559
Operating limitations placard.
§23.1561
Safety equipment.
§23.1563
Airspeed placards.
§23.1567
Flight maneuver placard.

Airplane Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material

§23.1581
General.
§23.1583
Operating limitations.
§23.1585
Operating procedures.
§23.1587
Performance information.
§23.1589
Loading information.
Appendix
Appendix A to Part 23—Simplified Design Load Criteria
Appendix
Appendix B to Part 23 [Reserved]
Appendix
Appendix C to Part 23—Basic Landing Conditions
Appendix
Appendix D to Part 23—Wheel Spin-Up and Spring-Back Loads
Appendix
Appendix E to Part 23 [Reserved]
Appendix
Appendix F to Part 23—Test Procedure
Appendix
Appendix G to Part 23—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix
Appendix H to Part 23—Installation of An Automatic Power Reserve (APR) System
Appendix
Appendix I to Part 23—Seaplane Loads
Appendix
Appendix J to Part 23—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels


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