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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 12, 2014

Title 49Subtitle BChapter I → Part 178


Title 49: Transportation


PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


Contents
§178.1   Purpose and scope.
§178.2   Applicability and responsibility.
§178.3   Marking of packagings.

Subpart A [Reserved]

Subpart B—Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings

§178.33   Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.
§178.33-1   Compliance.
§178.33-2   Type and size.
§178.33-3   Inspection.
§178.33-4   Duties of inspector.
§178.33-5   Material.
§178.33-6   Manufacture.
§178.33-7   Wall thickness.
§178.33-8   Tests.
§178.33-9   Marking.
§178.33a   Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.
§178.33a-1   Compliance.
§178.33a-2   Type and size.
§178.33a-3   Inspection.
§178.33a-4   Duties of inspector.
§178.33a-5   Material.
§178.33a-6   Manufacture.
§178.33a-7   Wall thickness.
§178.33a-8   Tests.
§178.33a-9   Marking.
§178.33b   Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.
§178.33b-1   Compliance.
§178.33b-2   Type and size.
§178.33b-3   Inspection.
§178.33b-4   Duties of inspector.
§178.33b-5   Material.
§178.33b-6   Manufacture.
§178.33b-7   Design qualification test.
§178.33b-8   Production tests.
§178.33b-9   Marking.

Subpart C—Specifications for Cylinders

§178.35   General requirements for specification cylinders.
§178.36   Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.
§178.37   Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.
§178.38   Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.
§178.39   Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.
§178.42   Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.
§178.44   Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.
§178.45   Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.
§178.46   Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.
§178.47   Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.
§178.50   Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.
§178.51   Specification 4BA welded or brazed steel cylinders.
§178.53   Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.
§178.55   Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.
§178.56   Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.
§178.57   Specification 4L welded insulated cylinders.
§178.58   Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.
§178.59   Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.
§178.60   Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.
§178.61   Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded longitudinal seam.
§178.65   Specification 39 non-reusable (non-refillable) cylinders.
§178.68   Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.
§178.69   Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.
§178.70   Approval of UN pressure receptacles.
§178.71   Specifications for UN pressure receptacles.
§178.74   Approval of MEGCs.
§178.75   Specifications for MEGCs.
Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 178—Illustrations: Cylinder Tensile Sample

Subparts D-G [Reserved]

Subpart H—Specifications for Portable Tanks

§§178.251--178.253-5   [Reserved]
§178.255   Specification 60; steel portable tanks.
§178.255-1   General requirements.
§178.255-2   Material.
§178.255-3   Expansion domes.
§178.255-4   Closures for manholes and domes.
§178.255-5   Bottom discharge outlets.
§178.255-6   Loading and unloading accessories.
§178.255-7   Protection of valves and accessories.
§178.255-8   Safety devices.
§178.255-9   Compartments.
§178.255-10   Lining.
§178.255-11   Tank mountings.
§178.255-12   Pressure test.
§178.255-13   Repair of tanks.
§178.255-14   Marking.
§178.255-15   Report.
§178.273   Approval of Specification UN portable tanks.
§178.274   Specifications for UN portable tanks.
§178.275   Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.
§178.276   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases.
§178.277   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases.

Subpart I [Reserved]

Subpart J—Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation

§178.318   Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps.
§178.318-1   Scope.
§178.318-2   Container.
§178.318-3   Marking.
§178.320   General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.
§178.337   Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter.
§178.337-1   General requirements.
§178.337-2   Material.
§178.337-3   Structural integrity.
§178.337-4   Joints.
§178.337-5   Bulkheads, baffles and ring stiffeners.
§178.337-6   Closure for manhole.
§178.337-7   Overturn protection.
§178.337-8   Openings, inlets, and outlets.
§178.337-9   Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.
§178.337-10   Accident damage protection.
§178.337-11   Emergency discharge control.
§178.337-12   [Reserved]
§178.337-13   Supporting and anchoring.
§178.337-14   Gauging devices.
§178.337-15   Pumps and compressors.
§178.337-16   Testing.
§178.337-17   Marking.
§178.337-18   Certification.
§178.338   Specification MC-338; insulated cargo tank motor vehicle.
§178.338-1   General requirements.
§178.338-2   Material.
§178.338-3   Structural integrity.
§178.338-4   Joints.
§178.338-5   Stiffening rings.
§178.338-6   Manholes.
§178.338-7   Openings.
§178.338-8   Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.
§178.338-9   Holding time.
§178.338-10   Accident damage protection.
§178.338-11   Discharge control devices.
§178.338-12   Shear section.
§178.338-13   Supporting and anchoring.
§178.338-14   Gauging devices.
§178.338-15   Cleanliness.
§178.338-16   Inspection and testing.
§178.338-17   Pumps and compressors.
§178.338-18   Marking.
§178.338-19   Certification.
§§178.340-178.343   [Reserved]
§178.345   General design and construction requirements applicable to Specification DOT 406 (§178.346), DOT 407 (§178.347), and DOT 412 (§178.348) cargo tank motor vehicles.
§178.345-1   General requirements.
§178.345-2   Material and material thickness.
§178.345-3   Structural integrity.
§178.345-4   Joints.
§178.345-5   Manhole assemblies.
§178.345-6   Supports and anchoring.
§178.345-7   Circumferential reinforcements.
§178.345-8   Accident damage protection.
§178.345-9   Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.
§178.345-10   Pressure relief.
§178.345-11   Tank outlets.
§178.345-12   Gauging devices.
§178.345-13   Pressure and leakage tests.
§178.345-14   Marking.
§178.345-15   Certification.
§178.346   Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.
§178.346-1   General requirements.
§178.346-2   Material and thickness of material.
§178.346-3   Pressure relief.
§178.346-4   Outlets.
§178.346-5   Pressure and leakage tests.
§178.347   Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.
§178.347-1   General requirements.
§178.347-2   Material and thickness of material.
§178.347-3   Manhole assemblies.
§178.347-4   Pressure relief.
§178.347-5   Pressure and leakage test.
§178.348   Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.
§178.348-1   General requirements.
§178.348-2   Material and thickness of material.
§178.348-3   Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.
§178.348-4   Pressure relief.
§178.348-5   Pressure and leakage test.

Subpart K—Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials

§178.350   Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.
§178.356   Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.
§178.356-1   General requirements.
§178.356-2   Materials of construction and other requirements.
§178.356-3   Tests.
§178.356-4   Required markings.
§178.356-5   Typical assembly detail.
§178.358   Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.
§178.358-1   General requirements.
§178.358-2   Materials of construction and other requirements.
§178.358-3   Modification of Specification 21PF-1 overpacks.
§178.358-4   Construction of Specification 21PF-1B overpacks.
§178.358-5   Required markings.
§178.358-6   Typical assembly detail.
§178.360   Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.
§178.360-1   General requirements.
§178.360-2   Manufacture.
§178.360-3   Dimensions.
§178.360-4   Closure devices.

Subpart L—Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards

§178.500   Purpose, scope and definitions.
§178.502   Identification codes for packagings.
§178.503   Marking of packagings.
§178.504   Standards for steel drums.
§178.505   Standards for aluminum drums.
§178.506   Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.
§178.507   Standards for plywood drums.
§178.508   Standards for fiber drums.
§178.509   Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.
§178.510   Standards for wooden barrels.
§178.511   Standards for aluminum and steel jerricans.
§178.512   Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.
§178.513   Standards for boxes of natural wood.
§178.514   Standards for plywood boxes.
§178.515   Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.
§178.516   Standards for fiberboard boxes.
§178.517   Standards for plastic boxes.
§178.518   Standards for woven plastic bags.
§178.519   Standards for plastic film bags.
§178.520   Standards for textile bags.
§178.521   Standards for paper bags.
§178.522   Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.
§178.523   Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

Subpart M—Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages

§178.600   Purpose and scope.
§178.601   General requirements.
§178.602   Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.
§178.603   Drop test.
§178.604   Leakproofness test.
§178.605   Hydrostatic pressure test.
§178.606   Stacking test.
§178.607   Cooperage test for bung-type wooden barrels.
§178.608   Vibration standard.
§178.609   Test requirements for packagings for infectious substances.

Subpart N—IBC Performance-Oriented Standards

§178.700   Purpose, scope and definitions.
§178.702   IBC codes.
§178.703   Marking of IBCs.
§178.704   General IBC standards.
§178.705   Standards for metal IBCs.
§178.706   Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.
§178.707   Standards for composite IBCs.
§178.708   Standards for fiberboard IBCs.
§178.709   Standards for wooden IBCs.
§178.710   Standards for flexible IBCs.

Subpart O—Testing of IBCs

§178.800   Purpose and scope.
§178.801   General requirements.
§178.802   Preparation of fiberboard IBCs for testing.
§178.803   Testing and certification of IBCs.
§178.810   Drop test.
§178.811   Bottom lift test.
§178.812   Top lift test.
§178.813   Leakproofness test.
§178.814   Hydrostatic pressure test.
§178.815   Stacking test.
§178.816   Topple test.
§178.817   Righting test.
§178.818   Tear test.
§178.819   Vibration test.

Subpart P—Large Packagings Standards

§178.900   Purpose and scope.
§178.905   Large Packaging identification codes.
§178.910   Marking of Large Packagings.
§178.915   General Large Packaging standards.
§178.920   Standards for metal Large Packagings.
§178.925   Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.
§178.930   Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.
§178.935   Standards for wooden Large Packagings.
§178.940   Standards for flexible Large Packagings.

Subpart Q—Testing of Large Packagings

§178.950   Purpose and scope.
§178.955   General requirements.
§178.960   Preparation of Large Packagings for testing.
§178.965   Drop test.
§178.970   Bottom lift test.
§178.975   Top lift test.
§178.980   Stacking test.
§178.985   Vibration test.

Subpart R—Flexible Bulk Container Standards

§178.1000   Purpose and scope.
§178.1005   Flexible Bulk Container identification code.
§178.1010   Marking of Flexible Bulk Containers.
§178.1015   General Flexible Bulk Container standards.
§178.1020   Period of use for transportation of hazardous materials in Flexible Bulk Containers.

Subpart S—Testing of Flexible Bulk Containers

§178.1030   Purpose and scope.
§178.1035   General requirements.
§178.1040   Preparation of Flexible Bulk Containers for testing.
§178.1045   Drop test.
§178.1050   Top lift test.
§178.1055   Stacking test.
§178.1060   Topple test.
§178.1065   Righting test.
§178.1070   Tear test.
Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel
Appendix B to Part 178—Alternative Leakproofness Test Methods
Appendix C to Part 178—Nominal and Minimum Thicknesses of Steel Drums and Jerricans
Appendix D to Part 178—Thermal Resistance Test
Appendix E to Part 178—Flame Penetration Resistance Test

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 5101-5128; 49 CFR 1.81 and 1.97.

§178.1   Purpose and scope.

This part prescribes the manufacturing and testing specifications for packaging and containers used for the transportation of hazardous materials in commerce.

[Amdt. 178-40, 42 FR 2689, Jan. 13, 1977. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52715, Dec. 21, 1990]

§178.2   Applicability and responsibility.

(a) Applicability. (1) The requirements of this part apply to packagings manufactured—

(i) To a DOT specification, regardless of country of manufacture; or

(ii) To a UN standard, for packagings manufactured within the United States. For UN standard packagings manufactured outside the United States, see §173.24(d)(2) of this subchapter. For UN standard packagings for which standards are not prescribed in this part, see §178.3(b).

(2) A manufacturer of a packaging subject to the requirements of this part is primarily responsible for compliance with the requirements of this part. However, any person who performs a function prescribed in this part shall perform that function in accordance with this part.

(b) Specification markings. When this part requires that a packaging be marked with a DOT specification or UN standard marking, marking of the packaging with the appropriate DOT or UN markings is the certification that—

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, all requirements of the DOT specification or UN standard, including performance tests, are met; and

(2) All functions performed by, or on behalf of, the person whose name or symbol appears as part of the marking conform to requirements specified in this part.

(c) Notification. (1) Except as specifically provided in §§178.337-18, 178.338-19, and 178.345-15 of this part, the manufacturer or other person certifying compliance with the requirements of this part, and each subsequent distributor of that packaging must:

(i) Notify each person to whom that packaging is transferred—

(A) Of all requirements in this part not met at the time of transfer, and

(B) With information specifying the type(s) and dimensions of the closures, including gaskets and any other components needed to ensure that the packaging is capable of successfully passing the applicable performance tests. This information must include any procedures to be followed, including closure instructions for inner packagings and receptacles, to effectively assemble and close the packaging for the purpose of preventing leakage in transportation. Closure instructions must provide for a consistent and repeatable means of closure that is sufficient to ensure the packaging is closed in the same manner as it was tested. For packagings sold or represented as being in conformance with the requirements of this subchapter applicable to transportation by aircraft, this information must include relevant guidance to ensure that the packaging, as prepared for transportation, will withstand the pressure differential requirements in §173.27 of this subchapter.

(ii) Retain copies of each written notification for at least one year from date of issuance; and

(iii) Make copies of all written notifications available for inspection by a representative of the Department.

(2) The notification required in accordance with this paragraph (c) may be in writing or by electronic means, including e-mailed transmission or transmission on a CD or similar device. If a manufacturer or subsequent distributor of the packaging utilizes electronic means to make the required notifications, the notification must be specific to the packaging in question and must be in a form that can be printed in hard copy by the person receiving the notification.

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, a packaging not conforming to the applicable specifications or standards in this part may not be marked to indicate such conformance.

(e) Definitions. For the purpose of this part—

Manufacturer means the person whose name and address or symbol appears as part of the specification markings required by this part or, for a packaging marked with the symbol of an approval agency, the person on whose behalf the approval agency certifies the packaging.

Specification markings mean the packaging identification markings required by this part including, where applicable, the name and address or symbol of the packaging manufacturer or approval agency.

(f) No packaging may be manufactured or marked to a packaging specification that was in effect on September 30, 1991, and that was removed from this part 178 by a rule published in the Federal Register on December 21, 1990 and effective October 1, 1991.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52715, Dec. 21, 1990; 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991, as amended by Amdt. No. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-117, 62 FR 14338, Mar. 26, 1997; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 69 FR 34612, June 22, 2004; 75 FR 5395, Feb. 2, 2010; 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 78 FR 1118, Jan. 7, 2013; 78 FR 15328, Mar. 11, 2013]

§178.3   Marking of packagings.

(a) Each packaging represented as manufactured to a DOT specification or a UN standard must be marked on a non-removable component of the packaging with specification markings conforming to the applicable specification, and with the following:

(1) In an unobstructed area, with letters, and numerals identifying the standards or specification (e.g. UN 1A1, DOT 4B240ET, etc.).

(2) Unless otherwise specified in this part, the name and address or symbol of the packaging manufacturer or the person certifying compliance with a UN standard. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator. Unless authorized in writing by the holder of the symbol, symbols must represent either the packaging manufacturer or the approval agency responsible for providing the most recent certification for the packaging through design certification testing or periodic retesting, as applicable. Duplicative symbols are not authorized.

(3) The markings must be stamped, embossed, burned, printed or otherwise marked on the packaging to provide adequate accessibility, permanency, contrast, and legibility so as to be readily apparent and understood.

(4) Unless otherwise specified, letters and numerals must be at least 12.0 mm (0.47 inches) in height except that for packagings of less than or equal to 30 L (7.9 gallons) capacity for liquids or 30 kg (66 pounds) capacity for solids the height must be at least 6.0 mm (0.2 inches). For packagings having a capacity of 5 L (1 gallon) or 5 kg (11 pounds) or less, letters and numerals must be of an appropriate size.

(5) For packages with a gross mass of more than 30 kg (66 pounds), the markings or a duplicate thereof must appear on the top or on a side of the packaging.

(b) A UN standard packaging for which the UN standard is set forth in this part may be marked with the United Nations symbol and other specification markings only if it fully conforms to the requirements of this part. A UN standard packaging for which the UN standard is not set forth in this part may be marked with the United Nations symbol and other specification markings for that standard as provided in the ICAO Technical Instructions or the IMDG Code subject to the following conditions:

(1) The U.S. manufacturer must establish that the packaging conforms to the applicable provisions of the ICAO Technical Instructions (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) or the IMDG Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), respectively.

(2) If an indication of the name of the manufacturer or other identification of the packaging as specified by the competent authority is required, the name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with the UN standard must be entered. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(3) The letters “USA” must be used to indicate the State authorizing the allocation of the specification marks if the packaging is manufactured in the United States.

(c) Where a packaging conforms to more than one UN standard or DOT specification, the packaging may bear more than one marking, provided the packaging meets all the requirements of each standard or specification. Where more than one marking appears on a packaging, each marking must appear in its entirety.

(d) No person may mark or otherwise certify a packaging or container as meeting the requirements of a manufacturing special permit unless that person is the holder of or a party to that special permit, an agent of the holder or party for the purpose of marking or certification, or a third party tester.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991, as amended by Amdt. No. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-113, 61 FR 21102, May 9, 1996; 65 FR 50462, Aug. 18, 2000; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61015, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 73166, Dec. 9, 2005; 78 FR 14714, Mar. 7, 2013]

Subpart A [Reserved]

Subpart B—Specifications for Inside Containers, and Linings

Source: 29 FR 18823, Dec. 29, 1964, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967.

§178.33   Specification 2P; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

§178.33-1   Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.33-2   Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers. Must be seamless, or with seams, welded, soldered, brazed, double seamed, or swedged.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed one liter (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[29 FR 18813, Dec. 29, 1964, as amended by Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-101, 58 FR 50237, Sept. 24, 1993; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33-3   Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.33-4   Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.33-5   Material.

(a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electro-tin plate, hot dipped tin plate, tern plate or other commercially accepted can making plate; or nonferrous metal of uniform drawing quality.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects not authorized.

§178.33-6   Manufacture.

(a) By appliances and methods that will assure uniformity of completed containers; dirt and scale to be removed as necessary; no defect acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably; reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish required.

(b) Seams when used must be as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams: By welding, swedging, brazing, soldering, or double seaming.

(2) Side seams: By welding, brazing, or soldering.

(c) Ends: The ends shall be of pressure design.

[29 FR 18823, Dec. 29, 1964, as amended by Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33-7   Wall thickness.

(a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.007 inch.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33-8   Tests.

(a) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day shall be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 240 psig gauge pressure. The container tested shall be complete with end assembled.

(b) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33-9   Marking.

(a) By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked to show:

(1) DOT-2P.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66287, Dec. 20, 1991; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33a   Specification 2Q; inner nonrefillable metal receptacles.

§178.33a-1   Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-2   Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers. Must be seamless, or with seams welded, soldered, brazed, double seamed, or swedged.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed 1 L (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-43, 42 FR 42208, Aug. 22, 1977; Amdt. 178-101, 58 FR 50237, Sept. 24, 1993; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33a-3   Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-4   Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-5   Material.

(a) Uniform quality steel plate such as black plate, electrotin plate, hot dipped tinplate, ternplate or other commercially accepted can making plate; or nonferrous metal of uniform drawing quality.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects not authorized.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-6   Manufacture.

(a) By appliances and methods that will assure uniformity of completed containers; dirt and scale to be removed as necessary; no defect acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably; reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish required.

(b) Seams when used must be as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams. By welding, swedging, brazing, soldering, or double seaming.

(2) Side seams. By welding, brazing or soldering.

(c) Ends. The ends shall be of pressure design.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-7   Wall thickness.

(a) The minimum wall thickness for any container shall be 0.008 inch.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.33a-8   Tests.

(a) One out of each lot of 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 270 psig gauge pressure. The container tested shall be complete with end assembled.

(b) Each such 25,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete with ends assembled. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design, construction, finish and quality.

[Order 71, 31 FR 9074, July 1, 1966. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33a-9   Marking.

(a) By means of printing, lithographing, embossing, or stamping, each container must be marked to show:

(1) DOT-2Q.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as amended by Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66287, Dec. 20, 1991; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.33b   Specification 2S; inner nonrefillable plastic receptacles.

§178.33b-1   Compliance.

(a) Required in all details.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-2   Type and size.

(a) Single-trip inside containers.

(b) The maximum capacity of containers in this class shall not exceed one liter (61.0 cubic inches). The maximum inside diameter shall not exceed 3 inches.

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-3   Inspection.

(a) By competent inspector.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-4   Duties of inspector.

(a) To inspect material and completed containers and witness tests, and to reject defective materials or containers.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-5   Material.

(a) The receptacles must be constructed of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene napthalate (PEN), polyamide (Nylon) or a blend of PET, PEN, ethyl vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and/or Nylon.

(b) Material with seams, cracks, laminations or other injurious defects are forbidden.

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-6   Manufacture.

(a) Each container must be manufactured by thermoplastic processes that will assure uniformity of the completed container. No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used. The packaging must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultraviolet radiation.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.33b-7   Design qualification test.

(a) Drop testing. (1) To ensure that creep does not affect the ability of the container to retain the contents, each new design must be drop tested as follows: Three groups of twenty-five filled containers must be dropped from 1.8 m (5.9 ft) on to a rigid, non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface. One group must be conditioned at 38 °C (100 °F) for 26 weeks, the second group for 100 hours at 50 °C (122 °F) and the third group for 18 hours at 55 °C (131 °F), prior to performing the drop test. The closure, or sealing component of the container, must not be protected during the test. The orientation of the test container at drop must be statistically random, but direct impact on the valve or valve closure must be avoided.

(2) Criteria for passing the drop test: The containers must not break or leak.

(b) Design qualification testing must be completed if the design is manufactured with a new mold or if there is any change in the properties of the material of construction.

[75 FR 73, Jan. 4, 2010]

§178.33b-8   Production tests.

(a) Burst Testing. (1) One out of each lot of 5,000 containers or less, successively produced per day must be pressure tested to destruction and must not burst below 240 psig. The container tested must be complete as intended for transportation.

(2) Each such 5,000 containers or less, successively produced per day, shall constitute a lot and if the test container shall fail, the lot shall be rejected or ten additional containers may be selected at random and subjected to the test under which failure occurred. These containers shall be complete as intended for transportation. Should any of the ten containers thus tested fail, the entire lot must be rejected. All containers constituting a lot shall be of like material, size, design construction, finish, and quality.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009, as amended at 75 FR 74, Jan. 4, 2010]

§178.33b-9   Marking.

(a) Each container must be clearly and permanently marked to show:

(1) DOT-2S.

(2) Name or symbol of person making the mark specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(b) [Reserved]

[74 FR 2268, Jan. 14, 2009]

Subpart C—Specifications for Cylinders

§178.35   General requirements for specification cylinders.

(a) Compliance. Compliance with the requirements of this subpart is required in all details.

(b) Inspections and analyses. Chemical analyses and tests required by this subchapter must be made within the United States, unless otherwise approved in writing by the Associate Administrator, in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter. Inspections and verification must be performed by—

(1) An independent inspection agency approved in writing by the Associate Administrator, in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter; or

(2) For DOT Specifications 3B, 3BN, 3E, 4B, 4BA, 4D (water capacity less than 1,100 cubic inches), 4B240ET, 4AA480, 4L, 8, 8AL, 4BW, 39 (marked service pressure 900 p.s.i.g. or lower) and 4E manufactured in the United States, a competent inspector of the manufacturer.

(c) Duties of inspector. The inspector shall determine that each cylinder made is in conformance with the applicable specification. Except as otherwise specified in the applicable specification, the inspector shall perform the following:

(1) Inspect all material and reject any not meeting applicable requirements. For cylinders made by the billet-piercing process, billets must be inspected and shown to be free from pipe, cracks, excessive segregation and other injurious defects after parting or, when applicable, after nick and cold break.

(2) Verify the material of construction meets the requirements of the applicable specification by—

(i) Making a chemical analysis of each heat of material;

(ii) Obtaining a certified chemical analysis from the material manufacturer for each heat of material (a ladle analysis is acceptable); or

(iii) If an analysis is not provided for each heat of material by the material manufacturer, by making a check analysis of a sample from each coil, sheet, or tube.

(3) Verify compliance of cylinders with the applicable specification by—

(i) Verifying identification of material is proper;

(ii) Inspecting the inside of the cylinder before closing in ends;

(iii) Verifying that the heat treatment is proper;

(iv) Obtaining samples for all tests and check chemical analyses (Note: Recommended locations for test specimens taken from welded cylinders are depicted in Figures 1 through 5 in Appendix C to this subpart for the specific construction design.);

(v) Witnessing all tests;

(vi) Verify threads by gauge;

(vii) Reporting volumetric capacity and tare weight (see report form) and minimum thickness of wall noted; and

(viii) Verifying that each cylinder is marked in accordance with the applicable specification.

(4) Inspector's report. Prepare a report containing, at a minimum, the applicable information listed in CGA C-11 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Any additional information or markings that are required by the applicable specification must be shown on the test report. The signature of the inspector on the reports certifies that the processes of manufacture and heat treatment of cylinders were observed and found satisfactory. The inspector must furnish the completed test reports required by this subpart to the maker of the cylinder and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test report must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(d) Defects and attachments. Cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A cylinder may not be constructed of material with seams, cracks or laminations, or other injurious defects.

(2) Metal attachments to cylinders must have rounded or chamfered corners or must be protected in such a manner as to prevent the likelihood of causing puncture or damage to other hazardous materials packages. This requirement applies to anything temporarily or permanently attached to the cylinder, such as metal skids.

(e) Safety devices. Pressure relief devices and protection for valves, safety devices, and other connections, if applied, must be as required or authorized by the appropriate specification, and as required in §173.301 of this subchapter.

(f) Markings. Markings on a DOT Specification cylinder must conform to applicable requirements.

(1) Each cylinder must be marked with the following information:

(i) The DOT specification marking must appear first, followed immediately by the service pressure. For example, DOT-3A1800.

(ii) The serial number must be placed just below or immediately following the DOT specification marking.

(iii) A symbol (letters) must be placed just below, immediately before or following the serial number. Other variations in sequence of markings are authorized only when necessitated by a lack of space. The symbol and numbers must be those of the manufacturer. The symbol must be registered with the Associate Administrator; duplications are not authorized.

(iv) The inspector's official mark and date of test (such as 5-95 for May 1995) must be placed near the serial number. This information must be placed so that dates of subsequent tests can be easily added. An example of the markings prescribed in this paragraph (f)(1) is as follows:

DOT-3A1800

1234

XY

AB 5-95

Or;

DOT-3A1800-1234-XY

AB 5-95

Where:

DOT-3A = specification number

1800 = service pressure

1234 = serial number

XY = symbol of manufacturer

AB = inspector's mark

5-95 = date of test

(2) Additional required marking must be applied to the cylinder as follows:

(i) The word “spun” or “plug” must be placed near the DOT specification marking when an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process, or effected by plugging.

(ii) As prescribed in specification 3HT (§178.44) or 3T (§178.45), if applicable.

(3) Marking exceptions. A DOT 3E cylinder is not required to be marked with an inspector's mark or a serial number.

(4) Unless otherwise specified in the applicable specification, the markings on each cylinder must be stamped plainly and permanently on the shoulder, top head, or neck.

(5) The size of each marking must be at least 0.25 inch or as space permits.

(6) Other markings are authorized provided they are made in low stress areas other than the side wall and are not of a size and depth that will create harmful stress concentrations. Such marks may not conflict with any DOT required markings.

(g) Manufacturer's reports. At or before the time of delivery to the purchaser, the cylinder manufacturer must have all completed certification documents listed in CGA C-11. The manufacturer of the cylinders must retain the reports required by this subpart for 15 years from the original test date of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45185, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 43531, July 20, 2011]

§178.36   Specification 3A and 3AX seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type size and service pressure. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A DOT-3A cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 psig.

(2) A DOT-3AX is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 psig, conforming to the following requirements:

(i) Assuming the cylinder is to be supported horizontally at its two ends only and to be uniformly loaded over its entire length consisting of the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to the specified test pressure; the sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending, plus that in the same fibers (longitudinal stress), due to hydrostatic test may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at such maximum stress. Wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet the requirement.

(ii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to bending, the following formula must be used:

S=Mc/I

(iii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure, the following formula must be used:

S = A1 P/A2

where:

S = tensile stress—p.s.i.;

M = bending moment-inch pounds—(wl2)/8;

w = weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = length of cylinder-inches;

c = radius (D)/(2) of cylinder-inches;

I = moment of inertia—0.04909 (D4−d4) inches fourth;

D = outside diameter-inches;

d = inside diameter-inches;

A1 = internal area in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

A2 = area of metal in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

P=hydrostatic test pressure-psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorous, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method, except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedures.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Cylinders used solely in anhydrous ammonia service may have a 12 inch diameter bar welded within their concave bottoms.

(f) Wall thickness. For cylinders with service pressure less than 900 psig, the wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder over 5 inches outside diameter. Wall stress calculation must be made by using the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2+0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable methods, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus the test pressure cannot be maintained the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent, volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each cylinder must be tested to at least 53 times service pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times thickness with width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation at least 40 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and a yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least 1 minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder that is leaking must be rejected.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45185, 45386-45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 73 FR 57006, Oct. 1, 2008]

§178.37   Specification 3AA and 3AAX seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) A DOT-3AA cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 psig.

(2) A DOT-3AAX cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 psig, conforming to the following requirements:

(i) Assuming the cylinder is to be supported horizontally at its two ends only and to be uniformly loaded over its entire length consisting of the weight per unit of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water and compressed to the specified test pressure; the sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending, plus that in the same fibers (longitudinal stress), due to hydrostatic test pressure may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at such maximum stress. Wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet the requirement.

(ii) To calculate the maximum tensile stress due to bending, the following formula must be used:

S = Mc/I

(iii) To calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure, the following formula must be used:

S = A1P/A2

Where:

S = tensile stress-p.s.i.;

M = bending moment-inch pounds (wl2)/8;

w = weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = length of cylinder-inches;

c = radius (D)/(2) of cylinder-inches;

I = moment of inertia-0.04909 (D4−d4) inches fourth;

D = outside diameter-inches;

d = inside diameter-inches;

A1 = internal area in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

A2 = area of metal in cross section of cylinder-square inches;

P = hydrostatic test pressure-psig.

(b) Authorized steel. Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under the specifications in table 1 of this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 of this paragraph (b) are not exceeded. When a carbon-boron steel is used, a hardenability test must be performed on the first and last ingot of each heat of steel. The results of this test must be recorded on the Record of Chemical Analysis of Material for Cylinders required by §178.35. This hardness test must be made 516 -inch from the quenched end of the Jominy quench bar and the hardness must be at least Rc 33 and no more than Rc 53. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

Designation4130X (percent) (see Note 1)NE-8630 (percent) (see Note 1)9115 (percent) (see Note 1)9125 (percent) (see Note 1)Carbon-boron (percent)Inter- mediate manganese (percent)
Carbon0.25/0.350.28/0.330.10/0.200.20/0.300.27-0.370.40 max.
Manganese0.40/0.900.70/0.900.50/0.750.50/0.750.80-1.401.35/1.65.
Phosphorus0.04 max0.04 max0.04 max0.04 max0.035 max0.04 max.
Sulfur0.05 max0.04 max0.04 max0.04 max0.045 max0.05 max.
Silicon0.15/0.350.20/0.350.60/0.900.60/0.900.3 max.0.10/0.30.
Chromium0.80/1.100.40/0.600.50/0.650.50/0.65.
Molybdenum0.15/0.250.15/0.25
Zirconium0.05/0.150.05/0.15
Nickel0.40/0.70
Boron0.0005/0.003.

Note 1: This designation may not be restrictive and the commercial steel is limited in analysis as shown in this table.

Table 2—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementLimit or maximum specified
(percent)
Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limitOver maximum limit
CarbonTo 0.15 incl0.020.03
   Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl.03.04
ManganeseTo 0.60 incl.03.03
   Over 0.60 to 1.15 incl0.040.04
   Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl0.050.05
Phosphorus1All ranges.01
SulphurAll ranges.01
SiliconTo 0.30 incl.02.03
   Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl.05.05
NickelTo 1.00 incl.03.03
ChromiumTo 0.90 incl.03.03
   0.90 to 2.90 incl.05.05
MolybdenumTo 0.20 incl.01.01
   Over 0.20 to 0.40.02.02
ZirconiumAll ranges.01.05

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defects is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The thickness of each cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) For cylinders with a service pressure of less than 900 psig, the wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder with an outside diameter of over 5 inches.

(2) For cylinders with service pressure of 900 psig or more the minimum wall must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical tests required in paragraphs (k) and (l) of this section and must be not over 70,000 psi.

(3) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2+0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Heat treatment of cylinders of the authorized analyses must be as follows:

(1) All cylinders must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium except as provided in paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1750 °F.

(3) All steels must be tempered at a temperature most suitable for that steel.

(4) The minimum tempering temperature may not be less than 1000 °F except as noted in paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

(5) Steel 4130X may be normalized at a temperature of 1650 °F instead of being quenched and cylinders so normalized need not be tempered.

(6) Intermediate manganese steels may be tempered at temperatures not less than 1150 °F., and after heat treating each cylinder must be submitted to a magnetic test to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Cracked cylinders must be rejected and destroyed.

(7) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g)(6) of this section, all cylinders, if water quenched or quenched with a liquid producing a cooling rate in excess of 80 percent of the cooling rate of water, must be inspected by the magnetic particle, dye penetrant or ultrasonic method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder designed to the requirements for specification 3AA and found to have a quenching crack must be rejected and may not be requalified. Cylinders designed to the requirements for specification 3AAX and found to have cracks must have cracks removed to sound metal by mechanical means. Such specification 3AAX cylinders will be acceptable if the repaired area is subsequently examined to assure no defect, and it is determined that design thickness requirements are met.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each cylinder must be tested to at least 53 times the service pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder. Cylinders may be subjected to a bend test in lieu of the flattening test. Two bend test specimens must be taken in accordance with ISO 9809-1 or ASTM E 290 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), and must be subjected to the bend test specified therein.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with width not over 6 times thickness when the thickness of the cylinder wall is not over 316 inch.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical, flattening and bend tests. An acceptable result for physical and flattening tests is elongation of at least 20 percent for 2 inches of gauge length or at least 10 percent in other cases. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness of the cylinder. An acceptable result for the alternative bend test is no crack when the cylinder is bent inward around the mandrel until the interior edges are not further apart than the diameter of the mandrel.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture. Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than the service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leaking.

(1) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(2) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(3) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provision of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45386-45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 43531, July 20, 2011]

§178.38   Specification 3B seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3B cylinder is seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 to not over 500 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The thickness of the bottoms of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thicknesses to be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) Welding or brazing is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are non-pressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders having a service pressure of 500 psig or less. Cylinders, neckrings, and footrings must be made of weldable steel, carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(2) As permitted in paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 24,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness is 0.090 inch for any cylinder with an outside diameter of 6 inches. Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2+0.4d2)]/(D2−d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = at least two times service pressure or 450 psig, whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads, conforming to the following, are required on all openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads when used, must be of a length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit, and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Cylinders must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) Each cylinder; to at least 2 times service pressure; or

(ii) 1 cylinder out of each lot of 200 or less; to at least 3 times service pressure. Others must be examined under pressure of 2 times service pressure and show no defect.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) Gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 112 inches; or a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 112 inches; or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leaking.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, he should design his apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

(o) Marking. Markings may be stamped into the sidewalls of cylinders having a service pressure of 150 psig if all of the following conditions are met:

(1) Wall stress at test pressure may not exceed 24,000 psi.

(2) Minimum wall thickness must be not less than 0.090 inch.

(3) Depth of stamping must be no greater than 15 percent of the minimum wall thickness, but may not exceed 0.015 inch.

(4) Maximum outside diameter of cylinder may not exceed 5 inches.

(5) Carbon content of cylinder may not exceed 0.25 percent. If the carbon content exceeds 0.25 percent, the complete cylinder must be normalized after stamping.

(6) Stamping must be adjacent to the top head.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45185, 45386-45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.39   Specification 3BN seamless nickel cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3BN cylinder is a seamless nickel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 125 pounds water capacity (nominal) and a service pressure at least 150 to not over 500 psig.

(b) Nickel. The percentage of nickel plus cobalt must be at least 99.0 percent.

(c) Identification of material. The material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except that welding is authorized for the attachment of neckrings and footrings which are nonpressure parts, and only to the tops and bottoms of cylinders. Neckrings and footrings must be of weldable material, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent. Nickel welding rod must be used.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress may not exceed 15,000 psi. A minimum wall thickness of 0.100 inch is required for any cylinder over 5 inches in outside diameter. Wall stress calculation must be made by using the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each cylinder must be tested to at least 2 times service pressure.

(j) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, or a gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield point not over 50 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases and a yield point not over 50 percent of tensile strength. Flattening is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is not authorized.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45185, 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.42   Specification 3E seamless steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3E cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with an outside diameter not greater than 2 inches nominal, a length less than 2 feet and a service pressure of 1,800 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of steel. Materials must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured by best appliances and methods. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. The thickness of the spun bottom is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell; such bottom thickness must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position.

(e) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings.

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(3) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(f) Hydrostatic test. Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(1) One cylinder out of each lot of 500 or less must be subjected to a hydrostatic pressure of 6,000 psig or higher.

(2) The cylinder referred to in paragraph (f)(1) of this section must burst at a pressure higher than 6,000 psig without fragmenting or otherwise showing lack of ductility, or must hold a pressure of 12,000 psig for 30 seconds without bursting. In which case, it must be subjected to a flattening test without cracking to six times wall thickness between knife edges, wedge shaped 60 degree angle, rounded out to a 12 inch radius. The inspector's report must be suitably changed to show results of latter alternate and flattening test.

(3) Other cylinders must be examined under pressure of at least 3,000 psig and not to exceed 4,500 psig and show no defect. Cylinders tested at a pressure in excess of 3,600 psig must burst at a pressure higher than 7,500 psig when tested as specified in paragraph (f)(2) of this section. The pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete examination.

(g) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) A pressure, approximately the same as but not less than the service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Accept as provided in paragraph (h) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is any leakage.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer shall design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(h) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (g) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping and plugging.

(i) Marking. Markings required by §178.35 must be stamped plainly and permanently on the shoulder, top head, neck or sidewall of each cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended by 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.44   Specification 3HT seamless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 3HT cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 150 pounds and a service pressure of at least 900 psig.

(b) Authorized steel. Open hearth or electric furnace steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under the specifications listed in Table 1 in this paragraph (b), a check chemical analysis that is slightly out of the specified range is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in Table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded. The maximum grain size shall be 6 or finer. The grain size must be determined in accordance with ASTM E 112-88 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Steel of the following chemical analysis is authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

DesignationAISI 4130
(percent)
Carbon0.28/0.33
Manganese0.40/0.60
Phosphorus0.040 maximum
Sulfur0.040 maximum
Silicon0.15/0.35
Chromium0.80/1.10
Molybdenum0.15/0.25

Table 2—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementLimit or maximum specified (percent)Tolerance
(percent) over the maximum limit or under the
minimum limit
Under minimum limitOver maximum limit
CarbonOver 0.15 to 0.40 incl.03.04
ManganeseTo 0.60 incl.03.03
Phosphorus1All ranges.01
SulphurAll ranges.01
SiliconTo 0.30 incl.02.03
   Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl.05.05
ChromiumTo 0.90 incl.03.03
   Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl.05.05
MolybdenumTo 0.20 incl.01.01
   Over 0.20 to 0.40 incl.02.02

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method. Steel stamping of heat identifications may not be made in any area which will eventually become the side wall of the cylinder. Depth of stamping may not encroach upon the minimum prescribed wall thickness of the cylinder.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No fissure or other defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. The general surface finish may not exceed a roughness of 250 RMS. Individual irregularities such as draw marks, scratches, pits, etc., should be held to a minimum consistent with good high stress pressure vessel manufacturing practices. If the cylinder is not originally free of such defects or does not meet the finish requirements, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects. The point of closure of cylinders closed by spinning may not be less than two times the prescribed wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. The cylinder end contour must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal with a ratio of major-to-minor axis not exceeding two to one and with the concave side to pressure.

(e) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited, except that welding by spinning is permitted to close the bottom of spun cylinders. Machining or grinding to produce proper surface finish at point of closure is required.

(f) Wall thickness. (1) Minimum wall thickness for any cylinder must be 0.050 inch. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 75 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical tests required in paragraph (m) of this section and may not be over 105,000 psi.

(2) Calculations must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(3) Wall thickness of hemispherical bottoms only permitted to 90 percent of minimum wall thickness of cylinder sidewall but may not be less than 0.050 inch. In all other cases, thickness to be no less than prescribed minimum wall.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heated prior to tests. Heat treatment of the cylinders of the authorized analysis must be as follows:

(1) All cylinders must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1750 °F.

(3) The steel must be tempered at a temperature most suitable for the particular steel analysis but not less than 850 °F.

(4) All cylinders must be inspected by the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder found to have a quenching crack must be rejected and may not be requalified.

(h) Openings in cylinders and connections (valves, fuse plugs, etc.) for those openings. Threads conforming to the following are required on openings:

(1) Threads must be clean cut, even, without cracks, and to gauge.

(2) Taper threads, when used, must be of length not less than as specified for National Gas Tapered Thread (NGT) as required by American Standard Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections.

(3) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads are authorized. Straight threads must have a tight fit and a calculated shear stress of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. Pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent of 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, which ever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each cylinder must be tested to at least 53 times service pressure.

(j) Cycling tests. Prior to the initial shipment of any specific cylinder design, cyclic pressurization tests must have been performed on at least three representative samples without failure as follows:

(1) Pressurization must be performed hydrostatically between approximately zero psig and the service pressure at a rate not in excess of 10 cycles per minute. Adequate recording instrumentation must be provided if equipment is to be left unattended for periods of time.

(2) Tests prescribed in paragraph (j)(1) of this section must be repeated on one random sample out of each lot of cylinders. The cylinder may then be subjected to a burst test.

(3) A lot is defined as a group of cylinders fabricated from the same heat of steel, manufactured by the same process and heat treated in the same equipment under the same conditions of time, temperature, and atmosphere, and may not exceed a quantity of 200 cylinders.

(4) All cylinders used in cycling tests must be destroyed.

(k) Burst test. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of cylinders must be hydrostatically tested to destruction.

(l) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(m) Physical tests. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) Test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of cylinders.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over six times the thickness. The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section. When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with the record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(ii) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length.

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(n) Magnetic particle inspection. Inspection must be performed on the inside of each container before closing and externally on each finished container after heat treatment. Evidence of discontinuities, which in the opinion of a qualified inspector may appreciably weaken or decrease the durability of the cylinder, must be cause for rejection.

(o) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by dry gas or dry air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions and limitations:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but not less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least one minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (q) of this section, a cylinder must be rejected if there is leakage.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, the manufacturer should design the test apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(p) Acceptable results of tests. Results of the flattening test, physical tests, burst test, and cycling test must conform to the following:

(1) Flattening required without cracking to ten times the wall thickness of the cylinder.

(2) Physical tests:

(i) An elongation of at least 6 percent for a gauge length of 24 times the wall thickness.

(ii) The tensile strength may not exceed 165,000 p.s.i.

(3) The burst pressure must be at least 43 times the test pressure.

(4) Cycling-at least 10,000 pressurizations.

(q) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding or spinning is not authorized. For each cylinder subjected to reheat treatment during original manufacture, sidewall measurements must be made to verify that the minimum sidewall thickness meets specification requirements after the final heat treatment.

(r) Marking. (1) Cylinders must be marked by low stress type steel stamping in an area and to a depth which will insure that the wall thickness measured from the root of the stamping to the interior surface is equal to or greater than the minimum prescribed wall thickness. Stamping must be permanent and legible. Stamping on side wall not authorized.

(2) The rejection elastic expansion (REE), in cubic cm (cc), must be marked on the cylinder near the date of test. The REE for a cylinder is 1.05 times its original elastic expansion.

(3) Name plates are authorized, provided that they can be permanently and securely attached to the cylinder. Attachment by either brazing or welding is not permitted. Attachment by soldering is permitted provided steel temperature does not exceed 500 °F.

(s) Inspector's report. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the rejection elastic expansion (REE), in cubic cm (cc).

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45385, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.45   Specification 3T seamless steel cylinder.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 3T cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a minimum water capacity of 1,000 pounds and a minimum service pressure of 1,800 psig. Each cylinder must have integrally formed heads concave to pressure at both ends. The inside head shape must be hemispherical, ellipsoidal in which the major axis is two times the minor axis, or a dished shape falling within these two limits. Permanent closures formed by spinning are prohibited.

(b) Material, steel. Only open hearth, basic oxygen, or electric furnace process steel of uniform quality is authorized. The steel analysis must conform to the following:

Analysis Tolerances

ElementLadle analysisCheck Analysis
UnderOver
Carbon0.35 to 0.500.030.04
Manganese0.75 to 1.050.040.04
Phosphorus (max)0.0350.01
Sulphur (max)0.040.01
Silicon0.15 to 0.350.020.03
Chromium0.80 to 1.150.050.05
Molybdenum0.15 to 0.250.020.02

(1) A heat of steel made under the specifications in the table in this paragraph (b), the ladle analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable if satisfactory in all other aspects. However, the check analysis tolerances shown in the table in this paragraph (b) may not be exceeded except as approved by the Department.

(2) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects is not permitted.

(3) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture. General manufacturing requirements are as follows:

(1) Surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.

(2) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of loose particles.

(3) No defect of any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(4) If the cylinder surface is not originally free from the defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise treated to eliminate these defects provided the minimum wall thickness is maintained.

(5) Welding or brazing on a cylinder is not permitted.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure does not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined by the physical tests required in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section. A wall stress of more than 90,500 p.s.i. is not permitted. The minimum wall thickness for any cylinder may not be less than 0.225 inch.

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Minimum test pressure, at least 53 service pressure;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(2) Each cylinder must meet the following additional requirement which assumes a cylinder horizontally supported at its two ends and uniformly loaded over its entire length. This load consists of the weight per inch of length of the straight cylindrical portion filled with water compressed to the specified test pressure. The wall thickness must be increased when necessary to meet this additional requirement:

(i) The sum of two times the maximum tensile stress in the bottom fibers due to bending (see paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section), plus the maximum tensile stress in the same fibers due to hydrostatic testing (see paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section) may not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength of the steel at this maximum stress.

(ii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum tensile stress due to bending:

S = Mc / I

Where:

S = Tensile stress in psi;

M = Bending moment in inch-pounds (wl2/8);

I = Moment of inertia—0.04909 (D4−d4) in inches fourth;

c = Radius (D/2) of cylinder in inches;

w = Weight per inch of cylinder filled with water;

l = Length of cylinder in inches;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(iii) The following formula must be used to calculate the maximum longitudinal tensile stress due to hydrostatic test pressure:

S = A1 P / A2

Where:

S = Tensile stress in psi;

A1 = Internal area in cross section of cylinder in square inches;

P = Hydrostatic test pressure-psig;

A2 = Area of metal in cross section of cylinder in square inches.

(e) Heat treatment. Each completed cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to testing, as follows:

(1) Each cylinder must be heated and held at the proper temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder and then quenched in a suitable liquid medium having a cooling rate not in excess of 80 percent of water. The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but it must never exceed 1750 °F.

(2) After quenching, each cylinder must be reheated to a temperature below the transformation range but not less than 1050 °F., and must be held at this temperature for at least one hour per inch of thickness based on the maximum thickness of the cylinder. Each cylinder must then be cooled under conditions recommended for the steel.

(f) Openings. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Openings are permitted on heads only.

(2) The size of any centered opening in a head may not exceed one half the outside diameter of the cylinder.

(3) Openings in a head must have ligaments between openings of at least three times the average of their hole diameter. No off-center opening may exceed 2.625 inches in diameter.

(4) All openings must be circular.

(5) All openings must be threaded. Threads must be in compliance with the following:

(i) Each thread must be clean cut, even, without any checks, and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads, when used, must be the American Standard Pipe thread (NPT) type and must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(iii) Taper threads conforming to National Gas Taper thread (NGT) standards must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(iv) Straight threads conforming with National Gas Straight thread (NGS) standards are authorized. These threads must be in compliance with the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28.

(g) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must be tested at an internal pressure by the water jacket method or other suitable method, conforming to the following requirements:

(1) The testing apparatus must be operated in a manner that will obtain accurate data. Any pressure gauge used must permit reading to an accuracy of one percent. Any expansion gauge used must permit reading of the total expansion to an accuracy of one percent.

(2) Any internal pressure applied to the cylinder after heat treatment and before the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) The pressure must be maintained sufficiently long to assure complete expansion of the cylinder. In no case may the pressure be held less than 30 seconds.

(4) If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the required test pressure cannot be maintained, the test must be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is lower or, the cylinder must be reheat treated.

(5) Permanent volumetric expansion of the cylinder may not exceed 10 percent of its total volumetric expansion at the required test pressure.

(6) Each cylinder must be tested to at least 53 times its service pressure.

(h) Ultrasonic examination. After the hydrostatic test, the cylindrical section of each vessel must be examined in accordance with ASTM E 213 for shear wave and E 114 for straight beam (IBR, Standard see §171.7 of this subchapter). The equipment used must be calibrated to detect a notch equal to five percent of the design minimum wall thickness. Any discontinuity indication greater than that produced by the five percent notch must be cause for rejection of the cylinder, unless the discontinuity is repaired within the requirements of this specification.

(i) Basic requirements for tension and Charpy impact tests. Cylinders must be subjected to a tension and Charpy impact as follows:

(1) When the cylinders are heat treated in a batch furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each batch. The lot size represented by these tests may not exceed 200 cylinders.

(2) When the cylinders are heat treated in a continuous furnace, two tension specimens and three Charpy impact specimens must be tested from one of the cylinders or a test ring from each four hours or less of production. However, in no case may a test lot based on this production period exceed 200 cylinders.

(3) Each specimen for the tension and Charpy impact tests must be taken from the side wall of a cylinder or from a ring which has been heat treated with the finished cylinders of which the specimens must be representative. The axis of the specimens must be parallel to the axis of the cylinder. Each cylinder or ring specimen for test must be of the same diameter, thickness, and metal as the finished cylinders they represent. A test ring must be at least 24 inches long with ends covered during the heat treatment process so as to simulate the heat treatment process of the finished cylinders it represents.

(4) A test cylinder or test ring need represent only one of the heats in a furnace batch provided the other heats in the batch have previously been tested and have passed the tests and that such tests do not represent more than 200 cylinders from any one heat.

(5) The test results must conform to the requirements specified in paragraphs (j) and (k) of this section.

(6) When the test results do not conform to the requirements specified, the cylinders represented by the tests may be reheat treated and the tests repeated. Paragraph (i)(5) of this section applies to any retesting.

(j) Basic conditions for acceptable physical testing. The following criteria must be followed to obtain acceptable physical test results:

(1) Each tension specimen must have a gauge length of two inches with a width not exceeding one and one-half inches. Except for the grip ends, the specimen may not be flattened. The grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(2) A specimen may not be heated after heat treatment specified in paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gage length.

(i) This yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method described in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) For the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or extension under load) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gage length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gage length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. However, when the degree of accuracy of this method is questionable the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set with the specimen under a stress of 12,000 p.s.i. and the strain indicator reading set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) The cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during the determination of yield strength.

(4) Each impact specimen must be Charpy V-notch type size 10 mm × 10 mm taken in accordance with paragraph 11 of ASTM A 333 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). When a reduced size specimen is used, it must be the largest size obtainable.

(k) Acceptable physical test results. Results of physical tests must conform to the following:

(1) The tensile strength may not exceed 155,000 p.s.i.

(2) The elongation must be at least 16 percent for a two-inch gage length.

(3) The Charpy V-notch impact properties for the three impact specimens which must be tested at 0 °F may not be less than the values shown as follows:

Size of specimen (mm)Average value
for acceptance
(3 specimens)
Minimum value
(1 specimen only
of the 3)
10.0×10.025.0 ft. lbs.20.0 ft. lbs.
10.0×7.521.0 ft. lbs.17.0 ft. lbs.
10.0×5.017.0 ft. lbs.14.0 ft. lbs.

(4) After the final heat treatment, each vessel must be hardness tested on the cylindrical section. The tensile strength equivalent of the hardness number obtained may not be more than 165,000 p.s.i. (Rc 36). When the result of a hardness test exceeds the maximum permitted, two or more retests may be made; however, the hardness number obtained in each retest may not exceed the maximum permitted.

(l) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. However, each reheat treated cylinder must subsequently pass all the prescribed tests. Repair by welding is not authorized.

(m) Markings. Marking must be done by stamping into the metal of the cylinder. All markings must be legible and located on a shoulder.

(n) Inspector's report. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector's report for the physical test report, must indicate the average value for three specimens and the minimum value for one specimen for each lot number.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45385, 43588, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 48571, Aug. 14, 2003; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.46   Specification 3AL seamless aluminum cylinders.

(a) Size and service pressure. A DOT 3AL cylinder is a seamless aluminum cylinder with a maximum water capacity of 1000 pounds and minimum service pressure of 150 psig.

(b) Authorized material and identification of material. The material of construction must meet the following conditions:

(1) Starting stock must be cast stock or traceable to cast stock.

(2) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other defects likely to weaken the finished cylinder may not be used.

(3) Material must be identified by a suitable method that will identify the alloy, the aluminum producer's cast number, the solution heat treat batch number and the lot number.

(4) The material must be of uniform quality. Only the following heat treatable aluminum alloys in table 1 and 2 are permitted as follows:

Table 1—Heat or Cast Analysis for Aluminum; Similar to “Aluminum Association”1 Alloy 6061

[CHEMICAL ANALYSIS IN WEIGHT PERCENT2]

Si
min/max
Fe
max
Cu
min/max
Mn
max
Mg
min/max
Cr
min/max
Zn
max
Ti
max
Pb
max
Bi
max
Other A1
each
max
total
max
0.4/0.80.70.15/0.40.150.8/1.20.04/0.350.250.150.0050.0050.050.15Bal.

1The “Aluminum Association” refers to “Aluminum Standards and Data 1993”, published by the Aluminum Association Inc.

2Except for “Pb” and “Bi”, the chemical composition corresponds with that of Table 1 of ASTM B 221 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) for Aluminum Association alloy 6061.

Table 2—Mechanical Property Limits

Alloy and temperTensile strength—PSIElongation—percent minimum for 2 or 4D1 size specimen
Ultimate—minimumYield—minimum
6061-T638,00035,000214

1“D” represents specimen diameters. When the cylinder wall is greater than 3/16 inch thick, a retest without reheat treatment using the 4D size specimen is authorized if the test using the 2 inch size specimen fails to meet elongation requirements.

2When cylinder wall is not over 3/16-inch thick, 10 percent elongation is authorized when using a 24t×6t size test specimen.

(5) All starting stock must be 100 percent ultrasonically inspected, along the length at right angles to the central axis from two positions at 90° to one another. The equipment and continuous scanning procedure must be capable of detecting and rejecting internal defects such as cracks which have an ultrasonic response greater than that of a calibration block with a 564 -inch diameter flat bottomed hole.

(6) Cast stock must have uniform equiaxed grain structure not to exceed 500 microns maximum.

(7) Any starting stock not complying with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) through (b)(6) of this section must be rejected.

(c) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Cylinder shells must be manufactured by the backward extrusion method and have a cleanliness level adequate to ensure proper inspection. No fissure or other defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder below the design strength requirements. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. If not originally free from such defects, the surface may be machined or otherwise conditioned to eliminate these defects.

(2) Thickness of the cylinder base may not be less than the prescribed minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. The cylinder base must have a basic torispherical, hemispherical, or ellipsoidal interior base configuration where the dish radius is no greater than 1.2 times the inside diameter of the shell. The knuckle radius may not be less than 12 percent of the inside diameter of the shell. The interior base contour may deviate from the true torispherical, hemispherical or ellipsoidal configuration provided that—

(i) Any areas of deviation are accompanied by an increase in base thickness;

(ii) All radii of merging surfaces are equal to or greater than the knuckle radius;

(iii) Each design has been qualified by successfully passing the cycling tests in this paragraph (c); and

(iv) Detailed specifications of the base design are available to the inspector.

(3) For free standing cylinders, the base thickness must be at least two times the minimum wall thickness along the line of contact between the cylinder base and the floor when the cylinders are in the vertical position.

(4) Welding or brazing is prohibited.

(5) Each new design and any significant change to any acceptable design must be qualified for production by testing prototype samples as follows:

(i) Three samples must be subjected to 100,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and service pressure or 10,000 pressure reversal cycles between zero and test pressure, at a rate not in excess of 10 cycles per minute without failure.

(ii) Three samples must be pressurized to destruction and failure may not occur at less than 2.5 times the marked cylinder service pressure. Each cylinder must remain in one piece. Failure must initiate in the cylinder sidewall in a longitudinal direction. Rate of pressurization may not exceed 200 psig per second.

(6) In this specification “significant change” means a 10 percent or greater change in cylinder wall thickness, service pressure, or diameter; a 30 percent or greater change in water capacity or base thickness; any change in material; over 100 percent increase in size of openings; or any change in the number of openings.

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure will not exceed 80 percent of the minimum yield strength nor exceed 67 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength as verified by physical tests in paragraph (i) of this section. The minimum wall thickness for any cylinder with an outside diameter greater than 5 inches must be 0.125 inch. Calculations must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Prescribed minimum test pressure in psig (see paragraph (g) of this section);

D = Outside diameter in inches; and

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(e) Openings. Openings must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Openings are permitted in heads only.

(2) The size of any centered opening in a head may not exceed one-half the outside diameter of the cylinder.

(3) Other openings are permitted in the head of a cylinder if:

(i) Each opening does not exceed 2.625 inches in diameter, or one-half the outside diameter of the cylinder; whichever is less;

(ii) Each opening is separated from each other by a ligament; and

(iii) Each ligament which separates two openings must be at least three times the average of the diameters of the two openings.

(4) All openings must be circular.

(5) All openings must be threaded. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Each thread must be clean cut, even, without checks, and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads, when used, must conform to one of the following:

(A) American Standard Pipe Thread (NPT) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(B) National Gas Taper Thread (NGT) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28; or

(C) Other taper threads conforming to other standards may be used provided the length is not less than that specified for NPT threads.

(iii) Straight threads, when used, must conform to one of the following:

(A) National Gas Straight Thread (NGS) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28;

(B) Unified Thread (UN) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28;

(C) Controlled Radius Root Thread (UN) type, conforming to the requirements of NBS Handbook H-28; or

(D) Other straight threads conforming to other recognized standards may be used provided that the requirements in paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section are met.

(iv) All straight threads must have at least 6 engaged threads, a tight fit, and a factor of safety in shear of at least 10 at the test pressure of the cylinder. Shear stress must be calculated by using the appropriate thread shear area in accordance with NBS Handbook H-28.

(f) Heat treatment. Prior to any test, all cylinders must be subjected to a solution heat treatment and aging treatment appropriate for the aluminum alloy used.

(g) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must be subjected to an internal test pressure using the water jacket equipment and method or other suitable equipment and method and comply with the following requirements:

(1) The testing apparatus must be operated in a manner so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge used must permit reading to an accuracy of one percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading the total expansion to an accuracy of either one percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) The test pressure must be maintained for a sufficient period of time to assure complete expansion of the cylinder. In no case may the pressure be held less than 30 seconds. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the required test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is lower. If the test apparatus again fails to maintain the test pressure, the cylinder being tested must be rejected. Any internal pressure applied to the cylinder before any official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) The minimum test pressure is the greatest of the following:

(i) 450 psig regardless of service pressure;

(ii) Two times the service pressure for cylinders having service pressure less than 500 psig; or

(iii) Five-thirds times the service pressure for cylinders having a service pressure of at least 500 psig.

(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(h) Flattening test. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) The test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, having a 60° included angle, and rounded in accordance with the following table. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at an angle 90° to the knife edges during the test. The flattening test table is as follows:

Table 3—Flattening Test Table

Cylinder wall thickness in inchesRadius in inches
Under .150.500
.150 to .249.875
.250 to .3491.500
.350 to .4492.125
.450 to .5492.750
.550 to .6493.500
.650 to .7494.125

(2) An alternate bend test in accordance with ASTM E 290 using a mandrel diameter not more than 6 times the wall thickness is authorized to qualify lots that fail the flattening test of this section without reheat treatment. If used, this test must be performed on two samples from one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 cylinders or less.

(3) Each test cylinder must withstand flattening to nine times the wall thickness without cracking. When the alternate bend test is used, the test specimens must remain uncracked when bent inward around a mandrel in the direction of curvature of the cylinder wall until the interior edges are at a distance apart not greater than the diameter of the mandrel.

(i) Mechanical properties test. Two test specimens cut from one cylinder representing each lot of 200 cylinders or less must be subjected to the mechanical properties test, as follows:

(1) The results of the test must conform to at least the minimum acceptable mechanical property limits for aluminum alloys as specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(2) Specimens must be 4D bar or gauge length 2 inches with width not over 112 inch taken in the direction of extrusion approximately 180° from each other; provided that gauge length at least 24 times thickness with width not over 6 times thickness is authorized, when cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick. The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section. When the size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When such specimens are used, the inspector's report must show that the specimens were so taken and prepared. Heating of specimens for any purpose is forbidden.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length.

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM B 557 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 10,000,000 psi. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 6,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(j) Rejected cylinder. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized one time. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable.

(k) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector shall:

(1) Verify compliance with the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section by:

(i) Performing or witnessing the performance of the chemical analyses on each melt or cast lot or other unit of starting material; or

(ii) Obtaining a certified chemical analysis from the material or cylinder manufacturer for each melt, or cast of material; or

(iii) Obtaining a certified check analysis on one cylinder out of each lot of 200 cylinders or less, if a certificate containing data to indicate compliance with the material specification is obtained.

(2) The inspector must verify ultrasonic inspection of all material by inspection or by obtaining the material producer's certificate of ultrasonic inspection. Ultrasonic inspection must be performed or verified as having been performed in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section.

(3) The inspector must also determine that each cylinder complies with this specification by:

(i) Selecting the samples for check analyses performed by other than the material producer;

(ii) Verifying that the prescribed minimum thickness was met by measuring or witnessing the measurement of the wall thickness; and

(iii) Verifying that the identification of material is proper.

(4) Prior to initial production of any design or design change, verify that the design qualification tests prescribed in paragraph (c)(6) of this section have been performed with acceptable results.

(l) Definitions. (1) In this specification, a “lot” means a group of cylinders successively produced having the same:

(i) Size and configuration;

(ii) Specified material of construction;

(iii) Process of manufacture and heat treatment;

(iv) Equipment of manufacture and heat treatment; and

(v) Conditions of time, temperature and atmosphere during heat treatment.

(2) In no case may the lot size exceed 200 cylinders, but any cylinder processed for use in the required destructive physical testing need not be counted as being one of the 200.

(m) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by §178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include the alloy designation, and applicable information on iron, titanium, zinc, magnesium and any other applicable element used in the construction of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386-45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51652, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012]

§178.47   Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DS cylinder is either a welded stainless steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or circumferentially welded cylinder both with a water capacity of not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 but not over 900 psig.

(b) Steel. Types 304, 321 and 347 stainless steel are authorized with proper welding procedure. A heat of steel made under the specifications in table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded, except as approved by Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

   Stainless steels
304 (percent)321 (percent)347 (percent)
Carbon (max)0.080.080.08
Manganese (max)2.002.002.00
Phosphorus (max).030.030.030
Sulphur (max).030.030.030
Silicon (max).75.75.75
Nickel8.0/11.09.0/13.09.0/13.0
Chromium18.0/20.017.0/20.017.0/20.0
Molybdenum
Titanium(1)
Columbium(2)

1Titanium may not be more than 5C and not more than 0.60%.

2Columbium may not be less than 10C and not more than 1.0%.

Table 2—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementLimit or maximum specified (percent)Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limitOver maximum limit
CarbonTo 0.15 incl0.010.01
ManganeseOver 1.15 to 2.50 incl0.050.05
Phosphorus1All ranges.01
SulphurAll ranges.01
SiliconOver 0.30 to 1.00 incl.05.05
NickelOver 5.30 to 10.00 incl.10.10
   Over 10.00 to 14.00 incl.15.15
ChromiumOver 15.00 to 20.00 incl.20.20
TitaniumAll ranges.05.05
ColumbiumAll ranges.05.05

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(c) Identification of material. Materials must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably, a reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. No abrupt change in wall thickness is permitted. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). All seams of the sphere or cylinder must be fusion welded. Seams must be of the butt type and means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint.

(e) Attachments. Attachments to the container are authorized by fusion welding provided that such attachments are made of weldable stainless steel in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not be over 60,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.040 inch is required for any diameter container. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:

(1) Calculation for sphere must be made by the formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

t = Minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress in psi;

P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = Outside diameter in inches;

d = Inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The seamless hemispheres and cylinders may be stress relieved or annealed for forming. Welded container must be stress relieved at a temperature of 775 °F ±25° after process treatment and before hydrostatic test.

(h) Openings in container. Openings must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad of weldable stainless steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Process treatment. Each container must be hydraulically pressurized in a water jacket to at least 100 percent, but not more than 110 percent, of the test pressure and maintained at this pressure for a minimum of 3 minutes. Total and permanent expansion must be recorded and included in the inspector's report.

(j) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each container must be tested to at least 2 times service pressure.

(5) Container must then be inspected. Any wall thickness lower than that required by paragraph (f) of this section must be cause for rejection. Bulges and cracks must be cause for rejection. Welded joint defects exceeding requirements of paragraph (k) of this section must be cause for rejection.

(k) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic inspection is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the container diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container is cause for rejection. Radiographic inspection must be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic test.

(l) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. Rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.

(m) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed as follows:

(1) For spheres the test must be at the weld between parallel steel plates on a press with welded seam at right angles to the plates. Test one sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less after the hydrostatic test. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) For cylinders the test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. Test one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after the hydrostatic test.

(n) Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests. Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests are as follows:

(1) Flattening required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(2) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times the service pressure.

(o) Rejected containers. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to process treatment is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must be heat treated and pass all prescribed tests.

(p) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector must verify that all tests are conducted at temperatures between 60 °F and 90 °F.

(q) Marking. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.50   Specification 4B welded or brazed steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4B is a welded or brazed steel cylinder with longitudinal seams that are forged lap-welded or brazed and with water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 150 but not over 500 psig. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, electric or basic oxygen process steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Seams must be made as follows:

(1) Welded or brazed circumferential seams. Heads attached by brazing must have a driving fit with the shell, unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head, and be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration by the brazing material of the brazed joint is secured. Depth of brazing from end of shell must be at least four times the thickness of shell metal.

(2) Longitudinal seams in shells. Longitudinal seams must be forged lap welded, by copper brazing, by copper alloy brazing, or by silver alloy brazing. Copper alloy composition must be: Copper, 95 percent minimum; Silicon, 1.5 percent to 3.85 percent; Manganese, 0.25 percent to 1.10 percent. The melting point of the silver alloy brazing material must be in excess of 1000 °F. When brazed, the plate edge must be lapped at least eight times the thickness of plate, laps being held in position, substantially metal to metal, by riveting or electric spot-welding; brazing must be done by using a suitable flux and by placing brazing material on one side of seam and applying heat until this material shows uniformly along the seam of the other side.

(e) Welding or brazing. Only the attachment of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms of cylinders by welding or brazing is authorized. Such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached must be made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130X steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must comply with the following requirements:

(1) For cylinders with outside diameters over 6 inches the minimum wall thickness must be 0.090 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that calculated wall stress at minimum test pressure (paragraph (i)(4) of this section) may not exceed the following values:

(i) 24,000 psi for cylinders without longitudinal seam.

(ii) 22,800 psig for cylinders having copper brazed or silver alloy brazed longitudinal seam.

(iii) 18,000 psi for cylinders having forged lapped welded longitudinal seam.

(2) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test or 450 psig whichever is the greater;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinder body and heads, formed by drawing or pressing, must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests.

(h) Opening in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to cylinder by brazing or by welding or by threads. Fitting, boss, or pad must be of steel suitable for the method of attachment employed, and which need not be identified or verified as to analysis except that if attachment is by welding, carbon content may not exceed 0.25 percent. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(iv) A brass fitting may be brazed to the steel boss or flange on cylinders used as component parts of hand fire extinguishers.

(2) The closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Cylinders must withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.

(j) Flattening test. After the hydrostatic test, a flattening test must be performed on one cylinder taken at random out or each lot of 200 or less, by placing the cylinder between wedge shaped knife edges having a 60° included angle, rounded to 12 -inch radius. The longitudinal axis of the cylinder must be at a 90-degree angle to knife edges during the test. For lots of 30 or less, flattening tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width of not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, a flattening test is not required.

(2) When cylinders are constructed of lap welded pipe, flattening test is required, without cracking, to 6 times the wall thickness. In such case, the rings (crop ends) cut from each end of pipe, must be tested with the weld 45° or less from the point of greatest stress. If a ring fails, another from the same end of pipe may be tested.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinder. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of brazed seams by brazing and welded seams by welding is authorized.

(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in any of the following locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads when they are not less than 0.087-inch thick.

(2) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls which are not less than 0.090 inch thick.

(3) On a cylindrical portion of the shell which extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder, constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder.

(4) On a metal plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least 116 -inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing. The brazing rod must melt at a temperature of 1100 °F. Welding or brazing must be along all the edges of the plate.

(5) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.

(6) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 25 pounds.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45385, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.51   Specification 4BA welded or brazed steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4BA cylinder is a cylinder, either spherical or cylindrical in shape, with a water capacity of 1,000 pounds or less and a service pressure of at least 225 and not over 500 psig. Closures made by the spinning process are not authorized.

(1) Spherical type cylinders must be made from two seamless hemispheres joined by the welding of one circumferential seam.

(2) Cylindrical type cylinders must be of circumferentially welded or brazed construction.

(b) Steel. The steel used in the construction of the cylinder must be as specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(1) Seams must be made as follows:

(i) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms must be not less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the side wall.

(ii) Circumferential seams must be made by welding or by brazing. Heads must be attached by brazing and must have a driving fit with the shell, unless the shell is crimped, swedged or curled over the skirt or flange of the head and must be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration by the brazing material of the brazed joint is secured. Depth of brazing from end of the shell must be at least four times the thickness of shell metal.

(iii) Longitudinal seams in shells must be made by copper brazing, copper alloy brazing, or by silver alloy brazing. Copper alloy composition must be: Copper 95 percent minimum, Silicon 1.5 percent to 3.85 percent, Manganese 0.25 percent to 1.10 percent. The melting point of the silver alloy brazing material must be in excess of 1,000 °F. The plate edge must be lapped at least eight times the thickness of plate, laps being held in position, substantially metal to metal, by riveting or by electric spot-welding. Brazing must be done by using a suitable flux and by placing brazing material on one side of seam and applying heat until this material shows uniformly along the seam of the other side. Strength of longitudinal seam: Copper brazed longitudinal seam must have strength at least 32 times the strength of the steel wall.

(2) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding and brazing. Only the welding or brazing of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms of cylinders is authorized. Provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130× steel which may be used with proper welding procedure.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must meet the following conditions:

(1) For any cylinder with an outside diameter of greater than 6 inches, the minimum wall thickness is 0.078 inch. In any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum test pressure may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:

(i) The value shown in table 1 of appendix A to this part, for the particular material under consideration;

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section;

(iii) 35,000 psi; or

(iv) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having copper brazed longitudinal seams may not exceed 95 percent of any of the above values. Measured wall thickness may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.

(2) Cylinders that are cylindrical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) Cylinders that are spherical in shape must have the wall stress calculated by the formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(4) For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4.1.

(g) Heat treatment. Cylinders must be heat treated in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method shown in table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations, but may be done before, during or after the brazing operations.

(2) Heat treatment is not required after the welding or brazing of weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Any opening must be placed on other than a cylindrical surface.

(2) Each opening in a spherical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(3) Each opening in a cylindrical type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to container by brazing or by welding.

(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than that specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. A pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. An expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder or part thereof having passed the hydrostatic test and heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. Physical tests for spheres are required on 2 specimens cut from flat representative sample plates of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to produce the spheres. This flat steel from which 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the same heat treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates must be taken from each lot of 200 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens, and by 1 in other cases, for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.

(l) Tests of welds. Except for brazed seams, welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that in no case must it be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of brazed seams by brazing and welded seams by welding is authorized.

(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick.

(2) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls not less than 0.090 inch thick.

(3) On a cylindrical portion of the shell which extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder.

(4) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least 116 inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1100 °F., throughout all edges of the plate.

(5) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.

(6) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 25 pounds.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 4535, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 16015, Sept. 27, 2002; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.53   Specification 4D welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4D cylinder is a welded steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or circumferentially welded cylinder (two seamless drawn shells) with a water capacity not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 300 but not over 500 psig. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform and weldable quality must be used. Content may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050, except that the following steels commercially known as 4130X and Type 304, 316, 321, and 347 stainless steels may be used with proper welding procedure. A heat of steel made under table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded, except as approved by the Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1—4130X Steel

4130XPercent
Carbon0.25/0.35.
Manganese0.40/0.60.
Phosphorus0.04 max.
Sulphur0.05 max
Silicon0.15/0.35.
Chromium0.80/1.10.
Molybdenum0.15/0.25.
ZirconiumNone.
NickelNone.

Table 2—Authorized Stainless Steels

  Stainless steels
304
(percent)
316
(percent)
321
(percent)
347
(percent)
Carbon (max)0.080.080.080.08
Manganese (max)2.002.002.002.00
Phosphorus (max).030.045.030.030
Sulphur (max).030.030.030.030
Silicon (max).751.00.75.75
Nickel8.0/11.010.0/14.09.0/13.09.0/13.0
Chromium18.0/20.016.0/18.017.0/20.017.0/20.0
Molybdenum2.0/3.0
Titanium(1)
Columbium(2)

1Titanium may not be less than 5C and not more than 0.60%.

2Columbium may not be less than 10C and not more than 1.0%.

Table 3—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementLimit or maximum specified
(percent)
Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limitOver maximum limit
CarbonTo 0.15 incl0.010.01
   Over 0.15 to 0.40 incl.03.04
ManganeseTo 0.60 incl.03.03
   Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl.05.05
Phosphorus1All ranges.01
SulphurAll ranges.01
SiliconTo 0.30 incl.02.03
   Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl.05.05
NickelOver 5.30 to 10.00 incl.10.10
   Over 10.00 to 14.00 incl.15.15
ChromiumTo 0.90 incl.03.03
   Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl.05.05
   Over 15.00 to 20.00 incl.20.20
MolybdenumTo 0.20 incl.01.01
   Over 0.20 to 0.40 incl.02.02
   Over 1.75 to 3.0 incl.10.10
TitaniumAll ranges.05.05
ColumbiumAll ranges.05.05

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Wall thickness. The wall stress at the minimum test pressure may not exceed 24,000 psi, except where steels commercially known as 4130X, types 304, 316, 321, and 347 stainless steels are used, stress at the test pressures may not exceed 37,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness for any container having a capacity of 1,100 cubic inches or less is 0.04 inch. The minimum wall thickness for any container having a capacity in excess of 1,100 cubic inches is 0.095 inch. Calculations must be done by the following:

(1) Calculation for a “sphere” must be made by the formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − dT12)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(f) Heat treatment. The completed cylinders must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests.

(g) Openings in container. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in the container, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to the container by brazing or by welding or by threads. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of a length not less than that specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength of at least 10 times the test pressure of the container. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(2) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(h) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. A pressure gauge must permit a reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. An expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Containers must be tested as follows:

(i) Each container to at least 2 times service pressure; or

(ii) One container out of each lot of 200 or less to at least 3 times service pressure. Others must be examined under pressure of 2 times service pressure and show no defects.

(i) Flattening test for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) One sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be between parallel steel plates on a press with a welded seam at right angles to the plates. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test, as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 12 inch radius. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(j) Physical test and specimens for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:

(1) Physical test for spheres are required on 2 specimens cut from a flat representative sample plate of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to produce the sphere. This flat steel from which the 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the same heat-treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates must be taken for each lot of 200 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens for spheres must have a gauge length 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(3) Physical test for cylinders is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less. For lots of 30 or less, physical tests are authorized to be made on a ring at least 8 inches long cut from each cylinder and subjected to the same heat treatment as the finished cylinder.

(4) Specimens for cylinders must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section. Heating of the specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(5) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Either of the following is an acceptable result:

(1) An elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance, the flattening test is not required.

(2) An elongation of at least 20 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases. Flattening is required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(l) Rejected cylinders. Reheat-treatment is authorized for rejected cylinders. Subsequent thereto, containers must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to reheat-treatment is authorized.

(m) Marking. Marking on each container by stamping plainly and permanently are only authorized where the metal is at least 0.09 inch thick, or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder, or by means that would not reduce the wall thickness.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.55   Specification 4B240ET welded or brazed cylinders.

(a) Type, spinning process, size and service pressure. A DOT 4B240ET cylinder is a brazed type cylinder made from electric resistance welded tubing. The maximum water capacity of this cylinder is 12 pounds or 333 cubic inches and the service must be 240 psig. The maximum outside diameter of the shell must be five inches and maximum length of the shell is 21 inches. Cylinders closed in by a spinning process are authorized.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, basic oxygen, or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. Plain carbon steel content may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulfur, 0.050. The addition of other elements for alloying effect is prohibited.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Heads may be attached to shells by lap brazing or may be formed integrally. The thickness of the bottom of cylinders welded or formed by spinning is, under no condition, to be less than two times the minimum wall thickness of the cylindrical shell. Such bottom thicknesses must be measured within an area bounded by a line representing the points of contact between the cylinder and the floor when the cylinder is in a vertical position. Seams must conform to the following:

(1) Circumferential seams must be by brazing only. Heads must be attached to shells by the lap brazing method and must overlap not less than four times the wall thickness. Brazing material must have a melting point of not less than 1000 °F. Heads must have a driving fit with the shell unless the shell is crimped, swedged, or curled over the skirt or flange of the head and be thoroughly brazed until complete penetration of the joint by the brazing material is secured. Brazed joints may be repaired by brazing.

(2) Longitudinal seams in shell must be by electric resistance welded joints only. No repairs to longitudinal joints is permitted.

(3) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding or brazing. Only the attachment, by welding or brazing, to the tops and bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings is authorized. Provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall stress must be at least two times the service pressure and may not exceed 18,000 psi. The minimum wall thickness is 0.044 inch. Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psig;

P = 2 times service pressure;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Heads formed by drawing or pressing must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Cylinders with integral formed heads or bases must be subjected to a normalizing operation. Normalizing and brazing operations may be combined, provided the operation is carried out at a temperature in excess of the upper critical temperature of the steel.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by brazing or by welding or by threads. A fitting, boss, or pad must be of steel suitable for the method of attachment employed, and which need not be identified or verified as to analysis, except that if attachment is by welding, carbon content may not exceed 0.25 percent. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(2) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.

(5) Each 1000 cylinders or less successively produced each day must constitute a lot. One cylinder must be selected from each lot and hydrostatically tested to destruction. If this cylinder bursts below five times the service pressure, then two additional cylinders must be selected and subjected to this test. If either of these cylinders fails by bursting below five times the service pressure then the entire lot must be rejected. All cylinders constituting a lot must be of identical size, construction heat-treatment, finish, and quality.

(j) Flattening test. Following the hydrostatic test, one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, must be subjected to a flattening test that is between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 12 inch radius.

(k) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less in the case of cylinders of capacity greater than 86 cubic inches and out of each lot of 500 or less for cylinders having a capacity of 86 cubic inches or less.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times the thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(l) Acceptable results for physical and flattening tests. Acceptable results for the physical and flattening tests are an elongation of at least 40 percent for a 2 inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases and a yield strength not over 73 percent of tensile strength. In this instance the flattening test is required, without cracking, to six times the wall thickness with a weld 90° from the direction of the applied load. Two rings cut from the ends of length of pipe used in production of a lot may be used for the flattening test provided the rings accompany the lot which they represent in all thermal processing operations. At least one of the rings must pass the flattening test.

(m) Leakage test. All spun cylinders and plugged cylinders must be tested for leakage by gas or air pressure after the bottom has been cleaned and is free from all moisture, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Pressure, approximately the same as but no less than service pressure, must be applied to one side of the finished bottom over an area of at least 116 of the total area of the bottom but not less than 34 inch in diameter, including the closure, for at least 1 minute, during which time the other side of the bottom exposed to pressure must be covered with water and closely examined for indications of leakage. Except as provided in paragraph (n) of this section, cylinders which are leaking must be rejected.

(2) A spun cylinder is one in which an end closure in the finished cylinder has been welded by the spinning process.

(3) A plugged cylinder is one in which a permanent closure in the bottom of a finished cylinder has been effected by a plug.

(4) As a safety precaution, if the manufacturer elects to make this test before the hydrostatic test, he should design his apparatus so that the pressure is applied to the smallest area practicable, around the point of closure, and so as to use the smallest possible volume of air or gas.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Repairs of rejected cylinders is authorized. Cylinders that are leaking must be rejected, except that:

(1) Spun cylinders rejected under the provisions of paragraph (m) of this section may be removed from the spun cylinder category by drilling to remove defective material, tapping, and plugging.

(2) Brazed joints may be rebrazed.

(3) Subsequent to the operations noted in paragraphs (n)(1) and (n)(2) of this section, acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.

(o) Marking. Markings on each cylinder must be by stamping plainly and permanently on shoulder, top head, neck or valve protection collar which is permanently attached to the cylinders and forming an integral part thereof, provided that cylinders not less than 0.090 inch thick may be stamped on the side wall adjacent to top head.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.56   Specification 4AA480 welded steel cylinders.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4AA480 cylinder is a welded steel cylinder having a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds water capacity and a service pressure of 480 psig. Closures welded by spinning process not permitted.

(b) Steel. The limiting chemical composition of steel authorized by this specification must be as shown in table I of appendix A to this part.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the side wall. Seams must be made as follows:

(1) Circumferential seams must be welded. Brazing is not authorized.

(2) Longitudinal seams are not permitted.

(3) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding. Only the welding of neckrings, footrings, bosses, pads, and valve protection rings to the tops and bottoms of cylinders is authorized. Provided that such attachments are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which does not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) For cylinders with an outside diameter over 5 inches, the minimum wall thickness is 0.078 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum test pressure (in paragraph (i) of this section) may not exceed the lesser value of either of the following:

(i) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section; or

(ii) 35,000 psi.

(2) Calculation must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) The ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4.0 for cylinders with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch.

(g) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests. Any suitable heat treatment in excess of 1100 °F is authorized except that liquid quenching is not permitted. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations. Heat treatment is not required after welding weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F., in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.

(2) Each opening in the cylinder, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting boss, or pad, securely attached to the cylinder by welding or by threads. If threads are used they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads having at least 6 engaged threads, must have a tight fit and a calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.

(3) Closure of a fitting, boss or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds or sufficiently longer to assure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and before the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as described in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section, to at least two times service pressure. If a selected cylinder fails, then two additional specimens must be selected at random from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed test. If either of these fails the test, then each cylinder in that lot must be so tested; and

(ii) Each cylinder not tested as prescribed in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and must show no defect. A cylinder showing a defect must be rejected unless it may be requalified under paragraph (m) of this section.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material, as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder having passed the hydrostatic test, or part thereof heat-treated as required, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times the thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when the cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for 2-inch gauge lengths or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens and by 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or a welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimens must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or a welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized.

(n) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick.

(2) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to top end of cylinder.

(3) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof: sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates: the plate must be at least 116 inch thick and must be attached by welding or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1100 °F, throughout all edges of the plate.

(4) Variations in location of markings authorized only when necessitated by lack of space.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.57   Specification 4L welded insulated cylinders.

(a) Type, size, service pressure, and design service temperature. A DOT 4L cylinder is a fusion welded insulated cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds water capacity and a service pressure of at least 40 but not greater than 500 psig conforming to the following requirements:

(1) For liquefied hydrogen service, the cylinders must be designed to stand on end, with the axis of the cylindrical portion vertical.

(2) The design service temperature is the coldest temperature for which a cylinder is suitable. The required design service temperatures for each cryogenic liquid is as follows:

Cryogenic liquidDesign service temperature
ArgonMinus 320 °F or colder.
HeliumMinus 452 °F or colder.
HydrogenMinus 42 3 °F or colder.
NeonMinus 411 °F or colder.
NitrogenMinus 320 °F or colder.
OxygenMinus 320 °F or colder.

(b) Material. Material use in the construction of this specification must conform to the following:

(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Designations and limiting chemical compositions of steel authorized by this specification must be as shown in table 1 in paragraph (o) of this section.

(2) Outer jacket. Steel or aluminum may be used subject to the requirements of paragraph (o)(2) of this section.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and to the following requirements:

(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. The shell portion must be a reasonably true cylinder.

(2) The heads must be seamless, concave side to the pressure, hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with the major diameter not more than twice the minor diameter. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. The heads must be reasonably true to shape, have no abrupt shape changes, and the skirts must be reasonably true to round.

(3) The surface of the cylinder must be insulated. The insulating material must be fire resistant. The insulation on non-evacuated jackets must be covered with a steel jacket not less than 0.060-inch thick or an aluminum jacket not less than 0.070 inch thick, so constructed that moisture cannot come in contact with the insulating material. If a vacuum is maintained in the insulation space, the evacuated jacket must be designed for a minimum collapsing pressure of 30 psig differential whether made of steel or aluminum. The construction must be such that the total heat transfer, from the atmosphere at ambient temperature to the contents of the cylinder, will not exceed 0.0005 Btu per hour, per Fahrenheit degree differential in temperature, per pound of water capacity of the cylinder. For hydrogen, cryogenic liquid service, the total heat transfer, with a temperature differential of 520 Fahrenheit degrees, may not exceed that required to vent 30 SCF of hydrogen gas per hour.

(4) For a cylinder having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F, a calculation of the maximum weight of contents must be made and that weight must be marked on the cylinder as prescribed in §178.35.

(5) Welding procedures and operations must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). In addition, an impact test of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.

(e) Welding. Welding of the cylinder must be as follows:

(1) All seams of the cylinder must be fusion welded. A means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint. Only butt or joggle butt joints for the cylinder seams are authorized. All joints in the cylinder must have reasonably true alignment.

(2) All attachments to the sidewalls and heads of the cylinder must be by fusion welding and must be of a weldable material complying with the impact requirements of paragraph (l) of this section.

(3) For welding the cylinder, each procedure and operator must be qualified in accordance with the sections of CGA Pamphlet C-3 that apply. In addition, impact tests of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.

(4) Brazing, soldering and threading are permitted only for joints not made directly to the cylinder body. Threads must comply with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum required test pressure may not exceed the least value of the following:

(1) 45,000 psi.

(2) One-half of the minimum tensile strength across the welded seam determined in paragraph (l) of this section.

(3) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(4) The yield strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (l) of this section.

(5) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having longitudinal seams may not exceed 85 percent of the above value, whichever applies.

(6) Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for pressure test in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. Heat treatment is not permitted.

(h) Openings in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) Openings are permitted in heads only. They must be circular and may not exceed 3 inches in diameter or one third of the cylinder diameter, whichever is less. Each opening in the cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad, either integral with, or securely attached to, the cylinder body by fusion welding. Attachments to a fitting, boss or pad may be made by welding, brazing, mechanical attachment, or threading.

(2) Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of a length not less than that specified for NPT.

(iii) Straight threads must have at least 4 engaged threads, tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, which prevent leakage and are inert to the hazardous material, are required.

(i) Pressure test. Each cylinder, before insulating and jacketing, must be examined under a pressure of at least 2 times the service pressure maintained for at least 30 seconds without evidence of leakage, visible distortion or other defect. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens selected from material of each heat and in the same condition as that in the completed cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness (authorized when cylinder wall is not over 116 inch thick).

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic expansion of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on the elastic modulus of the material used. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for physical tests. Physical properties must meet the limits specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section, for the particular steel in the annealed condition. The specimens must show at least a 20 percent elongation for a 2-inch gage length. Except that the percentage may be reduced numerically by 2 for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 100,000 psi to a maximum of 5 such increments. Yield strength and tensile strength must meet the requirements of paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimen must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A “root” bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section and from any other seam or equivalent welded test plate if the seam is welded by a procedure different from that used for the major seam. Specimens must be taken across the particular seam being tested and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as specified in CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) Impact tests. One set of three impact test specimens (for each test) must be prepared and tested for determining the impact properties of the deposited weld metal—

(i) As part of the qualification of the welding procedure.

(ii) As part of the qualification of the operators.

(iii) For each “heat” of welding rodor wire used.

(iv) For each 1,000 feet of weld made with the same heat of welding rod or wire.

(v) All impact test specimens must be of the charpy type, keyhole or milled U-notch, and must conform in all respects to ASTM E 23 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Each set of impact specimens must be taken across the weld and have the notch located in the weld metal. When the cylinder material thickness is 2.5 mm or thicker, impact specimens must be cut from a cylinder or welded test plate used for the tensile or bend test specimens. The dimension along the axis of the notch must be reduced to the largest possible of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, 5 mm or 2.5 mm, depending upon cylinder thickness. When the material in the cylinder or welded test plate is not of sufficient thickness to prepare 2.5 mm impact test specimens, 2.5 mm specimens must be prepared from a welded test plate made from 18 inch thick material meeting the requirements specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section and having a carbon analysis of .05 minimum, but not necessarily from one of the heats used in the lot of cylinders. The test piece must be welded by the same welding procedure as used on the particular cylinder seam being qualified and must be subjected to the same heat treatment.

(vi) Impact test specimens must be cooled to the design service temperature. The apparatus for testing the specimens must conform to requirements of ASTM Standard E 23. The test piece, as well as the handling tongs, must be cooled for a length of time sufficient to reach the service temperature. The temperature of the cooling device must be maintained within a range of plus or minus 3 °F. The specimen must be quickly transferred from the cooling device to the anvil of the testing machine and broken within a time lapse of not more than six seconds.

(vii) The impact properties of each set of impact specimens may not be less than the values in the following table:

Size of specimenMinimum
impact value required for avg. of each set of three specimens (ft.-lb.)
Minimum
impact value permitted on one only of a set of three (ft.-lb.)
10 mm×10 mm1510
10 mm×7.5 mm12.58.5
10 mm×5 mm107.0
10 mm×2.5 mm53.5

(viii) When the average value of the three specimens equals or exceeds the minimum value permitted for a single specimen and the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value, or when the value for one specimen is below the minimum value permitted for a single specimen, a retest of three additional specimens must be made. The value of each of these retest specimens must equal or exceed the required average value. When an erratic result is caused by a defective specimen, or there is uncertainty in test procedure, a retest is authorized.

(m) Radiographic examination. Cylinders must be subject to a radiographic examination as follows:

(1) The techniques and acceptability of radiographic inspection must conform to the standards set forth in CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(2) One finished longitudinal seam must be selected at random from each lot of 100 or less successively produced and be radiographed throughout its entire length. Should the radiographic examination fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (m)(1) of this section, two additional seams of the same lot must be examined, and if either of these fail to meet the requirements of (m)(1) of this section, only those passing are acceptable.

(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Welds may be repaired by suitable methods of fusion welding.

(o) Authorized materials of construction. Authorized materials of construction are as follows:

(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Electric furnace steel of uniform quality must be used. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 stainless steel. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A240, Type 304 Stainless Steel. A heat of steel made under table 1 and table 2 in this paragraph (o)(1) is acceptable, even though its check chemical analysis is slightly out of the specified range, if it is satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 3 in this paragraph (o)(1) are not exceeded. The following chemical analyses and physical properties are authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

DesignationChemical analysis, limits in percent
Carbon10.08 max.
Manganese2.00 max.
Phosphorus0.045 max.
Sulphur0.030 max.
Silicon1.00 max.
Nickel8.00-10.50.
Chromium18.00-20.00.
MolybdenumNone.
TitaniumNone.
ColumbiumNone.

1The carbon analysis must be reported to the nearest hundredth of one percent.

Table 2—Physical Properties

  Physical properties (annealed)
Tensile strength, p.s.i. (minimum)75,000
Yield strength, p.s.i. (minimum)30,000
Elongation in 2 inches (minimum) percent30.0
Elongation other permissible gauge lengths (minimum) percent15.0

Table 3—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementsLimit or specified range (percent)Tolerance over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
CarbonTo 0.030, incl0.005
   Over 0.30 to 0.20, incl0.01
ManganeseTo 1.00 incl.03
   Over 1.00 to 3.00, incl0.04
Phosphorus1To 0.040, incl0.005
   Over 0.040 to 0.020 incl0.010
SulphurTo .40 incl0.005
SiliconTo 1.00, incl0.05
NickelOver 5.00 to 10.00, incl0.10
   Over 10.00 to 20.00, incl0.15
ChromiumOver 15.00 to 20.00, incl0.20

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(2) Outer jacket. (i) Nonflammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of nonflammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel or aluminum.

(ii) Flammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of flammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel.

(p) Markings. (1) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on shoulder or top head of jacket or on a permanently attached plate or head protective ring.

(2) The letters “ST”, followed by the design service temperature (for example, ST-423F), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature of colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be just below the DOT mark.

(3) The maximum weight of contents, in pounds (for example, “Max. Content 51 #”), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be near symbol.

(4) Special orientation instructions must be marked on the cylinder (for example, THIS END UP), if the cylinder is used in an orientation other than vertical with openings at the top of the cylinder.

(5) If the jacket of the cylinder is constructed of aluminum, the letters “AL” must be marked after the service pressure marking. Example: DOT-4L150 AL.

(6) Except for serial number and jacket material designation, each marking prescribed in this paragraph (p) must be duplicated on each cylinder by any suitable means.

(q) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by §178.35, the inspector's reports must contain information on:

(1) The jacket material and insulation type;

(2) The design service temperature

(°F); and

(3) The impact test results, on a lot basis.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386-45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.58   Specification 4DA welded steel cylinders for aircraft use.

(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DA is a welded steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or a circumferentially welded cylinder (two seamless drawn shells) with a water capacity not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 but not over 900 psig.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth or electric steel of uniform quality must be used. A heat of steel made under table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded except as approved by the Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

4130Percent
Carbon0.28/0.33.
Manganese0.40/0.60.
Phosphorus0.040 max.
Sulfur0.040 max.
Silicon0.15/0.35.
Chromium0.80/1.10.
Molybdenum0.15/0.25.

Table 2—Check Analysis Tolerances

ElementLimit or maximum specified (percent)Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit
Under minimum limitOver maximum limit
CarbonOver 0.15 to 0.40 incl.03.04
ManganeseTo 0.60 incl.03.03
Phosphorus1All ranges.01
SulphurAll ranges.01
SiliconTo 0.30 incl.02.03
   Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl.05.05
ChromiumTo 0.90 incl.03.03
   Over 0.90 to 2.10 incl.05.05
MolybdenumTo 0.20 incl.01.01
Over 0.20 to 0.40, incl.02.02

1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.

(c) Identification of material. Materials must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn containers must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured in accordance with the following requirements:

(1) By best appliances and methods. No defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished container appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. No abrupt change in wall thickness is permitted. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) All seams of the sphere or cylinders must be fusion welded. Seams must be of the butt or joggle butt type and means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint.

(e) Welding. Attachments to the container are authorized by fusion welding provided that such attachments are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent except in the case of 4130 steel.

(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not exceed 67 percent of the minimum tensile strength of the steel as determined from the physical and burst tests required and may not be over 70,000 p.s.i. For any diameter container, the minimum wall thickness is 0.040 inch. Calculations must be made by the formulas in (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section:

(1) Calculation for a sphere must be made by the following formula:

S = PD / 4tE

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least 2 times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

t = minimum wall thickness in inches;

E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat affected zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center line of weld);

E = 1.0 (for all other areas).

(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least 2 times service pressure, in psig;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(g) Heat treatment. The completed containers must be uniformly and properly heat-treated prior to tests. Heat-treatment of containers of the authorized analysis must be as follows:

(1) All containers must be quenched by oil, or other suitable medium except as provided in paragraph (g)(4) of this section.

(2) The steel temperature on quenching must be that recommended for the steel analysis, but may not exceed 1,750 °F.

(3) The steel must be tempered at the temperature most suitable for the analysis except that in no case shall the tempering temperature be less than 1,000 °F.

(4) The steel may be normalized at a temperature of 1,650 °F instead of being quenched, and containers so normalized need not be tempered.

(5) All cylinders, if water quenched or quenched with a liquid producing a cooling rate in excess of 80 percent of the cooling rate of water, must be inspected by the magnetic particle or dye penetrant method to detect the presence of quenching cracks. Any cylinder found to have a quench crack must be rejected and may not be requalified.

(h) Openings in container. Openings in the container must comply with the following requirements:

(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.

(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent or 100 psig, whichever is the lower.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Each container must be tested to at least 2 times service pressure.

(j) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. The rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.

(k) Flattening test. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) Flattening test for spheres. One sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test must be at the weld between the parallel steel plates on a press with a welded seam, at right angles to the plates. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.

(2) Flattening test for cylinders. One cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, must be subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(i) The test must be performed after the hydrostatic test.

(ii) The test cylinder must be placed between wedge-shaped knife edges having a 60° angle, rounded to a 12 -inch radius.

(l) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic examinations is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the sphere diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container must be cause for rejection.

(m) Physical test and specimens for spheres and cylinders. Spheres and cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:

(1) A physical test for a sphere is required on 2 specimens cut from a flat representative sample plate of the same heat taken at random from the steel used to produce the sphere. This flat steel from which the 2 specimens are to be cut must receive the same heat-treatment as the spheres themselves. Sample plates to be taken for each lot of 200 or less spheres.

(2) Specimens for spheres have a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when wall of sphere is not over 316 inch thick.

(3) A physical test for cylinders is required on 2 specimens cut from 1 cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.

(4) Specimens for cylinder must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(5) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(n) Acceptable results for physical, flattening, and burst tests. The following are acceptable results of the physical, flattening and burst test:

(1) Elongation must be at least 20 percent for a 2-inch gauge length or 10 percent in other cases.

(2) Flattening is required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.

(3) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times service pressure.

(o) Rejected containers. Reheat-treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to reheat-treatment is authorized.

(p) Marking. Markings on each container must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 67 FR 61015, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.59   Specification 8 steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

(a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8 cylinder is a seamless cylinder with a service pressure of 250 psig. The following steel is authorized:

(1) A longitudinal seam if forge lap welded;

(2) Attachment of heads by welding or by brazing by dipping process; or

(3) A welded circumferential body seam if the cylinder has no longitudinal seam.

(b) Steel. Open-hearth, electric or basic oxygen process steel of uniform quality must be used. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon, 0.25; phosphorus, 0.045; sulphur, 0.050.

(c) Identification of steel. Materials must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is acceptable that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Exposed bottom welds. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(f) Heat treatment. Body and heads formed by drawing or pressing must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to tests.

(g) Openings. Openings in the cylinders must comply with the following:

(1) Standard taper pipe threads are required;

(2) Length may not be less than as specified for American Standard pipe threads; tapped to gauge; clean cut, even, and without checks.

(h) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) One cylinder out of each lot of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to at least 750 psig. Cylinders not so tested must be examined under pressure of between 500 and 600 psig and show no defect. If hydrostatically tested cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be hydrostatically tested and those passing are acceptable.

(i) Leakage test. Cylinders with bottoms closed in by spinning must be subjected to a leakage test by setting the interior air or gas pressure to not less than the service pressure. Cylinders which leak must be rejected.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut longitudinally from 1 cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after heat treatment.

(2) Specimens must conform to a gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with width not over 112 , or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(4) Yield strength may not exceed 73 percent of tensile strength. Elongation must be at least 40 percent in 2 inch or 20 percent in other cases.

(k) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinder is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is authorized.

(l) Porous filling. (1) Cylinders must be filled with a porous material in accordance with the following:

(i) The porous material may not disintegrate or sag when wet with solvent or when subjected to normal service;

(ii) The porous filling material must be uniform in quality and free of voids, except that a well drilled into the filling material beneath the valve is authorized if the well is filled with a material of such type that the functions of the filling material are not impaired;

(iii) Overall shrinkage of the filling material is authorized if the total clearance between the cylinder shell and filling material, after solvent has been added, does not exceed 12 of 1 percent of the respective diameter or length, but not to exceed 18 inch, measured diametrically and longitudinally;

(iv) The clearance may not impair the functions of the filling material;

(v) The installed filling material must meet the requirements of CGA C-12 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) Porosity of filling material may not exceed 80 percent except that filling material with a porosity of up to 92 percent may be used when tested with satisfactory results in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-12.

(2) When the porosity of each cylinder is not known, a cylinder taken at random from a lot of 200 or less must be tested for porosity. If the test cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be tested individually and those cylinders that pass the test are acceptable.

(3) For filling that is molded and dried before insertion in cylinders, porosity test may be made on a sample block taken at random from material to be used.

(4) The porosity of the filling material must be determined. The amount of solvent at 70 °F for a cylinder:

(i) Having shell volumetric capacity above 20 pounds water capacity (nominal) may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of fillerMaximum acetone solvent percent shell capacity by volume
90 to 9243.4
87 to 9042.0
83 to 8740.0
80 to 8338.6
75 to 8036.2
70 to 7533.8
65 to 7031.4

(ii) Having volumetric capacity of 20 pounds or less water capacity (nominal), may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of fillerMaximum acetone solvent percent shell capacity by volume
90 to 9241.8
83 to 9038.5
80 to 8337.1
75 to 8034.8
70 to 7532.5
65 to 7030.2

(m) Tare weight. The tare weight is the combined weight of the cylinder proper, porous filling, valve, and solvent, without removable cap.

(n) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector is required to—

(1) Certify chemical analyses of steel used, signed by manufacturer thereof; also verify by, check analyses of samples taken from each heat or from 1 out of each lot of 200 or less, plates, shells, or tubes used.

(2) Verify compliance of cylinder shells with all shell requirements; inspect inside before closing in both ends; verify heat treatment as proper; obtain all samples for all tests and for check analyses; witness all tests; verify threads by gauge; report volumetric capacity and minimum thickness of wall noted.

(3) Prepare report on manufacture of steel shells in form prescribed in §178.35. Furnish one copy to manufacturer and three copies to the company that is to complete the cylinders.

(4) Determine porosity of filling and tare weights; verify compliance of marking with prescribed requirements; obtain necessary copies of steel shell reports; and furnish complete reports required by this specification to the person who has completed the manufacture of the cylinders and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test reports must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(o) Marking. (1) Marking on each cylinder must be stamped plainly and permanently on or near the shoulder, top head, neck or valve protection collar which is permanently attached to the cylinder and forming integral part thereof.

(2) Tare weight of cylinder, in pounds and ounces, must be marked on the cylinder.

(3) Cylinders, not completed, when delivered must each be marked for identification of each lot of 200 or less.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.60   Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.

(a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a service pressure of 250 psig. However, the attachment of heads by welding or by brazing by dipping process and a welded circumferential body seam is authorized. Longitudinal seams are not authorized.

(b) Authorized steel. The authorized steel is as specified in table I of appendix A to this part.

(c) Identification of steel. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with heat number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Footrings. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.

(f) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:

(1) The attachment to the tops or bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handlers, bosses, pads, and valve protecting rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(2) Heat treatment is not required after welding or brazing weldable low carbon parts to attachments, specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, of similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(g) Wall thickness; wall stress. The wall thickness/wall stress of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) The calculated wall stress at 750 psi may not exceed 35,000 psi, or one-half of the minimum ultimate strength of the steel as determined in paragraph (l) of this section, whichever value is the smaller. The measured wall thickness may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.

(i) Calculation of wall stress must be made by the formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in pounds psi;

P = 750 psig (minimum test pressure);

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(ii) Either D or d must be calculated from the relation D = d + 2t, where t = minimum wall thickness.

(2) Cylinders with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of straight side wall length to outside diameter may not exceed 3.5.

(3) For cylinders having outside diameter over 5 inches, the minimum wall thickness must be 0.087 inch.

(h) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated, prior to tests, by any suitable method in excess of 1100 °F. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations but may be done before, during, or after the brazing operations. Liquid quenching is not authorized.

(i) Openings. Standard taper pipe threads required in all openings. The length of the opening may not be less than as specified for American Standard pipe threads; tapped to gauge; clean cut, even, and without checks.

(j) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit reading of total expansion to an accuracy of either 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) One cylinder out of each lot of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to at least 750 psig. Cylinders not so tested must be examined under pressure of between 500 and 600 psig and show no defect. If a hydrostatically tested cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be hydrostatically tested and those passing are acceptable.

(k) Leakage test. Cylinders with bottoms closed in by spinning must be leakage tested by setting the interior air or gas pressure at not less than the service pressure. Any cylinder that leaks must be rejected.

(l) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted as follows;

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut longitudinally from 1 cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after heat treatment.

(2) Specimens must conform to a gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(m) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2 inch gauge length or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2 inch specimens and 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.

(n) Weld tests. Specimens taken across the circumferentially welded seam must be cut from one cylinder taken at random from each lot of 200 or less cylinders after heat treatment and must pass satisfactorily the following tests:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section. Specimens must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (m) of this section.

(o) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is authorized.

(p) Porous filling. (1) Cylinders must be filled with a porous material in accordance with the following:

(i) The porous material may not disintegrate or sag when wet with solvent or when subjected to normal service;

(ii) The filling material must be uniform in quality and free of voids, except that a well drilled into the filling material beneath the valve is authorized if the well is filled with a material of such type that the functions of the filling material are not impaired;

(iii) Overall shrinkage of the filling material is authorized if the total clearance between the cylinder shell and filling material, after solvent has been added, does not exceed 12 of 1 percent of the respective diameter or length but not to exceed 18 inch, measured diametrically and longitudinally;

(iv) The clearance may not impair the functions of the filling material;

(v) The installed filling material must meet the requirements of CGA C-12 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) Porosity of filling material may not exceed 80 percent except that filling material with a porosity of up to 92 percent may be used when tested with satisfactory results in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-12.

(2) When the porosity of each cylinder is not known, a cylinder taken at random from a lot of 200 or less must be tested for porosity. If the test cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be tested individually and those cylinders that pass the test are acceptable.

(3) For filling that is molded and dried before insertion in cylinders, porosity test may be made on sample block taken at random from material to be used.

(4) The porosity of the filling material must be determined; the amount of solvent at 70 °F for a cylinder:

(i) Having shell volumetric capacity above 20 pounds water capacity (nominal) may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of fillerMaximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
90 to 9243.4
87 to 9042.0
83 to 8740.0
80 to 8338.6
75 to 8036.2
70 to 7533.8
65 to 7031.4

(ii) Having volumetric capacity of 20 pounds or less water capacity (nominal), may not exceed the following:

Percent porosity of fillerMaximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
90 to 9241.8
83 to 9038.5
80 to 8337.1
75 to 8034.8
70 to 7532.5
65 to 7030.2

(q) Tare weight. The tare weight is the combined weight of the cylinder proper, porous filling, valve, and solvent, but without removable cap.

(r) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of §178.35, the inspector shall—

(1) Certify chemical analyses of steel used, signed by manufacturer thereof; also verify by check analyses, of samples taken from each heat or from 1 out of each lot of 200 or less plates, shells, or tubes used.

(2) Verify compliance of cylinder shells with all shell requirements, inspect inside before closing in both ends, verify heat treatment as proper; obtain all samples for all tests and for check analyses, witness all tests; verify threads by gauge, report volumetric capacity and minimum thickness of wall noted.

(3) Report percentage of each specified alloying element in the steel. Prepare report on manufacture of steel shells in form prescribed in §178.35. Furnish one copy to manufacturer and three copies to the company that is to complete the cylinders.

(4) Determine porosity of filling and tare weights; verify compliance of marking with prescribed requirements; obtain necessary copies of steel shell reports prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section; and furnish complete test reports required by this specification to the person who has completed the manufacturer of the cylinders and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test reports must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.

(s) Marking. (1) Tare weight of cylinder, in pounds and ounces, must be marked on the cylinder.

(2) Cylinders, not completed, when delivered must each be marked for identification of each lot of 200 or less.

(3) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in locations in accordance with the following:

(i) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick; or

(ii) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top end of cylinder; or

(iii) On a plate of ferrous material attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; the plate must be at least 116 inch thick, and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1,100 °F throughout all edges of the plate. Sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least four (4) retest dates.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.61   Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded longitudinal seam.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4BW cylinder is a welded type steel cylinder with a longitudinal electric-arc welded seam, a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure at least 225 and not over 500 psig gauge. Cylinders closed in by spinning process are not authorized.

(b) Authorized steel. Steel used in the construction of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) The body of the cylinder must be constructed of steel conforming to the limits specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part.

(2) Material for heads must meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section or be open hearth, electric or basic oxygen carbon steel of uniform quality. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon 0.25, Manganese 0.60, Phosphorus 0.045, Sulfur 0.050. Heads must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with a maximum ratio of 2.1. If low carbon steel is used, the thickness of such heads must be determined by using a maximum wall stress of 24,000 p.s.i. in the formula described in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and the following:

(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. Heads must be concave to pressure.

(2) Circumferential seams must be by electric-arc welding. Joints must be butt with one member offset (joggle butt) or lap with minimum overlap of at least four times nominal sheet thickness.

(3) Longitudinal seams in shells must conform to the following:

(i) Longitudinal electric-arc welded seams must be of the butt welded type. Welds must be made by a machine process including automatic feed and welding guidance mechanisms. Longitudinal seams must have complete joint penetration, and must be free from undercuts, overlaps or abrupt ridges or valleys. Misalignment of mating butt edges may not exceed 16 of nominal sheet thickness or 132 inch whichever is less. All joints with nominal sheet thickness up to and including 18 inch must be tightly butted. When nominal sheet thickness is greater than 18 inch, the joint must be gapped with maximum distance equal to one-half the nominal sheet thickness or 132 inch whichever is less. Joint design, preparation and fit-up must be such that requirements of this paragraph (d) are satisfied.

(ii) Maximum joint efficiency must be 1.0 when each seam is radiographed completely. Maximum joint efficiency must be 0.90 when one cylinder from each lot of 50 consecutively welded cylinders is spot radiographed. In addition, one out of the first five cylinders welded following a shut down of welding operations exceeding four hours must be spot radiographed. Spot radiographs, when required, must be made of a finished welded cylinder and must include the girth weld for 2 inches in both directions from the intersection of the longitudinal and girth welds and include at least 6 inches of the longitudinal weld. Maximum joint efficacy of 0.75 must be permissible without radiography.

(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding of attachments. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads and valve protection rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.

(f) Wall thickness. For outside diameters over 6 inches the minimum wall thickness must be 0.078 inch. For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4 to1 (4:1). In any case the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed in paragraph (f)(4) of this section may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:

(1) The value referenced in paragraph (b) of this section for the particular material under consideration.

(2) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(3) 35,000 psi.

(4) Stress must be calculated by the following formula:

S = [2P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / [E(D2 − d2)]

where:

S = wall stress, psi;

P = service pressure, psig;

D = outside diameter, inches;

d = inside diameter, inches;

E = joint efficiency of the longitudinal seam (from paragraph (d) of this section).

(g) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method referenced in Table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations. Heat treatment is not required after welding or brazing of weldable low carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.

(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.

(2) Openings in cylinders must be provided with adequate fittings, bosses, or pads, integral with or securely attached to the cylinder by welding.

(3) Threads must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean cut and to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard Taper Pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(4) Closure of fittings, boss or pads must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(i) Hydrostatic test. Cylinders must withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water-jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit readings to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit readings of total volumetric expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat treatment and previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders must be tested as follows:

(i) At least 1 cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested as outlined in paragraphs (i)(1), (i)(2), and (i)(3) of this section to at least two times service pressure.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as outlined in paragraph (i)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least two times service pressure and show no defect.

(5) One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 500 or less successively produced must be hydrostatically tested to 4 times service pressure without bursting.

(j) Physical tests. Cylinders must be subjected to a physical test as follows:

(1) Specimens must be taken from one cylinder after heat treatment and chosen at random from each lot of 200 or less, as follows:

(i) Body specimen. One specimen must be taken longitudinally from the body section at least 90 degrees away from the weld.

(ii) Head specimen. One specimen must be taken from either head on a cylinder when both heads are made of the same material. However, if the two heads are made of differing materials, a specimen must be taken from each head.

(iii) If due to welded attachments on the top head there is insufficient surface from which to take a specimen, it may be taken from a representative head of the same heat treatment as the test cylinder.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 316 inch thick.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows when specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “off-set” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2-percent offset.

(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.

(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2-inch specimens and by 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four increments.

(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be subjected to the following tests:

(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less. The specimen must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(2) Guided bend test. A root test specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.

(3) Alternate guided bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gauge lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.

(m) Radiographic examination. Welds of the cylinders must be subjected to a radiographic examination as follows:

(1) Radiographic inspection must conform to the techniques and acceptability criteria set forth in CGA Pamphlet C-3. When fluoroscopic inspection is used, permanent film records need not be retained.

(2) Should spot radiographic examination fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (m)(1) of this section, two additional welds from the same lot of 50 cylinders or less must be examined, and if either of these fail to meet the requirements, each cylinder must be examined as previously outlined; only those passing are acceptable.

(n) Rejected cylinders. (1) Unless otherwise stated, if a sample cylinder or specimen taken from a lot of cylinders fails the prescribed test, then two additional specimens must be selected from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed test. If either of these fails the test, then the entire lot must be rejected.

(2) Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized provided that all defective metal is cut away and the joint is rewelded as prescribed for original welded joints.

(o) Markings. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in any of the following locations on the cylinder:

(1) On shoulders and top heads when they are not less than 0.087-inch thick.

(2) On a metal plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least 116 -inch thick and must be attached by welding, or by brazing. The brazing rod is to melt at a temperature of 1100 °F Welding or brazing must be along all the edges of the plate.

(3) On the neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.

(4) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 25 pounds.

(p) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by §178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the type and amount of radiography.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 64 FR 51919, Sept. 27, 1999; 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 6, 2002; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 78 FR 60754, Oct. 2, 2013]

§178.65   Specification 39 non-reusable (non-refillable) cylinders.

(a) Type, size, service pressure, and test pressure. A DOT 39 cylinder is a seamless, welded, or brazed cylinder with a service pressure not to exceed 80 percent of the test pressure. Spherical pressure vessels are authorized and covered by references to cylinders in this specification.

(1) Size limitation. Maximum water capacity may not exceed: (i) 55 pounds (1,526 cubic inches) for a service pressure of 500 p.s.i.g. or less, and (ii) 10 pounds (277 cubic inches) for a service pressure in excess of 500 p.s.i.g.

(2) Test pressure. The minimum test pressure is the maximum pressure of contents at 130 °F or 180 p.s.i.g. whichever is greater.

(3) Pressure of contents. The term “pressure of contents” as used in this specification means the total pressure of all the materials to be shipped in the cylinder.

(b) Material; steel or aluminum. The cylinder must be constructed of either steel or aluminum conforming to the following requirements:

(1) Steel. (i) The steel analysis must conform to the following:

  Ladle analysisCheck analysis
Carbon, maximum percent0.120.15
Phosphorus, maximum percent.04.05
Sulfur, maximum percent.05.06

(ii) For a cylinder made of seamless steel tubing with integrally formed ends, hot drawn, and finished, content percent for the following may not exceed: Carbon, 0.55; phosphorous, 0.045; sulfur, 0.050.

(iii) For non-heat treated welded steel cylinders, adequately killed deep drawing quality steel is required.

(iv) Longitudinal or helical welded cylinders are not authorized for service pressures in excess of 500 p.s.i.g.

(2) Aluminum. Aluminum is not authorized for service pressures in excess of 500 psig. The analysis of the aluminum must conform to the Aluminum Association standard for alloys 1060, 1100, 1170, 3003, 5052, 5086, 5154, 6061, and 6063, as specified in its publication entitled “Aluminum Standards and Data” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) Material with seams, cracks, laminations, or other injurious defects not permitted.

(4) Material used must be identified by any suitable method.

(c) Manufacture. (1) General manufacturing requirements are as follows:

(i) The surface finish must be uniform and reasonably smooth.

(ii) Inside surfaces must be clean, dry, and free of loose particles.

(iii) No defect of any kind is permitted if it is likely to weaken a finished cylinder.

(2) Requirements for seams:

(i) Brazing is not authorized on aluminum cylinders.

(ii) Brazing material must have a melting point of not lower than 1,000 °F.

(iii) Brazed seams must be assembled with proper fit to ensure complete penetration of the brazing material throughout the brazed joint.

(iv) Minimum width of brazed joints must be at least four times the thickness of the shell wall.

(v) Brazed seams must have design strength equal to or greater than 1.5 times the minimum strength of the shell wall.

(vi) Welded seams must be properly aligned and welded by a method that provides clean, uniform joints with adequate penetration.

(vii) Welded joints must have a strength equal to or greater than the minimum strength of the shell material in the finished cylinder.

(3) Attachments to the cylinder are permitted by any means which will not be detrimental to the integrity of the cylinder. Welding or brazing of attachments to the cylinder must be completed prior to all pressure tests.

(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(d) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at test pressure does not exceed the yield strength of the material of the finished cylinder wall. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:

(1) Calculation of the stress for cylinders must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = Wall stress, in psi;

P = Test pressure in psig;

D = Outside diameter, in inches;

d = Inside diameter, in inches.

(2) Calculation of the stress for spheres must be made by the following formula:

S = PD / 4t

Where:

S = Wall stress, in psi;

P = Test pressure i psig;

D = Outside diameter, in inches;

t = Minimum wall thickness, in inches.

(e) Openings and attachments. Openings and attachments must conform to the following:

(1) Openings and attachments are permitted on heads only.

(2) All openings and their reinforcements must be within an imaginary circle, concentric to the axis of the cylinder. The diameter of the circle may not exceed 80 percent of the outside diameter of the cylinder. The plane of the circle must be parallel to the plane of a circumferential weld and normal to the long axis of the cylinder.

(3) Unless a head has adequate thickness, each opening must be reinforced by a securely attached fitting, boss, pad, collar, or other suitable means.

(4) Material used for welded openings and attachments must be of weldable quality and compatible with the material of the cylinder.

(f) Pressure tests. (1) Each cylinder must be tested at an internal pressure of at least the test pressure and must be held at that pressure for at least 30 seconds.

(i) The leakage test must be conducted by submersion under water or by some other method that will be equally sensitive.

(ii) If the cylinder leaks, evidences visible distortion, or any other defect, while under test, it must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section).

(2) One cylinder taken from the beginning of each lot, and one from each 1,000 or less successively produced within the lot thereafter, must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. The entire lot must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section) if:

(i) A failure occurs at a gage pressure less than 2.0 times the test pressure;

(ii) A failure initiates in a braze or a weld or the heat affected zone thereof;

(iii) A failure is other than in the sidewall of a cylinder longitudinal with its long axis; or

(iv) In a sphere, a failure occurs in any opening, reinforcement, or at a point of attachment.

(3) A “lot” is defined as the quantity of cylinders successively produced per production shift (not exceeding 10 hours) having identical size, design, construction, material, heat treatment, finish, and quality.

(g) Flattening test. One cylinder must be taken from the beginning of production of each lot (as defined in paragraph (f)(3) of this section) and subjected to a flattening test as follows:

(1) The flattening test must be made on a cylinder that has been tested at test pressure.

(2) A ring taken from a cylinder may be flattened as an alternative to a test on a complete cylinder. The test ring may not include the heat affected zone or any weld. However, for a sphere, the test ring may include the circumferential weld if it is located at a 45 degree angle to the ring, ±5 degrees.

(3) The flattening must be between 60 degrees included-angle, wedge shaped knife edges, rounded to a 0.5 inch radius.

(4) Cylinders and test rings may not crack when flattened so that their outer surfaces are not more than six times wall thickness apart when made of steel or not more than ten times wall thickness apart when made of aluminum.

(5) If any cylinder or ring cracks when subjected to the specified flattening test, the lot of cylinders represented by the test must be rejected (see paragraph (h) of this section).

(h) Rejected cylinders. Rejected cylinders must conform to the following requirements:

(1) If the cause for rejection of a lot is determinable, and if by test or inspection defective cylinders are eliminated from the lot, the remaining cylinders must be qualified as a new lot under paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(2) Repairs to welds are permitted. Following repair, a cylinder must pass the pressure test specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

(3) If a cylinder made from seamless steel tubing fails the flattening test described in paragraph (g) of this section, suitable uniform heat treatment must be used on each cylinder in the lot. All prescribed tests must be performed subsequent to this heat treatment.

(i) Markings. (1) The markings required by this section must be durable and waterproof. The requirements of §178.35(h) do not apply to this section.

(2) Required markings are as follows:

(i) DOT-39.

(ii) NRC.

(iii) The service pressure.

(iv) The test pressure.

(v) The registration number (M****) of the manufacturer.

(vi) The lot number.

(vii) The date of manufacture if the lot number does not establish the date of manufacture.

(viii) With one of the following statements:

(A) For cylinders manufactured prior to October 1, 1996: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $25,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 1809)” or “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(B) For cylinders manufactured on or after October 1, 1996: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(3) The markings required by paragraphs (i)(2)(i) through (i)(2)(v) of this section must be in numbers and letters at least 18 inch high and displayed sequentially. For example:

DOT-39 NRC 250/500 M1001.

(4) No person may mark any cylinder with the specification identification “DOT-39” unless it was manufactured in compliance with the requirements of this section and its manufacturer has a registration number (M****) from the Associate Administrator.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.68   Specification 4E welded aluminum cylinders.

(a) Type, size and service pressure. A DOT 4E cylinder is a welded aluminum cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) of not over 1,000 pounds and a service pressure of at least 225 to not over 500 psig. The cylinder must be constructed of not more than two seamless drawn shells with no more than one circumferential weld. The circumferential weld may not be closer to the point of tangency of the cylindrical portion with the shoulder than 20 times the cylinder wall thickness. Cylinders or shells closed in by spinning process and cylinders with longitudinal seams are not authorized.

(b) Authorized material. The cylinder must be constructed of aluminum of uniform quality. The following chemical analyses are authorized:

Table 1—Authorized Materials

DesignationChemical analysis—limits in percent 51541
Iron plus silicon0.45 maximum.
Copper0.10 maximum.
Manganese0.10 maximum.
Magnesium3.10/3.90.
Chromium0.15/0.35.
Zinc0.20 maximum.
Titanium0.20 maximum.
Others, each0.05 maximum.
Others, total0.15 maximum.
Aluminumremainder.

1Analysis must regularly be made only for the elements specifically mentioned in this table. If, however, the presence of other elements is indicated in the course of routine analysis, further analysis should be made to determine conformance with the limits specified for other elements.

(c) Identification. Material must be identified by any suitable method that will identify the alloy and manufacturer's lot number.

(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. All welding must be by the gas shielded arc process.

(e) Welding. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings or flanges, footrings, handles, bosses and pads and valve protection rings is authorized. However, such attachments and the portion of the cylinder to which it is attached must be made of weldable aluminum alloys.

(f) Wall thickness. The wall thickness of the cylinder must conform to the following:

(1) The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be 0.140 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that calculated wall stress at twice service pressure may not exceed the lesser value of either of the following:

(i) 20,000 psi.

(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material as required in paragraph (j) of this section.

(2) Calculation must be made by the following formula:

S = [P(1.3D2 + 0.4d2)] / (D2 − d2)

Where:

S = wall stress in psi;

P = minimum test pressure prescribed for water jacket test;

D = outside diameter in inches;

d = inside diameter in inches.

(3) Minimum thickness of heads and bottoms may not be less than the minimum required thickness of the side wall.

(g) Opening in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:

(1) All openings must be in the heads or bases.

(2) Each opening in cylinders, except those for safety devices, must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad, securely attached to cylinder by welding by inert gas shielded arc process or by threads. If threads are used, they must comply with the following:

(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.

(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.

(iii) Straight threads, having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.

(3) Closure of a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage.

(h) Hydrostatic test. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a hydrostatic test, as follows:

(1) The test must be by water jacket, or other suitable method, operated so as to obtain accurate data. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent. The expansion gauge must permit a reading of the total expansion to an accuracy either of 1 percent or 0.1 cubic centimeter.

(2) Pressure of 2 times service pressure must be maintained for at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to insure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied previous to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated at a pressure increased by 10 percent over the pressure otherwise specified.

(3) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 12 percent of total volumetric expansion at test pressure.

(4) Cylinders having a calculated wall stress of 18,000 psi or less at test pressure may be tested as follows:

(i) At least one cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested in accordance with paragraphs (h)(1), (h)(2), and (h)(3) of this section.

(ii) All cylinders not tested as provided in paragraph (h)(4)(i) of this section must be examined under pressure of at least 2 times service pressure and show no defect.

(5) One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 1,000 or less must be hydrostatically tested to 4 times the service pressure without bursting. Inability to meet this requirement must result in rejection of the lot.

(i) Flattening test. After hydrostatic testing, a flattening test is required on one section of a cylinder, taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less as follows:

(1) If the weld is not at midlength of the cylinder, the test section must be no less in width than 30 times the cylinder wall thickness. The weld must be in the center of the section. Weld reinforcement must be removed by machining or grinding so that the weld is flush with the exterior of the parent metal. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened between flat plates to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.

(2) If the weld is at midlength of the cylinder, the test may be made as specified in paragraph (i)(1) of this section or must be made between wedge shaped knife edges (60° angle) rounded to a 12 inch radius. There must be no evidence of cracking in the sample when it is flattened to no more than 6 times the wall thickness.

(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, and reduction of area of material as follows:

(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut from one cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less.

(2) Specimens must conform to the following:

(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 112 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 112 inches.

(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.

(iii) When size of cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows; when specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical test detailed information in regard to such specimens.

(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.

(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:

(i) The yield strength must be determined by the “offset” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 18 inch per minute during yield strength determination.

(k) Acceptable results for physical tests. An acceptable result of the physical test requires an elongation to at least 7 percent and yield strength not over 80 percent of tensile strength.

(l) Weld tests. Welds of the cylinder are required to successfully pass the following tests:

(1) Reduced section tensile test. A specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the physical tests specified in paragraph (j) of this section. The specimen must be taken from across the seam, edges must be parallel for a distance of approximately 2 inches on either side of the weld. The specimen must be fractured in tension. The apparent breaking stress calculated on the minimum wall thickness must be at least equal to 2 times the stress calculated under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, and in addition must have an actual breaking stress of at least 30,000 psi. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(2) Guided bend test. A bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder used for the physical test specified in paragraph (j) of this section. Specimen must be taken across the seam, must be a minimum of 112 inches wide, edges must be parallel and rounded with a file, and back-up strip, if used, must be removed by machining. The specimen shall be tested as follows:

(i) The specimen must be bent to refusal in the guided bend test jig as illustrated in paragraph 6.10 of CGA C-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The root of the weld (inside surface of the cylinder) must be located away from the ram of the jig. The specimen must not show a crack or other open defect exceeding 18 inch in any direction upon completion of the test. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from each of 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(ii) Alternatively, the specimen may be tested in a guided bend test jig as illustrated in Figure 12.1 of The Aluminum Association's 2002 publication, “Welding Aluminum: Theory and Practice.” The root of the weld (inside surface of the cylinder) must be located away from the mandrel of the jig. No specimen must show a crack or other open defect exceeding 18 inch in any direction upon completion of the test. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from each of 2 additional cylinders from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.

(m) Rejected cylinders. Repair of welded seams is authorized. Acceptable cylinders must pass all prescribed tests.

(n) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by §178.35, the record of chemical analyses must also include applicable information on iron, titanium, zinc, and magnesium used in the construction of the cylinder.

[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, 2009]

§178.69   Responsibilities and requirements for manufacturers of UN pressure receptacles.

(a) Each manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle marked with “USA” as a country of approval must comply with the requirements in this section. The manufacturer must maintain a quality system, obtain an approval for each initial pressure receptacle design type, and ensure that all production of UN pressure receptacles meets the applicable requirements.

(1) Quality system. The manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle must have its quality system approved by the Associate Administrator. The quality system will initially be assessed through an audit by the Associate Administrator or his or her representative to determine whether it meets the requirements of this section. The Associate Administrator will notify the manufacturer in writing of the results of the audit. The notification will contain the conclusions of the audit and any corrective action required. The Associate Administrator may perform periodic audits to ensure that the manufacturer operates in accordance with the quality system. Reports of periodic audits will be provided to the manufacturer. The manufacturer must bear the cost of audits.

(2) Quality system documentation. The manufacturer must be able to demonstrate a documented quality system. Management must review the adequacy of the quality system to assure that it is effective and conforms to the requirements in §178.70. The quality system records must be in English and must include detailed descriptions of the following:

(i) The organizational structure and responsibilities of personnel with regard to design and product quality;

(ii) The design control and design verification techniques, processes, and procedures used when designing the pressure receptacles;

(iii) The relevant procedures for pressure receptacle manufacturing, quality control, quality assurance, and process operation instructions;

(iv) Inspection and testing methodologies, measuring and testing equipment, and calibration data;

(v) The process for meeting customer requirements;

(vi) The process for document control and document revision;

(vii) The system for controlling non-conforming material and records, including procedures for identification, segregation, and disposition;

(viii) Production, processing and fabrication, including purchased components, in-process and final materials; and

(ix) Training programs for relevant personnel.

(3) Maintenance of quality system. The manufacturer must maintain the quality system as approved by the Associate Administrator. The manufacturer shall notify the Associate Administrator of any intended changes to the approved quality system prior to making the change. The Associate Administrator will evaluate the proposed change to determine whether the amended quality system will satisfy the requirements. The Associate Administrator will notify the manufacturer of the findings.

(b) Design type approvals. The manufacturer must have each pressure receptacle design type reviewed by an IIA and approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with §178.70. A cylinder is considered to be of a new design, compared with an existing approved design, as stated in the applicable ISO design, construction and testing standard.

(c) Production inspection and certification. The manufacturer must ensure that each UN pressure receptacle is inspected and certified in accordance with §178.71.

[71 FR 33885, June 12, 2006]

§178.70   Approval of UN pressure receptacles.

(a) Initial design-type approval. The manufacturer of a UN pressure receptacle must obtain an initial design type approval from the Associate Administrator. The initial design type approval must be of the pressure receptacle design as it is intended to be produced. The manufacturer must arrange for an IIA, approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter, to perform a pre-audit of its pressure receptacle manufacturing operation prior to having an audit conducted by the Associate Administrator or his designee.

(b) IIA pre-audit. The manufacturer must submit an application for initial design type approval to the IIA for review. The IIA will examine the manufacturer's application for initial design type approval for completeness. An incomplete application will be returned to the manufacturer with an explanation. If an application is complete, the IIA will review all technical documentation, including drawings and calculations, to verify that the design meets all requirements of the applicable UN pressure receptacle standard and specification requirements. If the technical documentation shows that the pressure receptacle prototype design conforms to the applicable standards and requirements in §178.70, the manufacturer will fabricate a prototype lot of pressure receptacles in conformance with the technical documentation representative of the design. The IIA will verify that the prototype lot conforms to the applicable requirements by selecting pressure receptacles and witnessing their testing. After prototype testing has been satisfactorily completed, showing the pressure receptacles fully conform to all applicable specification requirements, the certifying IIA must prepare a letter of recommendation and a design type approval certificate. The design type approval certificate must contain the name and address of the manufacturer and the IIA certifying the design type, the test results, chemical analyses, lot identification, and all other supporting data specified in the applicable ISO design, construction and testing standard. The IIA must provide the certificate and documentation to the manufacturer.

(c) Application for initial design type approval. If the pre-audit is found satisfactory by the IIA, the manufacturer will submit the letter of recommendation from the IIA and an application for design type approval to the Associate Administrator. An application for initial design type approval must be submitted for each manufacturing facility. The application must be in English and, at a minimum, contain the following information:

(1) The name and address of the manufacturing facility. If the application is submitted by an authorized representative on behalf of the manufacturer, the application must include the representative's name and address.

(2) The name and title of the individual responsible for the manufacturer's quality system, as required by §178.69.

(3) The designation of the pressure receptacle and the relevant pressure receptacle standard.

(4) Details of any refusal of approval of a similar application by a designated approval agency of another country.

(5) The name and address of the production IIA that will perform the functions prescribed in paragraph (e) of this section. The IIA must be approved in writing by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart I of part 107 of this chapter.

(6) Documentation on the manufacturing facility as specified in §178.69.

(7) Design specifications and manufacturing drawings, showing components and subassemblies if relevant, design calculations, and material specifications necessary to verify compliance with the applicable pressure receptacle design standard.

(8) Manufacturing procedures and any applicable standards that describe in detail the manufacturing processes and control.

(9) Design type approval test reports detailing the results of examinations and tests conducted in accordance with the relevant pressure receptacle standard, to include any additional data, such as suitability for underwater applications or compatibility with hydrogen embrittlement gases.

(d) Modification of approved pressure receptacle design type. Modification of an approved UN pressure receptacle design type is not authorized without the approval of the Associate Administrator. A manufacturer seeking modification of an approved UN pressure receptacle design type may be required to submit design qualification test data to the Associate Administrator before production. An audit may be required as part of the process to modify an approval.

(e) Responsibilities of the production IIA. The production IIA is responsible for ensuring that each pressure receptacle conforms to the design type approval. The production IIA must perform the following functions:

(1) Witness all inspections and tests specified in the UN pressure receptacle standard to ensure compliance with the standard and that the procedures adopted by the manufacturer meet the requirements of the standard;

(2) Verify that the production inspections were performed in accordance with this section;

(3) Select UN pressure receptacles from a prototype production lot and witness testing as required for the design type approval;

(4) Ensure that the various design type approval examinations and tests are performed accurately;

(5) Verify that each pressure receptacle is marked in accordance with the applicable requirements in §178.71; and

(6) Furnish complete test reports to the manufacturer and upon request to the purchaser. The test reports and certificate of compliance must be retained by the IIA for at least 20 years from the original test date of the pressure receptacles.

(f) Production inspection audit and certification. (1) If the application, design drawing and quality control documents are found satisfactory, PHMSA will schedule an on-site audit of the pressure receptacle manufacturer's quality system, manufacturing processes, inspections, and test procedures.

(2) During the audit, the manufacturer will be required to produce pressure receptacles to the technical standards for which approval is sought.

(3) The production IIA must witness the required inspections and verifications on the pressure receptacles during the production run. The IIA selected by the manufacturer for production inspection and testing may be different from the IIA who performed the design type approval verifications.

(4) If the procedures and controls are deemed acceptable, test sample pressure receptacles will be selected at random from the production lot and sent to a laboratory designated by the Associate Administrator for verification testing.

(5) If the pressure receptacle test samples are found to conform to all the applicable requirements, the Associate Administrator will issue approvals to the manufacturer and the production IIA to authorize the manufacture of the pressure receptacles. The approved design type approval certificate will be returned to the manufacturer.

(6) Upon the receipt of the approved design type approval certificate from the Associate Administrator, the pressure receptacle manufacturer must sign the certificate.

(g) Recordkeeping. The production IIA and the manufacturer must retain a copy of the design type approval certificate and certificate of compliance records for at least 20 years.

(h) Denial of design type application. If the design type application is denied, the Associate Administrator will notify the applicant in writing and provide the reason for the denial. The manufacturer may request that the Associate Administrator reconsider the decision. The application request must—

(1) Be written in English and filed within 60 days of receipt of the decision;

(2) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law; and

(3) Enclose any additional information needed to support the request to reconsider.

(i) Appeal. (1) A manufacturer whose reconsideration request is denied may appeal to the PHMSA Administrator. The appeal must—

(i) Be written in English and filed within 60 days of receipt of the Associate Administrator's decision on reconsideration;

(ii) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law;

(iii) Enclose any additional information needed to support the appeal; and

(iv) State in detail the modification of the final decision sought.

(2) The PHMSA Administrator will grant or deny the relief and inform the appellant in writing of the decision. PHMSA Administrator's decision is the final administrative action.

(j) Termination of a design type approval certificate. (1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval certificate issue under this section if it is determined that, because of a change in circumstances, the approval no longer is needed or no longer would be granted if applied for; information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous; or termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator will provide the manufacturer and the approval agency—

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the withdrawal;

(ii) Opportunity to submit oral and written evidence, and

(iii) Opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the application requirement.

(3) If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be withdrawn to preclude a significant and imminent adverse affect on public safety, the procedures in paragraph (j)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section need not be provided prior to withdrawal of the approval, but shall be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[71 FR 33886, June 12, 2006, as amended at 71 FR 54397, Sept. 14, 2006; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012]

§178.71   Specifications for UN pressure receptacles.

(a) General. Each UN pressure receptacle must meet the requirements of this section. Requirements for approval, qualification, maintenance, and testing are contained in §178.70, and subpart C of part 180 of this subchapter.

(b) Definitions. The following definitions apply for the purposes of design and construction of UN pressure receptacles under this subpart:

Alternative arrangement means an approval granted by the Associate Administrator for a MEGC that has been designed, constructed or tested to the technical requirements or testing methods other than those specified for UN pressure receptacles in part 178 or part 180 of this subchapter.

Bundle of cylinders. See §171.8 of this subchapter.

Design type means a pressure receptacle design as specified by a particular pressure receptacle standard.

Design type approval means an overall approval of the manufacturer's quality system and design type of each pressure receptacle to be produced within the manufacturer's facility.

UN tube. See §171.8 of this subchapter.

(c) Following the final heat treatment, all cylinders, except those selected for batch testing must be subjected to a proof pressure or a hydraulic volumetric expansion test.

(d) Service equipment. (1) Except for pressure relief devices, UN pressure receptacle equipment, including valves, piping, fittings, and other equipment subjected to pressure must be designed and constructed to withstand at least 1.5 times the test pressure of the pressure receptacle.

(2) Service equipment must be configured or designed to prevent damage that could result in the release of the pressure receptacle contents during normal conditions of handling and transport. Manifold piping leading to shut-off valves must be sufficiently flexible to protect the valves and the piping from shearing or releasing the pressure receptacle contents. The filling and discharge valves and any protective caps must be secured against unintended opening. The valves must conform to ISO 10297 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), or ISO 13340 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) for non-refillable pressure receptacles, and be protected as specified in §173.301b(f) of this subchapter.

(3) UN pressure receptacles that cannot be handled manually or rolled, must be equipped with devices (e.g., skids, rings, straps) ensuring that they can be safely handled by mechanical means and so arranged as not to impair the strength of, nor cause undue stresses, in the pressure receptacle.

(4) Pressure receptacles filled by volume must be equipped with a level indicator.

(e) Bundles of cylinders. UN pressure receptacles assembled in bundles must be structurally supported and held together as a unit and secured in a manner that prevents movement in relation to the structural assembly and movement that would result in the concentration of harmful local stresses. The frame design must ensure stability under normal operating conditions.

(1) The frame must securely retain all the components of the bundle and must protect them from damage during conditions normally incident to transportation. The method of cylinder restraint must prevent any vertical or horizontal movement or rotation of the cylinder that could cause undue strain on the manifold. The total assembly must be able to withstand rough handling, including being dropped or overturned.

(2) The frame must include features designed for the handling and transportation of the bundle. The lifting rings must be designed to withstand a design load of 2 times the maximum gross weight. Bundles with more than one lifting ring must be designed such that a minimum sling angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal can be achieved during lifting using the lifting rings. If four lifting rings are used, their design must be strong enough to allow the bundle to be lifted by two rings. Where two or four lifting rings are used, diametrically opposite lifting rings must be aligned with each other to allow for correct lifting using shackle pins. If the bundle is filled with forklift pockets, it must contain two forklift pockets on each side from which it is to be lifted. The forklift pockets must be positioned symmetrically consistent with the bundle center of gravity.

(3) The frame structural members must be designed for a vertical load of 2 times the maximum gross weight of the bundle. Design stress levels may not exceed 0.9 times the yield strength of the material.

(4) The frame must not contain any protrusions from the exterior frame structure that could cause a hazardous condition.

(5) The frame design must prevent collection of water or other debris that would increase the tare weight of bundles filled by weight.

(6) The floor of the bundle frame must not buckle during normal operating conditions and must allow for the drainage of water and debris from around the base of the cylinders.

(7) If the frame design includes movable doors or covers, they must be capable of being secured with latches or other means that will not become dislodged by operational impact loads. Valves that need to be operated in normal service or in an emergency must be accessible.

(8) For bundles of cylinders, pressure receptacle marking requirements only apply to the individual cylinders of a bundle and not to any assembly structure.

(f) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable welded cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable welded cylinders must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) ISO 4706: Gas cylinders—Refillable welded steel cylinders—Test pressure 60 bar and below (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 18172-1: Gas cylinders—Refillable welded stainless steel cylinders—Part 1: Test pressure 6 MPa and below (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) ISO 20703: Gas cylinders—Refillable welded aluminum-alloy cylinders—Design, construction and testing (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(g) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless steel cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless steel cylinders must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) ISO 9809-1: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 9809-2: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 2: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater than or equal to 1100 MPa. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(3) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(h) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless aluminum alloy cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless aluminum cylinders must conform to ISO 7866: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless aluminum alloy gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The use of Aluminum alloy 6351-T6 or equivalent is prohibited.

(i) Design and construction requirements for UN non-refillable metal cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN non-refillable metal cylinders must conform to ISO 11118: Gas cylinders—Non-refillable metallic gas cylinders—Specification and test methods. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter.)

(j) Design and construction requirements for UN refillable seamless steel tubes. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN refillable seamless steel tubes must conform to ISO 11120: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3000 L—Design, construction and testing. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(k) Design and construction requirements for UN acetylene cylinders. In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN acetylene cylinders must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(1) For the cylinder shell:

(i) ISO 9809-1: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa.

(ii) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders.

(2) The porous mass in an acetylene cylinder must conform to ISO 3807-2: Cylinders for acetylene—Basic requirements—Part 2: Cylinders with fusible plugs. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(l) Design and construction requirements for UN composite cylinders. (1) In addition to the general requirements of this section, UN composite cylinders must be designed for unlimited service life and conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable:

(i) ISO 11119-1: Gas cylinders of composite construction—Specification and test methods—Part 1: Hoop-wrapped composite gas cylinders. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) ISO 11119-2: Gas cylinders of composite construction—Specification and test methods—Part 2: Fully-wrapped fibre reinforced composite gas cylinders with load-sharing metal liners. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(iii) ISO 11119-3: Gas cylinders of composite construction—Specification and test methods—Part 3: Fully wrapped fibre reinforced composite gas cylinders with non-load sharing metallic or non-metallic liners. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 11119-2 and ISO 11119-3 gas cylinders of composite construction manufactured in accordance with the requirements for underwater use must bear the “UW” mark.

(m) Design and construction requirements for UN metal hydride storage systems. In addition to the general requirements of this section, metal hydride storage systems must conform to the following ISO standards, as applicable: ISO 16111: Transportable gas storage devices—Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(n) Material compatibility. In addition to the material requirements specified in the UN pressure receptacle design and construction ISO standards, and any restrictions specified in part 173 for the gases to be transported, the requirements of the following standards must be applied with respect to material compatibility:

(1) ISO 11114-1: Transportable gas cylinders—Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents—Part 1: Metallic materials. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) ISO 11114-2: Transportable gas cylinders—Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas contents—Part 2: Non-metallic materials. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(o) Protection of closures. Closures and their protection must conform to the requirements in §173.301(f) of this subchapter.

(p) Marking of UN refillable pressure receptacles. UN refillable pressure receptacles must be marked clearly and legibly. The required markings must be permanently affixed by stamping, engraving, or other equivalent method, on the shoulder, top end or neck of the pressure receptacle or on a permanently affixed component of the pressure receptacle, such as a welded collar. Except for the “UN” mark, the minimum size of the marks must be 5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter greater than or equal to 140 mm, and 2.5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter less than 140 mm. The minimum size of the “UN” mark must be 5 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter less than 140 mm, and 10 mm for pressure receptacles with a diameter of greater than or equal to 140 mm. The depth of the markings must not create harmful stress concentrations. A refillable pressure receptacle conforming to the UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) The UN packaging symbol.

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(2) The ISO standard, for example ISO 9809-1, used for design, construction and testing. Acetylene cylinders must be marked to indicate the porous mass and the steel shell, for example: “ISO 3807-2/ISO 9809-1.”

(3) The mark of the country where the approval is granted. The letters “USA” must be marked on UN pressure receptacles approved by the United States. The manufacturer must obtain an approval number from the Associate Administrator. The manufacturer approval number must follow the country of approval mark, separated by a slash (for example, USA/MXXXX). Pressure receptacles approved by more than one national authority may contain the mark of each country of approval, separated by a comma.

(4) The identity mark or stamp of the IIA.

(5) The date of the initial inspection, the year (four digits) followed by the month (two digits) separated by a slash, for example “2006/04”.

(6) The test pressure in bar, preceded by the letters “PH” and followed by the letters “BAR”.

(7) The rated charging pressure of the metal hydride storage system in bar, preceded by the letters “RCP” and followed by the letters “BAR.”

(8) The empty or tare weight. Except for acetylene cylinders, empty weight is the mass of the pressure receptacle in kilograms, including all integral parts (e.g., collar, neck ring, foot ring, etc.), followed by the letters “KG”. The empty weight does not include the mass of the valve, valve cap or valve guard or any coating. The empty weight must be expressed to three significant figures rounded up to the last digit. For cylinders of less than 1 kg, the empty weight must be expressed to two significant figures rounded down to the last digit. For acetylene cylinders, the tare weight must be marked on the cylinders in kilograms. The tare weight is the sum of the empty weight, mass of the valve, any coating and all permanently attached parts (e.g., fittings and accessories) that are not removed during filling. The tare weight must be expressed to two significant figures rounded down to the last digit. The tare weight does not include the cylinder cap or any outlet cap or plug not permanently attached to the cylinder.

(9) The minimum wall thickness of the pressure receptacle in millimeters followed by the letters “MM”. This mark is not required for pressure receptacles with a water capacity less than or equal to 1.0 L or for composite cylinders.

(10) For pressure receptacles intended for the transport of compressed gases and UN 1001 acetylene, dissolved, the working pressure in bar, proceeded by the letters “PW”.

(11) For liquefied gases, the water capacity in liters expressed to three significant digits rounded down to the last digit, followed by the letter “L”. If the value of the minimum or nominal water capacity is an integer, the digits after the decimal point may be omitted.

(12) Identification of the cylinder thread type (e.g., 25E).

(13) The country of manufacture. The letters “USA” must be marked on cylinders manufactured in the United States.

(14) The serial number assigned by the manufacturer.

(15) For steel pressure receptacles, the letter “H” showing compatibility of the steel, as specified in 1SO 11114-1.

(16) Identification of aluminum alloy, if applicable.

(17) Stamp for nondestructive testing, if applicable.

(18) Stamp for underwater use of composite cylinders, if applicable.

(19) For metal hydride storage systems having a limited life, the date of expiration indicated by the word “FINAL,” followed by the year (four digits), the month (two digits) and separated by a slash.

(q) Marking sequence. The marking required by paragraph (p) of this section must be placed in three groups as shown in the example below:

(1) The top grouping contains manufacturing marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (p)(13) through (19) of this section.

(2) The middle grouping contains operational marks described in paragraphs (p)(6) through (11) of this section.

(3) The bottom grouping contains certification marks and must appear consecutively in the sequence given in paragraphs (p)(1) through (5) of this section.

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(r) Other markings. Other markings are allowed in areas other than the side wall, provided they are made in low stress areas and are not of a size and depth that will create harmful stress concentrations. Such marks must not conflict with required marks.

(s) Marking of UN non-refillable pressure receptacles. Unless otherwise specified in this paragraph, each UN non-refillable pressure receptacle must be clearly and legibly marked as prescribed in paragraph (p) of this section. In addition, permanent stenciling is authorized. Except when stenciled, the marks must be on the shoulder, top end or neck of the pressure receptacle or on a permanently affixed component of the pressure receptacle (e.g., a welded collar).

(1) The marking requirements and sequence listed in paragraphs (p)(1) through (19) of this section are required, except the markings in paragraphs (p)(8), (9), (12) and (18) are not applicable. The required serial number marking in paragraph (p)(14) may be replaced by the batch number.

(2) Each receptacle must be marked with the words “DO NOT REFILL” in letters of at least 5 mm in height.

(3) A non-refillable pressure receptacle, because of its size, may substitute the marking required by this paragraph with a label. Reduction in marking size is authorized only as prescribed in ISO 7225, Gas cylinders—Precautionary labels. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(4) Each non-refillable pressure receptacle must also be legibly marked by stenciling the following statement: “Federal law forbids transportation if refilled-penalty up to $500,000 fine and 5 years in imprisonment (49 U.S.C. 5124).”

(5) No person may mark a non-refillable pressure receptacle as meeting the requirements of this section unless it was manufactured in conformance with this section.

[76 FR 3385, Jan. 19, 2011, as amended at 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

§178.74   Approval of MEGCs.

(a) Application for design type approval. (1) Each new MEGC design type must have a design approval certificate. An owner or manufacturer must apply to an approval agency that is approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with subpart E of part 107 of this chapter +to obtain approval of a new design. When a series of MEGCs is manufactured without change in the design, the certificate is valid for the entire series. The design approval certificate must refer to the prototype test report, the materials of construction of the manifold, the standards to which the pressure receptacles are made and an approval number. The compliance requirements or test methods applicable to MEGCs as specified in this subpart may be varied when the level of safety is determined to be equivalent to or exceed the requirements of this subchapter and is approved in writing by the Associate Administrator. A design approval may serve for the approval of smaller MEGCs made of materials of the same type and thickness, by the same fabrication techniques and with identical supports, equivalent closures and other appurtenances.

(2) Each application for design approval must be in English and contain the following information:

(i) Two complete copies of all engineering drawings, calculations, and test data necessary to ensure that the design meets the relevant specification.

(ii) The manufacturer's serial number that will be assigned to each MEGC.

(iii) A statement as to whether the design type has been examined by any approval agency previously and judged unacceptable. Affirmative statements must be documented with the name of the approval agency, reason for non-acceptance, and the nature of modifications made to the design type.

(b) Actions by the approval agency. The approval agency must review the application for design type approval, including all drawings and calculations, to ensure that the design of the MEGC meets all requirements of the relevant specification and to determine whether it is complete and conforms to the requirements of this section. An incomplete application will be returned to the applicant with the reasons why the application was returned. If the application is complete and all applicable requirements of this section are met, the approval agency must prepare a MEGC design approval certificate containing the manufacturer's name and address, results and conclusions of the examination and necessary data for identification of the design type. If the Associate Administrator approves the Design Type Approval Certificate application, the approval agency and the manufacturer must each maintain a copy of the approved drawings, calculations, and test data for at least 20 years.

(c) Approval agency's responsibilities. The approval agency is responsible for ensuring that the MEGC conforms to the design type approval. The approval agency must:

(1) Witness all tests required for the approval of the MEGC specified in this section and §178.75.

(2) Ensure, through appropriate inspection, that each MEGC is fabricated in all respects in conformance with the approved drawings, calculations, and test data.

(3) Determine and ensure that the MEGC is suitable for its intended use and that it conforms to the requirements of this subchapter.

(4) Apply its name, identifying mark or identifying number, and the date the approval was issued, to the metal identification marking plate attached to the MEGC upon successful completion of all requirements of this subpart. Any approvals by the Associate Administrator authorizing design or construction alternatives (Alternate Arrangements) of the MEGC (see paragraph (a) of this section) must be indicated on the metal identification plate as specified in §178.75(j).

(5) Prepare an approval certificate for each MEGC or, in the case of a series of identical MEGCs manufactured to a single design type, for each series of MEGCs. The approval certificate must include all of the following information:

(i) The information displayed on the metal identification plate required by §178.75(j);

(ii) The results of the applicable framework test specified in ISO 1496-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(iii) The results of the initial inspection and test specified in paragraph (h) of this section;

(iv) The results of the impact test specified in §178.75(i)(4);

(v) Certification documents verifying that the cylinders and tubes conform to the applicable standards; and

(vi) A statement that the approval agency certifies the MEGC in accordance with the procedures in this section and that the MEGC is suitable for its intended purpose and meets the requirements of this subchapter. When a series of MEGCs is manufactured without change in the design type, the certificate may be valid for the entire series of MEGCs representing a single design type. The approval number must consist of the distinguishing sign or mark of the country (“USA” for the United States of America) where the approval was granted and a registration number.

(6) Retain on file a copy of each approval certificate for at least 20 years.

(d) Manufacturers' responsibilities. The manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the applicable specifications for the design and construction of MEGCs. The manufacturer of a MEGC must:

(1) Comply with all the requirements of the applicable ISO standard specified in §178.71;

(2) Obtain and use an approval agency to review the design, construction and certification of the MEGC;

(3) Provide a statement in the manufacturers' data report certifying that each MEGC manufactured complies with the relevant specification and all the applicable requirements of this subchapter; and

(4) Retain records for the MEGCs for at least 20 years. When required by the specification, the manufacturer must provide copies of the records to the approval agency, the owner or lessee of the MEGC, and to a representative of DOT, upon request.

(e) Denial of application for approval. If the Associate Administrator finds that the MEGC will not be approved for any reason, the Associate Administrator will notify the applicant in writing and provide the reason for the denial. The manufacturer may request that the Associate Administrator reconsider the decision. The application request must—

(1) Be written in English and filed within 90 days of receipt of the decision;

(2) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law; and

(3) Enclose any additional information needed to support the request to reconsider.

(f) Appeal. (1) A manufacturer whose reconsideration request is denied may appeal to the PHMSA Administrator. The appeal must—

(i) Be in writing and filed within 90 days of receipt of the Associate Administrator s decision on reconsideration;

(ii) State in detail any alleged errors of fact and law;

(iii) Enclose any additional information needed to support the appeal; and

(iv) State in detail the modification of the final decision sought.

(2) The Administrator will grant or deny the relief and inform the appellant in writing of the decision. The Administrator's decision is the final administrative action.

(g) Modifications to approved MEGCs. (1) Prior to modification of any approved MEGC that may affect conformance and safe use, and that may involve a change to the design type or affect its ability to retain the hazardous material in transportation, the MEGC's owner must inform the approval agency that prepared the initial approval certificate for the MEGC or, if the initial approval agency is unavailable, another approval agency, of the nature of the modification and request certification of the modification. The owner must supply the approval agency with all revised drawings, calculations, and test data relative to the intended modification. The MEGC's owner must also provide a statement as to whether the intended modification has been examined and determined to be unacceptable by any approval agency. The written statement must include the name of the approval agency, the reason for non-acceptance, and the nature of changes made to the modification since its original rejection.

(2) The approval agency must review the request for modification. If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification does not conform to the relevant specification, the approval agency must reject the request in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section. If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification conforms fully with the relevant specification, the request is accepted. If modification to an approved MEGC alters any information on the approval certificate, the approval agency must prepare a new approval certificate for the modified MEGC and submit the certificate to the Associate Administrator for approval. After receiving approval from the Associate Administrator, the approval agency must ensure that any necessary changes are made to the metal identification plate. A copy of each newly issued approval certificate must be retained by the approval agency and the MEGC's owner for at least 20 years. The approval agency must perform the following activities:

(i) Retain a set of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and data as specified in §178.69(b)(4) for at least 20 years;

(ii) Ensure through appropriate inspection that all modifications conform to the revised drawings, calculations, and test data; and

(iii) Determine the extent to which retesting of the modified MEGC is necessary based on the nature of the proposed modification, and ensure that all required retests are satisfactorily performed.

(h) Termination of Approval Certificate. (1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval issued under this section if he or she determines that—

(i) Because of a change in circumstances, the approval no longer is needed or no longer would be granted if applied for;

(ii) Information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous;

(iii) Termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property; or

(iv) The MEGC does not meet the specification.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator will provide the person—

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the termination;

(ii) An opportunity to submit oral and written evidence; and

(3) An opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the applicable requirements.

(i) Imminent Danger. If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be terminated to preclude a significant and imminent adverse effect on public safety, the Associate Administrator may terminate the certificate immediately. In such circumstances, the opportunities of paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of this section need not be provided prior to termination of the approval, but must be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[71 FR 33890, June 12, 2006]

§178.75   Specifications for MEGCs.

(a) General. Each MEGC must meet the requirements of this section. In a MEGC that meets the definition of a “container” within the terms of the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) must meet the requirements of the CSC as amended and 49 CFR parts 450 through 453, and must have a CSC approval plate.

(b) Alternate Arrangements. The technical requirements applicable to MEGCs may be varied when the level of safety is determined to be equivalent to or exceed the requirements of this subchapter. Such an alternate arrangement must be approved in writing by the Associate Administrator. MEGCs approved to an Alternate Arrangement must be marked as required by paragraph (j) of this section.

(c) Definitions. The following definitions apply:

Leakproofness test means a test using gas subjecting the pressure receptacles and the service equipment of the MEGC to an effective internal pressure of not less than 20% of the test pressure.

Manifold means an assembly of piping and valves connecting the filling and/or discharge openings of the pressure receptacles.

Maximum permissible gross mass or MPGM means the heaviest load authorized for transport (sum of the tare mass of the MEGC, service equipment and pressure receptacle).

Service equipment means manifold system (measuring instruments, piping and safety devices).

Shut-off valve means a valve that stops the flow of gas.

Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, protective and stabilizing members external to the pressure receptacles.

(d) General design and construction requirements. (1) The MEGC must be capable of being loaded and discharged without the removal of its structural equipment. It must possess stabilizing members external to the pressure receptacles to provide structural integrity for handling and transport. MEGCs must be designed and constructed with supports to provide a secure base during transport and with lifting and tie-down attachments that are adequate for lifting the MEGC including when loaded to its maximum permissible gross mass. The MEGC must be designed to be loaded onto a transport vehicle or vessel and equipped with skids, mountings or accessories to facilitate mechanical handling.

(2) MEGCs must be designed, manufactured and equipped to withstand, without loss of contents, all normal handling and transportation conditions. The design must take into account the effects of dynamic loading and fatigue.

(3) Each pressure receptacle of a MEGC must be of the same design type, seamless steel, and constructed and tested according to one of the following ISO standards:

(i) ISO 9809-1: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 1: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength less than 1100 MPa. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(ii) ISO 9809-2: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 2: Quenched and tempered steel cylinders with tensile strength greater than or equal to 1100 MPa. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(iii) ISO 9809-3: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel gas cylinders—Design, construction and testing—Part 3: Normalized steel cylinders. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); or

(iv) ISO 11120: Gas cylinders—Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3000 L—Design, construction and testing. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(4) Pressure receptacles of MEGCs, fittings, and pipework must be constructed of a material that is compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported, as specified in this subchapter.

(5) Contact between dissimilar metals that could result in damage by galvanic action must be prevented by appropriate means.

(6) The materials of the MEGC, including any devices, gaskets, and accessories, must have no adverse effect on the gases intended for transport in the MEGC.

(7) MEGCs must be designed to withstand, without loss of contents, at least the internal pressure due to the contents, and the static, dynamic and thermal loads during normal conditions of handling and transport. The design must take into account the effects of fatigue, caused by repeated application of these loads through the expected life of the MEGC.

(8) MEGCs and their fastenings must, under the maximum permissible load, be capable of withstanding the following separately applied static forces (for calculation purposes, acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81 m/s2):

(i) In the direction of travel: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(ii) Horizontally at right angles to the direction of travel: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity. When the direction of travel is not clearly determined, the forces must be equal to twice the MPGM);

(iii) Vertically upwards: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity); and

(iv) Vertically downwards: 2g (twice the MPGM (total loading including the effect of gravity) multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity.

(9) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, the stress at the most severely stressed point of the pressure receptacles must not exceed the values given in the applicable design specifications (e.g., ISO 11120).

(10) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, the safety factor for the framework and fastenings must be as follows:

(i) For steels having a clearly defined yield point, a safety factor of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed yield strength; or

(ii) For steels with no clearly defined yield point, a safety factor of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed 0.2 percent proof strength and, for austenitic steels, the 1 percent proof strength.

(11) MEGCs must be capable of being electrically grounded to prevent electrostatic discharge when intended for flammable gases.

(12) The pressure receptacles of a MEGC must be secured in a manner to prevent movement that could result in damage to the structure and concentration of harmful localized stresses.

(e) Service equipment. (1) Service equipment must be arranged so that it is protected from mechanical damage by external forces during handling and transportation. When the connections between the frame and the pressure receptacles allow relative movement between the subassemblies, the equipment must be fastened to allow movement to prevent damage to any working part. The manifolds, discharge fittings (pipe sockets, shut-off devices), and shut-off valves must be protected from damage by external forces. Manifold piping leading to shut-off valves must be sufficiently flexible to protect the valves and the piping from shearing, or releasing the pressure receptacle contents. The filling and discharge devices, including flanges or threaded plugs, and any protective caps must be capable of being secured against unintended opening.

(2) Each pressure receptacle intended for the transport of Division 2.3 gases must be equipped with an individual shut-off valve. The manifold for Division 2.3 liquefied gases must be designed so that each pressure receptacle can be filled separately and be kept isolated by a valve capable of being closed during transit. For Division 2.1 gases, the pressure receptacles must be isolated by an individual shut-off valve into assemblies of not more than 3,000 L.

(3) For MEGC filling and discharge openings:

(i) Two valves in series must be placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe. One of the valves may be a backflow prevention valve. (ii) The filling and discharge devices may be equipped to a manifold.

(iii) For sections of piping which can be closed at both ends and where a liquid product can be trapped, a pressure-relief valve must be provided to prevent excessive pressure build-up.

(iv) The main isolation valves on a MEGC must be clearly marked to indicate their directions of closure. All shutoff valves must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel.

(v) Each shut-off valve or other means of closure must be designed and constructed to withstand a pressure equal to or greater than 1.5 times the test pressure of the MEGC.

(vi) All shut-off valves with screwed spindles must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other shut-off valves, the open and closed positions and the direction of closure must be clearly shown.

(vii) All shut-off valves must be designed and positioned to prevent unintentional opening.

(viii) Ductile metals must be used in the construction of valves or accessories.

(4) The piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid damage due to expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. Joints in tubing must be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of brazing materials must be no lower than 525 °C (977 °F). The rated pressure of the service equipment and of the manifold must be not less than two-thirds of the test pressure of the pressure receptacles.

(f) Pressure relief devices. Each pressure receptacle must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices as specified in §173.301(f) of this subchapter. When pressure relief devices are installed, each pressure receptacle or group of pressure receptacles of a MEGC that can be isolated must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. Pressure relief devices must be of a type that will resist dynamic forces including liquid surge and must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(1) The size of the pressure relief devices: CGA S-1.1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) must be used to determine the relief capacity of individual pressure receptacles.

(2) Connections to pressure-relief devices: Connections to pressure relief devices must be of sufficient size to enable the required discharge to pass unrestricted to the pressure relief device. A shut-off valve installed between the pressure receptacle and the pressure relief device is prohibited, except where duplicate devices are provided for maintenance or other reasons, and the shut-off valves serving the devices actually in use are locked open, or the shut-off valves are interlocked so that at least one of the duplicate devices is always operable and capable of meeting the requirements of paragraph (f)(1) of this section. No obstruction is permitted in an opening leading to or leaving from a vent or pressure-relief device that might restrict or cut-off the flow from the pressure receptacle to that device. The opening through all piping and fittings must have at least the same flow area as the inlet of the pressure relief device to which it is connected. The nominal size of the discharge piping must be at least as large as that of the pressure relief device.

(3) Location of pressure-relief devices: For liquefied gases, each pressure relief device must, under maximum filling conditions, be in communication with the vapor space of the pressure receptacles. The devices, when installed, must be arranged to ensure the escaping vapor is discharged upwards and unrestrictedly to prevent impingement of escaping gas or liquid upon the MEGC, its pressure receptacles or personnel. For flammable, pyrophoric and oxidizing gases, the escaping gas must be directed away from the pressure receptacle in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the other pressure receptacles. Heat resistant protective devices that deflect the flow of gas are permissible provided the required pressure relief device capacity is not reduced. Arrangements must be made to prevent access to the pressure relief devices by unauthorized persons and to protect the devices from damage caused by rollover.

(g) Gauging devices. When a MEGC is intended to be filled by mass, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices. Glass level-gauges and gauges made of other fragile material are prohibited.

(h) MEGC supports, frameworks, lifting and tie-down attachments. (1) MEGCs must be designed and constructed with a support structure to provide a secure base during transport. MEGCs must be protected against damage to the pressure receptacles and service equipment resulting from lateral and longitudinal impact and overturning. The forces specified in paragraph (d)(8) of this section, and the safety factor specified in paragraph (d)(10) of this section must be considered in this aspect of the design. Skids, frameworks, cradles or other similar structures are acceptable. If the pressure receptacles and service equipment are so constructed as to withstand impact and overturning, additional protective support structure is not required (see paragraph (h)(4) of this section).

(2) The combined stresses caused by pressure receptacle mountings (e.g. cradles, frameworks, etc.) and MEGC lifting and tie-down attachments must not cause excessive stress in any pressure receptacle. Permanent lifting and tie-down attachments must be equipped to all MEGCs. Any welding of mountings or attachments onto the pressure receptacles is prohibited.

(3) The effects of environmental corrosion must be taken into account in the design of supports and frameworks.

(4) When MEGCs are not protected during transport as specified in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, the pressure receptacles and service equipment must be protected against damage resulting from lateral or longitudinal impact or overturning. External fittings must be protected against release of the pressure receptacles' contents upon impact or overturning of the MEGC on its fittings. Particular attention must be paid to the protection of the manifold. Examples of protection include:

(i) Protection against lateral impact, which may consist of longitudinal bars;

(ii) Protection against overturning, which may consist of reinforcement rings or bars fixed across the frame;

(iii) Protection against rear impact, which may consist of a bumper or frame;

(iv) Protection of the pressure receptacles and service equipment against damage from impact or overturning by use of an ISO frame according to the relevant provisions of ISO 1496-3. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(i) Initial inspection and test. The pressure receptacles and items of equipment of each MEGC must be inspected and tested before being put into service for the first time (initial inspection and test). This initial inspection and test of an MEGC must include the following:

(1) A check of the design characteristics.

(2) An external examination of the MEGC and its fittings, taking into account the hazardous materials to be transported.

(3) A pressure test performed at the test pressures specified in §173.304b(b)(1) and (2) of this subchapter. The pressure test of the manifold may be performed as a hydraulic test or by using another liquid or gas. A leakproofness test and a test of the satisfactory operation of all service equipment must also be performed before the MEGC is placed into service. When the pressure receptacles and their fittings have been pressure-tested separately, they must be subjected to a leakproof test after assembly.

(4) An MEGC that meets the definition of “container” in the CSC (see 49 CFR 450.3(a)(2)) must be subjected to an impact test using a prototype representing each design type. The prototype MEGC must be shown to be capable of absorbing the forces resulting from an impact not less than 4 times (4 g) the MPGM of the fully loaded MEGC, at a duration typical of the mechanical shocks experienced in rail transport. A listing of acceptable methods for performing the impact test is provided in the UN Recommendations (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(j) Marking. (1) Each MEGC must be equipped with a corrosion resistant metal plate permanently attached to the MEGC in a conspicuous place readily accessible for inspection. The pressure receptacles must be marked according to this section. Affixing the metal plate to a pressure receptacle is prohibited. At a minimum, the following information must be marked on the plate by stamping or by any other equivalent method:

Country of manufacture

UN

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Approval Country

Approval Number

Alternate Arrangements (see §178.75(b))

MEGC Manufacturer's name or mark

MEGC's serial number

Approval agency (Authorized body for the design approval)

Year of manufacture

Test pressure: ___ bar gauge

Design temperature range ___ °C to ___ °C

Number of pressure receptacles ___

Total water capacity ___ liters

Initial pressure test date and identification of the Approval Agency

Date and type of most recent periodic tests

Year ___ Month___ Type ___

(e.g. 2004-05, AE/UE, where “AE” represents acoustic emission and “UE” represents ultrasonic examination)

Stamp of the approval agency who performed or witnessed the most recent test

(2) The following information must be marked on a metal plate firmly secured to the MEGC:

Name of the operator

Maximum permissible load mass ___ kg

Working pressure at 15 °C: ___ bar gauge

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM) ___ kg

Unladen (tare) mass ___ kg

[71 FR 33892, June 12, 2006, as amended at 73 FR 4719, Jan. 28, 2008; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012]

Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 178—Illustrations: Cylinder Tensile Sample

The following figures illustrate the recommended locations for test specimens taken from welded cylinders:

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[67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002]

Subparts D-G [Reserved]

Subpart H—Specifications for Portable Tanks

Source: 29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967.

§§178.251--178.253-5   [Reserved]

§178.255   Specification 60; steel portable tanks.

§178.255-1   General requirements.

(a) Tanks must be of fusion welded construction, cylindrical in shape with seamless heads concave to the pressure. Tank shells may be of seamless construction.

(b) Tanks must be designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(c) Tanks including all permanent attachments must be postweld heat treated as a unit.

(d) Requirements concerning types of valves, retesting, and qualification of portable tanks contained in §§173.32 and 173.315 of this chapter must be observed.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.255-2   Material.

(a) Material used in the tank must be steel of good weldable quality and conform with the requirements in Sections V, VIII, and IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) The minimum thickness of metal, exclusive of lining material, for shell and heads of tanks shall be as follows:

Tank capacityMinimum thickness (inch)
Not more than 1,200 gallons1/4
Over 1,200 to 1,800 gallons5/16
Over 1,800 gallons3/8

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.255-3   Expansion domes.

(a) Expansion domes, if applied, must have a minimum capacity of one percent of the combined capacity of the tank and dome.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.255-4   Closures for manholes and domes.

(a) The manhole cover shall be designed to provide a secure closure of the manhole. All covers, not hinged to the tanks, shall be attached to the outside of the dome by at least 18 inch chain or its equivalent. Closures shall be made tight against leakage of vapor and liquid by use of gaskets of suitable material.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.255-5   Bottom discharge outlets.

(a) Bottom discharge outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids.

(b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight closure at it lower end. Each valve or plug shall be designed to insure against unseating due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. Bottom outlets shall be adequately protected against handling damage and outlet equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or tank mounting.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

§178.255-6   Loading and unloading accessories.

(a) When installed, gauging, loading and air inlet devices, including their valves, shall be provided with adequate means for their secure closure; and means shall also be provided for the closing of pipe connections of valves.

(b) Interior heater coils, if installed, must be of extra heavy pipe and so constructed that breaking off of exterior connections will not cause leakage of tanks.

§178.255-7   Protection of valves and accessories.

(a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be adequately protected against mechanical damage by a housing closed with a cover plate.

(b) Protective housing shall comply with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated with respect to design and construction, and shall be designed with a minimum factor of safety of four to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with water.

§178.255-8   Safety devices.

(a) See §173.315(i) of this subchapter.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985]

§178.255-9   Compartments.

(a) When the interior of the tank is divided into compartments, each compartment shall be designed, constructed and tested as a separate tank. Thickness of shell and compartment heads shall be determined on the basis of total tank capacity.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.255-10   Lining.

(a) If a lining is required, the material used for lining the tank shall be homogeneous, nonporous, imperforate when applied, not less elastic than the metal of the tank proper. It shall be of substantially uniform thickness, not less than 132 inch thick if metallic, and not less than 116 inch thick if nonmetallic, and shall be directly bonded or attached by other equally satisfactory means. Rubber lining shall be not less than 316 inch thick. Joints and seams in the lining shall be made by fusing the material together or by other equally satisfactory means. The interior of the tank shall be free from scale, oxidation, moisture and all foreign matter during the lining operation.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.255-11   Tank mountings.

(a) Tanks shall be designed and fabricated with mountings to provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc., intended to carry loadings shall be permanently secured to tanks in accordance with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated, and shall be designed with a factor of safety of four, and built to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tanks and attachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded weight.

(c) Lifting lugs or side hold-down lugs shall be provided on the tank mountings in a manner suitable for attaching lifting gear and hold-down devices. Lifting lugs and hold-down lugs welded directly to the tank shall be of the pad-eye type. Doubling plates welded to the tank and located at the points of support shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(d) All tank mountings shall be so designed as to prevent the concentration of excessive loads on the tank shell.

§178.255-12   Pressure test.

(a) Each completed portable tank prior to application of lining shall be tested before being put into transportation service by completely filling the tank with water or other liquid having a similar viscosity, the temperature of which shall not exceed 100 °F during the test, and applying a pressure of 60 psig. The tank shall be capable of holding the prescribed pressure for at least 10 minutes without leakage, evidence of impending failure, or failure. All closures shall be in place while the test is made and the pressure shall be gauged at the top of the tank. Safety devices and/or vents shall be plugged during this test.

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

§178.255-13   Repair of tanks.

(a) Tanks failing to meet the test may be repaired and retested, provided that repairs are made in complete compliance with the requirements of this specification.

(b) [Reserved]

§178.255-14   Marking.

(a) In addition to markings required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), every tank shall bear permanent marks at least 1/8-inch high stamped into the metal near the center of one of the tank heads or stamped into a plate permanently attached to the tank by means of brazing or welding or other suitable means as follows:

Manufacturer's name _______ Serial No.
DOT specification

Nominal capacity _______ (gallons)

Tare weight _______ (pounds)

Date of manufacture

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-67, 46 FR 49906, Oct. 8, 1981; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.255-15   Report.

(a) A copy of the manufacturer's data report required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) under which the tank is fabricated must be furnished to the owner for each new tank.

            Place
            Date

         Portable tank

Manufactured for _______ Company

Location

Manufactured by _______ Company

Location

Consigned to _________ Company

Location

Size ___ feet outside diameter by ___ long.

Marks on tank as prescribed by §178.255-14 of this specification are as follows:

Manufacturer's name
Serial number
Owner's serial number
DOT specification
ASME Code Symbol (par U-201)
Date of manufacture

Nominal capacity _______ gallons.

It is hereby certified that this tank is in complete compliance with the requirements of DOT specification No. 60.

         (Signed)

Manufacturer or owner

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.273   Approval of Specification UN portable tanks.

(a) Application for approval. (1) An owner or manufacturer of a portable tank shall apply for approval to a designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E, part 107 of this subchapter.

(2) Each application for approval must contain the following information:

(i) Two complete copies of all engineering drawings, calculations, and test data necessary to ensure that the design meets the relevant specification.

(ii) The manufacturer's serial number that will be assigned to each portable tank.

(iii) A statement as to whether the design type has been examined by any approval agency previously and judged unacceptable. Affirmative statements must be documented with the name of the approval agency, reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of modifications made to the design type.

(b) Action by approval agency. The approval agency must perform the following activities:

(1) Review the application for approval to determine whether it is complete and conforms with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. If an application is incomplete, it will be returned to the applicant with an explanation as to why the application is incomplete.

(2) Review all drawings and calculations to ensure that the design is in compliance with all requirements of the relevant specification. If the application is approved, one set of the approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be returned to the applicant. The second (inspector's copy) set of approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be retained by the approval agency. Maintain drawings and approval records for as long as the portable tank remains in service. The drawings and records must be provided to the Department of Transportation (DOT) upon request.

(3) Witness all tests required for the approval of the portable tank specified in this section and part 180, subpart G of this subchapter.

(4) Ensure, through appropriate inspection that each portable tank is fabricated in all respects in conformance with the approved drawings, calculations, and test data.

(5) Determine and ensure that the portable tank is suitable for its intended use and that it conforms to the requirements of this subchapter.

(6) For UN portable tanks intended for non-refrigerated and refrigerated liquefied gases and Division 6.1 liquids which meet the inhalation toxicity criteria (Zone A or B) as defined in §173.132 of this subchapter, or that are designated as toxic by inhalation materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, the approval agency must ensure that:

(i) The portable tank has been designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with the requirements in Division 1 of Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Other design codes may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator (see §178.274(b)(1));

(ii) All applicable provisions of the design and construction have been met to the satisfaction of the designated approval agency in accordance with the rules established in the ASME Code and that the portable tank meets the requirements of the ASME Code and all the applicable requirements specified in this subchapter;

(iii) The inspector has carried out all the inspections specified by the rules established in the ASME Code; and

(iv) The portable tank is marked with a U stamp code symbol under the authority of the authorized independent inspector.

(7) Upon successful completion of all requirements of this subpart, the approval agency must:

(i) Apply its name, identifying mark or identifying number, and the date upon which the approval was issued, to the metal identification marking plate attached to the portable tank. Any approvals for UN portable tanks authorizing design or construction alternatives (Alternate Arrangements) approved by the Associate Administrator (see §178.274(a)(2)) must be indicated on the plate as specified in §178.274(i).

(ii) Issue an approval certificate for each portable tank or, in the case of a series of identical portable tanks manufactured to a single design type, for each series of portable tanks. The approval certificate must include all the information required to be displayed on the metal identification plate required by §178.274(i). The approval certificate must certify that the approval agency designated to approve the portable tank has approved the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter and that the portable tank is suitable for its intended purpose and meets the requirements of this subchapter. When a series of portable tanks is manufactured without change in the design type, the certificate may be valid for the entire series of portable tanks representing a single design type. For UN portable tanks, the certificate must refer to the prototype test report, the hazardous material or group of hazardous materials allowed to be transported, the materials of construction of the shell and lining (when applicable) and an approval number. The approval number must consist of the distinguishing sign or mark of the country (“USA” for the United States of America) where the approval was granted and a registration number.

(iii) Retain a copy of each approval certificate.

(8) For UN portable tanks, the approval certificate must also include the following:

(i) The results of the applicable framework and rail impact test specified in part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter; and

(ii) The results of the initial inspection and test in §178.274(j).

(9) The approval agency shall be independent from the manufacturer. The approval agency and the authorized inspector may be the same entity.

(c) Manufacturers' responsibilities. The manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the applicable specifications for the design and construction of portable tanks. In addition to responsibility for compliance, manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that the contracted approval agency and authorized inspector, if applicable, are qualified, reputable and competent. The manufacturer of a portable tank shall—

(1) Comply with all the applicable requirements of the ASME Code and of this subpart including, but not limited to, ensuring that the quality control, design calculations and required tests are performed and that all aspects of the portable tank meet the applicable requirements.

(2) Obtain and use a designated approval agency, if applicable, and obtain and use a DOT-designated approval agency to approve the design, construction and certification of the portable tank.

(3) Provide a statement in the manufacturers' data report certifying that each portable tank that is manufactured complies with the relevant specification and all the applicable requirements of this subchapter.

(4) Maintain records of the qualification of portable tanks for at least 5 years and provide copies to the approval agency, the owner or lessee of the tank. Upon request, provide these records to a representative of DOT.

(d) Denial of application for approval. If an approval agency finds that a portable tank cannot be approved for any reason, it shall notify the applicant in writing and shall provide the applicant with the reasons for which the approval is denied. A copy of the notification letter shall be provided to the Associate Administrator. An applicant aggrieved by a decision of an approval agency may appeal the decision in writing, within 90 days of receipt, to the Associate Administrator.

(e) Modifications to approved portable tanks. (1) Prior to modification of any UN portable tank which may affect conformance and the safe use of the portable tank, which may involve a change to the design type or which may affect its ability to retain hazardous material in transportation, the person desiring to make such modification shall inform the approval agency that issued the initial approval of the portable tank (or if unavailable, another approval agency) of the nature of the modification and request approval of the modification. The person desiring to modify the tank must supply the approval agency with three sets of all revised drawings, calculations, and test data relative to the intended modification.

(2) A statement as to whether the intended modification has been examined and determined to be unacceptable by any approval agency. The written statement must include the name of the approving agency, the reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of changes made to the modification since its original rejection.

(3) The approval agency shall review the request for modification, and if it is determined that the proposed modification is in full compliance with the relevant DOT specification, including a UN portable tank, the request shall be approved and the approval agency shall perform the following activities:

(i) Return one set of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and test data to the applicant. The second and third sets of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and data shall be retained by the approval agency as required in §107.404(a)(3) of this subchapter.

(ii) Ensure through appropriate inspection that all modifications conform to the revised drawings, calculations, and test data.

(iii) Determine the extent to which retesting of the modified tank is necessary based on the nature of the proposed modification, and ensure that all required retests are satisfactorily performed.

(iv) If modification to an approved tank alters any information on the approval certificate, issue a new approval certificate for the modified tank and ensure that any necessary changes are made to the metal identification plate. A copy of each newly issued approval certificate shall be retained by the approval agency and by the owner of each portable tank.

(4) If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification is not in compliance with the relevant DOT specification, the approval agency shall deny the request in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Termination of Approval Certificate. (1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval issued under this section if he determines that—

(i) Information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous; or

(ii) Termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property; or

(iii) The approval was not issued by the approval agency in good faith; or

(iv) The portable tank does not meet the specification.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator gives the interested party(ies):

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the termination;

(ii) Opportunity to submit oral and written evidence; and

(iii) Opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the applicable requirements.

(3) If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be terminated to preclude a significant and imminent adverse affect on public safety, he may terminate the certificate immediately. In such circumstances, the opportunities of paragraphs (f)(2) (ii) and (iii) of this section need not be provided prior to termination of the approval, but shall be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[66 FR 33439, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 72 FR 55695, Oct. 1, 2007]

§178.274   Specifications for UN portable tanks.

(a) General. (1) Each UN portable tank must meet the requirements of this section. In addition to the requirements of this section, requirements specific to UN portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, non-refrigerated liquefied gases and refrigerated liquefied gases are provided in §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, respectively. Requirements for approval, maintenance, inspection, testing and use are provided in §178.273 and part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter. Any portable tank which meets the definition of a “container” within the terms of the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) must meet the requirements of the CSC as amended and 49 CFR parts 450 through 453 and must have a CSC safety approval plate.

(2) In recognition of scientific and technological advances, the technical requirements applicable to UN portable tanks may be varied if approved by the Associate Administrator and the portable tank is shown to provide a level of safety equal to or exceeding the requirements of this subchapter. Portable tanks approved to alternative technical requirements must be marked “Alternative Arrangement” as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply for the purposes of design and construction of UN portable tanks under this subpart:

Alternate Arrangement portable tank means a UN portable tank that has been approved to alternative technical requirements or testing methods other than those specified for UN portable tanks in part 178 or part 180 of this subchapter.

Approval agency means the designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter.

Design pressure is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Design type means a portable tank or series of portable tanks made of materials of the same material specifications and thicknesses, manufactured by a single manufacturer, using the same fabrication techniques (for example, welding procedures) and made with equivalent structural equipment, closures, and service equipment.

Fine grain steel means steel that has a ferritic grain size of 6 or finer when determined in accordance with ASTM E 112-96 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Fusible element means a non-reclosing pressure relief device that is thermally activated and that provides protection against excessive pressure buildup in the portable tank developed by exposure to heat, such as from a fire (see §178.275(g)).

Jacket means the outer insulation cover or cladding which may be part of the insulation system.

Leakage test means a test using gas to subject the shell and its service equipment to an internal pressure.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM) means the sum of the tare mass of the portable tank and the heaviest hazardous material authorized for transportation.

Mild steel means a steel with a guaranteed minimum tensile strength of 360 N/mm2 to 440 N/mm2 and a guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture as specified in paragraph (c)(10) of this section.

Offshore portable tank means a portable tank specially designed for repeated use in the transportation of hazardous materials to, from and between offshore facilities. An offshore portable tank is designed and constructed in accordance with the Guidelines for the Approval of Containers Handled in Open Seas specified in the IMDG Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Reference steel means a steel with a tensile strength of 370 N/mm2 and an elongation at fracture of 27%.

Service equipment means measuring instruments and filling, discharge, venting, safety, heating, cooling and insulating devices.

Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the hazardous materials intended for transportation, including openings and closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.

Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, protective and stabilizing members external to the shell.

Test pressure means the maximum gauge pressure at the top of the shell during the hydraulic pressure test equal to not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for liquids and 1.3 for liquefied compressed gases and refrigerated liquefied gases. In some instances a pneumatic test is authorized as an alternative to the hydraulic test. The minimum test pressures for portable tanks intended for specific liquid and solid hazardous materials are specified in the applicable portable tank T codes (such as T1-T23) assigned to these hazardous materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) The design temperature range for the shell must be −40 °C to 50 °C (−40 °F to 122 °F) for hazardous materials transported under normal conditions of transportation, except for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases where the minimum design temperature must not be higher than the lowest (coldest) temperature (for example, service temperature) of the contents during filling, discharge or transportation. For hazardous materials handled under elevated temperature conditions, the design temperature must not be less than the maximum temperature of the hazardous material during filling, discharge or transportation. More severe design temperatures must be considered for portable tanks subjected to severe climatic conditions (for example, portable tanks transported in arctic regions). Shells must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), except as limited or modified in this subchapter. For portable tanks used for liquid or solid hazardous materials, a design code other than the ASME Code may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tanks must have an ASME certification and U stamp when used for Hazard Zone A or B toxic by inhalation liquids, or when used for non-refrigerated or refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. Shells must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum and maximum design temperatures are proven to be sufficient. For welded shells, only a material whose weldability has been fully demonstrated may be used. Welds must be of high quality and conform to a level of integrity at least equivalent to the welding requirements specified in Section VIII of the ASME Code for the welding of pressure vessels. When the manufacturing process or the materials make it necessary, the shells must be suitably heat-treated to guarantee adequate toughness in the weld and in the heat-affected zones. In choosing the material, the design temperature range must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, stress corrosion cracking, resistance to impact, and suitability for the hazardous materials intended for transportation in the portable tank. When fine grain steel is used, the guaranteed value of the yield strength must be not more than 460 N/mm2 and the guaranteed value of the upper limit of the tensile strength must be not more than 725 N/mm2 according to the material specification. Aluminum may not be used as a construction material for the shells of portable tanks intended for the transport of non-refrigerated liquefied gases. For portable tanks intended for the transport of liquid or solid hazardous materials, aluminum may only be used as a construction material for portable tank shells if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tank materials must be suitable for the external environment where they will be transported, taking into account the determined design temperature range. Portable tanks shall be designed to withstand, without loss of contents, at least the internal pressure due to the contents and the static, dynamic and thermal loads during normal conditions of handling and transportation. The design must take into account the effects of fatigue, caused by repeated application of these loads through the expected life of the portable tank.

(2) Portable tank shells, fittings, and pipework shall be constructed from materials that are:

(i) Compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported; or

(ii) Properly passivated or neutralized by chemical reaction, if applicable; or

(iii) For portable tanks used for liquid and solid materials, lined with corrosion-resistant material directly bonded to the shell or attached by equivalent means.

(3) Gaskets and seals shall be made of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported.

(4) When shells are lined, the lining must be compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported, homogeneous, non-porous, free from perforations, sufficiently elastic and compatible with the thermal expansion characteristics of the shell. The lining of every shell, shell fittings and piping must be continuous and must extend around the face of any flange. Where external fittings are welded to the tank, the lining must be continuous through the fitting and around the face of external flanges. Joints and seams in the lining must be made by fusing the material together or by other equally effective means.

(5) Contact between dissimilar metals which could result in damage by galvanic action must be prevented by appropriate measures.

(6) The construction materials of the portable tank, including any devices, gaskets, linings and accessories, must not adversely affect or react with the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank.

(7) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with supports that provide a secure base during transportation and with suitable lifting and tie-down attachments.

(c) Design criteria. (1) Portable tanks and their fastenings must, under the maximum permissible loads and maximum permissible working pressures, be capable of absorbing the following separately applied static forces (for calculation purposes, acceleration due to gravity (g) =9.81m/s2):

(i) In the direction of travel: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(ii) Horizontally at right angles to the direction of travel: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(iii) Vertically upwards: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity); and

(iv) Vertically downwards: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity).

(2) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the safety factor must be as follows:

(i) For metals having a clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed yield strength; or

(ii) For metals with no clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed 0.2% proof strength and, for austenitic steels, the 1% proof strength.

(3) The values of yield strength or proof strength must be the values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values of yield strength or proof strength according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% for portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, other than toxic by inhalation liquids meeting the criteria of Hazard Zone A or Hazard Zone B (see §173.133 of this subchapter), when these greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(4) Portable tanks must be capable of being electrically grounded to prevent dangerous electrostatic discharge when they are used for Class 2 flammable gases or Class 3 flammable liquids, including elevated temperature materials transported at or above their flash point.

(5) For shells of portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases, the shell must consist of a circular cross section. Shells must be of a design capable of being stress-analyzed mathematically or experimentally by resistance strain gauges as specified in UG-101 of Section VIII of the ASME Code, or other methods approved by the Associate Administrator.

(6) Shells must be designed and constructed to withstand a hydraulic test pressure of not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquids and 1.3 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases. Specific requirements are provided for each hazardous material in the applicable T Code or portable tank special provision specified in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. The minimum shell thickness requirements must also be taken into account.

(7) For metals exhibiting a clearly defined yield point or characterized by a guaranteed proof strength (0.2% proof strength, generally, or 1% proof strength for austenitic steels), the primary membrane stress σ (sigma) in the shell must not exceed 0.75 Re or 0.50 Rm, whichever is lower, at the test pressure, where:

Re = yield strength in N/mm2, or 0.2% proof strength or, for austenitic steels, 1% proof strength;

Rm = minimum tensile strength in N/mm2.

(8) The values of Re and Rm to be used must be the specified minimum values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values for Re and Rm according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% when greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(9) Steels which have a Re/Rm ratio of more than 0.85 are not allowed for the construction of welded shells. The values of Re and Rm to be used in determining this ratio must be the values specified in the material inspection certificate.

(10) Steels used in the construction of shells must have an elongation at fracture, in percentage, of not less than 10,000/Rm with an absolute minimum of 16% for fine grain steels and 20% for other steels.

(11) For the purpose of determining actual values for materials for sheet metal, the axis of the tensile test specimen must be at right angles (transversely) to the direction of rolling. The permanent elongation at fracture must be measured on test specimens of rectangular cross sections in accordance with ISO 6892 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), using a 50 mm gauge length.

(d) Minimum shell thickness. (1) The minimum shell thickness must be the greatest thickness of the following:

(i) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(7) of this section;

(ii) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or other approved pressure vessel code; or

(iii) the minimum thickness specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(2) Shells (cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers) not more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 5 mm thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. Shells more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 6 mm (0.2 inches) thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. For portable tanks used only for the transportation of powdered or granular solid hazardous materials of Packing Group II or III, the minimum thickness requirement may be reduced to 5 mm in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used regardless of the shell diameter. For vacuum-insulated tanks, the aggregate thickness of the jacket and the shell must correspond to the minimum thickness prescribed in this paragraph, with the thickness of the shell itself not less than the minimum thickness prescribed in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(3) When additional protection against shell damage is provided in the case of portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials requiring test pressures less than 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa), subject to certain limitations specified in the UN Recommendations (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), the Associate Administrator may approve a reduced minimum shell thickness.

(4) The cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 3 mm (0.1 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction, except for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases where the cylindrical portions, ends (heads) and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 4 mm (0.2 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction.

(5) When steel is used, that has characteristics other than that of reference steel, the equivalent thickness of the shell and heads must be determined according to the following formula:

eCFR graphic en21jn01.005.gif

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Where:

e1 = required equivalent thickness (in mm) of the metal to be used;

e0 = minimum thickness (in mm) of the reference steel specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter;

d1 = 1.8m, unless the formula is used to determine the equivalent minimum thickness for a portable tank shell that is required to have a minimum thickness of 8mm or 10mm according to the applicable T code indicated in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. When reference steel thicknesses of 8mm or 10mm are specified, d1 is equal to the actual diameter of the shell but not less than 1.8m;

Rm1 = guaranteed minimum tensile strength (in N/mm2) of the metal to be used;

A1 = guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture (in %) of the metal to be used according to recognized material standards.

(6) The wall and all parts of the shell may not have a thickness less than that prescribed in paragraphs (d)(2), (d)(3) and (d)(4) of this section. This thickness must be exclusive of any corrosion allowance.

(7) There must be no sudden change of plate thickness at the attachment of the heads to the cylindrical portion of the shell.

(e) Service equipment. (1) Service equipment must be arranged so that it is protected against the risk of mechanical damage by external forces during handling and transportation. When the connections between the frame and the shell allow relative movement between the sub-assemblies, the equipment must be fastened to allow such movement without risk of damage to any working part. The external discharge fittings (pipe sockets, shut-off devices) and the internal stop-valve and its seating must be protected against mechanical damage by external forces (for example, by using shear sections). Each internal self-closing stop-valve must be protected by a shear section or sacrificial device located outboard of the valve. The shear section or sacrificial device must break at no more than 70% of the load that would cause failure of the internal self-closing stop valve. The filling and discharge devices (including flanges or threaded plugs) and any protective caps must be capable of being secured against unintended opening.

(2) Each filling or discharge opening of a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.

(3) Each stop-valve or other means of closure must be designed and constructed to a rated pressure not less than the MAWP of the shell taking into account the temperatures expected during transport. All stop-valves with screwed spindles must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other stop-valves, the position (open and closed) and direction of closure must be clearly indicated. All stop-valves must be designed to prevent unintentional opening.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(5) Joints in copper tubing must be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of brazing materials must be no lower than 525 °C (977 °F). The joints must not decrease the strength of the tubing, such as may happen when cutting threads. Brazed joints are not authorized for portable tanks intended for refrigerated liquefied gases.

(6) The burst pressure of all piping and pipe fittings must be greater than the highest of four times the MAWP of the shell or four times the pressure to which it may be subjected in service by the action of a pump or other device (except pressure relief devices).

(7) Ductile metals must be used in the construction of valves and accessories.

(f) Pressure relief devices—(1) Marking of pressure relief devices. Every pressure relief device must be clearly and permanently marked with the following:

(i) the pressure (in bar or kPa) or temperature for fusible elements (in °C) at which it is set to discharge;

(ii) the allowable tolerance at the discharge pressure for reclosing devices;

(iii) the reference temperature corresponding to the rated pressure for frangible discs;

(iv) the allowable temperature tolerance for fusible elements;

(v) The rated flow capacity of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible disc or fusible elements in standard cubic meters of air per second (m3/s). For spring loaded pressure relief devices, the rated flow capacity must be determined according to ISO 4126-1 (including Technical Corrigendum 1) and ISO 4126-7 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) The cross sectional flow areas of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible discs, and fusible elements in mm2; and

(vii) When practicable, the device must show the manufacturer's name and product number.

(2) Connections to pressure relief devices. Connections to pressure relief devices must be of sufficient size to enable the required discharge to pass unrestricted to the safety device. No stop-valve may be installed between the shell and the pressure relief devices except where duplicate devices are provided for maintenance or other reasons and the stop-valves serving the devices actually in use are locked open or the stop-valves are interlocked so that at least one of the devices is always in use. There must be no obstruction in an opening leading to a vent or pressure relief device which might restrict or cut-off the flow from the shell to that device. Vents or pipes from the pressure relief device outlets, when used, must deliver the relieved vapor or liquid to the atmosphere in conditions of minimum back-pressure on the relieving devices.

(3) Location of pressure relief devices. (i) Each pressure relief device inlet must be situated on top of the shell in a position as near the longitudinal and transverse center of the shell as reasonably practicable. All pressure relief device inlets must, under maximum filling conditions, be situated in the vapor space of the shell and the devices must be so arranged as to ensure that any escaping vapor is not restricted in any manner. For flammable hazardous materials, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the shell in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the shell. For refrigerated liquefied gases, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the tank and in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the tank. Protective devices which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided the required relief-device capacity is not reduced.

(ii) Provisions must be implemented to prevent unauthorized persons from access to the pressure relief devices and to protect the devices from damage caused by the portable tank overturning.

(g) Gauging devices. Unless a portable tank is intended to be filled by weight, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices. Glass level-gauges and gauges made of other fragile material, which are in direct communication with the contents of the tank are prohibited. A connection for a vacuum gauge must be provided in the jacket of a vacuum-insulated portable tank.

(h) Portable tank supports, frameworks, lifting and tie-down attachments. (1) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with a support structure to provide a secure base during transport. The forces and safety factors specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section, respectively, must be taken into account in this aspect of the design. Skids, frameworks, cradles or other similar structures are acceptable.

(2) The combined stresses caused by portable tank mountings (for example, cradles, framework, etc.) and portable tank lifting and tie-down attachments must not cause stress that would damage the shell in a manner that would compromise its lading retention capability. Permanent lifting and tie-down attachments must be fitted to all portable tanks. Preferably they should be fitted to the portable tank supports but may be secured to reinforcing plates located on the shell at the points of support. Each portable tank must be designed so that the center of gravity of the filled tank is approximately centered within the points of attachment for lifting devices.

(3) In the design of supports and frameworks, the effects of environmental corrosion must be taken into account.

(4) Forklift pockets must be capable of being closed off. The means of closing forklift pockets must be a permanent part of the framework or permanently attached to the framework. Single compartment portable tanks with a length less than 3.65 m (12 ft.) need not have forklift pockets that are capable of being closed off provided that:

(i) The shell, including all the fittings, are well protected from being hit by the forklift blades; and

(ii) The distance between forklift pockets (measured from the center of each pocket) is at least half of the maximum length of the portable tank.

(5) During transport, portable tanks must be adequately protected against damage to the shell, and service equipment resulting from lateral and longitudinal impact and overturning, or the shell and service equipment must be constructed to withstand the forces resulting from impact or overturning. External fittings must be protected so as to preclude the release of the shell contents upon impact or overturning of the portable tank on its fittings. Examples of protection include:

(i) Protection against lateral impact which may consist of longitudinal bars protecting the shell on both sides at the level of the median line;

(ii) Protection of the portable tank against overturning which may consist of reinforcement rings or bars fixed across the frame;

(iii) Protection against rear impact which may consist of a bumper or frame;

(iv) Protection of the shell against damage from impact or overturning by use of an ISO frame in accordance with ISO 1496-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(v) Protection of the portable tank from impact or damage that may result from overturning by an insulation jacket.

(i) Marking. (1) Every portable tank must be fitted with a corrosion resistant metal plate permanently attached to the portable tank in a conspicuous place and readily accessible for inspection. When the plate cannot be permanently attached to the shell, the shell must be marked with at least the information required by Section VIII of the ASME Code. At a minimum, the following information must be marked on the plate by stamping or by any other equivalent method:

Country of manufacture

U N

Approval Country

Approval Number

Alternative Arrangements (see §178.274(a)(2)) “AA”

Manufacturer's name or mark

Manufacturer's serial number

Approval Agency (Authorized body for the design approval)

Owner's registration number

Year of manufacture

Pressure vessel code to which the shell is designed

Test pressure____bar gauge.

MAWP____bar gauge.

External design pressure (not required for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases)____bar gauge.

Design temperature range____ °C to____ °C. (For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, the minimum design temperature must be marked.)

Water capacity at 20 °C/____liters.

Water capacity of each compartment at 20 °C____liters.

Initial pressure test date and witness identification.

MAWP for heating/cooling system____bar gauge.

Shell material(s) and material standard reference(s).

Equivalent thickness in reference steel____mm.

Lining material (when applicable).

Date and type of most recent periodic test(s).

Month____Year____ Test pressure____bar gauge.

Stamp of approval agency that performed or witnessed the most recent test.

For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases:

Either “thermally insulated” or “vacuum insulated”____.

Effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx)____Watts (W).

Reference holding time____days or hours and initial pressure____bar/kPa gauge and degree of filling____in kg for each refrigerated liquefied gas permitted for transportation.

(2) The following information must be marked either on the portable tank itself or on a metal plate firmly secured to the portable tank:

Name of the operator.

Name of hazardous materials being transported and maximum mean bulk temperature (except for refrigerated liquefied gases, the name and temperature are only required when the maximum mean bulk temperature is higher than 50 °C).

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM)____kg.

Unladen (tare) mass____kg.

Note to paragraph (i)(2): For the identification of the hazardous materials being transported refer to part 172 of this subchapter.

(3) If a portable tank is designed and approved for open seas operations, such as offshore oil exploration, in accordance with the IMDG Code, the words “OFFSHORE PORTABLE TANK” must be marked on the identification plate.

(j) Initial inspection and test. The initial inspection and test of a portable tank must include the following:

(1) A check of the design characteristics.

(2) An internal and external examination of the portable tank and its fittings, taking into account the hazardous materials to be transported. For UN portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, a pressure test using an inert gas may be conducted instead of a hydrostatic test. An internal inspection is not required for a portable tank used for the dedicated transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases that are not filled with an inspection opening.

(3) A pressure test as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) A leakage test.

(5) A test of the satisfactory operation of all service equipment including pressure relief devices must also be performed. When the shell and its fittings have been pressure-tested separately, they must be subjected to a leakage test after reassembly. All welds, subject to full stress level in the shell, must be inspected during the initial test by radiographic, ultrasonic, or another suitable non-destructive test method. This does not apply to the jacket.

(6) Effective January 1, 2008, each new UN portable tank design type meeting the definition of “container” in the Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) (see 49 CFR 450.3(a)(2)) must be subjected to the dynamic longitudinal impact test prescribed in Part IV, Section 40 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (see IBR, §171.7 of this subchapter). A UN portable tank design type impact-tested prior to January 1, 2008, in accordance with the requirements of this section in effect on October 1, 2005, need not be retested. UN portable tanks used for the dedicated transportation of “Helium, refrigerated liquid,” UN1963, and “Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid,” UN1966, that are marked “NOT FOR RAIL TRANSPORT” in letters of a minimum height of 10 cm (4 inches) on at least two sides of the portable tank are excepted from the dynamic longitudinal impact test.

(7) The following tests must be completed on a portable tank or a series of portable tanks designed and constructed to a single design type that is also a CSC container without leakage or deformation that would render the portable tank unsafe for transportation and use:

(i) Longitudinal inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned with its longitudinal axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower end of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper end of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

(ii) Lateral inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned for five minutes with its transverse axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower side of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper side of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

[66 FR 33440, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 15744, Apr. 3, 2002; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 70 FR 34399, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 78634, Dec. 29, 2006; 72 FR 55696, Oct. 1, 2007; 73 FR 4719, Jan. 28, 2008; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

Editorial Note: At 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003, §178.274 was amended in paragraph (b)(1); however, the amendment could not be incorporated due to inaccurate amendatory instruction.

§178.275   Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274, this section sets forth definitions and requirements that apply to UN portable tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(b) Definitions and requirements—(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the recognized pressure vessel code. The design pressure must not be less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of—

(A) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the hazardous material at 65 °C, minus 1 bar (149 °F, minus 100 kPa);

(B) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space, resulting from their compression during filling without pressure relief by a maximum ullage temperature of 65 °C (149 °F) and a liquid expansion due to an increase in mean bulk temperature of 35 °C (95 °F); and

(C) A head pressure determined on the basis of the forces specified in §178.274(c) of this subchapter, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must not be less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed which must be not less than the design pressure.

(c) Service equipment. (1) In addition to the requirements specified in §178.274, for service equipment, all openings in the shell, intended for filling or discharging the portable tank must be fitted with a manually operated stop-valve located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable. Other openings, except for openings leading to venting or pressure relief devices, must be equipped with either a stop-valve or another suitable means of closure located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable.

(2) All portable tanks must be fitted with a manhole or other inspection openings of a suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior. Compartmented portable tanks must have a manhole or other inspection openings for each compartment.

(3) For insulated portable tanks, top fittings must be surrounded by a spill collection reservoir with suitable drains.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(d) Bottom openings. (1) Certain hazardous materials may not be transported in portable tanks with bottom openings. When the applicable T code or portable tank special provision, as referenced for materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, specifies that bottom openings are prohibited, there must be no openings below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit. When an existing opening is closed, it must be accomplished by internally and externally welding one plate to the shell.

(2) Bottom discharge outlets for portable tanks carrying certain solid, crystallizable or highly viscous hazardous materials must be equipped with at least two serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. Use of only two shut-off devices is only authorized when this paragraph is referenced in the applicable T Code indicated for each hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. The design of the equipment must be to the satisfaction of the approval agency and must include:

(i) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable; and

(ii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, every bottom discharge outlet must be equipped with three serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. The design of the equipment must include:

(i) A self-closing internal stop-valve, which is a stop-valve within the shell or within a welded flange or its companion flange, such that:

(A) The control devices for the operation of the valve are designed to prevent any unintended opening through impact or other inadvertent act;

(B) The valve is operable from above or below;

(C) If possible, the setting of the valve (open or closed) must be capable of being verified from the ground;

(D) Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), it must be possible to close the valve from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve itself within 30 seconds of actuation; and

(E) The valve must continue to be effective in the event of damage to the external device for controlling the operation of the valve;

(ii) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable;

(iii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap; and

(iv) For UN portable tanks, with bottom outlets, used for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials that are Class 3, PG I or II, or PG III with a flash point of less than 100 °F (38 °C); Division 5.1, PG I or II; or Division 6.1, PG I or II, the remote means of closure must be capable of thermal activation. The thermal means of activation must activate at a temperature of not more than 250 °F (121 °C).

(e) Pressure relief devices. All portable tanks must be fitted with at least one pressure relief device. All relief devices must be designed, constructed and marked in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter.

(f) Vacuum-relief devices. (1) A shell which is to be equipped with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.21 bar (21.0 kPa). The vacuum-relief device must be set to relieve at a vacuum setting not greater than -0.21 bar (-21.0 kPa) unless the shell is designed for a higher external over pressure, in which case the vacuum-relief pressure of the device to be fitted must not be greater than the tank design vacuum pressure. A shell that is not fitted with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.4 bar (40.0 kPa).

(2) Vacuum-relief devices used on portable tanks intended for the transportation of hazardous materials meeting the criteria of Class 3, including elevated temperature hazardous materials transported at or above their flash point, must prevent the immediate passage of flame into the shell or the portable tank must have a shell capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal explosion resulting from the passage of flame into the shell.

(g) Pressure relief devices. (1) Each portable tank with a capacity not less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) and every independent compartment of a portable tank with a similar capacity, must be provided with one or more pressure relief devices of the reclosing type. Such portable tanks may, in addition, have a frangible disc or fusible element in parallel with the reclosing devices, except when the applicable T code assigned to a hazardous material requires that the frangible disc precede the pressure relief device, according to paragraph (g)(3) of this section, or when no bottom openings are allowed. The pressure relief devices must have sufficient capacity to prevent rupture of the shell due to over pressurization or vacuum resulting from filling, discharging, heating of the contents or fire.

(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of liquid and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(3) When required for certain hazardous materials by the applicable T code or portable tank special provision specified for a hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, portable tanks must have a pressure relief device consistent with the requirements of this subchapter. Except for a portable tank in dedicated service that is fitted with an approved relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device system must include a frangible disc preceding (such as, between the lading and the reclosing pressure relief device) a reclosing pressure relief device. A pressure gauge or suitable tell-tale indicator for the detection of disc rupture, pin-holing or leakage must be provided in the space between the frangible disc and the pressure relief device to allow the portable tank operator to check to determine if the disc is leak free. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the reclosable pressure relief device.

(4) Every portable tank with a capacity less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) must be fitted with a pressure relief device which, except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, may be a frangible disc when this disc is set to rupture at a nominal pressure equal to the test pressure at any temperature within the design temperature range.

(5) When the shell is fitted for pressure discharge, a suitable pressure relief device must provide the inlet line to the portable tank and set to operate at a pressure not higher than the MAWP of the shell, and a stop-valve must be fitted as close to the shell as practicable to minimize the potential for damage.

(6) Setting of pressure relief devices. (i) Pressure relief devices must operate only in conditions of excessive rise in temperature. The shell must not be subject to undue fluctuations of pressure during normal conditions of transportation.

(ii) The required pressure relief device must be set to start to discharge at a nominal pressure of five-sixths of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of not more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa) and 110% of two-thirds of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa). A self-closing relief device must close at a pressure not more than 10% below the pressure at which the discharge starts. The device must remain closed at all lower pressures. This requirement does not prevent the use of vacuum-relief or combination pressure relief and vacuum-relief devices.

(h) Fusible elements. Fusible elements must operate at a temperature between 110 °C (230 °F) and 149 °C (300.2 °F), provided that the pressure in the shell at the fusing temperature will not exceed the test pressure. They must be placed at the top of the shell with their inlets in the vapor space and in no case may they be shielded from external heat. Fusible elements must not be utilized on portable tanks with a test pressure which exceeds 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa); however, fusible elements are authorized on portable tanks for the transportation of certain organometallic materials in accordance with §172.102, special provision TP36 of this subchapter. Fusible elements used on portable tanks intended for the transport of elevated temperature hazardous materials must be designed to operate at a temperature higher than the maximum temperature that will be experienced during transport and must be designed to the satisfaction of the approval agency.

(i) Capacity of pressure relief devices. (1) The reclosing pressure relief device required by paragraph (g)(1) of this section must have a minimum cross sectional flow area equivalent to an orifice of 31.75 mm (1.3 inches) diameter. Vacuum-relief devices, when used, must have a cross sectional flow area not less than 284 mm2 (11.2 inches2).

(2) The combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief system (taking into account the reduction of the flow when the portable tank is fitted with frangible-discs preceding spring-loaded pressure-relief devices or when the spring-loaded pressure-relief devices are provided with a device to prevent the passage of the flame), in condition of complete fire engulfment of the portable tank must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to 20% above the start to discharge pressure limiting device (pressure relief device). The total required capacity of the relief devices may be determined using the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section or the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section.

(i)(A) To determine the total required capacity of the relief devices, which must be regarded as being the sum of the individual capacities of all the contributing devices, the following formula must be used:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.000.gif

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Where:

Q = minimum required rate of discharge in cubic meters of air per second (m3/s) at conditions: 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K);

F = for uninsulated shells: 1; for insulated shells: U(649−t)/13.6 but in no case is less than 0.25

Where:

U = thermal conductance of the insulation, in kW m−2K−1, at 38 °C (100 °F); and t = actual temperature of the hazardous material during filling (in °C) or when this temperature is unknown, let t = 15 °C (59 °F). The value of F given in this paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) for insulated shells may only be used if the insulation is in conformance with paragraph (i)(2)(iv) of this section;

A = total external surface area of shell in square meters;

Z = the gas compressibility factor in the accumulating condition (when this factor is unknown, let Z equal 1.0);

T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (°C+273) above the pressure relief devices in the accumulating condition;

L = the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid, in kJ/kg, in the accumulating condition;

M = molecular weight of the hazardous material.

(B) The constant C, as shown in the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, is derived from one of the following formulas as a function of the ratio k of specific heats:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.001.gif

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Where:

cp is the specific heat at constant pressure; and

cv is the specific heat at constant volume.

(C) When k >1:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.002.gif

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(D) When k = 1 or k is unknown, a value of 0.607 may be used for the constant C. C may also be taken from the following table:

C Constant Value Table

kC
1.000.607
1.020.611
1.040.615
1.060.620
1.080.624
1.100.628
1.120.633
1.140.637
1.160.641
1.180.645
1.200.649
1.220.652
1.240.656
1.260.660
1.280.664
1.300.667
1.320.671
1.340.674
1.360.678
1.380.681
1.400.685
1.420.688
1.440.691
1.460.695
1.480.698
1.500.701
1.520.704
1.540.707
1.560.710
1.580.713
1.600.716
1.620.719
1.640.722
1.660.725
1.680.728
1.700.731
2.000.770
2.200.793

(ii) As an alternative to the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, relief devices for shells used for transporting liquids may be sized in accordance with the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section. The table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section assumes an insulation value of F = 1 and must be adjusted accordingly when the shell is insulated. Other values used in determining the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section are: L = 334.94 kJ/kg; M = 86.7; T = 394 °K; Z = 1; and C = 0.607.

(iii) Minimum emergency vent capacity, Q, in cubic meters of air per second at 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K) shown in the following table:

Minimum Emergency Vent Capacity

[Q Values]

A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
20.23037.52.539
30.320402.677
40.40542.52.814
50.487452.949
60.56547.53.082
70.641503.215
80.71552.53.346
90.788553.476
100.85957.53.605
120.998603.733
141.13262.53.860
161.263653.987
181.39167.54.112
201.517704.236
22.51.670754.483
251.821804.726
27.51.969854.967
302.115905.206
32.52.258955.442
352.4001005.676

(iv) Insulation systems, used for the purpose of reducing venting capacity, must be specifically approved by the approval agency. In all cases, insulation systems approved for this purpose must—

(A) Remain effective at all temperatures up to 649 °C (1200 °F); and

(B) Be jacketed with a material having a melting point of 700 °C (1292 °F) or greater.

(j) Approval, inspection and testing. Approval procedures for UN portable tanks are specified in §178.273. Inspection and testing requirements are specified in §180.605 of this subchapter.

[66 FR 33445, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 32414, May 30, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 73 FR 57006, Oct. 1, 2008; 76 FR 3388, Jan. 19, 2011]

§178.276   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements apply to UN portable tanks used for non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. In addition to the definitions in §178.274, the following definitions apply:

(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The design pressure must be not less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of:

(A) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed as defined in this paragraph under “MAWP”; and

(B) A head pressure determined on the basis of the dynamic forces specified in paragraph (h) of this section, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Design reference temperature means the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the contents is determined for the purpose of calculating the MAWP. The value for each portable tank type is as follows:

(i) Shell with a diameter of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.) or less: 65 °C (149 °F); or

(ii) Shell with a diameter of more than 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.):

(A) Without insulation or sun shield: 60 °C (140 °F);

(B) With sun shield: 55 °C (131 °F); and

(C) With insulation: 50 °C (122 °F).

(3) Filling density means the average mass of liquefied compressed gas per liter of shell capacity (kg/l).

(4) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must be not less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position, but in no case less than 7 bar (700 kPa):

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed, which must be:

(A) Not less than the pressure specified for each liquefied compressed gas listed in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313; and

(B) Not less than the sum of:

(1) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the liquefied compressed gas at the design reference temperature minus 1 bar; and

(2) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space which is determined by the design reference temperature and the liquid phase expansion due to the increase of the mean bulk temperature of tr−tf (tf = filling temperature, usually 15 °C, tr = 50 °C maximum mean bulk temperature).

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) Shells must be of seamless or welded steel construction, or combination of both, and have a water capacity greater than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Shells must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII.

(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat-treated and radiographed as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, except that each portable tank constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must be postweld heat-treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the portable tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds in and/or to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. A portable tank used for anhydrous ammonia must be postweld heat-treated. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1050 °F tank metal temperature. Additionally, portable tanks constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must conform to the following requirements:

(i) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. In addition to the essential variables named therein, the following must be considered to be essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and manufacturer's identification of rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25 percent from the qualified procedure. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer or his designated agent and, upon request, made available to a representative of the Department of Transportation or the owner of the tank.

(ii) Impact tests must be made on a lot basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less of the same heat and having a thickness variation no greater than plus or minus 25 percent. The minimum impact required for full-sized specimens shall be 20 foot-pounds (or 10 foot-pounds for half-sized specimens) at 0 °F (−17.8 °F) Charpy V-Notch in both the longitudinal and transverse direction. If the lot test does not pass this requirement, individual plates may be accepted if they individually meet this impact requirement.

(3) When the shells intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases are equipped with thermal insulation, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulating layer in the event of a leak, when the protective covering is closed it must be gas tight. The thermal insulation must not inhibit access to the fittings and discharge devices. In addition, the thermal insulation systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(i) consist of a shield covering not less than the upper third, but not more than the upper half of the surface of the shell, and separated from the shell by an air space of approximately 40 mm (1.7 inches) across; or

(ii) consist of a complete cladding of insulating materials. The insulation must be of adequate thickness and constructed to prevent the ingress of moisture and damage to the insulation. The insulation and cladding must have a thermal conductance of not more than 0.67 (W·m−2·K−1) under normal conditions of transportation.

(c) Service equipment. (1) Each opening with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm (0.1 inch) in the shell of a portable tank, except openings for pressure-relief devices, inspection openings and closed bleed holes, must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being an internal stop-valve, excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature (see §178.337-1(g)), the second being an external stop-valve and the third being a blank flange, thread cap, plug or equivalent tight liquid closure device.

(2) When a portable tank is fitted with an excess flow valve, the excess flow valve must be so fitted that its seating is inside the shell or inside a welded flange or, when fitted externally, its mountings must be designed so that in the event of impact it maintains its effectiveness. The excess flow valves must be selected and fitted so as to close automatically when the rated flow, specified by the manufacturer, is reached. Connections and accessories leading to or from such a valve must have a capacity for a flow more than the excess flow valve's rated flow.

(3) For filling and discharge openings that are located below the liquid level, the first shut-off device must be an internal stop-valve and the second must be a stop-valve placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe.

(4) For filling and discharge openings located below the liquid level of portable tanks intended for the transportation of flammable and/or toxic liquefied compressed gases, the internal stop-valve must be a self-closing safety device that fully closes automatically during filling or discharge in the event of fire engulfment. The device shall fully close within 30 seconds of actuation and the thermal means of closure must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F). Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), this device must be operable by remote control.

(5) In addition to filling, discharge and gas pressure equalizing orifices, shells may have openings in which gauges, thermometers and manometers can be fitted. Connections for such instruments must be made by suitable welded nozzles or pockets and may not be connected by screwed connections through the shell.

(6) All portable tanks must be fitted with manholes or other inspection openings of suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior.

(7) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine portable tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on portable tanks used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of §178.337-1(c)(2) and must be fitted with an internal excess flow valve. In addition to the internal excess flow valve, the inlet and discharge outlets must be equipped with an external stop valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves must conform to the standards of The Chlorine Institute, Inc. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) as follows:

(i) A valve conforming to Drawing 101-7, dated July 1993, must be installed under each liquid angle valve.

(ii) A valve conforming to Drawing 106-6, dated July 1993, must be installed under each gas angle valve. For portable tanks used to transport non-refrigerated liquefied gases.

(8) External fittings must be grouped together as close as reasonably practicable. The following openings may be installed at locations other than on the top or end of the tank:

(i) The openings for liquid level gauging devices, pressure gauges, or for safety devices, may be installed separately at the other location or in the side of the shell;

(ii) One plugged opening of 2-inch National Pipe Thread or less provided for maintenance purposes may be located elsewhere;

(iii) An opening of 3-inch National Pipe Size or less may be provided at another location, when necessary, to facilitate installation of condensing coils.

(9) Filling and discharge connections are not required to be grouped and may be installed below the normal liquid level of the tank if:

(i) The portable tank is permanently mounted in a full framework for containerized transport;

(ii) For each portable tank design, a prototype portable tank, meets the requirements of parts 450 through 453 of this title for compliance with the requirements of Annex II of the International Convention for Safe Containers; and

(iii) Each filling and discharge outlet meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(d) Bottom openings. Bottom openings are prohibited on portable tanks when the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313 of this subchapter indicates that bottom openings are not allowed. In this case, there may be no openings located below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit.

(e) Pressure relief devices. (1) Portable tanks must be provided with one or more reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not less than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of a type that will resist dynamic forces including liquid surge. A frangible disc may only be used in series with a reclosing pressure relief device.

(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(3) A portable tank intended for the transportation of certain liquefied compressed gases identified in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313 of this subchapter must have a pressure relief device which conforms to the requirements of this subchapter. Unless a portable tank, in dedicated service, is fitted with a relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device must be comprised of a frangible disc preceded by a reclosing device. The space between the frangible disc and the device must be provided with a pressure gauge or a suitable tell-tale indicator. This arrangement must facilitate the detection of disc rupture, pinholing or leakage which could cause a malfunction of the pressure relief device. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the relief device.

(4) In the case of portable tanks used for more than one gas, the pressure relief devices must open at a pressure indicated in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for the gas having the highest maximum allowable pressure of the gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank.

(f) Capacity of relief devices. The combined delivery capacity of the relief devices must be sufficient so that, in the event of total fire engulfment, the pressure inside the shell cannot exceed 120% of the MAWP. Reclosing relief devices must be used to achieve the full relief capacity prescribed. In the case of portable tanks used for more than gas, the combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief devices must be taken for the liquefied compressed gas which requires the highest delivery capacity of the liquefied compressed gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank. The total required capacity of the relief devices must be determined according to the requirements in §178.275(i). These requirements apply only to liquefied compressed gases which have critical temperatures well above the temperature at the accumulating condition. For gases that have critical temperatures near or below the temperature at the accumulating condition, the calculation of the pressure relief device delivery capacity must consider the additional thermodynamic properties of the gas, for example see CGA S-1.2 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

[66 FR 33448, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 75748, 75752, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004]

§178.277   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements and definitions apply to UN portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases:

Design pressure For the purpose of this section the term “design pressure” is consistent with the definition for design pressure in the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Holding time is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium conditions, reaches the lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device(s) (for example, pressure control valve or pressure relief device). Holding time must be determined as specified in §178.338-9.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means the maximum effective gauge pressure permissible at the top of the shell of a loaded portable tank in its operating position including the highest effective pressure during filling and discharge;

Minimum design temperature means the temperature which is used for the design and construction of the shell not higher than the lowest (coldest) service temperature of the contents during normal conditions of filling, discharge and transportation.

Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport, including openings and their closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.

Tank means a construction which normally consists of either:

(1) A jacket and one or more inner shells where the space between the shell(s) and the jacket is exhausted of air (vacuum insulation) and may incorporate a thermal insulation system; or

(2) A jacket and an inner shell with an intermediate layer of solid thermally insulating material (for example, solid foam).

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) Portable tanks must be of seamless or welded steel construction and have a water capacity of more than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Portable tanks must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat treated and radiographed as prescribed in Sections V and VIII of the ASME Code except that each tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code must be postweld heat treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1,050 °F tank metal temperature.

(3) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). In addition to the essential variables named in the ASME Code, the following must be considered as essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and the specified rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25% from the procedure qualification. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer and made available to the approval agency and the owner of the portable tank as specified in §178.273.

(4) Shells and jackets must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Jackets must be made of steel. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum design temperature are proven to be sufficient. In choosing the material, the minimum design temperature must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, to hydrogen embrittlement, to stress corrosion cracking and to resistance to impact.

(5) Any part of a portable tank, including fittings, gaskets and pipe-work, which can be expected normally to come into contact with the refrigerated liquefied gas transported must be compatible with that refrigerated liquefied gas.

(6) The thermal insulation system must include a complete covering of the shell with effective insulating materials. External insulation must be protected by a jacket so as to prevent the ingress of moisture and other damage under normal transport conditions.

(7) When a jacket is so closed as to be gas-tight, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulation space.

(8) Materials which may react with oxygen or oxygen enriched atmospheres in a dangerous manner may not be used in portable tanks intended for the transport of refrigerated liquefied gases having a boiling point below minus 182 °C at atmospheric pressure in locations with the thermal insulation where there is a risk of contact with oxygen or with oxygen enriched fluid.

(9) Insulating materials must not deteriorate to an extent that the effectiveness of the insulation system, as determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(11) of this section, would be reduced in service.

(10) A reference holding time must be determined for each refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport in a portable tank. The reference holding time must be determined by testing in accordance with the requirements of §178.338-9, considering the following factors:

(i) The effectiveness of the insulation system, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(11) of this section;

(ii) The lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device;

(iii) The initial filling conditions;

(iv) An assumed ambient temperature of 30 °C (86 °F);

(v) The physical properties of the individual refrigerated liquefied gas intended to be transported.

(11) The effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx in watts) may be determined by type testing the portable tank in accordance with a procedure specified in §178.338-9(c) or by using the holding time test in §178.338-9(b). This test must consist of either:

(i) A constant pressure test (for example, at atmospheric pressure) when the loss of refrigerated liquefied gas is measured over a period of time; or

(ii) A closed system test when the rise in pressure in the shell is measured over a period of time.

(12) When performing the constant pressure test, variations in atmospheric pressure must be taken into account. When performing either test, corrections must be made for any variation of the ambient temperature from the assumed ambient temperature reference value of 30 °C (86 °F).

(13) The jacket of a vacuum-insulated double-wall tank must have either an external design pressure not less than 100 kPa (1 bar) gauge pressure calculated in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or a calculated critical collapsing pressure of not less than 200 kPa (2 bar) gauge pressure. Internal and external reinforcements may be included in calculating the ability of the jacket to resist the external pressure.

Note to paragraph (b): For the determination of the actual holding time, as indicated by paragraphs (b)(10), (11), (12), and (13), before each journey, refer to §178.338-9(b).

(c) Design criteria. For shells with vacuum insulation, the test pressure must not be less than 1.3 times the sum of the MAWP and 100 kPa (1 bar). In no case may the test pressure be less than 300 kPa (3 bar) gauge pressure.

(d) Service equipment. (1) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket, the second being a stop-valve and the third being a blank flange or equivalent device. The shut-off device closest to the jacket must be a self-closing device, which is capable of being closed from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve within 30 seconds of actuation. This device must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F).

(2) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least two mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket and the second a blank flange or equivalent device.

(3) For sections of piping which can be closed at both ends and where liquid product can be trapped, a method of automatic pressure relief must be provided to prevent excess pressure build-up within the piping.

(4) Each filling and discharge opening on a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.

(5) When pressure-building units are used, the liquid and vapor connections to that unit must be provided with a valve as close to the jacket as reasonably practicable to prevent the loss of contents in case of damage to the pressure-building unit. A check valve may be used for this purpose if it is located on the vapor side of the pressure build-up coil.

(6) The materials of construction of valves and accessories must have satisfactory properties at the lowest operating temperature of the portable tank.

(7) Vacuum insulated portable tanks are not required to have an inspection opening.

(e) Pressure relief devices. (1) Every shell must be provided with not less than two independent reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not lower than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of the type that will resist dynamic forces including surge.

(2) Except for portable tanks used for oxygen, portable tanks for non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen may in addition have frangible discs in parallel with the reclosing devices as specified in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii) and (e)(4)(iii) of this section.

(3) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(4) Capacity and setting of pressure relief devices. (i) In the case of the loss of vacuum in a vacuum-insulated tank or of loss of 20% of the insulation of a portable tank insulated with solid materials, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient so that the pressure (including accumulation) inside the shell does not exceed 120% of the MAWP.

(ii) For non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen, this capacity may be achieved by the use of frangible discs in parallel with the required safety-relief devices. Frangible discs must rupture at nominal pressure equal to the test pressure of the shell.

(iii) Under the circumstances described in paragraphs (e)(4)(i) and (e)(4)(ii) of this section, together with complete fire engulfment, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to the test pressure.

(iv) The required capacity of the relief devices must be calculated in accordance with CGA Pamphlet S-1.2 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

[66 FR 33450, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 75748, 75752, Dec. 31, 2003]

Subpart I [Reserved]

Subpart J—Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation

Source: 29 FR 18975, Dec. 29, 1964, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967.

§178.318   Specification MC 201; container for detonators and percussion caps.

§178.318-1   Scope.

(a) This specification pertains to a container to be used for the transportation of detonators and percussion caps in connection with the transportation of liquid nitroglycerin, desensitized liquid nitroglycerin or diethylene glycol dinitrate, where any or all of such types of caps may be used for the detonation of liquid nitroglycerin, desentitized liquid nitroglycerin or diethylene glycol dinitrate in blasting operations. This specification is not intended to take the place of any shipping or packing requirements of this Department where the caps in question are themselves articles of commerce.

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18975, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-60, 44 FR 70733, Dec. 10, 1979]

§178.318-2   Container.

(a) Every container for detonators and percussion caps coming within the scope of this specification shall be constructed entirely of hard rubber, phenolresinous or other resinous material, or other nonmetallic, nonsparking material, except that metal parts may be used in such locations as not in any event to come in contact with any of the caps. Space shall be provided so that each detonator of whatever nature may be inserted in an individual cell in the body of the container, into which each such cap shall snugly fit. There shall be provided no more than twenty (20) such cellular spaces. Space may be provided into which a plurality of percussion caps may be carried, provided that such space may be closed with a screw cap, and further provided that each or any such space is entirely separate from any space provided for any detonator. Each cellular space into which a detonator is to be inserted and carried shall be capable of being covered by a rotary cover so arranged as to expose not more than one cell at any time, and capable of rotation to such a place that all cells will be covered at the same time, at which place means shall be provided to lock the cover in place. Means shall be provided to lock in place the cover for the cells provided for the carrying of detonators. The requirement that not more than one cell be exposed at one time need not apply in the case of detonators, although spaces for such caps and detonators shall be separate. Sufficient annular space shall be provided inside the cover for such detonators that, when the cover is closed, there will be sufficient space to accommodate the wires customarily attached to such caps. If the material is of such a nature as to require treatment to prevent the absorption of moisture, such treatment shall be applied as shall be necessary in order to provide against the penetration of water by permeation. A suitable carrying handle shall be provided, except for which handle no part of the container may project beyond the exterior of the body.

(b) Exhibited in plates I and II are line drawings of a container for detonators and percussion caps, illustrative of the requirements set forth in §178.318-2(a). These plates shall not be construed as a part of this specification.

eCFR graphic ec02mr91.076.gif

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§178.318-3   Marking.

Each container must be marked as prescribed in §178.2(b).

[Amdt. 178-40, 41 FR 38181, Sept. 9, 1976, as amended at 66 FR 45185, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.320   General requirements applicable to all DOT specification cargo tank motor vehicles.

(a) Definitions. For the purpose of this subchapter:

Appurtenance means any attachment to a cargo tank that has no lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank.

Baffle means a non-liquid-tight transverse partition device that deflects, checks or regulates fluid motion in a tank.

Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks.

Cargo tank means a bulk packaging that:

(1) Is a tank intended primarily for the carriage of liquids, gases, solids, or semi-solids and includes appurtenances, reinforcements, fittings, and closures (for tank, see §§178.337-1, 178.338-1, or 178.345-1, as applicable);

(2) Is permanently attached to or forms a part of a motor vehicle, or is not permanently attached to a motor vehicle but that, by reason of its size, construction, or attachment to a motor vehicle, is loaded or unloaded without being removed from the motor vehicle; and

(3) Is not fabricated under a specification for cylinders, intermediate bulk containers, multi-unit tank car tanks, portable tanks, or tank cars.

Cargo tank motor vehicle means a motor vehicle with one or more cargo tanks permanently attached to or forming an integral part of the motor vehicle.

Cargo tank wall means those parts of the cargo tank that make up the primary lading retention structure, including shell, bulkheads, and fittings and, when closed, yield the minimum volume of a completed cargo tank motor vehicle.

Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or a similar device used to pressurize a tank with material other than the lading.

Companion flange means one of two mating flanges where the flange faces are in contact or separated only by a thin leak-sealing gasket and are secured to one another by bolts or clamps.

Connecting structure means the structure joining two cargo tanks.

Constructed and certified in accordance with the ASME Code means a cargo tank is constructed and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), and is inspected and certified by an Authorized Inspector.

Constructed in accordance with the ASME Code means a cargo tank is constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code with authorized exceptions (see §§178.346 through 178.348) and is inspected and certified by a Registered Inspector.

Design type means one or more cargo tanks that are made—

(1) To the same specification;

(2) By the same manufacturer;

(3) To the same engineering drawings and calculations, except for minor variations in piping that do not affect the lading retention capability of the cargo tank;

(4) Of the same materials of construction;

(5) To the same cross-sectional dimensions;

(6) To a length varying by no more than 5 percent;

(7) With the volume varying by no more than 5 percent (due to a change in length only); and

(8) For the purposes of §178.338 only, with the same insulation system.

External self-closing stop valve means a self-closing stop valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located outside the cargo tank and the welded flange.

Extreme dynamic loading means the maximum loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may experience during its expected life, excluding accident loadings resulting from an accident, such as overturn or collision.

Flange means the structural ring for guiding or attachment of a pipe or fitting with another flange (companion flange), pipe, fitting or other attachment.

Inspection pressure means the pressure used to determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure.

Internal self-closing stop valve means a self-closing stop valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located inside the cargo tank or cargo tank sump, or within the welded flange, and the valve seat is located within the cargo tank or within one inch of the external face of the welded flange or sump of the cargo tank.

Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank.

Loading/unloading connection means the fitting in the loading/unloading line farthest from the loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading hose, pipe, or device is attached.

Loading/unloading outlet means a cargo tank outlet used for normal loading/unloading operations.

Loading/unloading stop valve means the stop valve farthest from the cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached.

Manufacturer means any person engaged in the manufacture of a DOT specification cargo tank, cargo tank motor vehicle, or cargo tank equipment that forms part of the cargo tank wall. This term includes attaching a cargo tank to a motor vehicle or to a motor vehicle suspension component that involves welding on the cargo tank wall. A manufacturer must register with the Department in accordance with subpart F of part 107 in subpart A of this chapter.

Maximum allowable working pressure or MAWP means the maximum pressure allowed at the top of the tank in its normal operating position. The MAWP must be calculated as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code. In use, the MAWP must be greater than or equal to the maximum lading pressure conditions prescribed in §173.33 of this subchapter for each material transported.

Maximum lading pressure. See §173.33(c).

Minimum thickness means the minimum required shell and head (and baffle and bulkhead when used as tank reinforcement) thickness needed to meet the specification. The minimum thickness is the greatest of the following values: (1)(i) For MC 330, MC 331, and MC 338 cargo tanks, the specified minimum thickness found the applicable specification(s); or

(ii) For DOT 406, DOT 407 and DOT 412 cargo tanks, the specified minimum thickness found in Tables I and II of the applicable specification(s); or

(iii) For MC 300, MC 301, MC 302, MC 303, MC 304, MC 305, MC 306, MC 307, MC 310, MC 311, and MC 312 cargo tanks, the in-service minimum thickness prescribed in Tables I and II of §180.407(i)(5) of this subchapter, for the minimum thickness specified by Tables I and II of the applicable specification(s); or

(2) The thickness necessary to meet with the structural integrity and accident damage requirements of the applicable specification(s); or

(3) The thickness as computed per the ASME Code requirements (if applicable).

Multi-specification cargo tank motor vehicle means a cargo tank motor vehicle equipped with two or more cargo tanks fabricated to more than one cargo tank specification.

Normal operating loading means the loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may be expected to experience routinely in operation.

Nozzle means a subassembly consisting of a pipe or tubular section with or without a welded or forged flange on one end.

Outlet means any opening in the shell or head of a cargo tank, (including the means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: a threaded opening securely closed during transportation with a threaded plug or a threaded cap, a flanged opening securely closed during transportation with a bolted or welded blank flange, a manhole, a gauging device, a thermometer well, or a pressure relief device.

Outlet stop valve means the stop valve at a cargo tank loading or unloading outlet.

Pipe coupling means a fitting with internal threads on both ends.

Rear bumper means the structure designed to prevent a vehicle or object from under-riding the rear of another motor vehicle. See §393.86 of this title.

Rear-end tank protection device means the structure designed to protect a cargo tank and any lading retention piping or devices in case of a rear end collision.

Self-closing stop valve means a stop valve held in the closed position by means of self-stored energy, that opens only by application of an external force and that closes when the external force is removed.

Shell means the circumferential portion of a cargo tank defined by the basic design radius or radii excluding the bulkheads.

Stop valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading.

Sump means a protrusion from the bottom of a cargo tank shell designed to facilitate complete loading and unloading of lading.

Tank means a container, consisting of a shell and heads, that forms a pressure tight vessel having openings designed to accept pressure tight fittings or closures, but excludes any appurtenances, reinforcements, fittings, or closures.

Test pressure means the pressure to which a tank is subjected to determine structural integrity.

Toughness of material means the capability of a material to absorb energy represented by the area under a stress strain curve (indicating the energy absorbed per unit volume of the material) up to the point of rupture.

Vacuum cargo tank means a cargo tank that is loaded by reducing the pressure in the cargo tank to below atmospheric pressure.

Variable specification cargo tank means a cargo tank that is constructed in accordance with one specification, but that may be altered to meet another specification by changing relief device, closures, lading discharge devices, and other lading retention devices.

Void means the space between tank heads or bulkheads and a connecting structure.

Welded flange means a flange attached to the tank by a weld joining the tank shell to the cylindrical outer surface of the flange, or by a fillet weld joining the tank shell to a flange shaped to fit the shell contour.

(b) Design certification. (1) Each cargo tank or cargo tank motor vehicle design type, including its required accident damage protection device, must be certified to conform to the specification requirements by a Design Certifying Engineer who is registered in accordance with subpart F of part 107 of this title. An accident damage protection device is a rear-end protection, overturn protection, or piping protection device.

(2) The Design Certifying Engineer shall furnish to the manufacturer a certificate to indicate compliance with the specification requirements. The certificate must include the sketches, drawings, and calculations used for certification. Each certificate, including sketches, drawings, and calculations, shall be signed by the Design Certifying Engineer.

(3) The manufacturer shall retain the design certificate at his principal place of business for as long as he manufactures DOT specification cargo tanks.

(c) Exceptions to the ASME Code. Unless otherwise specified, when exceptions are provided in this subpart from compliance with certain paragraphs of the ASME Code, compliance with those paragraphs is not prohibited.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37055, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-98, 58 FR 33306, June 16, 1993; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51339, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 19277, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52370, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75752, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]

§178.337   Specification MC 331; cargo tank motor vehicle primarily for transportation of compressed gases as defined in subpart G of part 173 of this subchapter.

§178.337-1   General requirements.

(a) ASME Code construction. Tanks must be—

(1) Seamless or welded construction, or a combination of both;

(2) Designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(3) Made of steel or aluminum; however, if aluminum is used, the cargo tank must be insulated and the hazardous material to be transported must be compatible with the aluminum (see §§178.337-1(e)(2), 173.315(a) table, and 178.337-2(a)(1) of this subchapter); and

(4) Covered with a steel jacket if the cargo tank is insulated and used to transport a flammable gas (see §173.315(a) table Note 11 of this subchapter).

(b) Design pressure. The design pressure of a cargo tank authorized under this specification shall be not less than the vapor pressure of the commodity contained therein at 115 °F. or as prescribed for a particular commodity in §173.315(a) of this subchapter, except that in no case shall the design pressure of any cargo tank be less than 100 p.s.i.g. nor more than 500 p.s.i.g.

Note 1: The term design pressure as used in this specification, is identical to the term MAWP as used in the ASME Code.

(c) Openings. (1) Excess pressure relief valves shall be located in the top of the cargo tank or heads.

(2) A chlorine cargo tank shall have only one opening. That opening shall be in the top of the cargo tank and shall be fitted with a nozzle that meets the following requirements:

(i) On a cargo tank manufactured on or before December 31, 1974, the nozzle shall be protected by a dome cover plate which conforms to either the standard of The Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 103-3, dated January 23, 1958, or to the standard specified in paragraph (c) (2) (ii) of this section.

(ii) On a cargo tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1975, the nozzle shall be protected by a manway cover which conforms to the standard of The Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 103-4, dated September 1, 1971.

(d) Reflective design. Every uninsulated cargo tank permanently attached to a cargo tank motor vehicle shall, unless covered with a jacket made of aluminum, stainless steel, or other bright nontarnishing metal, be painted a white, aluminum or similar reflecting color on the upper two-thirds of area of the cargo tank.

(e) Insulation. (1) Each cargo tank required to be insulated must conform with the use and performance requirements contained in §§173.315(a) table and 178.337-1 (a)(3) and (e)(2) of this subchapter.

(2) Each cargo tank intended for chlorine; carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid; or nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid service must have suitable insulation of such thickness that the overall thermal conductance is not more than 0.08 Btu per square foot per °F differential per hour. The conductance must be determined at 60 °F. Insulation material used on cargo tanks for nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid must be noncombustible. Insulating material used on cargo tanks for chlorine must be corkboard or polyurethane foam, with a minimum thickness of 4 inches, or 2 inches minimum thickness of ceramic fiber/fiberglass of 4 pounds per cubic foot minimum density covered by 2 inches minimum thickness of fiber.

(f) Postweld heat treatment. Postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in the ASME Code except that each cargo tank constructed in accordance with Part UHT of Section VIII of the ASME Code must be postweld heat treated. Each chlorine cargo tank must be fully radiographed and postweld heat treated in accordance with the provisions in Section VIII of the ASME Code under which it is constructed. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the cargo tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds in and/or to the shells and heads. The method must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment. A cargo tank used for anhydrous ammonia must be postweld heat treated. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1,050 §F cargo tank metal temperature.

(g) Definitions. The following definitions apply to §§178.337-1 through 178.337-18:

Emergency discharge control means the ability to stop a cargo tank unloading operation in the event of an unintentional release. Emergency discharge control can utilize passive or off-truck remote means to stop the unloading operation. A passive means of emergency discharge control automatically shuts off the flow of product without the need for human intervention within 20 seconds of an unintentional release caused by a complete separation of the liquid delivery hose. An off-truck remote means of emergency discharge control permits a qualified person attending the unloading operation to close the cargo tank's internal self-closing stop valve and shut off all motive and auxiliary power equipment at a distance from the cargo tank motor vehicle.

Excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature means a component that will close automatically if the flow rate of a gas or liquid through the component reaches or exceeds the rated flow of gas or liquid specified by the original valve manufacturer when piping mounted directly on the valve is sheared off before the first valve, pump, or fitting downstream from the valve.

Internal self-closing stop valve means a primary shut off valve installed in a product discharge outlet of a cargo tank and designed to be kept closed by self-stored energy.

Primary discharge control system means a primary shut-off installed at a product discharge outlet of a cargo tank consisting of an internal self-closing stop valve that may include an integral excess flow valve or an excess flow feature, together with linkages that must be installed between the valve and remote actuator to provide manual and thermal on-truck remote means of closure.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 579, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.337-2   Material.

(a) General. (1) All material used for construction of the cargo tank and appurtenances must be suitable for use with the commodities to be transported therein and must conform to the requirements in Section II of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) and/or requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials in all respects.

(2) Impact tests are required on steel used in the fabrication of each cargo tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code. The tests must be made on a lot basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less of the same heat treatment processing lot having a thickness variation no greater than plus or minus 25 percent. The minimum impact required for full size specimens must be 20 foot-pounds in the longitudinal direction at −30 °F., Charpy V-Notch and 15 foot-pounds in the transverse direction at −30 °F., Charpy V-Notch. The required values for subsize specimens must be reduced in direct proportion to the cross-sectional area of the specimen beneath the notch. If a lot does not meet this requirement, individual plates may be accepted if they individually meet this requirement.

(3) The fabricator shall record the heat, and slab numbers, and the certified Charpy impact values, where required, of each plate used in each cargo tank on a sketch showing the location of each plate in the shell and heads of the cargo tank. Copies of each sketch shall be provided to the owner and retained for at least five years by the fabricator and made available to duly identified representatives of the Department of Transportation.

(4) The direction of final rolling of the shell material shall be the circumferential orientation of the cargo tank shell.

(b) For a chlorine cargo tank. Plates, the manway nozzle, and anchorage shall be made of carbon steel which meets the following requirements:

(1) For a cargo tank manufactured on or before December 31, 1974—

(i) Material shall conform to ASTM A 300, “Steel Plates for Pressure Vessels for Service at Low Temperatures” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter);

(ii) Material shall be Class 1, Grade A, flange or firebox quality;

(iii) Plate impact test specimens, as required under paragraph (a) of this section, shall be of the Charpy keyhole notch type; and

(iv) Plate impact test specimens shall meet the impact test requirements in paragraph (a) of this section in both the longitudinal and transverse directions of rolling at a temperature of minus 45.5 C. (−50 °F.).

(2) For a cargo tank manufactured on or after January 1, 1975—

(i) Material shall conform to ASTM A 612 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), Grade B or A 516/A 516M (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), Grade 65 or 70;

(ii) Material shall meet the Charpy V-notch test requirements of ASTM A 20/A 20M (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(iii) Plate impact test specimens shall meet the impact test requirements in paragraph (a) of this section in both the longitudinal and transverse directions of rolling at a temperature of minus 40 °C. (−40 °F.).

(c) A cargo tank in anhydrous ammonia service must be constructed of steel. The use of copper, silver, zinc or their alloys is prohibited. Baffles made from aluminum may be used only if joined to the cargo tank by a process not requiring postweld heat treatment of the cargo tank.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 579, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-2, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.337-3   Structural integrity.

(a) General requirements and acceptance criteria. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the maximum calculated design stress at any point in the cargo tank may not exceed the maximum allowable stress value prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), or 25 percent of the tensile strength of the material used.

(2) The relevant physical properties of the materials used in each cargo tank may be established either by a certified test report from the material manufacturer or by testing in conformance with a recognized national standard. In either case, the ultimate tensile strength of the material used in the design may not exceed 120 percent of the ultimate tensile strength specified in either the ASME Code or the ASTM standard to which the material is manufactured.

(3) The maximum design stress at any point in the cargo tank must be calculated separately for the loading conditions described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. Alternate test or analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used in place of the procedures described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, if the methods are accurate and verifiable.

(4) Corrosion allowance material may not be included to satisfy any of the design calculation requirements of this section.

(b) Static design and construction. (1) The static design and construction of each cargo tank must be in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code. The cargo tank design must include calculation of stresses generated by design pressure, the weight of lading, the weight of structure supported by the cargo tank wall, and the effect of temperature gradients resulting from lading and ambient temperature extremes. When dissimilar materials are used, their thermal coefficients must be used in calculation of thermal stresses.

(2) Stress concentrations in tension, bending and torsion which occur at pads, cradles, or other supports must be considered in accordance with appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(c) Shell design. Shell stresses resulting from static or dynamic loadings, or combinations thereof, are not uniform throughout the cargo tank motor vehicle. The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral normal operating loadings can occur simultaneously and must be combined. The vertical, longitudinal and lateral extreme dynamic loadings occur separately and need not be combined.

(1) Normal operating loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the tank shell resulting from normal operating loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:

S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy − Sx)2 + Ss2]0.5

Where:

(i) S = effective stress at any given point under the combination of static and normal operating loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.

(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.

(iii) Sx = The following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from normal operating longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case, the forces applied must be 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:

(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;

(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;

(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and

(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and

(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from normal operating vertical accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.

(iv) Ss = The following shear stresses generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The vertical shear stress generated by a normal operating accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(C) The lateral shear stress generated by a normal operating lateral accelerative force equal to 0.2 times the vertical reaction at each suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and

(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this section.

(2) Extreme dynamic loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the tank shell resulting from extreme dynamic loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:

S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy − Sx)2 + Ss2]0.5

Where:

(i) S = effective stress at any given point under a combination of static and extreme dynamic loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.

(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.

(iii) Sx = the following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the tank wall;

(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from extreme longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case the forces applied must be 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or the anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:

(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;

(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;

(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and

(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and

(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or the anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.

(iv) Ss = The following shear stresses generated by static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The vertical shear stress generated by an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(C) The lateral shear stress generated by an extreme lateral accelerative force equal to 0.4 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and

(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv)(C) of this section.

(d) In order to account for stresses due to impact in an accident, the design calculations for the cargo tank shell and heads must include the load resulting from the design pressure in combination with the dynamic pressure resulting from a longitudinal deceleration of “2g”. For this loading condition the stress value used may not exceed the lesser of the yield strength or 75 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the material of construction. For cargo tanks constructed of stainless steel the maximum design stress may not exceed 75 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the type steel used.

(e) The minimum metal thickness for the shell and heads on tanks with a design pressure of 100 psig or more must be 4.75 mm (0.187 inch) for steel and 6.86 mm (0.270 inch) for aluminum, except for chlorine and sulfur dioxide tanks. In all cases, the minimum thickness of the tank shell and head shall be determined using structural design requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code or 25% of the tensile strength of the material used. For a cargo tank used in chlorine or sulfur dioxide service, the cargo tank must be made of steel. A corrosion allowance of 20 percent or 2.54 mm (0.10 inch), whichever is less, must be added to the thickness otherwise required for sulfur dioxide and chlorine tank material. In chlorine cargo tanks, the wall thickness must be at least 1.59 cm (0.625 inch), including corrosion allowance.

(f) Where a cargo tank support is attached to any part of the cargo tank wall, the stresses imposed on the cargo tank wall must meet the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section.

(g) The design, construction, and installation of an attachment, appurtenance to the cargo tank, structural support member between the cargo tank and the vehicle or suspension component, or accident protection device must conform to the following requirements:

(1) Structural members, the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures, and external circumferential reinforcement devices must be used as sites for attachment of appurtenances and other accessories to the cargo tank, when practicable.

(2) A lightweight attachment to the cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, brake line clip, skirting structure, lamp mounting bracket, or placard holder must be of a construction having lesser strength than the cargo tank wall materials and may not be more than 72 percent of the thickness of the material to which it is attached. The lightweight attachment may be secured directly to the cargo tank wall if the device is designed and installed in such a manner that, if damaged, it will not affect the lading retention integrity of the tank. A lightweight attachment must be secured to the cargo tank shell or head by a continuous weld or in such a manner as to preclude formation of pockets which may become sites for corrosion. Attachments meeting the requirements of this paragraph are not authorized for cargo tanks constructed under part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(3) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section, the welding of any appurtenance to the cargo tank wall must be made by attachment of a mounting pad so that there will be no adverse effect upon the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank if any force less than that prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applied from any direction. The thickness of the mounting pad may not be less than that of the shell wall or head wall to which it is attached, and not more than 1.5 times the shell or head thickness. However, a pad with a minimum thickness of 0.25 inch may be used when the shell or head thickness is over 0.25 inch. If weep holes or tell-tale holes are used, the pad must be drilled or punched at the lowest point before it is welded to the tank. Each pad must—

(i) Be fabricated from material determined to be suitable for welding to both the cargo tank material and the material of the appurtenance or structural support member; a Design Certifying Engineer must make this determination considering chemical and physical properties of the materials and must specify filler material conforming to the requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius no greater than the outside radius of the cargo tank at the attachment location.

(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each direction from any point of attachment of an appurtenance or structural support member. This dimension may be measured from the center of the attached structural member.

(iv) Have rounded corners, or otherwise be shaped in a manner to minimize stress concentrations on the shell or head.

(v) Be attached by continuous fillet welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity may only be for the purpose of preventing an intersection between the fillet weld and a tank or jacket seam weld.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37056, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178-105, 60 FR 17401, Apr. 5, 1995; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19279, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52370, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75753, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.337-4   Joints.

(a) Joints shall be as required in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), with all undercutting in shell and head material repaired as specified therein.

(b) Welding procedure and welder performance must be in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. In addition to the essential variables named therein, the following must be considered as essential variables: Number of passes; thickness of plate; heat input per pass; and manufacturer's identification of rod and flux. When fabrication is done in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code, filler material containing more than 0.08 percent vanadium must not be used. The number of passes, thickness of plate, and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25 percent from the procedure or welder qualifications. Records of the qualifications must be retained for at least 5 years by the cargo tank manufacturer and must be made available to duly identified representatives of the Department and the owner of the cargo tank.

(c) All longitudinal shell welds shall be located in the upper half of the cargo tank.

(d) Edge preparation of shell and head components may be by machine heat processes, provided such surfaces are remelted in the subsequent welding process. Where there will be no subsequent remelting of the prepared surface as in a tapered section, the final 0.050 inch of material shall be removed by mechanical means.

(e) The maximum tolerance for misalignment and butting up shall be in accordance with the requirement in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(f) Substructures shall be properly fitted before attachment, and the welding sequence shall be such as to minimize stresses due to shrinkage of welds.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.337-5   Bulkheads, baffles and ring stiffeners.

(a) Not a specification requirement.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.337-6   Closure for manhole.

(a) Each cargo tank marked or certified after April 21, 1994, must be provided with a manhole conforming to paragraph UG-46(g)(1) and other applicable requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), except that a cargo tank constructed of NQT steel having a capacity of 3,500 water gallons or less may be provided with an inspection opening conforming to paragraph UG-46 and other applicable requirements of the ASME Code instead of a manhole.

(b) The manhole assembly of cargo tanks constructed after June 30, 1979, may not be located on the front head of the cargo tank.

[Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969, as amended by Amdt. 178-52, 43 FR 58820, Dec. 18, 1978; Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25017, June 12, 1989; 55 FR 21038, May 22, 1990; 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; 58 FR 12905, Mar. 8, 1993; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75753, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.337-7   Overturn protection.

(a) See §178.337-10.

(b) [Reserved]

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

§178.337-8   Openings, inlets, and outlets.

(a) General. The requirements in this paragraph (a) apply to MC 331 cargo tanks except for those used to transport chlorine. The requirements for inlets and outlets on chlorine cargo tanks are in paragraph (b) of this section.

(1) An opening must be provided on each cargo tank used for the transportation of liquefied materials to permit complete drainage.

(2) Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, pressure relief valves, manhole openings, product inlet openings, and product discharge openings, each opening in a cargo tank must be closed with a plug, cap, or bolted flange.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each product inlet opening, including vapor return lines, must be fitted with a back flow check valve or an internal self-closing stop valve located inside the cargo tank or inside a welded nozzle that is an integral part of the cargo tank. The valve seat must be located inside the cargo tank or within 2.54 cm (one inch) of the external face of the welded flange. Damage to parts exterior to the cargo tank or mating flange must not prevent effective seating of the valve. All parts of a valve inside a cargo tank or welded flange must be made of material that will not corrode or deteriorate in the presence of the lading.

(4) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(5), (b), and (c) of this section, each liquid or vapor discharge outlet must be fitted with a primary discharge control system as defined in §178.337-1(g). Thermal remote operators must activate at a temperature of 121.11 °C (250 °F) or less. Linkages between closures and remote operators must be corrosion resistant and effective in all types of environmental conditions incident to discharging of product.

(i) On a cargo tank over 13,247.5 L (3,500 gallons) water capacity, thermal and mechanical means of remote closure must be installed at the ends of the cargo tank in at least two diagonally opposite locations. If the loading/unloading connection at the cargo tank is not in the general vicinity of one of the two locations specified in the first sentence of this paragraph (a)(4)(i), additional means of thermal remote closure must be installed so that heat from a fire in the loading/unloading connection area or the discharge pump will activate the primary discharge control system. The loading/unloading connection area is where hoses or hose reels are connected to the permanent metal piping.

(ii) On a cargo tank of 13,247.5 L (3,500 gallons) water capacity or less, a thermal means of remote closure must be installed at or near the internal self-closing stop valve. A mechanical means of remote closure must be installed on the end of the cargo tank furthest away from the loading/unloading connection area. The loading/unloading connection area is where hoses or hose reels are connected to the permanent metal piping. Linkages between closures and remote operators must be corrosion resistant and effective in all types of environmental conditions incident to discharge of product.

(iii) All parts of a valve inside a cargo tank or within a welded flange must be made of material that will not corrode or deteriorate in the presence of the lading.

(iv) An excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature must close if the flow reaches the rated flow of a gas or liquid specified by the original valve manufacturer when piping mounted directly on the valve is sheared off before the first valve, pump, or fitting downstream from the excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature.

(v) An integral excess flow valve or the excess flow feature of an internal self-closing stop valve may be designed with a bypass, not to exceed 0.1016 cm (0.040 inch) diameter opening, to allow equalization of pressure.

(vi) The internal self-closing stop valve must be designed so that the self-stored energy source and the valve seat are located inside the cargo tank or within 2.54 cm (one inch) of the external face of the welded flange. Damage to parts exterior to the cargo tank or mating flange must not prevent effective seating of the valve.

(5) A primary discharge control system is not required on the following:

(i) A vapor or liquid discharge opening of less than 114 NPT equipped with an excess flow valve together with a manually operated external stop valve in place of an internal self-closing stop valve.

(ii) An engine fuel line on a truck-mounted cargo tank of not more than 34 NPT equipped with a valve having an integral excess flow valve or excess flow feature.

(iii) A cargo tank motor vehicle used to transport refrigerated liquids such as argon, carbon dioxide, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, and xenon, or mixtures thereof.

(6) In addition to the internal self-closing stop valve, each filling and discharge line must be fitted with a stop valve located in the line between the internal self-closing stop valve and the hose connection. A back flow check valve or excess flow valve may not be used to satisfy this requirement.

(7) An excess flow valve may be designed with a bypass, not to exceed a 0.1016 centimeter (0.040 inch) diameter opening, to allow equalization of pressure.

(b) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on a cargo tank used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of §178.337-1(c)(2) and must be fitted with an internal excess flow valve. In addition to the internal excess flow valve, the inlet and discharge outlets must be equipped with an external stop valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves must conform to the standards of The Chlorine Institute, Inc., as follows:

(1) A valve conforming to The Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 101-7 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), must be installed under each liquid angle valve.

(2) A valve conforming to The Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 106-6 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), must be installed under each gas angle valve.

(c) Discharge outlets on carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid, cargo tanks. A discharge outlet on a cargo tank used to transport carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid is not required to be fitted with an internal self-closing stop valve.

[64 FR 28049, May 24, 1999, as amended at 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19279, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75753, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.337-9   Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

(a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §173.315(i) of this subchapter.

(2) On cargo tanks for carbon dioxide or nitrous oxide see §173.315 (i) (9) and (10) of this subchapter.

(3) Each valve must be designed, constructed, and marked for a rated pressure not less than the cargo tank design pressure at the temperature expected to be encountered.

(b) Piping, valves, hose, and fittings. (1) The burst pressure of all piping, pipe fittings, hose and other pressure parts, except for pump seals and pressure relief devices, must be at least 4 times the design pressure of the cargo tank. Additionally, the burst pressure may not be less than 4 times any higher pressure to which each pipe, pipe fitting, hose or other pressure part may be subjected to in service. For chlorine service, see paragraph (b)(7) of this section.

(2) Pipe joints must be threaded, welded, or flanged. If threaded pipe is used, the pipe and fittings must be Schedule 80 weight or heavier, except for sacrificial devices. Malleable metal, stainless steel, or ductile iron must be used in the construction of primary valve body parts and fittings used in liquid filling or vapor equalization. Stainless steel may be used for internal components such as shutoff discs and springs except where incompatible with the lading to be transported. Where copper tubing is permitted, joints must be brazed or be of equally strong metal union type. The melting point of the brazing material may not be lower than 538 °C (1,000 °F). The method of joining tubing may not reduce the strength of the tubing.

(3) Each hose coupling must be designed for a pressure of at least 120 percent of the hose design pressure and so that there will be no leakage when connected.

(4) Piping must be protected from damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, jarring, and vibration. Slip joints are not authorized for this purpose.

(5) [Reserved]

(6) Cargo tank manufacturers and fabricators must demonstrate that all piping, valves, and fittings on a cargo tank are free from leaks. To meet this requirement, the piping, valves, and fittings must be tested after installation at not less than 80 percent of the design pressure marked on the cargo tank.

(7) A hose assembler must:

(i) Permanently mark each hose assembly with a unique identification number.

(ii) Demonstrate that each hose assembly is free from leaks by performing the tests and inspections in §180.416(f) of this subchapter.

(iii) Mark each hose assembly with the month and year of its original pressure test.

(8) Chlorine cargo tanks. Angle valves on cargo tanks intended for chlorine service must conform to the standards of the Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 104-8 or “Section 3, Pamphlet 166, Angle Valve Guidelines for Chlorine Bulk Transportation.” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Before installation, each angle valve must be tested for leakage at not less than 225 psig using dry air or inert gas.

(c) Marking inlets and outlets. Except for gauging devices, thermometer wells, and pressure relief valves, each cargo tank inlet and outlet must be marked “liquid” or “vapor” to designate whether it communicates with liquid or vapor when the cargo tank is filled to the maximum permitted filling density. A filling line that communicates with vapor may be marked “spray-fill” instead of “vapor.”

(d) Refrigeration and heating coils. (1) Refrigeration and heating coils must be securely anchored with provisions for thermal expansion. The coils must be pressure tested externally to at least the cargo tank test pressure, and internally to either the tank test pressure or twice the working pressure of the heating/refrigeration system, whichever is higher. A cargo tank may not be placed in service if any leakage occurs or other evidence of damage is found. The refrigerant or heating medium to be circulated through the coils must not be capable of causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of leakage. The unit furnishing refrigeration may be mounted on the motor vehicle.

(2) Where any liquid susceptible to freezing, or the vapor of any such liquid, is used for heating or refrigeration, the heating or refrigeration system shall be arranged to permit complete drainage.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 580, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-9, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.337-10   Accident damage protection.

(a) All valves, fittings, pressure relief devices, and other accessories to the tank proper shall be protected in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section against such damage as could be caused by collision with other vehicles or objects, jack-knifing and overturning. In addition, pressure relief valves shall be so protected that in the event of overturn of the vehicle onto a hard surface, their opening will not be prevented and their discharge will not be restricted.

(b) The protective devices or housing must be designed to withstand static loading in any direction equal to twice the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with the lading, using a safety factor of not less than four, based on the ultimate strength of the material to be used, without damage to the fittings protected, and must be made of metal at least 316 -inch thick.

(c) Rear-end tank protection. Rear-end tank protection devices must:

(1) Consist of at least one rear bumper designed to protect the cargo tank and all valves, piping and fittings located at the rear of the cargo tank from damage that could result in loss of lading in the event of a rear end collision. The bumper design must transmit the force of the collision directly to the chassis of the vehicle. The rear bumper and its attachments to the chassis must be designed to withstand a load equal to twice the weight of the loaded cargo tank motor vehicle and attachments, using a safety factor of four based on the tensile strength of the materials used, with such load being applied horizontally and parallel to the major axis of the cargo tank. The rear bumper dimensions must also meet the requirements of §393.86 of this title; or

(2) Conform to the requirements of §178.345-8(d).

(d) Chlorine tanks. A chlorine tank must be equipped with a protective housing and a manway cover to permit the use of standard emergency kits for controlling leaks in fittings on the dome cover plate. For tanks manufactured on or after October 1, 2009, the housing and manway cover must conform to the Chlorine Institute, Inc., Dwg. 137-5 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Piping and fittings. Piping and fittings must be grouped in the smallest practicable space and protected from damage as required in this section.

(f) Shear section. A shear section or sacrificial device is required for the valves specified in the following locations:

(1) A section that will break under strain must be provided adjacent to or outboard of each valve specified in §178.337-8(a)(3) and (4).

(2) Each internal self-closing stop valve, excess flow valve, and check valve must be protected by a shear section or other sacrificial device. The sacrificial device must be located in the piping system outboard of the stop valve and within the accident damage protection to prevent any accidental loss of lading. The failure of the sacrificial device must leave the protected lading protection device and its attachment to the cargo tank wall intact and capable of retaining product.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 581, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-10, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.337-11   Emergency discharge control.

(a) Emergency discharge control equipment. Emergency discharge control equipment must be installed in a liquid discharge line as specified by product and service in §173.315(n) of this subchapter. The performance and certification requirements for emergency discharge control equipment are specified in §173.315(n) of this subchapter and are not a part of the cargo tank motor vehicle certification made under this specification.

(b) Engine fuel lines. On a truck-mounted cargo tank, emergency discharge control equipment is not required on an engine fuel line of not more than 34 NPT equipped with a valve having an integral excess flow valve or excess flow feature.

[64 FR 28050, May 24, 1999]

§178.337-12   [Reserved]

§178.337-13   Supporting and anchoring.

(a) A cargo tank that is not permanently attached to or integral with a vehicle chassis must be secured by the use of restraining devices designed to prevent relative motion between the cargo tank and the vehicle chassis when the vehicle is in operation. Such restraining devices must be readily accessible for inspection and maintenance.

(b) On a cargo tank motor vehicle designed and constructed so that the cargo tank constitutes in whole or in part the structural member used in place of a motor vehicle frame, the cargo tank must be supported by external cradles. A cargo tank mounted on a motor vehicle frame must be supported by external cradles or longitudinal members. Where used, the cradles must subtend at least 120 degrees of the shell circumference.

(c) The design calculations of the support elements must satisfy the requirements of §178.337-3, (a), (b), (c), and (d).

(d) Where any cargo tank support is attached to any part of a cargo tank head, the stresses imposed upon the head must be provided for as required in paragraph (c) of this section.

[68 FR 19280, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.337-14   Gauging devices.

(a) Liquid level gauging devices. See §173.315(h) of this subchapter.

(b) Pressure gauges. (1) See §173.315(h) of this subchapter.

(2) Each cargo tank used in carbon dioxide, refrigerated liquid or nitrous oxide, refrigerated liquid service must be provided with a suitable pressure gauge. A shut-off valve must be installed between the pressure gauge and the cargo tank.

(c) Orifices. See §173.315(h) (3) and (4) of this subchapter.

[Amdt. 178-29, 38 FR 27599, Oct. 5, 1973, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25018, June 12, 1989; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.337-15   Pumps and compressors.

(a) Liquid pumps or gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately protected against breakage by collision, and kept in good condition. They may be driven by motor vehicle power take-off or other mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic means. Unless they are of the centrifugal type, they shall be equipped with suitable pressure actuated by-pass valves permitting flow from discharge to suction or to the cargo tank.

(b) A liquid chlorine pump may not be installed on a cargo tank intended for the transportation of chlorine.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25018, June 12, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.337-16   Testing.

(a) Inspection and tests. Inspection of materials of construction of the cargo tank and its appurtenances and original test and inspection of the finished cargo tank and its appurtenances must be as required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) and as further required by this specification, except that for cargo tanks constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code the original test pressure must be at least twice the cargo tank design pressure.

(b) Weld testing and inspection. (1) Each cargo tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code must be subjected, after postweld heat treatment and hydrostatic tests, to a wet fluorescent magnetic particle inspection to be made on all welds in or on the cargo tank shell and heads both inside and out. The method of inspection must conform to appendix 6 in Section VIII of the ASME Code except that permanent magnets shall not be used.

(2) On cargo tanks of over 3,500 gallons water capacity other than those described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section unless fully radiographed, a test must be made of all welds in or on the shell and heads both inside and outside by either the wet fluorescent magnetic particle method conforming to appendix U in Section VIII of the ASME Code, liquid dye penetrant method, or ultrasonic testing in accordance with appendix 12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code. Permanent magnets must not be used to perform the magnetic particle inspection.

(c) All defects found shall be repaired, the cargo tanks shall then again be postweld heat treated, if such heat treatment was previously performed, and the repaired areas shall again be tested.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 582, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75753, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.337-17   Marking.

(a) General. Each cargo tank certified after October 1, 2004 must have a corrosion-resistant metal name plate (ASME Plate) and specification plate permanently attached to the cargo tank by brazing, welding, or other suitable means on the left side near the front, in a place accessible for inspection. If the specification plate is attached directly to the cargo tank wall by welding, it must be welded to the tank before the cargo tank is postweld heat treated.

(1) The plates must be legibly marked by stamping, embossing, or other means of forming letters into the metal of the plate, with the information required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in addition to that required by the ASME Code, in characters at least 316 inch high (parenthetical abbreviations may be used). All plates must be maintained in a legible condition.

(2) Each insulated cargo tank must have additional plates, as described, attached to the jacket in the location specified unless the specification plate is attached to the chassis and has the information required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(3) The information required for both the name and specification plate may be displayed on a single plate. If the information required by this section is displayed on a plate required by the ASME, the information need not be repeated on the name and specification plates.

(4) The specification plate may be attached to the cargo tank motor vehicle chassis rail by brazing, welding, or other suitable means on the left side near the front head, in a place accessible for inspection. If the specification plate is attached to the chassis rail, then the cargo tank serial number assigned by the cargo tank manufacturer must be included on the plate.

(b) Name plate. The following information must be marked on the name plate in accordance with this section:

(1) DOT-specification number MC 331 (DOT MC 331).

(2) Original test date (Orig. Test Date).

(3) MAWP in psig.

(4) Cargo tank design temperature (Design Temp. Range) ___ °F to ___ °F.

(5) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in pounds.

(6) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon.

(7) Material specification number—shell (Shell matl, yyy***), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “***” is replaced by the alloy type.

(8) Material specification number—heads (Head matl. yyy***), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “***” by the alloy type.

(9) Minimum Thickness—shell (Min. Shell-thick), in inches. When minimum shell thicknesses are not the same for different areas, show (top__, side__, bottom__, in inches).

(10) Minimum thickness—heads (Min. heads thick.), in inches.

(11) Manufactured thickness—shell (Mfd. Shell thick.), top__, side__, bottom__, in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(12) Manufactured thickness—heads (Mfd. Heads thick.), in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(13) Exposed surface area, in square feet.

Note to paragraph (b): When the shell and head materials are the same thickness, they may be combined, (Shell&head matl, yyy***).

(c) Specification plate. The following information must be marked on the specification plate in accordance with this section:

(1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer (CTMV mfr.).

(2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certification date (CTMV cert. date).

(3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT mfr.).

(4) Cargo tank date of manufacture (CT date of mfr.), month and year.

(5) Maximum weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds

(6) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable.

(7) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable.

(8) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable.

(9) Cargo tank serial number, assigned by cargo tank manufacturer (CT serial), if applicable.

Note 1 to paragraph (c): See §173.315(a) of this chapter regarding water capacity.

Note 2 to paragraph (c): When the shell and head materials are the same thickness, they may be combined (Shell & head matl, yyy***).

(d) The design weight of lading used in determining the loading in §§178.337-3(b), 178.337-10(b) and (c), and 178.337-13(a) and (b), must be shown as the maximum weight of lading marking required by paragraph (c) of this section.

[68 FR 19280, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52370, Sept. 3, 2003, as amended at 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003]

§178.337-18   Certification.

(a) At or before the time of delivery, the cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer must supply and the owner must obtain, a cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer's data report as required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), and a certificate stating that the completed cargo tank motor vehicle conforms in all respects to Specification MC 331 and the ASME Code. The registration numbers of the manufacturer, the Design Certifying Engineer, and the Registered Inspector, as appropriate, must appear on the certificates (see subpart F, part 107 in subchapter A of this chapter).

(1) For each design type, the certificate must be signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Design Certifying Engineer; and

(2) For each cargo tank motor vehicle, the certificate must be signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Registered Inspector.

(3) When a cargo tank motor vehicle is manufactured in two or more stages, each manufacturer who performs a manufacturing function or portion thereof on the incomplete cargo tank motor vehicle must provide to the succeeding manufacturer, at or before the time of delivery, a certificate that states the function performed by the manufacturer, including any certificates received from previous manufacturers, Registered Inspectors, and Design Certifying Engineers.

(4) Specification shortages. When a cargo tank motor vehicle is manufactured in two or more stages, the manufacturer of the cargo tank must attach the name plate and specification plate as required by §178.337-17(a) and (b) without the original date of certification stamped on the specification plate. Prior manufacturers must list the specification requirements that are not completed on the Certificate of Compliance. When the cargo tank motor vehicle is brought into full compliance with the applicable specification, the cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer must have a Registered Inspector stamp the date of certification on the specification plate and issue a Certificate of Compliance to the owner of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The Certificate of Compliance must list the actions taken to bring the cargo tank motor vehicle into full compliance. In addition, the certificate must include the date of certification and the person (manufacturer, carrier or repair organization) accomplishing compliance.

(5) The certificate must state whether or not it includes certification that all valves, piping, and protective devices conform to the requirements of the specification. If it does not so certify, the installer of any such valve, piping, or device shall supply and the owner shall obtain a certificate asserting complete compliance with these specifications for such devices. The certificate, or certificates, will include sufficient sketches, drawings, and other information to indicate the location, make, model, and size of each valve and the arrangement of all piping associated with the cargo tank.

(6) The certificate must contain a statement indicating whether or not the cargo tank was postweld heat treated for anhydrous ammonia as specified in §178.337-1(f).

(b) The owner shall retain the copy of the data report and certificates and related papers in his files throughout his ownership of the cargo tank motor vehicle and for at least one year thereafter; and in the event of change in ownership, retention by the prior owner of nonfading photographically reproduced copies will be deemed to satisfy this requirement. Each motor carrier using the cargo tank motor vehicle, if not the owner thereof, shall obtain a copy of the data report and certificate and retain them in his files during the time he uses the cargo tank motor vehicle and for at least one year thereafter.

[Order 59-B, 30 FR 583, Jan. 16, 1965. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §178.337-18, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§178.338   Specification MC-338; insulated cargo tank motor vehicle.

§178.338-1   General requirements.

(a) For the purposes of this section—

(1) Design pressure means the “MAWP” as used in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), and is the gauge pressure at the top of the tank.

(2) Design service temperature means the coldest temperature for which the tank is suitable (see §§173.318 (a)(1) and (f) of this subchapter).

(b) Each cargo tank must consist of a suitably supported welded inner vessel enclosed within an outer shell or jacket, with insulation between the inner vessel and outer shell or jacket, and having piping, valves, supports and other appurtenances as specified in this subchapter. For the purpose of this specification, tank means inner vessel and jacket means either the outer shell or insulation cover.

(c) Each tank must be designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(d) The exterior surface of the tank must be insulated with a material compatible with the lading.

(1) Each cargo tank must have an insulation system that will prevent the tank pressure from exceeding the pressure relief valve set pressure within the specified holding time when the tank is loaded with the specific cryogenic liquid at the design conditions of—

(i) The specified temperature and pressure of the cryogenic liquid, and

(ii) The exposure of the filled cargo tank to an average ambient temperature of 85 °F.

(2) For a cargo tank used to transport oxygen, the insulation may not sustain combustion in a 99.5 percent oxygen atmosphere at atmospheric pressure when contacted with a continuously heated glowing platinum wire. The cargo tank must be marked in accordance with §178.338-18(b)(7).

(3) Each vacuum-insulated cargo tank must be provided with a connection for a vacuum gauge to indicate the absolute pressure within the insulation space.

(e) The insulation must be completely covered by a metal jacket. The jacket or the insulation must be so constructed and sealed as to prevent moisture from coming into contact with the insulation (see §173.318(a)(3) of this subchapter). Minimum metal thicknesses are as follows:

Type metalJacket evacuatedJacket not evacuated
GaugeInchesGaugeInches
Stainless steel180.0428220.0269
Low carbon mild steel120.0946140.0677
Aluminum0.1250.1000

(f) An evacuated jacket must be in compliance with the following requirements:

(1) The jacket must be designed to sustain a minimum critical collapsing pressure of 30 psig.

(2) If the jacket also supports additional loads, such as the weight of the tank and lading, the combined stress, computed according to the formula in §178.338-3(b), may not exceed 25 percent of the minimum specified tensile strength.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27703, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-2   Material.

(a) All material used in the construction of a tank and its appurtenances that may come in contact with the lading must be compatible with the lading to be transported. All material used for tank pressure parts must conform to the requirements in Section II of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). All material used for evacuated jacket pressure parts must conform to the chemistry and steelmaking practices of one of the material specifications of Section II of the ASME Code or the following ASTM Specifications (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter): A 242, A 441, A 514, A 572, A 588, A 606, A 633, A 715, A 1008/A 1008M, A 1011/A 1011M.

(b) All tie-rods, mountings, and other appurtenances within the jacket and all piping, fittings and valves must be of material suitable for use at the lowest temperature to be encountered.

(c) Impact tests are required on all tank materials, except materials that are excepted from impact testing by the ASME Code, and must be performed using the procedure prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(d) The direction of final rolling of the shell material must be the circumferential orientation of the tank shell.

(e) Each tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code must be postweld heat treated as a unit after completion of all welds to the shell and heads. Other tanks must be postweld heat treated as required in Section VIII of the ASME Code. For all tanks the method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment.

(f) The fabricator shall record the heat and slab numbers and the certified Charpy impact values of each plate used in the tank on a sketch showing the location of each plate in the shell and heads of the tank. A copy of the sketch must be provided to the owner of the cargo tank and a copy must be retained by the fabricator for at least five years and made available, upon request, to any duly identified representative of the Department.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2137-0017)

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27703 and 27713, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 68 FR 19281, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 34076, June 13, 2005]

§178.338-3   Structural integrity.

(a) General requirements and acceptance criteria. (1) Except as permitted in paragraph (d) of this section, the maximum calculated design stress at any point in the tank may not exceed the lesser of the maximum allowable stress value prescribed in section VIII of the ASME Code, or 25 percent of the tensile strength of the material used.

(2) The relevant physical properties of the materials used in each tank may be established either by a certified test report from the material manufacturer or by testing in conformance with a recognized national standard. In either case, the ultimate tensile strength of the material used in the design may not exceed 120 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength specified in either the ASME Code or the ASTM standard to which the material is manufactured.

(3) The maximum design stress at any point in the tank must be calculated separately for the loading conditions described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section. Alternate test or analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used in lieu of the procedures described in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section, if the methods are accurate and verifiable.

(4) Corrosion allowance material may not be included to satisfy any of the design calculation requirements of this section.

(b) Static design and construction. (1) The static design and construction of each tank must be in accordance with appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The tank design must include calculation of stress due to the design pressure, the weight of lading, the weight of structures supported by the tank wall, and the effect of temperature gradients resulting from lading and ambient temperature extremes. When dissimilar materials are used, their thermal coefficients must be used in calculation of the thermal stresses.

(2) Stress concentrations in tension, bending, and torsion which occur at pads, cradles, or other supports must be considered in accordance with appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(c) Stresses resulting from static and dynamic loadings, or a combination thereof, are not uniform throughout the cargo tank motor vehicle. The following is a simplified procedure for calculating the effective stress in the tank resulting from static and dynamic loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:

S = 0.5 (Sy + Sx) ±(0.25(Sy − Sx)2 + Ss2)0.5

Where:

(1) S = effective stress at any given point under the most severe combination of static and dynamic loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.

(2) Sy = circumferential stress generated by internal and external pressure when applicable, in psi.

(3) Sx = the net longitudinal stress, in psi, generated by the following loading conditions:

(i) The longitudinal tensile stress generated by internal pressure;

(ii) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the axial load resulting from a decelerative force applied independently to each suspension assembly at the road surface using applicable static loadings specified in §178.338-13 (b);

(iii) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from a decelerative force applied independently to each suspension assembly at the road surface using applicable static loadings specified in §178.338-13 (b);

(iv) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the axial load resulting from an accelerative force applied to the horizontal pivot of the fifth wheel supporting the vehicle using applicable static loadings specified in §178.338-13 (b);

(v) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from an accelerative force applied to the horizontal pivot of the fifth wheel supporting the vehicle using applicable static loadings specified in §178.338-13 (b); and

(vi) The tensile or compressive stress generated by a bending moment produced by a vertical force using applicable static loadings specified in §178.338-13 (b).

(4) Ss = The following shear stresses that apply, in psi,: The vectorial sum of the applicable shear stresses in the plane under consideration, including direct shear generated by the static vertical loading; direct lateral and torsional shear generated by a lateral accelerative force applied at the road surface, using applicable static loads specified in §178.338-13 (b)

(d) In order to account for stresses due to impact in an accident, the design calculations for the tank shell and heads must include the load resulting from the design pressure in combination with the dynamic pressure resulting from a longitudinal deceleration of “2g”. For this loading condition the stress value used may not exceed the lesser of the yield strength or 75 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the material of construction. For a cargo tank constructed of stainless steel, the maximum design stress may not exceed 75 percent of the ultimate tensile strength of the type steel used.

(e) The minimum thickness of the shell or heads of the tank must be 0.187 inch for steel and 0.270 inch for aluminum. However, the minimum thickness for steel may be 0.110 inches provided the cargo tank is:

(1) Vacuum insulated, or

(2) Double walled with a load bearing jacket designed to carry a proportionate amount of structural loads prescribed in this section.

(f) Where a tank support is attached to any part of the tank wall, the stresses imposed on the tank wall must meet the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section.

(g) The design, construction and installation of an attachment, appurtenance to the cargo tank or structural support member between the cargo tank and the vehicle or suspension component or accident protection device must conform to the following requirements:

(1) Structural members, the suspension subframe, accident protection structures and external circumferential reinforcement devices must be used as sites for attachment of appurtenances and other accessories to the cargo tank, when practicable.

(2) A lightweight attachment to the cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, brakeline clip, skirting structure, lamp mounting bracket, or placard holder must be of a construction having lesser strength than the cargo tank wall materials and may not be more than 72 percent of the thickness of the material to which it is attached. The lightweight attachment may be secured directly to the cargo tank wall if the device is designed and installed in such a manner that, if damaged, it will not affect the lading retention integrity of the tank. A lightweight attachment must be secured to the cargo tank shell or head by a continuous weld or in such a manner as to preclude formation of pockets that may become sites for corrosion. Attachments meeting the requirements of this paragraph are not authorized for cargo tanks constructed under part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(3) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (g)(1) and (g)(2) of this section, the welding of any appurtenance the cargo tank wall must be made by attachment of a mounting pad so that there will be no adverse effect upon the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank if any force less than that prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applied from any direction. The thickness of the mounting pad may not be less than that of the shell or head to which it is attached, and not more than 1.5 times the shell or head thickness. However, a pad with a minimum thickness of 0.187 inch may be used when the shell or head thickness is over 0.187 inch. If weep holes or tell-tale holes are used, the pad must be drilled or punched at the lowest point before it is welded to the tank. Each pad must:

(i) Be fabricated from material determined to be suitable for welding to both the cargo tank material and the material of the appurtenance or structural support member; a Design Certifying Engineer must make this determination considering chemical and physical properties of the materials and must specify filler material conforming to the requirements in Section IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius no greater than the outside radius of the cargo tank at the attachment location.

(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each direction from any point of attachment of an appurtenance or structural support member. This dimension may be measured from the center of the attached structural member.

(iv) Have rounded corners, or otherwise be shaped in a manner to minimize stress concentrations on the shell or head.

(v) Be attached by continuous fillet welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity may only be for the purpose of preventing an intersection between the fillet weld and a tank or jacket seam weld.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37057, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; 56 FR 46354, Sept. 11, 1991; 68 FR 19281, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-4   Joints.

(a) All joints in the tank, and in the jacket if evacuated, must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), except that a butt weld with one plate edge offset is not authorized.

(b) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. Records of the qualification must be retained by the tank manufacturer for at least five years and must be made available, upon request, to any duly identified representative of the Department, or the owner of the cargo tank.

(c) All longitudinal welds in tanks and load bearing jackets must be located so as not to intersect nozzles or supports other than load rings and stiffening rings.

(d) Substructures must be properly fitted before attachment and the welding sequence must minimize stresses due to shrinkage of welds.

(e) Filler material containing more than 0.05 percent vanadium may not be used with quenched and tempered steel.

(f) All tank nozzle-to-shell and nozzle-to-head welds must be full penetration welds.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2137-0017)

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704 and 27713, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-5   Stiffening rings.

(a) A tank is not required to be provided with stiffening rings, except as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) If a jacket is evacuated, it must be constructed in compliance with §178.338-1(f). Stiffening rings may be used to meet these requirements.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as amended at 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-6   Manholes.

(a) Each tank in oxygen service must be provided with a manhole as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) Each tank having a manhole must be provided with a means of entrance and exit through the jacket, or the jacket must be marked to indicate the manway location on the tank.

(c) A manhole with a bolted closure may not be located on the front head of the tank.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-7   Openings.

(a) The inlet to the liquid product discharge opening of each tank intended for flammable ladings must be at the bottom centerline of the tank.

(b) If the leakage of a single valve, except a pressure relief valve, pressure control valve, full trycock or gas phase manual vent valve, would permit loss of flammable material, an additional closure that is leak tight at the tank design pressure must be provided outboard of such valve.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983]

§178.338-8   Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

(a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank pressure relief device must be designed, constructed, and marked in accordance with §173.318(b) of this subchapter.

(b) Piping, valves, and fittings. (1) The burst pressure of all piping, pipe fittings, hoses and other pressure parts, except for pump seals and pressure relief devices, must be at least 4 times the design pressure of the tank. Additionally, the burst pressure may not be less than 4 times any higher pressure to which each pipe, pipe fitting, hose or other pressure part may be subjected to in service.

(2) Pipe joints must be threaded, welded or flanged. If threaded pipe is used, the pipe and fittings must be Schedule 80 weight or heavier. Malleable metals must be used in the construction of valves and fittings. Where copper tubing is permitted, joints shall be brazed or be of equally strong metal union type. The melting point of the brazing materials may not be lower than 1000 °F. The method of joining tubing may not reduce the strength of the tubing, such as by the cutting of threads.

(3) Each hose coupling must be designed for a pressure of at least 120 percent of the hose design pressure and so that there will be no leakage when connected.

(4) Piping must be protected from damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, jarring, and vibration. Slip joints are not authorized for this purpose.

(5) All piping, valves and fittings on a cargo tank must be proved free from leaks. This requirement is met when such piping, valves, and fittings have been tested after installation with gas or air and proved leak tight at not less than the design pressure marked on the cargo tank. This requirement is applicable to all hoses used in a cargo tank, except that hose may be tested before or after installation on the tank.

(6) Each valve must be suitable for the tank design pressure at the tank design service temperature.

(7) All fittings must be rated for the maximum tank pressure and suitable for the coldest temperature to which they will be subjected in actual service.

(8) All piping, valves, and fittings must be grouped in the smallest practicable space and protected from damage as required by §178.338-10.

(9) When a pressure-building coil is used on a tank designed to handle oxygen or flammable ladings, the vapor connection to that coil must be provided with a valve or check valve as close to the tank shell as practicable to prevent the loss of vapor from the tank in case of damage to the coil. The liquid connection to that coil must also be provided with a valve.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25019, June 12, 1989]

§178.338-9   Holding time.

(a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium conditions, reaches the level of the lowest pressure control valve or pressure relief valve setting.

(b) Holding time test. (1) The test to determine holding time must be performed by charging the tank with a cryogenic liquid having a boiling point, at a pressure of one atmosphere, absolute, no lower than the design service temperature of the tank. The tank must be charged to its maximum permitted filling density with that liquid and stabilized to the lowest practical pressure, which must be equal to or less than the pressure to be used for loading. The cargo tank together with its contents must then be exposed to ambient temperature.

(2) The tank pressure and ambient temperature must be recorded at 3-hour intervals until the pressure level of the contents reaches the set-to-discharge pressure of the pressure control valve or pressure relief valve with the lowest setting. This total time lapse in hours represents the measured holding time at the actual average ambient temperature. This measured holding time for the test cryogenic liquid must be adjusted to an equivalent holding time for each cryogenic liquid that is to be identified on or adjacent to the specification plate, at an average ambient temperature of 85 °F. This is the rated holding time (RHT). The marked rated holding time (MRHT) displayed on or adjacent to the specification plate (see §178.338-18(c)(10)) may not exceed this RHT.

(c) Optional test regimen. (1) If more than one cargo tank is made to the same design, only one cargo tank must be subjected to the full holding time test at the time of manufacture. However, each subsequent cargo tank made to the same design must be performance tested during its first trip. The holding time determined in this test may not be less than 90 percent of the marked rated holding time. This test must be performed in accordance with §§173.318(g)(3) and 177.840(h) of this subchapter, regardless of the classification of the cryogenic liquid.

(2) Same design. The term “same design” as used in this section means cargo tanks made to the same design type. See §178.320(a) for definition of “design type”.

(3) For a cargo tank used in nonflammable cryogenic liquid service, in place of the holding time tests prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, the marked rated holding time (MRHT) may be determined as follows:

(i) While the cargo tank is stationary, the heat transfer rate must be determined by measuring the normal evaporation rate (NER) of the test cryogenic liquid (preferably the lading, where feasible) maintained at approximately one atmosphere. The calculated heat transfer rate must be determined from:

q = [n(Δ h)(85−t1)] / [ts − tf]

Where:

q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr.

n = normal evaporation rate (NER), which is the rate of evaporation, determined by the test of a test cryogenic liquid in a cargo tank maintained at a pressure of approximately one atmosphere, absolute, lb/hr.

Δ h = latent heat of vaporization of test fluid at test pressure, Btu/lb.

ts = average temperature of outer shell during test, °F.

t1 = equilibrium temperature of lading at maximum loading pressure, °F.

tf = equilibrium temperature of test fluid at one atmosphere, °F.

(ii) The rated holding time (RHT) must be calculated as follows:

RHT = [(U2 − U1) W] / q

Where:

RHT = rated holding time, in hours

U1 and U2 = internal energy for the combined liquid and vapor lading at the pressure offered for transportation, and the set pressure of the applicable pressure control valve or pressure relief valve, respectively, Btu/lb.

W = total weight of the combined liquid and vapor lading in the cargo tank, pounds.

q = calculated heat transfer rate to cargo tank with lading, Btu/hr.

(iii) The MRHT (see §178.338-18(b)(9) of this subchapter) may not exceed the RHT.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27704, June 16, 1983; 48 FR 50442, Nov. 1, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; 49 FR 43965, Nov. 1, 1984; 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 57634, Oct. 6, 2003; 71 FR 54397, Sept. 14, 2006]

§178.338-10   Accident damage protection.

(a) All valves, fittings, pressure relief devices and other accessories to the tank proper, which are not isolated from the tank by closed intervening shut-off valves or check valves, must be installed within the motor vehicle framework or within a suitable collision resistant guard or housing, and appropriate ventilation must be provided. Each pressure relief device must be protected so that in the event of the upset of the vehicle onto a hard surface, the device's opening will not be prevented and its discharge will not be restricted.

(b) Each protective device or housing, and its attachment to the vehicle structure, must be designed to withstand static loading in any direction that it may be loaded as a result of front, rear, side, or sideswipe collision, or the overturn of the vehicle. The static loading shall equal twice the loaded weight of the tank and attachments. A safety factor of four, based on the tensile strength of the material, shall be used. The protective device or the housing must be made of steel at least 316 -inch thick, or other material of equivalent strength.

(c) Rear-end tank protection. Rear-end tank protections devices must:

(1) Consist of at least one rear bumper designed to protect the cargo tank and piping in the event of a rear-end collision. The rear-end tank protection device design must transmit the force of the collision directly to the chassis of the vehicle. The rear-end tank protection device and its attachments to the chassis must be designed to withstand a load equal to twice the weight of the loaded cargo tank and attachments, using a safety factor of four based on the tensile strength of the materials used, with such load being applied horizontally and parallel to the major axis of the cargo tank. The rear-end tank protection device dimensions must meet the requirements of §393.86 of this title and extend vertically to a height adequate to protect all valves and fittings located at the rear of the cargo tank from damage that could result in loss of lading; or

(2) Conform to the requirements of §178.345-8(b).

(d) Every part of the loaded cargo tank, and any associated valve, pipe, enclosure, or protective device or structure (exclusive of wheel assemblies), must be at least 14 inches above level ground.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27705, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984; Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; 68 FR 19282, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003]

§178.338-11   Discharge control devices.

(a) Excess-flow valves are not required.

(b) Each liquid filling and liquid discharge line must be provided with a shut-off valve located as close to the tank as practicable. Unless this valve is manually operable at the valve, the line must also have a manual shut-off valve.

(c) Except for a cargo tank that is used to transport argon, carbon dioxide, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen, xenon, or mixtures thereof, each liquid filling and liquid discharge line must be provided with an on-vehicle remotely controlled self-closing shutoff valve.

(1) If pressure from a reservoir or from an engine-driven pump or compressor is used to open this valve, the control must be of fail-safe design and spring-biased to stop the admission of such pressure into the cargo tank. If the jacket is not evacuated, the seat of the valve must be inside the tank, in the opening nozzle or flange, or in a companion flange bolted to the nozzle. If the jacket is evacuated, the remotely controlled valve must be located as close to the tank as practicable.

(2) Each remotely controlled shut off valve must be provided with on-vehicle remote means of automatic closure, both mechanical and thermal. One means may be used to close more than one remotely controlled valve. Cable linkage between closures and remote operators must be corrosion resistant and effective in all types of environment and weather. The thermal means must consist of fusible elements actuated at a temperature not exceeding 121 °C (250 °F), or equivalent devices. The loading/unloading connection area is where hoses are connected to the permanent metal piping. The number and location of remote operators and thermal devices shall be as follows:

(i) On a cargo tank motor vehicle over 3,500 gallons water capacity, remote means of automatic closure must be installed at the ends of the cargo tank in at least two diagonally opposite locations. If the loading/unloading connection at the cargo tank is not in the general vicinity of one of these locations, at least one additional thermal device must be installed so that heat from a fire in the loading/unloading connection area will activate the emergency control system.

(ii) On a cargo tank motor vehicle of 3,500 gallons water capacity or less, at least one remote means of automatic closure must be installed on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the loading/unloading connection area. At least one thermal device must be installed so that heat from a fire in the loading/unloading connection area will activate the emergency control system.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27705, June 16, 1983, as amended by Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; 68 FR 19282, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.338-12   Shear section.

Unless the valve is located in a rear cabinet forward of and protected by the bumper (see §178.338-10(c)), the design and installation of each valve, damage to which could result in loss of liquid or vapor, must incorporate a shear section or breakage groove adjacent to, and outboard of, the valve. The shear section or breakage groove must yield or break under strain without damage to the valve that would allow the loss of liquid or vapor. The protection specified in §178.338-10 is not a substitute for a shear section or breakage groove.

[Amdt. 178-77, 49 FR 24316, June 12, 1984]

§178.338-13   Supporting and anchoring.

(a) On a cargo tank motor vehicle designed and constructed so that the cargo tank constitutes in whole or in part the structural member used in place of a motor vehicle frame, the cargo tank or the jacket must be supported by external cradles or by load rings. For a cargo tank mounted on a motor vehicle frame, the tank or jacket must be supported by external cradles, load rings, or longitudinal members. If cradles are used, they must subtend at least 120 degrees of the cargo tank circumference. The design calculations for the supports and load-bearing tank or jacket, and the support attachments must include beam stress, shear stress, torsion stress, bending moment, and acceleration stress for the loaded vehicle as a unit, using a safety factor of four, based on the tensile strength of the material, and static loading that uses the weight of the cargo tank and its attachments when filled to the design weight of the lading (see appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code) (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), multiplied by the following factors. The effects of fatigue must also be considered in the calculations. Minimum static loadings must be as follows:

(1) For a vacuum-insulated cargo tank—

(i) Vertically downward of 2;

(ii) Vertically upward of 2;

(iii) Longitudinally of 2; and

(iv) Laterally of 2.

(2) For any other insulated cargo tank—

(i) Vertically downward of 3;

(ii) Vertically upward of 2;

(iii) Longitudinally of 2; and

(iv) Laterally of 2.

(b) When a loaded tank is supported within the vacuum jacket by structural members, the design calculations for the tank and its structural members must be based on a safety factor of four and the tensile strength of the material at ambient temperature. The enhanced tensile strength of the material at actual operating temperature may be substituted for the tensile strength at ambient temperature to the extent recognized in the ASME Code for static loadings. Static loadings must take into consideration the weight of the tank and the structural members when the tank is filled to the design weight of lading (see Appendix G of Section VIII, Division 1 of the ASME Code), multiplied by the following factors. Static loadings must take into consideration the weight of the tank and the structural members when the tank is filled to the design weight of lading (see appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code), multiplied by the following factors. When load rings in the jacket are used for supporting the tank, they must be designed to carry the fully loaded tank at the specified static loadings, plus external pressure. Minimum static loadings must be as follows:

(1) Vertically downward of 2;

(2) Vertically upward of 112 ;

(3) Longitudinally of 112 ; and, (4) Laterally of 112 .

[68 FR 19282, Apr. 18, 2003, as amended at 68 FR 75754, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-14   Gauging devices.

(a) Liquid level gauging devices. (1) Unless a cargo tank is intended to be filled by weight, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices, which accurately indicate the maximum permitted liquid level at the loading pressure, in order to provide a minimum of two percent outage below the inlet of the pressure control valve or pressure relief valve at the condition of incipient opening of that valve. A fixed-length dip tube, a fixed trycock line, or a differential pressure liquid level gauge must be used as the primary control for filling. Other gauging devices, except gauge glasses, may be used, but not as the primary control for filling.

(2) The design pressure of each liquid level gauging device must be at least that of the tank.

(3) If a fixed length dip tube or trycock line gauging device is used, it must consist of a pipe or tube of small diameter equipped with a valve at or near the jacket and extending into the cargo tank to a specified filling height. The fixed height at which the tube ends in the cargo tank must be such that the device will function when the liquid reaches the maximum level permitted in loading.

(4) The liquid level gauging device used as a primary control for filling must be designed and installed to accurately indicate the maximum filling level at the point midway of the tank both longitudinally and laterally.

(b) Pressure gauges. Each cargo tank must be provided with a suitable pressure gauge indicating the lading pressure and located on the front of the jacket so it can be read by the driver in the rear view mirror. Each gauge must have a reference mark at the cargo tank design pressure or the set pressure of the pressure relief valve or pressure control valve, whichever is lowest.

(c) Orifices. All openings for dip tube gauging devices and pressure gauges in flammable cryogenic liquid service must be restricted at or inside the jacket by orifices no larger than 0.060-inch diameter. Trycock lines, if provided, may not be greater than 12 -inch nominal pipe size.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27706, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24317, June 12, 1984]

§178.338-15   Cleanliness.

A cargo tank constructed for oxygen service must be thoroughly cleaned to remove all foreign material in accordance with CGA G-4.1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). All loose particles from fabrication, such as weld beads, dirt, grinding wheel debris, and other loose materials, must be removed prior to the final closure of the manhole of the tank. Chemical or solvent cleaning with a material compatible with the intending lading must be performed to remove any contaminants likely to react with the lading.

[68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-16   Inspection and testing.

(a) General. The material of construction of a tank and its appurtenances must be inspected for conformance to Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The tank must be subjected to either a hydrostatic or pneumatic test. The test pressure must be one and one-half times the sum of the design pressure, plus static head of lading, plus 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) if subjected to external vacuum, except that for tanks constructed in accordance with Part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code the test pressure must be twice the design pressure.

(b) Additional requirements for pneumatic test. A pneumatic test may be used in place of the hydrostatic test. Due regard for protection of all personnel should be taken because of the potential hazard involved in a pneumatic test. The pneumatic test pressure in the tank must be reached by gradually increasing the pressure to one-half of the test pressure. Thereafter, the test pressure must be increased in steps of approximately one-tenth of the test pressure until the required test pressure has been reached. Then the pressure must be reduced to a value equal to four-fifths of the test pressure and held for a sufficient time to permit inspection of the cargo tank for leaks.

(c) Weld inspection. All tank shell or head welds subject to pressure shall be radiographed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code. A tank which has been subjected to inspection by the magnetic particle method, the liquid penetrant method, or any method involving a material deposit on the interior tank surface, must be cleaned to remove any such residue by scrubbing or equally effective means, and all such residue and cleaning solution must be removed from the tank prior to final closure of the tank.

(d) Defect repair. All cracks and other defects must be repaired as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code. The welder and the welding procedure must be qualified in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). After repair, the tank must again be postweld heat-treated, if such heat treatment was previously performed, and the repaired areas must be retested.

(e) Verification must be made of the interior cleanliness of a tank constructed for oxygen service by means that assure that all contaminants that are likely to react with the lading have been removed as required by §178.338-15.

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27706, June 16, 1983, as amended at 49 FR 24317, June 12, 1984; 49 FR 42736, Oct. 24, 1984; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-17   Pumps and compressors.

(a) Liquid pumps and gas compressors, if used, must be of suitable design, adequately protected against breakage by collision, and kept in good condition. They may be driven by motor vehicle power take-off or other mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic means. Unless they are of the centrifugal type, they shall be equipped with suitable pressure actuated by-pass valves permitting flow from discharge to suction to the tank.

(b) A valve or fitting made of aluminum with internal rubbing or abrading aluminum parts that may come in contact with oxygen (cryogenic liquid) may not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen (cryogenic liquid) unless the parts are anodized in accordance with ASTM B 580 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25020, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-18   Marking.

(a) General. Each cargo tank certified after October 1, 2004 must have a corrosion-resistant metal name plate (ASME Plate) and specification plate permanently attached to the cargo tank by brazing, welding, or other suitable means on the left side near the front, in a place accessible for inspection. If the specification plate is attached directly to the cargo tank wall by welding, it must be welded to the tank before the cargo tank is postweld heat treated.

(1) The plates must be legibly marked by stamping, embossing, or other means of forming letters into the metal of the plate, with the information required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, in addition to that required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), in characters at least 316 inch high (parenthetical abbreviations may be used). All plates must be maintained in a legible condition.

(2) Each insulated cargo tank must have additional plates, as described, attached to the jacket in the location specified unless the specification plate is attached to the chassis and has the information required in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(3) The information required for both the name and specification plate may be displayed on a single plate. If the information required by this section is displayed on a plate required by Section VIII of the ASME Code, the information need not be repeated on the name and specification plates.

(4) The specification plate may be attached to the cargo tank motor vehicle chassis rail by brazing, welding, or other suitable means on the left side near the front head, in a place accessible for inspection. If the specification plate is attached to the chassis rail, then the cargo tank serial number assigned by the cargo tank manufacturer must be included on the plate.

(b) Name plate. The following information must be marked on the name plate in accordance with this section:

(1) DOT-specification number MC 338 (DOT MC 338).

(2) Original test date (Orig, Test Date).

(3) MAWP in psig.

(4) Cargo tank test pressure (Test P), in psig.

(5) Cargo tank design temperature (Design Temp. Range) __ °F to __ °F.

(6) Nominal capacity (Water Cap.), in pounds.

(7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. Lading density), in pounds per gallon.

(8) Material specification number—shell (Shell matl, yyy *  *  *), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “*  *  *” is replaced by the alloy type.

(9) Material specification number—heads (Head matl. yyy *  *  *), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “*  *  *” by the alloy type.

Note: When the shell and heads materials are the same thickness, they may be combined, (Shell & head matl, yyy *  *  *).

(10) Weld material (Weld matl.).

(11) Minimum Thickness-shell (Min. Shell-thick), in inches. When minimum shell thicknesses are not the same for different areas, show (top __, side __, bottom __, in inches).

(12) Minimum thickness-heads (Min heads thick.), in inches.

(13) Manufactured thickness-shell (Mfd. Shell thick.), top __, side __, bottom __, in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(14) Manufactured thickness-heads (Mfd. Heads thick.), in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(15) Exposed surface area, in square feet.

(c) Specification plate. The following information must be marked on the specification plate in accordance with this section:

(1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer (CTMV mfr.).

(2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certification date (CTMV cert. date).

(3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT mfr.).

(4) Cargo tank date of manufacture (CT date of mfr.), month and year.

(5) Maximum weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds.

(6) Maximum loading rate in gallons per minute (Max. Load rate, GPM).

(7) Maximum unloading rate in gallons per minute (Max Unload rate).

(8) Lining materials (Lining), if applicable.

(9) “Insulated for oxygen service” or “Not insulated for oxygen service” as appropriate.

(10) Marked rated holding time for at least one cryogenic liquid, in hours, and the name of that cryogenic liquid (MRHT __ hrs, name of cryogenic liquid). Marked rated holding marking for additional cryogenic liquids may be displayed on or adjacent to the specification plate.

(11) Cargo tank serial number (CT serial), as assigned by cargo tank manufacturer, if applicable.

Note 1 to paragraph (c): See §173.315(a) of this chapter regarding water capacity.

Note 2 to paragraph (c): When the shell and head materials are the same thickness, they may be combined (Shell & head matl, yyy***).

(d) The design weight of lading used in determining the loading in §§178.338-3 (b), 178.338-10 (b) and (c), and 178.338-13 (b), must be shown as the maximum weight of lading marking required by paragraph (c) of this section.

[68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003, as amended at 68 FR 57634, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.338-19   Certification.

(a) At or before the time of delivery, the manufacturer of a cargo tank motor vehicle shall furnish to the owner of the completed vehicle the following:

(1) The tank manufacturer's data report as required by the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), and a certificate bearing the manufacturer's vehicle serial number stating that the completed cargo tank motor vehicle conforms to all applicable requirements of Specification MC 338, including Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) in effect on the date (month, year) of certification. The registration numbers of the manufacturer, the Design Certifying Engineer, and the Registered Inspector, as appropriate, must appear on the certificates (see subpart F, part 107 in subchapter B of this chapter).

(2) A photograph, pencil rub, or other facsimile of the plates required by paragraphs (a) and (b) of §178.338-18.

(b) In the case of a cargo tank vehicle manufactured in two or more stages, each manufacturer who performs a manufacturing operation on the incomplete vehicle or portion thereof shall furnish to the succeeding manufacturer, at or before the time of delivery, a certificate covering the particular operation performed by that manufacturer, and any certificates received from previous manufacturers, Registered Inspectors, and Design Certifying Engineers. The certificates must include sufficient sketches, drawings, and other information to indicate the location, make, model and size of each valve and the arrangement of all piping associated with the tank. Each certificate must be signed by an official of the manufacturing firm responsible for the portion of the complete cargo tank vehicle represented thereby, such as basic tank fabrication, insulation, jacket, or piping. The final manufacturer shall furnish the owner with all certificates, as well as the documents required by paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) The owner shall retain the data report, certificates, and related papers throughout his ownership of the cargo tank. In the event of change of ownership, the prior owner shall retain non-fading photographically reproduced copies of these documents for at least one year. Each operator using the cargo tank vehicle, if not the owner thereof, shall obtain a copy of the data report and the certificate or certificates and retain them during the time he uses the cargo tank and for at least one year thereafter.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 2137-0017)

[Amdt. 178-77, 48 FR 27707 and 27713, June 16, 1983, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003]

§§178.340-178.343   [Reserved]

§178.345   General design and construction requirements applicable to Specification DOT 406 (§178.346), DOT 407 (§178.347), and DOT 412 (§178.348) cargo tank motor vehicles.

§178.345-1   General requirements.

(a) Specification DOT 406, DOT 407 and DOT 412 cargo tank motor vehicles must conform to the requirements of this section in addition to the requirements of the applicable specification contained in §§178.346, 178.347 or 178.348.

(b) All specification requirements are minimum requirements.

(c) Definitions. See §178.320(a) for the definition of certain terms used in §§178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348. In addition, the following definitions apply to §§178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348:

Appurtenance means any cargo tank accessory attachment that has no lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank.

Baffle means a non-liquid-tight transverse partition device that deflects, checks or regulates fluid motion in a tank.

Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks.

Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or similar device used to pressurize a tank with material other than the lading.

Companion flange means one of two mating flanges where the flange faces are in contact or separated only by a thin leak sealing gasket and are secured to one another by bolts or clamps.

Connecting structure means the structure joining two cargo tanks.

Constructed and certified in conformance with the ASME Code means the cargo tank is constructed and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, and is inspected and certified by an Authorized Inspector.

Constructed in accordance with the ASME Code means the cargo tank is constructed in accordance with the ASME Code with the authorized exceptions (see §§178.346, 178.347, and 178.348) and is inspected and certified by a Registered Inspector.

External self-closing stop-valve means a self-closing stop-valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located outside the cargo tank and the welded flange.

Extreme dynamic loading means the maximum single-acting loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may experience during its expected life, excluding accident loadings.

Flange means the structural ring for guiding or attachment of a pipe or fitting with another flange (companion flange), pipe, fitting or other attachment.

Inspection pressure means the pressure used to determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure.

Internal self-closing stop-valve means a self-closing stop-valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located inside the cargo tank or cargo tank sump, or within the welded flange, and the valve seat is located within the cargo tank or within one inch of the external face of the welded flange or sump of the cargo tank.

Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank.

Loading/unloading connection means the fitting in the loading/unloading line farthest from the loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading hose or device is attached.

Loading/unloading outlet means the cargo tank outlet used for normal loading/unloading operations.

Loading/unloading stop-valve means the stop valve farthest from the cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached.

MAWP. See §178.320(a).

Multi-specification cargo tank motor vehicle means a cargo tank motor vehicle equipped with two or more cargo tanks fabricated to more than one cargo tank specification.

Normal operating loading means the loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may be expected to experience routinely in operation.

Nozzle means the subassembly consisting of a pipe or tubular section with or without a welded or forged flange on one end.

Outlet means any opening in the shell or head of a cargo tank, (including the means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: A threaded opening securely closed during transportation with a threaded plug or a threaded cap, a flanged opening securely closed during transportation with a bolted or welded blank flange, a manhole, or gauging devices, thermometer wells, and safety relief devices.

Outlet stop-valve means the stop-valve at the cargo tank loading/unloading outlet.

Pipe coupling means a fitting with internal threads on both ends.

Rear bumper means the structure designed to prevent a vehicle or object from under-riding the rear of a motor vehicle. See §393.86 of this title.

Rear-end tank protection device means the structure designed to protect a cargo tank and any lading retention piping or devices in case of a rear end collision.

Sacrificial device means an element, such as a shear section, designed to fail under a load in order to prevent damage to any lading retention part or device. The device must break under strain at no more than 70 percent of the strength of the weakest piping element between the cargo tank and the sacrificial device. Operation of the sacrificial device must leave the remaining piping and its attachment to the cargo tank intact and capable of retaining lading.

Self-closing stop-valve means a stop-valve held in the closed position by means of self-stored energy, which opens only by application of an external force and which closes when the external force is removed.

Shear section means a sacrificial device fabricated in such a manner as to abruptly reduce the wall thickness of the adjacent piping or valve material by at least 30 percent.

Shell means the circumferential portion of a cargo tank defined by the basic design radius or radii excluding the closing heads.

Stop-valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading.

Sump means a protrusion from the bottom of a cargo tank shell designed to facilitate complete loading and unloading of lading.

Tank means a container, consisting of a shell and heads, that forms a pressure tight vessel having openings designed to accept pressure tight fittings or closures, but excludes any appurtenances, reinforcements, fittings, or closures.

Test pressure means the pressure to which a tank is subjected to determine pressure integrity.

Toughness of material means the capability of a material to absorb the energy represented by the area under the stress strain curve (indicating the energy absorbed per unit volume of the material) up to the point of rupture.

Vacuum cargo tank means a cargo tank that is loaded by reducing the pressure in the cargo tank to below atmospheric pressure.

Variable specification cargo tank means a cargo tank that is constructed in accordance with one specification, but which may be altered to meet another specification by changing relief device, closures, lading discharge devices, and other lading retention devices.

Void means the space between tank heads or bulkheads and a connecting structure.

Welded flange means a flange attached to the tank by a weld joining the tank shell to the cylindrical outer surface of the flange, or by a fillet weld joining the tank shell to a flange shaped to fit the shell contour.

(d) A manufacturer of a cargo tank must hold a current ASME certificate of authorization and must be registered with the Department in accordance with part 107, subpart F of this chapter.

(e) All construction must be certified by an Authorized Inspector or by a Registered Inspector as applicable to the cargo tank.

(f) Each cargo tank must be designed and constructed in conformance with the requirements of the applicable cargo tank specification. Each DOT 412 cargo tank with a “MAWP” greater than 15 psig, and each DOT 407 cargo tank with a maximum allowable working pressure greater than 35 psig must be “constructed and certified in conformance with Section VIII of the ASME Code” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) except as limited or modified by the applicable cargo tank specification. Other cargo tanks must be “constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code,” except as limited or modified by the applicable cargo tank specification.

(g) Requirements relating to parts and accessories on motor vehicles, which are contained in part 393 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations of this title, are incorporated into these specifications.

(h) Any additional requirements prescribed in part 173 of this subchapter that pertain to the transportation of a specific lading are incorporated into these specifications.

(i) Cargo tank motor vehicle composed of multiple cargo tanks. (1) A cargo tank motor vehicle composed of more than one cargo tank may be constructed with the cargo tanks made to the same specification or to different specifications. Each cargo tank must conform in all respects with the specification for which it is certified.

(2) The strength of the connecting structure joining multiple cargo tanks in a cargo tank motor vehicle must meet the structural design requirements in §178.345-3. Any void within the connecting structure must be equipped with a drain located on the bottom centerline that is accessible and kept open at all times. For carbon steel, self-supporting cargo tanks, the drain configuration may consist of a single drain of at least 1.0 inch diameter, or two or more drains of at least 0.5 inch diameter, 6.0 inches apart, one of which is located as close to the bottom centerline as practicable. Vapors trapped in a void within the connecting structure must be allowed to escape to the atmosphere either through the drain or a separate vent.

(j) Variable specification cargo tank. A cargo tank that may be physically altered to conform to another cargo tank specification must have the required physical alterations to convert from one specification to another clearly indicated on the variable specification plate.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25020, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 66 FR 45387, 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 56099, Sept. 23, 2005; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]

§178.345-2   Material and material thickness.

(a) All material for shell, heads, bulkheads, and baffles must conform to Section II of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) except as follows:

(1) The following steels are also authorized for cargo tanks “constructed in accordance with the ASME Code”, Section VIII.

ASTM A 569

ASTM A 570

ASTM A 572

ASTM A 622

ASTM A 656

ASTM A 715

ASTM A 1008/ A 1008M, ASTM A 1011/A 1011M

(2) Aluminum alloys suitable for fusion welding and conforming with the 0, H32 or H34 tempers of one of the following ASTM specifications may be used for cargo tanks “constructed in accordance with the ASME Code”:

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5052

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5086

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5154

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5254

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5454

ASTM B-209 Alloy 5652

All heads, bulkheads and baffles must be of 0 temper (annealed) or stronger tempers. All shell materials shall be of H 32 or H 34 tempers except that the lower ultimate strength tempers may be used if the minimum shell thicknesses in the tables are increased in inverse proportion to the lesser ultimate strength.

(b) Minimum thickness. The minimum thickness for the shell and heads (or baffles and bulkheads when used as tank reinforcement) must be no less than that determined under criteria for minimum thickness specified in §178.320(a).

(c) Corrosion or abrasion protection. When required by 49 CFR part 173 for a particular lading, a cargo tank or a part thereof, subject to thinning by corrosion or mechanical abrasion due to the lading, must be protected by providing the tank or part of the tank with a suitable increase in thickness of material, a lining or some other suitable method of protection.

(1) Corrosion allowance. Material added for corrosion allowance need not be of uniform thickness if different rates of attack can reasonably be expected for various areas of the cargo tank.

(2) Lining. Lining material must consist of a nonporous, homogeneous material not less elastic than the parent metal and substantially immune to attack by the lading. The lining material must be bonded or attached by other appropriate means to the cargo tank wall and must be imperforate when applied. Any joint or seam in the lining must be made by fusing the materials together, or by other satisfactory means.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25021, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37059, Sept. 7, 1990; 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-97, 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 34076, June 13, 2005]

§178.345-3   Structural integrity.

(a) General requirements and acceptance criteria. (1) The maximum calculated design stress at any point in the cargo tank wall may not exceed the maximum allowable stress value prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), or 25 percent of the tensile strength of the material used at design conditions.

(2) The relevant physical properties of the materials used in each cargo tank may be established either by a certified test report from the material manufacturer or by testing in conformance with a recognized national standard. In either case, the ultimate tensile strength of the material used in the design may not exceed 120 percent of the minimum ultimate tensile strength specified in either the ASME Code or the ASTM standard to which the material is manufactured.

(3) The maximum design stress at any point in the cargo tank must be calculated separately for the loading conditions described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. Alternate test or analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used in place of the procedures described in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, if the methods are accurate and verifiable. TTMA RP 96-01, Structural Integrity of DOT 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 Cylindrical Cargo Tanks, may be used as guidance in performing the calculations.

(4) Corrosion allowance material may not be included to satisfy any of the design calculation requirements of this section.

(b) ASME Code design and construction. The static design and construction of each cargo tank must be in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code. The cargo tank design must include calculation of stresses generated by the MAWP, the weight of the lading, the weight of structures supported by the cargo tank wall and the effect of temperature gradients resulting from lading and ambient temperature extremes. When dissimilar materials are used, their thermal coefficients must be used in the calculation of thermal stresses.

(1) Stress concentrations in tension, bending and torsion which occur at pads, cradles, or other supports must be considered in accordance with appendix G in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(2) Longitudinal compressive buckling stress for ASME certified vessels must be calculated using paragraph UG-23(b) in Section VIII of the ASME Code. For cargo tanks not required to be certified in accordance with the ASME Code, compressive buckling stress may be calculated using alternative analysis methods which are accurate and verifiable. When alternative methods are used, calculations must include both the static loads described in this paragraph and the dynamic loads described in paragraph (c) of this section.

(3) Cargo tank designers and manufacturers must consider all of the conditions specified in §173.33(c) of this subchapter when matching a cargo tank's performance characteristic to the characteristic of each lading transported.

(c) Shell design. Shell stresses resulting from static or dynamic loadings, or combinations thereof, are not uniform throughout the cargo tank motor vehicle. The vertical, longitudinal, and lateral normal operating loadings can occur simultaneously and must be combined. The vertical, longitudinal and lateral extreme dynamic loadings occur separately and need not be combined.

(1) Normal operating loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the cargo tank shell resulting from normal operating loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:

S = 0.5(Sy + SX) ± [0.25(Sy − SX)2 + SS2]0.5

Where:

(i) S = effective stress at any given point under the combination of static and normal operating loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.

(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.

(iii) Sx = The following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from normal operating longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case, the forces applied must be 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:

(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;

(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;

(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and

(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and

(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from normal operating vertical accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.

(iv) SS = The following shear stresses generated by the following static and normal operating loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The vertical shear stress generated by a normal operating accelerative force equal to 0.35 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer; or the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(C) The lateral shear stress generated by a normal operating lateral accelerative force equal to 0.2 times the vertical reaction at each suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and

(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(C) of this section.

(2) Extreme dynamic loadings. The following procedure addresses stress in the cargo tank shell resulting from extreme dynamic loadings. The effective stress (the maximum principal stress at any point) must be determined by the following formula:

S = 0.5(Sy + Sx) ±[0.25(Sy − Sx)2 + SS2]0.5

Where:

(i) S = effective stress at any given point under a combination of static and extreme dynamic loadings that can occur at the same time, in psi.

(ii) Sy = circumferential stress generated by MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in psi.

(iii) Sx = the following net longitudinal stress generated by the following static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The longitudinal stresses resulting from the MAWP and external pressure, when applicable, plus static head, in combination with the bending stress generated by the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the tank wall;

(B) The tensile or compressive stress resulting from extreme longitudinal acceleration or deceleration. In each case the forces applied must be 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer during deceleration; or the horizontal pivot of the truck tractor or converter dolly fifth wheel, or the drawbar hinge on the fixed dolly during acceleration; or the anchoring and support members of a truck during acceleration and deceleration, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall. The following loadings must be included:

(1) The axial load generated by a decelerative force;

(2) The bending moment generated by a decelerative force;

(3) The axial load generated by an accelerative force; and

(4) The bending moment generated by an accelerative force; and

(C) The tensile or compressive stress generated by the bending moment resulting from an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or the anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall.

(iv) SS = The following shear stresses generated by static and extreme dynamic loading conditions, in psi:

(A) The static shear stress resulting from the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(B) The vertical shear stress generated by an extreme vertical accelerative force equal to 0.7 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall;

(C) The lateral shear stress generated by an extreme lateral accelerative force equal to 0.4 times the vertical reaction at the suspension assembly of a trailer, applied at the road surface, and as transmitted to the cargo tank wall through the suspension assembly of a trailer, and the horizontal pivot of the upper coupler (fifth wheel) or turntable; or anchoring and support members of a truck, as applicable. The vertical reaction must be calculated based on the static weight of the fully loaded cargo tank motor vehicle, all structural elements, equipment and appurtenances supported by the cargo tank wall; and

(D) The torsional shear stress generated by the same lateral forces as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv)(C) of this section.

(d) In no case may the minimum thickness of the cargo tank shells and heads be less than that prescribed in §178.346-2, §178.347-2, or §178.348-2, as applicable.

(e) For a cargo tank mounted on a frame or built with integral structural supports, the calculation of effective stresses for the loading conditions in paragraph (c) of this section may include the structural contribution of the frame or the integral structural supports.

(f) The design, construction, and installation of an attachment, appurtenance to a cargo tank, structural support member between the cargo tank and the vehicle or suspension component must conform to the following requirements:

(1) Structural members, the suspension sub-frame, accident protection structures and external circumferential reinforcement devices must be used as sites for attachment of appurtenances and other accessories to the cargo tank, when practicable.

(2) A lightweight attachment to a cargo tank wall such as a conduit clip, brake line clip, skirting structure, lamp mounting bracket, or placard holder must be of a construction having lesser strength than the cargo tank wall materials and may not be more than 72 percent of the thickness of the material to which it is attached. The lightweight attachment may be secured directly to the cargo tank wall if the device is designed and installed in such a manner that, if damaged, it will not affect the lading retention integrity of the tank. A lightweight attachment must be secured to the cargo tank shell or head by continuous weld or in such a manner as to preclude formation of pockets which may become sites for corrosion.

(3) Except as prescribed in paragraphs (f)(1) and (f)(2) of this section, the welding of any appurtenance to the cargo tank wall must be made by attachment of a mounting pad so that there will be no adverse effect upon the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank if any force less than that prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applied from any direction. The thickness of the mounting pad may not be less than that of the shell or head to which it is attached, and not more than 1.5 times the shell or head thickness. However, a pad with a minimum thickness of 0.187 inch may be used when the shell or head thickness is over 0.187 inch. If weep holes or tell-tale holes are used, the pad must be drilled or punched at the lowest point before it is welded to the tank. Each pad must:

(i) Be fabricated from material determined to be suitable for welding to both the cargo tank material and the material of the appurtenance or structural support member; a Design Certifying Engineer must make this determination considering chemical and physical properties of the materials and must specify filler material conforming to the requirements of the ASME Code (incorporated by reference; see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Be preformed to an inside radius no greater than the outside radius of the cargo tank at the attachment location.

(iii) Extend at least 2 inches in each direction from any point of attachment of an appurtenance or structural support member. This dimension may be measured from the center of the structural member attached.

(iv) Have rounded corners, or otherwise be shaped in a manner to minimize stress concentrations on the shell or head.

(v) Be attached by continuous fillet welding. Any fillet weld discontinuity may only be for the purpose of preventing an intersection between the fillet weld and the tank or jacket seam weld.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37059, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55173, 55174, 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 74 FR 16143, Apr. 9, 2009; 78 FR 60755, Oct. 2, 2013]

§178.345-4   Joints.

(a) All joints between the cargo tank shell, heads, baffles, baffle attaching rings, and bulkheads must be welded in conformance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) Where practical all welds must be easily accessible for inspection.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25022, June 12, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.345-5   Manhole assemblies.

(a) Each cargo tank with capacity greater than 400 gallons must be accessible through a manhole at least 15 inches in diameter.

(b) Each manhole, fill opening and washout assembly must be structurally capable of withstanding, without leakage or permanent deformation that would affect its structural integrity, a static internal fluid pressure of at least 36 psig, or cargo tank test pressure, whichever is greater. The manhole assembly manufacturer shall verify compliance with this requirement by hydrostatically testing at least one percent (or one manhole closure, whichever is greater) of all manhole closures of each type produced each 3 months, as follows:

(1) The manhole, fill opening, or washout assembly must be tested with the venting devices blocked. Any leakage or deformation that would affect the product retention capability of the assembly shall constitute a failure.

(2) If the manhole, fill opening, or washout assembly tested fails, then five more covers from the same lot must be tested. If one of these five covers fails, then all covers in the lot from which the tested covers were selected are to be 100% tested or rejected for service.

(c) Each manhole, filler and washout cover must be fitted with a safety device that prevents the cover from opening fully when internal pressure is present.

(d) Each manhole and fill cover must be secured with fastenings that will prevent opening of the covers as a result of vibration under normal transportation conditions or shock impact due to a rollover accident on the roadway or shoulder where the fill cover is not struck by a substantial obstacle.

(e) On cargo tank motor vehicles manufactured after October 1, 2004, each manhole assembly must be permanently marked on the outside by stamping or other means in a location visible without opening the manhole assembly or fill opening, with:

(1) Manufacturer's name;

(2) Test pressure __ psig;

(3) A statement certifying that the manhole cover meets the requirements in §178.345-5.

(f) All components mounted on a manhole cover that form part of the lading retention structure of the cargo tank wall must withstand the same static internal fluid pressure as that required for the manhole cover. The component manufacturer shall verify compliance using the same test procedure and frequency of testing as specified in §178.345-5(b).

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25022, June 12, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003; 74 FR 16144, Apr. 9, 2009]

§178.345-6   Supports and anchoring.

(a) A cargo tank with a frame not integral to the cargo tank must have the tank secured by restraining devices to eliminate any motion between the tank and frame that may abrade the tank shell due to the stopping, starting, or turning of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The design calculations of the support elements must include the stresses indicated in §178.345-3(b) and as generated by the loads described in §178.345-3(c). Such restraining devices must be readily accessible for inspection and maintenance, except that insulation and jacketing are permitted to cover the restraining devices.

(b) A cargo tank designed and constructed so that it constitutes, in whole or in part, the structural member used in lieu of a frame must be supported in such a manner that the resulting stress levels in the cargo tank do not exceed those specified in §178.345-3(a). The design calculations of the support elements must include the stresses indicated in §178.345-3(b) and as generated by the loads described in §178.345-3(c).

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25023, June 12, 1989, as amended by Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.345-7   Circumferential reinforcements.

(a) A cargo tank with a shell thickness of less than 38 inch must be circumferentially reinforced with bulkheads, baffles, ring stiffeners, or any combination thereof, in addition to the cargo tank heads.

(1) Circumferential reinforcement must be located so that the thickness and tensile strength of the shell material in combination with the frame and reinforcement produces structural integrity at least equal to that prescribed in §178.345-3 and in such a manner that the maximum unreinforced portion of the shell does not exceed 60 inches. For cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum, spacing of circumferential reinforcement may exceed 60 inches provided the maximum unreinforced portion of the shell conforms with the requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) Where circumferential joints are made between conical shell sections, or between conical and cylindrical shell sections, and the angle between adjacent sections is less than 160 degrees, circumferential reinforcement must be located within one inch of the shell joint, unless otherwise reinforced with structural members capable of maintaining shell stress levels authorized in §178.345-3. When the joint is formed by the large ends of adjacent conical shell sections, or by the large end of a conical shell and a cylindrical shell section, this angle is measured inside the shell; when the joint is formed by the small end of a conical shell section and a cylindrical shell section, it is measured outside the shell.

(b) Except for doubler plates and knuckle pads, no reinforcement may cover any circumferential joint.

(c) When a baffle or baffle attachment ring is used as a circumferential reinforcement member, it must produce structural integrity at least equal to that prescribed in §178.345-3 and must be circumferentially welded to the cargo tank shell. The welded portion may not be less than 50 percent of the total circumference of the cargo tank and the length of any unwelded space on the joint may not exceed 40 times the shell thickness unless reinforced external to the cargo tank.

(d) When a ring stiffener is used as a circumferential reinforcement member, whether internal or external, reinforcement must be continuous around the circumference of the cargo tank shell and must be in accordance with the following:

(1) The section modulus about the neutral axis of the ring section parallel to the shell must be at least equal to that derived from the applicable formula:

I/C = 0.00027WL, for MS, HSLA and SS; or

I/C = 0.000467WL, for aluminum alloys;

Where:

I/C = Section modulus in inches 3

W = Tank width, or diameter, inches

L = Spacing of ring stiffener, inches; i.e., the maximum longitudinal distance from the midpoint of the unsupported shell on one side of the ring stiffener to the midpoint of the unsupported shell on the opposite side of the ring stiffener.

(2) If a ring stiffener is welded to the cargo tank shell, a portion of the shell may be considered as part of the ring section for purposes of computing the ring section modulus. This portion of the shell may be used provided at least 50 percent of the total circumference of the cargo tank is welded and the length of any unwelded space on the joint does not exceed 40 times the shell thickness. The maximum portion of the shell to be used in these calculations is as follows:

Number of circumferential ring stiffener-to-shell weldsJ1Shell section
120t
2Less than 20t20t+J
220t or more40t

1where:

t=Shell thickness, inches;

J=Longitudinal distance between parallel circumferential ring stiffener-to-shell welds.

(3) When used to meet the vacuum requirements of this section, ring stiffeners must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(4) If configuration of internal or external ring stiffener encloses an air space, this air space must be arranged for venting and be equipped with drainage facilities which must be kept operative at all times.

(5) Hat shaped or open channel ring stiffeners which prevent visual inspection of the cargo tank shell are prohibited on cargo tank motor vehicles constructed of carbon steel.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37060, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27876, June 17, 1991; 56 FR 46354, Sept. 11, 1991; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.345-8   Accident damage protection.

(a) General. Each cargo tank motor vehicle must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section and the applicable individual specification to minimize the potential for the loss of lading due to an accident.

(1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the cargo tank wall that retains lading in any tank orientation, must be as strong and tough as the cargo tank wall and have a thickness at least equal to that specified by the appropriate cargo tank specification. Any such projection located in the lower 13 of the tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that extends more than half its diameter at the point of attachment to the tank or more than 4 inches from the cargo tank wall, or located in the upper 23 of the tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that extends more than 14 its diameter or more than 2 inches from the point of attachment to the tank must have accident damage protection devices that are:

(i) As specified in this section;

(ii) 125 percent as strong as the otherwise required accident damage protection device; or

(iii) Attached to the cargo tank in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(2) Outlets, valves, closures, piping, or any devices that if damaged in an accident could result in a loss of lading from the cargo tank must be protected by accident damage protection devices as specified in this section.

(3) Accident damage protection devices attached to the wall of a cargo tank must be able to withstand or deflect away from the cargo tank the loads specified in this section. They must be designed, constructed and installed so as to maximize the distribution of loads to the cargo tank wall and to minimize the possibility of adversely affecting the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank. Accident induced stresses resulting from the appropriate accident damage protection device requirements in combination with the stresses from the cargo tank operating at the MAWP may not result in a cargo tank wall stress greater than the ultimate strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of 1.3. Deformation of the protection device is acceptable provided the devices being protected are not damaged when loads specified in this section are applied.

(4) Any piping that extends beyond an accident damage protection device must be equipped with a stop-valve and a sacrificial device such as a shear section. The sacrificial device must be located in the piping system outboard of the stop-valve and within the accident damage protection device to prevent any accidental loss of lading. The device must break at no more than 70 percent of the load that would be required to cause the failure of the protected lading retention device, part or cargo tank wall. The failure of the sacrificial device must leave the protected lading retention device and its attachment to the cargo tank wall intact and capable of retaining product.

(5) Minimum road clearance. The minimum road clearance of any cargo tank motor vehicle component or protection device located between any two adjacent axles on a vehicle or vehicle combination must be at least one-half inch for each foot separating the component or device from the nearest axle of the adjacent pair, but in no case less than twelve (12) inches, except that the minimum road clearance for landing gear or other attachments within ten (10) feet of an axle must be no less than ten (10) inches. These measurements must be calculated at the gross vehicle weight rating of the cargo tank motor vehicle.

(b) Each outlet, projection or piping located in the lower 13 of the cargo tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that could be damaged in an accident that may result in the loss of lading must be protected by a bottom damage protection device, except as provided by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and §173.33(e) of this subchapter. Outlets, projections and piping may be grouped or clustered together and protected by a single protection device.

(1) Any bottom damage protection device must be able to withstand a force of 155,000 pounds (based on the ultimate strength of the material) from the front, side, or rear, uniformly distributed over each surface of the device, over an area not to exceed 6 square feet, and a width not to exceed 6 feet. Suspension components and structural mounting members may be used to provide all, or part, of this protection. The device must extend no less than 6 inches beyond any component that may contain lading in transit.

(2) A lading discharge opening equipped with an internal self-closing stop-valve need not conform to paragraph (b)(1) of this section provided it is protected so as to reasonably assure against the accidental loss of lading. This protection must be provided by a sacrificial device located outboard of each internal self-closing stop-valve and within 4 inches of the major radius of the cargo tank shell or within 4 inches of a sump, but in no case more than 8 inches from the major radius of the tank shell. The device must break at no more than 70 percent of the load that would be required to cause the failure of the protected lading retention device, part or cargo tank wall. The failure of the sacrificial device must leave the protected lading retention device or part and its attachment to the cargo tank wall intact and capable of retaining product.

(c) Each closure for openings, including but not limited to the manhole, filling or inspection openings, and each valve, fitting, pressure relief device, vapor recovery stop valve or lading retaining fitting located in the upper 23 of a cargo tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular tanks) must be protected by being located within or between adjacent rollover damage protection devices, or by being 125 percent of the strength that would be provided by the otherwise required damage protection device.

(1) A rollover damage protection device on a cargo tank motor vehicle must be designed and installed to withstand loads equal to twice the weight of the loaded cargo tank motor vehicle applied as follows: normal to the cargo tank shell (perpendicular to the cargo tank surface); and tangential (perpendicular to the normal load) from any direction. The stresses shall not exceed the ultimate strength of the material of construction. These design loads may be considered to be uniformly distributed and independently applied. If more than one rollover protection device is used, each device must be capable of carrying its proportionate share of the required loads and in each case at least one-fourth the total tangential load. The design must be proven capable of carrying the required loads by calculations, tests or a combination of tests and calculations.

(2) A rollover damage protection device that would otherwise allow the accumulation of liquid on the top of the cargo tank, must be provided with a drain that directs the liquid to a safe point of discharge away from any structural component of the cargo tank motor vehicle.

(d) Rear-end tank protection. Each cargo tank motor vehicle must be provided with a rear-end tank protection device to protect the cargo tank and piping in the event of a rear-end collision and reduce the likelihood of damage that could result in the loss of lading. Nothing in this paragraph relieves the manufacturer of responsibility for complying with the requirements of §393.86 of this title and, if applicable, paragraph (b) of this section. The rear-end tank protection device must conform to the following requirements:

(1) The rear-end cargo tank protection device must be designed so that it can deflect at least 6 inches horizontally forward with no contact between any part of the cargo tank motor vehicle which contains lading during transit and with any part of the rear-end protection device, or with a vertical plane passing through the outboard surface of the protection device.

(2) The dimensions of the rear-end cargo tank protection device shall conform to the following:

(i) The bottom surface of the rear-end protection device must be at least 4 inches below the lower surface of any part at the rear of the cargo tank motor vehicle which contains lading during transit and not more than 60 inches from the ground when the vehicle is empty.

(ii) The maximum width of a notch, indentation, or separation between sections of a rear-end cargo tank protection device may not exceed 24 inches. A notched, indented, or separated rear-end protection device may be used only when the piping at the rear of the cargo tank is equipped with a sacrificial device outboard of a shut-off valve.

(iii) The widest part of the motor vehicle at the rear may not extend more than 18 inches beyond the outermost ends of the device or (if separated) devices on either side of the vehicle.

(3) The structure of the rear-end protection device and its attachment to the vehicle must be designed to satisfy the conditions specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section when subjected to an impact of the cargo tank motor vehicle at rated payload, at a deceleration of 2 “g”. Such impact must be considered as being uniformly applied in the horizontal plane at an angle of 10 degrees or less to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

(e) Longitudinal deceleration protection. In order to account for stresses due to longitudinal impact in an accident, the cargo tank shell and heads must be able to withstand the load resulting from the design pressure in combination with the dynamic pressure resulting from a longitudinal deceleration of 2 “g”. For this loading condition, the allowable stress value used may not exceed the ultimate strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of 1.3. Performance testing, analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used to prove this capability provided the methods are accurate and verifiable. For cargo tanks with internal baffles, the decelerative force may be reduced by 0.25 “g” for each baffle assembly, but in no case may the total reduction in decelerative force exceed 1.0 “g”.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25023, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37061, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.345-9   Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

(a) Suitable means must be provided during loading or unloading operations to ensure that pressure within a cargo tank does not exceed test pressure.

(b) Each hose, piping, stop-valve, lading retention fitting and closure must be designed for a bursting pressure of the greater of 100 psig or four times the MAWP.

(c) Each hose coupling must be designed for a bursting pressure of the greater of 120 psig or 4.8 times the MAWP of the cargo tank, and must be designed so that there will be no leakage when connected.

(d) Suitable provision must be made to allow for and prevent damage due to expansion, contraction, jarring, and vibration. Slip joints may not be used for this purpose in the lading retention system.

(e) Any heating device, when installed, must be so constructed that the breaking of its external connections will not cause leakage of the cargo tank lading.

(f) Any gauging, loading or charging device, including associated valves, must be provided with an adequate means of secure closure to prevent leakage.

(g) The attachment and construction of each loading/unloading or charging line must be of sufficient strength, or be protected by a sacrificial device, such that any load applied by loading/unloading or charging lines connected to the cargo tank cannot cause damage resulting in loss of lading from the cargo tank.

(h) Use of a nonmetallic pipe, valve or connection that is not as strong and heat resistant as the cargo tank material is authorized only if such attachment is located outboard of the lading retention system.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25025, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37061, Sept. 7, 1990, Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.345-10   Pressure relief.

(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the applicable individual specification. The pressure and vacuum relief system must be designed to operate and have sufficient capacity to prevent cargo tank rupture or collapse due to over-pressurization or vacuum resulting from loading, unloading, or from heating and cooling of lading. Pressure relief systems are not required to conform to the ASME Code.

(b) Type and construction of relief systems and devices. (1) Each cargo tank must be provided with a primary pressure relief system consisting of one or more reclosing pressure relief valves. A secondary pressure relief system consisting of another pressure relief valve in parallel with the primary pressure relief system may be used to augment the total venting capacity of the cargo tank. Non-reclosing pressure relief devices are not authorized in any cargo tank except when in series with a reclosing pressure relief device. Gravity actuated reclosing valves are not authorized on any cargo tank.

(2) When provided by §173.33(c)(1)(iii) of this subchapter, cargo tanks may be equipped with a normal vent. Such vents must be set to open at not less than 1 psig and must be designed to prevent loss of lading through the device in case of vehicle overturn.

(3) Each pressure relief system must be designed to withstand dynamic pressure surges in excess of the design set pressure as specified in paragraphs (b)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section. Set pressure is a function of MAWP as set forth in paragraph (d) of this section.

(i) Each pressure relief device must be able to withstand dynamic pressure surge reaching 30 psig above the design set pressure and sustained above the set pressure for at least 60 milliseconds with a total volume of liquid released not exceeding one gallon before the relief device recloses to a leak-tight condition. This requirement must be met regardless of vehicle orientation. This capability must be demonstrated by testing. An acceptable method is outlined in TTMA RP No. 81-97 “Performance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valves on MC 306, MC 307, MC 312, DOT 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412 Tanks” (incorporated by reference; see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) After August 31, 1995, each pressure relief device must be able to withstand a dynamic pressure surge reaching 30 psig above the design set pressure and sustained above the design set pressure for at least 60 milliseconds with a total volume of liquid released not exceeding 1 L before the relief valve recloses to a leak-tight condition. This requirement must be met regardless of vehicle orientation. This capability must be demonstrated by testing. TTMA RP No. 81, cited in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, is an acceptable test procedure.

(4) Each reclosing pressure relief valve must be constructed and installed in such a manner as to prevent unauthorized adjustment of the relief valve setting.

(5) No shut-off valve or other device that could prevent venting through the pressure relief system may be installed in a pressure relief system.

(6) The pressure relief system must be mounted, shielded and drainable so as to minimize the accumulation of material that could impair the operation or discharge capability of the system by freezing, corrosion or blockage.

(c) Location of relief devices. Each pressure relief device must communicate with the vapor space above the lading as near as practicable to the center of the vapor space. For example, on a cargo tank designed to operate in a level attitude, the device should be positioned at the horizontal and transverse center of the cargo tank; on cargo tanks sloped to the rear, the device should be located in the forward half of the cargo tank. The discharge from any device must be unrestricted. Protective devices which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided the required vent capacity is maintained.

(d) Settings of pressure relief system. The set pressure of the pressure relief system is the pressure at which it starts to open, allowing discharge.

(1) Primary pressure relief system. The set pressure of each primary relief valve must be no less than 120 percent of the MAWP, and no more than 132 percent of the MAWP. The valve must reclose at not less than 108 percent of the MAWP and remain closed at lower pressures.

(2) Secondary pressure relief system. The set pressure of each pressure relief valve used as a secondary relief device must be not less than 120 percent of the MAWP.

(e) Venting capacity of pressure relief systems. The pressure relief system (primary and secondary, including piping) must have sufficient venting capacity to limit the cargo tank internal pressure to not more than the cargo tank test pressure. The total venting capacity, rated at not more than the cargo tank test pressure, must be at least that specified in table I, except as provided in §178.348-4.

Table I—Minimum Emergency Vent Capacity

[In cubic feet free air/hour at 60 °F and 1 atm.]

Exposed area in square feetCubic feet free air per hour
2015,800
3023,700
4031,600
5039,500
6047,400
7055,300
8063,300
9071,200
10079,100
12094,900
140110,700
160126,500
180142,300
200158,100
225191,300
250203,100
275214,300
300225,100
350245,700
400265,000
450283,200
500300,600
550317,300
600333,300
650348,800
700363,700
750378,200
800392,200
850405,900
900419,300
950432,300
1,000445,000

Note 1: Interpolate for intermediate sizes.

(1) Primary pressure relief system. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable individual specification, the primary relief system must have a minimum venting capacity of 12,000 SCFH per 350 square feet of exposed cargo tank area, but in any case at least one fourth the required total venting capacity for the cargo tank.

(2) Secondary pressure relief system. If the primary pressure relief system does not provide the required total venting capacity, additional capacity must be provided by a secondary pressure relief system.

(f) Certification of pressure relief devices. The manufacturer of any pressure relief device, including valves, frangible (rupture) disks, vacuum vents and combination devices must certify that the device model was designed and tested in accordance with this section and the appropriate cargo tank specification. The certificate must contain sufficient information to describe the device and its performance. The certificate must be signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer who approved the flow capacity certification.

(g) Rated flow capacity certification test. Each pressure relief device model must be successfully flow capacity certification tested prior to first use. Devices having one design, size and set pressure are considered to be one model. The testing requirements are as follows:

(1) At least 3 devices of each specific model must be tested for flow capacity at a pressure not greater than the test pressure of the cargo tank. For a device model to be certified, the capacities of the devices tested must fall within a range of plus or minus 5 percent of the average for the devices tested.

(2) The rated flow capacity of a device model may not be greater than 90 percent of the average value for the devices tested.

(3) The rated flow capacity derived for each device model must be certified by a responsible official of the device manufacturer.

(h) Marking of pressure relief devices. Each pressure relief device must be permanently marked with the following:

(1) Manufacturer's name;

(2) Model number;

(3) Set pressure, in psig; and

(4) Rated flow capacity, in SCFH at the rating pressure, in psig.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25025, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 21038, May 22, 1990; 55 FR 37062, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.345-11   Tank outlets.

(a) General. As used in this section, “loading/unloading outlet” means any opening in the cargo tank wall used for loading or unloading of lading, as distinguished from outlets such as manhole covers, vents, vapor recovery devices, and similar closures. Cargo tank outlets, closures and associated piping must be protected in accordance with §178.345-8.

(b) Each cargo tank loading/unloading outlet must be equipped with an internal self-closing stop-valve, or alternatively, with an external stop-valve located as close as practicable to the cargo tank wall. Each cargo tank loading/unloading outlet must be in accordance with the following provisions:

(1) Each loading/unloading outlet must be fitted with a self-closing system capable of closing all such outlets in an emergency within 30 seconds of actuation. During normal operations the outlets may be closed manually. The self-closing system must be designed according to the following:

(i) Each self-closing system must include a remotely actuated means of closure located more than 10 feet from the loading/unloading outlet where vehicle length allows, or on the end of the cargo tank farthest away from the loading/unloading outlet. The actuating mechanism must be corrosion-resistant and effective in all types of environment and weather.

(ii) If the actuating system is accidentally damaged or sheared off during transportation, each loading/unloading outlet must remain securely closed and capable of retaining lading.

(iii) When required by part 173 of this subchapter for materials which are flammable, pyrophoric, oxidizing, or Division 6.1 (poisonous liquid) materials, the remote means of closure must be capable of thermal activation. The means by which the self-closing system is thermally activated must be located as close as practicable to the primary loading/unloading connection and must actuate the system at a temperature not over 250 °F. In addition, outlets on these cargo tanks must be capable of being remotely closed manually or mechanically.

(2) Bottom loading outlets which discharge lading into the cargo tank through fixed internal piping above the maximum liquid level of the cargo tank need not be equipped with a self-closing system.

(c) Any loading/unloading outlet extending beyond an internal self-closing stop-valve, or beyond the innermost external stop-valve which is part of a self-closing system, must be fitted with another stop-valve or other leak-tight closure at the end of such connection.

(d) Each cargo tank outlet that is not a loading/unloading outlet must be equipped with a stop-valve or other leak-tight closure located as close as practicable to the cargo tank outlet. Any connection extending beyond this closure must be fitted with another stop-valve or other leak-tight closure at the end of such connection.

[Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991, as amended by Amdt. 178-97, 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.345-12   Gauging devices.

Each cargo tank, except a cargo tank intended to be filled by weight, must be equipped with a gauging device that indicates the maximum permitted liquid level to within 0.5 percent of the nominal capacity as measured by volume or liquid level. Gauge glasses are not permitted.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37062, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996]

§178.345-13   Pressure and leakage tests.

(a) Each cargo tank must be pressure and leakage tested in accordance with this section and §§178.346-5, 178.347-5, or 178.348-5.

(b) Pressure test. Each cargo tank or cargo tank compartment must be tested hydrostatically or pneumatically. Each cargo tank of a multi-cargo tank motor vehicle must be tested with the adjacent cargo tanks empty and at atmospheric pressure. Each closure, except pressure relief devices and loading/unloading venting devices rated at less than the prescribed test pressure, must be in place during the test. If the venting device is not removed during the test, such device must be rendered inoperative by a clamp, plug or other equally effective restraining device, which may not prevent the detection of leaks, or damage the device. Restraining devices must be removed immediately after the test is completed.

(1) Hydrostatic method. Each cargo tank, including its domes, must be filled with water or other liquid having similar viscosity, the temperature of which may not exceed 100 °F. The cargo tank must then be pressurized as prescribed in the applicable specification. The pressure must be gauged at the top of the cargo tank. The prescribed test pressure must be maintained for at least 10 minutes during which time the cargo tank must be inspected for leakage, bulging, or other defect.

(2) Pneumatic method. A pneumatic test may be used in place of the hydrostatic test. However, pneumatic pressure testing may involve higher risk than hydrostatic testing. Therefore, suitable safeguards must be provided to protect personnel and facilities should failure occur during the test. The cargo tank must be pressurized with air or an inert gas. Test pressure must be reached gradually by increasing the pressure to one half of test pressure. Thereafter, the pressure must be increased in steps of approximately one tenth of the test pressure until test pressure is reached. Test pressure must be held for at least 5 minutes. The pressure must then be reduced to the inspection pressure which must be maintained while the entire cargo tank surface is inspected for leakage and other sign of defects. The inspection method must consist of coating all joints and fittings with a solution of soap and water or other equally sensitive method.

(c) Leakage test. The cargo tank with all its accessories in place and operable must be leak tested at not less than 80 percent of tank's MAWP with the pressure maintained for at least 5 minutes.

(d) Any cargo tank that leaks, bulges or shows any other sign of defect must be rejected. Rejected cargo tanks must be suitably repaired and retested successfully prior to being returned to service. The retest after any repair must use the same method of test under which the cargo tank was originally rejected.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25026, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.345-14   Marking.

(a) General. The manufacturer shall certify that each cargo tank motor vehicle has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with the applicable Specification DOT 406, DOT 407 or DOT 412 (§§178.345, 178.346, 178.347, 178.348) cargo tank requirements and, when applicable, with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The certification shall be accomplished by marking the cargo tank as prescribed in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, and by preparing the certificate prescribed in §178.345-15. Metal plates prescribed by paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) of this section, must be permanently attached to the cargo tank or its integral supporting structure, by brazing, welding or other suitable means. These plates must be affixed on the left side of the vehicle near the front of the cargo tank (or the frontmost cargo tank of a multi-cargo tank motor vehicle), in a place readily accessible for inspection. The plates must be permanently and plainly marked in English by stamping, embossing or other means in characters at least 316 inch high. The information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be combined on one specification plate.

(b) Nameplate. Each cargo tank must have a corrosion resistant nameplate permanently attached to it. The following information, in addition to any applicable information required by the ASME Code, must be marked on the tank nameplate (parenthetical abbreviations may be used):

(1) DOT-specification number DOT XXX (DOT XXX) where “XXX” is replaced with the applicable specification number. For cargo tanks having a variable specification plate, the DOT-specification number is replaced with the words “See variable specification plate.”

(2) Original test date, month and year (Orig. Test Date).

(3) Tank MAWP in psig.

(4) Cargo tank test pressure (Test P), in psig.

(5) Cargo tank design temperature range (Design temp. range),_ °F to _ °F.

(6) Nominal capacity (Water cap.), in gallons.

(7) Maximum design density of lading (Max. lading density), in pounds per gallon.

(8) Material specification number—shell (Shell matl, yyy***), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “***” by the alloy type.

(9) Material specification number—heads (Head matl, yyy***), where “yyy” is replaced by the alloy designation and “***” by the alloy type.

Note: When the shell and heads materials are the same thickness, they may be combined, (Shell&head matl, yyy***).

(10) Weld material (Weld matl.).

(11) Minimum thickness—shell (Min. shell-thick), in inches. When minimum shell thicknesses are not the same for different areas, show (top _, side _, bottom _, in inches).

(12) Minimum thickness—heads (Min. heads thick.), in inches.

(13) Manufactured thickness—shell (Mfd. shell thick.), top _, side _, bottom _, in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(14) Manufactured thickness—heads (Mfd. heads thick.), in inches. (Required when additional thickness is provided for corrosion allowance.)

(15) Exposed surface area, in square feet.

(c) Specification plate. Each cargo tank motor vehicle must have an additional corrosion resistant metal specification plate attached to it. The specification plate must contain the following information (parenthetical abbreviations may be used):

(1) Cargo tank motor vehicle manufacturer (CTMV mfr.).

(2) Cargo tank motor vehicle certification date (CTMV cert. date), if different from the cargo tank certification date.

(3) Cargo tank manufacturer (CT mfr.).

(4) Cargo tank date of manufacture (CT date of mfr.), month and year.

(5) Maximum weight of lading (Max. Payload), in pounds.

(6) Maximum loading rate in gallons per minute (Max. Load rate, GPM).

(7) Maximum unloading rate in gallons per minute (Max. Unload rate).

(8) Lining material (Lining), if applicable.

(9) Heating system design pressure (Heating sys. press.), in psig, if applicable.

(10) Heating system design temperature (Heating sys. temp.), in °F, if applicable.

(d) Multi-cargo tank motor vehicle. For a multi-cargo tank motor vehicle having all its cargo tanks not separated by any void, the information required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section may be combined on one specification plate. When separated by a void, each cargo tank must have an individual nameplate as required in paragraph (b) of this section, unless all cargo tanks are made by the same manufacturer with the same materials, manufactured thickness, minimum thickness and to the same specification. The cargo tank motor vehicle may have a combined nameplate and specification plate. When only one plate is used, the plate must be visible and not covered by insulation. The required information must be listed on the plate from front to rear in the order of the corresponding cargo tank location.

(e) Variable specification cargo tank. Each variable specification cargo tank must have a corrosion resistant metal variable specification plate attached to it. The mounting of this variable specification plate must be such that only the plate identifying the applicable specification under which the tank is being operated is legible.

(1) The following information must be included (parenthetical abbreviations are authorized):

Specification DOT XXX (DOT XXX), where “XXX” is replaced with the applicable specification number.

Equipment requiredRequired rating1
Pressure relief devices:
Pressure actuated type______
Frangible type______
Lading discharge devices______
Top______
Bottom______
Pressure unloading fitting______
Closures:
Manhole______
Fill openings______
Discharge openings______

1Required rating—to meet the applicable specification.

(2) If no change of information in the specification plate is required, the letters “NC” must follow the rating required. If the cargo tank is not so equipped, the word “None” must be inserted.

(3) Those parts to be changed or added must be stamped with the appropriate MC or DOT Specification markings.

(4) The alterations that must be made in order for the tank to be modified from one specification to another must be clearly indicated on the manufacturer's certificate and on the variable specification plate.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25027, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 60 FR 17402, Apr. 5, 1995; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.345-15   Certification.

(a) At or before the time of delivery, the manufacturer of a cargo tank motor vehicle must provide certification documents to the owner of the cargo tank motor vehicle. The registration numbers of the manufacturer, the Design Certifying Engineer, and the Registered Inspector, as appropriate, must appear on the certificates (see subpart F, part 107 in subchapter A of this chapter).

(b) The manufacturer of a cargo tank motor vehicle made to any of these specifications must provide:

(1) For each design type, a certificate signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Design Certifying Engineer certifying that the cargo tank motor vehicle design meets the applicable specification; and

(2) For each ASME cargo tank, a cargo tank manufacturer's data report as required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). For each cargo tank motor vehicle, a certificate signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Registered Inspector certifying that the cargo tank motor vehicle is constructed, tested and completed in conformance with the applicable specification.

(c) The manufacturer of a variable specification cargo tank motor vehicle must provide:

(1) For each design type, a certificate signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Design Certifying Engineer certifying that the cargo tank motor vehicle design meets the applicable specifications; and

(2) For each variable specification cargo tank motor vehicle, a certificate signed by a responsible official of the manufacturer and a Registered Inspector certifying that the cargo tank motor vehicle is constructed, tested and completed in conformance with the applicable specifications. The certificate must include all the information required and marked on the variable specification plate.

(d) In the case of a cargo tank motor vehicle manufactured in two or more stages, each manufacturer who performs a manufacturing operation on the incomplete vehicle or portion thereof shall provide to the succeeding manufacturer, at or before the time of delivery, a certificate covering the particular operation performed by that manufacturer, including any certificates received from previous manufacturers, Registered Inspectors, and Design Certifying Engineers. Each certificate must indicate the portion of the complete cargo tank motor vehicle represented thereby, such as basic cargo tank fabrication, insulation, jacket, lining, or piping. The final manufacturer shall provide all applicable certificates to the owner.

(e) Specification shortages. If a cargo tank is manufactured which does not meet all applicable specification requirements, thereby requiring subsequent manufacturing involving the installation of additional components, parts, appurtenances or accessories, the cargo tank manufacturer may affix the name plate and specification plate, as required by §178.345-14 (b) and (c), without the original date of certification stamped on the specification plate. The manufacturer shall state the specification requirements not complied with on the manufacturer's Certificate of Compliance. When the cargo tank is brought into full compliance with the applicable specification, the Registered Inspector shall stamp the date of compliance on the specification plate. The Registered Inspector shall issue a Certificate of Compliance stating details of the particular operations performed on the cargo tank, and the date and person (manufacturer, carrier, or repair organization) accomplishing the compliance.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-98, 58 FR 33306, June 16, 1993; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51342, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.346   Specification DOT 406; cargo tank motor vehicle.

§178.346-1   General requirements.

(a) Each Specification DOT 406 cargo tank motor vehicle must meet the general design and construction requirements in §178.345, in addition to the specific requirements contained in this section.

(b) MAWP: The MAWP of each cargo tank must be no lower than 2.65 psig and no higher than 4 psig.

(c) Vacuum loaded cargo tanks must not be constructed to this specification.

(d) Each cargo tank must be “constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) except as modified herein:

(1) The record-keeping requirements contained in the ASME Code Section VIII do not apply. Parts UG-90 through 94 in Section VIII do not apply. Inspection and certification must be made by an inspector registered in accordance with subpart F of part 107.

(2) Loadings must be as prescribed in §178.345-3.

(3) The knuckle radius of flanged heads must be at least three times the material thickness, and in no case less than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads may be attached to the shell by a fillet weld. The knuckle radius and dish radius versus diameter limitations of UG-32 do not apply. Shell sections of cargo tanks designed with a non-circular cross section need not be given a preliminary curvature, as prescribed in UG-79(b).

(4) Marking, certification, data reports, and nameplates must be as prescribed in §§178.345-14 and 178.345-15.

(5) Manhole closure assemblies must conform to §§178.345-5 and 178.346-5.

(6) Pressure relief devices must be as prescribed in §178.346-3.

(7) The hydrostatic or pneumatic test must be as prescribed in §178.346-5.

(8) The following paragraphs in parts UG and UW in Section VIII of the ASME Code do not apply: UG-11, UG-12, UG-22(g), UG-32(e), UG-34, UG-35, UG-44, UG-76, UG-77, UG-80, UG-81, UG-96, UG-97, UW-13(b)(2), UW-13.1(f) and the dimensional requirements found in Figure UW-13.1.

(9) Single full fillet lap joints without plug welds may be used for arc or gas welded longitudinal seams without radiographic examination under the following conditions:

(i) For a truck-mounted cargo tank, no more than two such joints may be used on the top half of the tank and no more than two joints may be used on the bottom half. They may not be located farther from the top and bottom centerline than 16 percent of the shell's circumference.

(ii) For a self-supporting cargo tank, no more than two such joints may be used on the top of the tank. They may not be located farther from the top centerline than 12.5 percent of the shell's circumference.

(iii) Compliance test. Two test specimens of the material to be used in the manufacture of a cargo tank must be tested to failure in tension. The test specimens must be of the same thicknesses and joint configuration as the cargo tank, and joined by the same welding procedures. The test specimens may represent all the tanks that are made of the same materials and welding procedures, have the same joint configuration, and are made in the same facility within 6 months after the tests are completed. Before welding, the fit-up of the joints on the test specimens must represent production conditions that would result in the least joint strength. Evidence of joint fit-up and test results must be retained at the manufacturers' facility.

(iv) Weld joint efficiency. The lower value of stress at failure attained in the two tensile test specimens shall be used to compute the efficiency of the joint as follows: Determine the failure ratio by dividing the stress at failure by the mechanical properties of the adjacent metal; this value, when multiplied by 0.75, is the design weld joint efficiency.

(10) The requirements of paragraph UW-9(d) in Section VIII of the ASME Code do not apply.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25028, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37063, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 65 FR 58631, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.346-2   Material and thickness of material.

The type and thickness of material for DOT 406 specification cargo tanks must conform to §178.345-2, but in no case may the thickness be less than that determined by the minimum thickness requirements in §178.320(a). The following Tables I and II identify the specified minimum thickness values to be employed in that determination.

Table I—Specified Minimum Thickness of Heads (or Bulkheads and Baffles When Used as Tank Reinforcement) Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming

MaterialVolume capacity in gallons per inch of length
14 or lessOver 14 to 23Over 23
MSHSLA SSALMSHSLA SSALMSHSLA SSAL
Thickness.100.100.160.115.115.173.129.129.187

Table II—Specified Minimum Thickness of Shell Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming1

Cargo tank motor vehicle rated capacity (gallons)MSSS/HSLAAL
More than 0 to at least 4,5000.1000.1000.151
More than 4,500 to at least 8,0000.1150.1000.160
More than 8,000 to at least 14,0000.1290.1290.173
More than 14,0000.1430.1430.187

1Maximum distance between bulkheads, baffles, or ring stiffeners shall not exceed 60 inches.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25028, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.346-3   Pressure relief.

(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §178.345-10 and this section.

(b) Type and construction. In addition to the pressure relief devices required in §178.345-10:

(1) Each cargo tank must be equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices;

(2) When intended for use only for lading meeting the requirements of §173.33(c)(1)(iii) of this subchapter, the cargo tank may be equipped with a normal vent. Such vents must be set to open at not less than 1 psig and must be designed to prevent loss of lading through the device in case of vehicle upset; and

(3) Notwithstanding the requirements in §178.345-10(b), after August 31, 1996, each pressure relief valve must be able to withstand a dynamic pressure surge reaching 30 psig above the design set pressure and sustained above the set pressure for at least 60 milliseconds with a total volume of liquid released not exceeding 1 L before the relief valve recloses to a leak-tight condition. This requirement must be met regardless of vehicle orientation. This capability must be demonstrated by testing. TTMA RP No. 81 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), cited at §178.345-10(b)(3)(i), is an acceptable test procedure.

(c) Pressure settings of relief valves. (1) Notwithstanding the requirements in §178.345-10(d), the set pressure of each primary relief valve must be not less than 110 percent of the MAWP or 3.3 psig, whichever is greater, and not more than 138 percent of the MAWP. The valve must close at not less than the MAWP and remain closed at lower pressures.

(2) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum.

(d) Venting capacities. (1) Notwithstanding the requirements in §178.345-10 (e) and (g), the primary pressure relief valve must have a venting capacity of at least 6,000 SCFH, rated at not greater than 125 percent of the tank test pressure and not greater than 3 psig above the MAWP. The venting capacity required in §178.345-10(e) may be rated at these same pressures.

(2) Each vacuum relief system must have sufficient capacity to limit the vacuum to 1 psig.

(3) If pressure loading or unloading devices are provided, the relief system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test pressure at maximum loading or unloading rate. The maximum loading and unloading rates must be included on the metal specification plate.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.346-4   Outlets.

(a) All outlets on each tank must conform to §178.345-11 and this section.

(b) External self-closing stop-valves are not authorized as an alternative to internal self-closing stop-valves on loading/unloading outlets.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996]

§178.346-5   Pressure and leakage tests.

(a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with §178.345-13 and this section.

(b) Pressure test. Test pressure must be as follows:

(1) Using the hydrostatic test method, the test pressure must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP.

(2) Using the pneumatic test method, the test pressure must be the greater of 5.0 psig or 1.5 times the cargo tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure must be the cargo tank MAWP.

(c) Leakage test. A cargo tank used to transport a petroleum distillate fuel that is equipped with vapor recovery equipment may be leakage tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e). To satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph, the test specified in 40 CFR 63.425(e)(1) must be conducted using air. The hydrostatic test alternative permitted under Appendix A to 40 CFR Part 60 (“Method 27—Determination of Vapor Tightness of Gasoline Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test”) may not be used to satisfy the leakage test requirements of this paragraph. A cargo tank tested in accordance with 40 CFR 63.425(e) may be marked as specified in §180.415 of this subchapter.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55176, Nov. 3, 1994. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.347   Specification DOT 407; cargo tank motor vehicle.

§178.347-1   General requirements.

(a) Each specification DOT 407 cargo tank motor vehicle must conform to the general design and construction requirements in §178.345 in addition to the specific requirements contained in this section.

(b) Each tank must be of a circular cross-section and have an MAWP of at least 25 psig.

(c) Any cargo tank motor vehicle built to this specification with a MAWP greater than 35 psig or any cargo tank motor vehicle built to this specification designed to be loaded by vacuum must be constructed and certified in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The external design pressure for a cargo tank loaded by vacuum must be at least 15 psi.

(d) Any cargo tank motor vehicle built to this specification with a MAWP of 35 psig or less or any cargo tank motor vehicle built to this specification designed to withstand full vacuum but not equipped to be loaded by vacuum must be constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(1) The record-keeping requirements contained in Section VIII of the ASME Code do not apply. The inspection requirements of parts UG-90 through 94 do not apply. Inspection and certification must be made by an inspector registered in accordance with subpart F of part 107.

(2) Loadings must be as prescribed in §178.345-3.

(3) The knuckle radius of flanged heads must be at least three times the material thickness, and in no case less than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads may be attached to the shell by a fillet weld. The knuckle radius and dish radius versus diameter limitations of UG-32 do not apply for cargo tank motor vehicles with a MAWP of 35 psig or less.

(4) Marking, certification, data reports and nameplates must be as prescribed in §§178.345-14 and 178.345-15.

(5) Manhole closure assemblies must conform to §178.347-3.

(6) Pressure relief devices must be as prescribed in §178.347-4.

(7) The hydrostatic or pneumatic test must be as prescribed in §178.347-5.

(8) The following paragraphs in parts UG and UW in Section VIII the ASME Code do not apply: UG-11, UG-12, UG-22(g), UG-32(e), UG-34, UG-35, UG-44, UG-76, UG-77, UG-80, UG-81, UG-96, UG-97, UW-12, UW-13(b)(2), UW-13.1(f), and the dimensional requirements found in Figure UW-13.1.

(9) UW-12 in Section VIII of the ASME Code does not apply to a weld seam in a bulkhead that has not been radiographically examined, under the following conditions:

(i) The strength of the weld seam is assumed to be 0.85 of the strength of the bulkhead.

(ii) The welded seam must be a full penetration butt weld.

(iii) No more than one seam may be used per bulkhead.

(iv) The welded seam must be completed before forming the dish radius and knuckle radius.

(v) Compliance test: Two test specimens of materials representative of those to be used in the manufacture of a cargo tank bulkhead must be tested to failure in tension. The test specimen must be of the same thickness and joined by the same welding procedure. The test specimens may represent all the tanks that are made in the same facility within 6 months after the tests are completed. Before welding, the fit-up of the joints on the test specimens must represent production conditions that would result in the least joint strength. Evidence of joint fit-up and test results must be retained at the manufacturer's facility for at least 5 years.

(vi) Acceptance criteria: The ratio of the actual tensile stress at failure to the actual tensile strength of the adjacent material of all samples of a test lot must be greater than 0.85.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25029, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; 65 FR 58632, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003; 76 FR 3388, Jan. 19, 2011; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]

§178.347-2   Material and thickness of material.

(a) The type and thickness of material for DOT 407 specification cargo tanks must conform to §178.345-2, but in no case may the thickness be less than that determined by the minimum thickness requirements in §178.320(a). Tables I and II identify the specified minimum thickness values to be employed in that the determination:

Table I—Specified Minimum Thickness of Heads (or Bulkheads and Baffles When Used as Tank Reinforcement) Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming

Volume capacity in gallons per inch10 or lessOver 10 to 14Over 14 to 18Over 18 to 22Over 22 to 26Over 26 to 30Over 30
Thickness (MS)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (HSLA)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (SS)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (AL)0.1600.1600.1730.1870.1940.2160.237

Table II—Specified Minimum Thickness of Shell Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming

Volume capacity in gallons per inch10 or lessOver 10 to 14Over 14 to 18Over 18 to 22Over 22 to 26Over 26 to 30Over 30
Thickness (MS)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (HSLA)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (SS)0.1000.1000.1150.1290.1290.1430.156
Thickness (AL)0.1510.1510.1600.1730.1940.2160.237

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.347-3   Manhole assemblies.

Each manhole assembly must conform to §178.345-5, except that each manhole assembly must be capable of withstanding internal fluid pressures of 40 psig or test pressure of the tank, whichever is greater.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996]

§178.347-4   Pressure relief.

(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with §178.345-10 and this section.

(b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with §178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance with §178.347-1(d).

(c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance with §178.345-10(d).

(d) Venting capacities. (1) The vacuum relief system must limit the vacuum to less than 80 percent of the design vacuum capability of the cargo tank.

(2) If pressure loading or unloading devices are provided, the relief system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test pressure at maximum loading or unloading rate. The maximum loading or unloading rate must be included on the metal specification plate.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37064, Sept. 7, 1990. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]

§178.347-5   Pressure and leakage test.

(a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with §178.345-13 and this section.

(b) Pressure test. Test pressure must be as follows:

(1) Using the hydrostatic test method, the test pressure must be at least 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater.

(2) Using the pneumatic test method, the test pressure must be 40 psig or 1.5 times tank MAWP, whichever is greater, and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25030, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996]

§178.348   Specification DOT 412; cargo tank motor vehicle.

§178.348-1   General requirements.

(a) Each specification DOT 412 cargo tank motor vehicle must conform to the general design and construction requirements in §178.345 in addition to the specific requirements of this section.

(b) The MAWP of each cargo tank must be at least 5 psig.

(c) The MAWP for each cargo tank designed to be loaded by vacuum must be at least 25 psig internal and 15 psig external.

(d) Each cargo tank having a MAWP greater than 15 psig must be of circular cross-section.

(e) Each cargo tank having a—

(1) MAWP greater than 15 psig must be “constructed and certified in conformance with Section VIII of the ASME Code” (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); or

(2) MAWP of 15 psig or less must be “constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code,” except as modified herein:

(i) The recordkeeping requirements contained in Section VIII of the ASME Code do not apply. Parts UG-90 through 94 in Section VIII do not apply. Inspection and certification must be made by an inspector registered in accordance with subpart F of part 107.

(ii) Loadings must be as prescribed in §178.345-3.

(iii) The knuckle radius of flanged heads must be at least three times the material thickness, and in no case less than 0.5 inch. Stuffed (inserted) heads may be attached to the shell by a fillet weld. The knuckle radius and dish radius versus diameter limitations of UG-32 do not apply for cargo tank motor vehicles with a MAWP of 15 psig or less. Shell sections of cargo tanks designed with a non-circular cross section need not be given a preliminary curvature, as prescribed in UG-79(b).

(iv) Marking, certification, data reports, and nameplates must be as prescribed in §§178.345-14 and 178.345-15.

(v) Manhole closure assemblies must conform to §§178.345-5.

(vi) Pressure relief devices must be as prescribed in §178.348-4.

(vii) The hydrostatic or pneumatic test must be as prescribed in §178.348-5.

(viii) The following paragraphs in parts UG and UW in Section VIII of the ASME Code do not apply: UG-11, UG-12, UG-22(g), UG-32(e), UG-34, UG-35, UG-44, UG-76, UG-77, UG-80, UG-81, UG-96, UG-97, UW-13(b)(2), UW-13.1(f), and the dimensional requirements found in Figure UW-13.1.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25031, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-89, 56 FR 27877, June 17, 1991; 65 FR 58632, Sept. 29, 2000; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 fR 75756, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.348-2   Material and thickness of material.

(a) The type and thickness of material for DOT 412 specification cargo tanks must conform to §178.345-2, but in no case may the thickness be less than that determined by the minimum thickness requirements in §178.320(a). The following Tables I and II identify the “Specified Minimum Thickness” values to be employed in that determination.

Table I—Specified Minimum Thickness of Heads (or Bulkheads and Baffles When Used as Tank Reinforcement) Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming

Volume capacity (gallons per inch)10 or lessOver 10 to 14Over 14 to 1818 and over
                                             
Lading density at 60 °F in pounds per gallon10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbsOver 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbsOver 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbs
Thickness (inch), steel.100.129.157.187.129.157.187.250.157.250.250.157.250.312
Thickness (inch), aluminum.144.187.227.270.187.227.270.360.227.360.360.227.360.450

Table II—Specified Minimum Thickness of Shell Using Mild Steel (MS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), Austenitic Stainless Steel (SS), or Aluminum (AL)—Expressed in Decimals of an Inch After Forming

Volume capacity in gallons per inch10 or lessOver 10 to 14Over 14 to 1818 and over
                                             
Lading density at 60 °F in pounds per gallon10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbsOver 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbsOver 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbs10 lbs and lessOver 10 to 13 lbsOver 13 to 16 lbs
Thickness (steel):
Distances between heads (and bulkheads baffles and ring stiffeners when used as tank reinforcement):
36 in. or less.100.129.157.187.100.129.157.187.100.129.157.129.157.187
Over 36 in. to 54 inches.100.129.157.187.100.129.157.187.129.157.187.157.250.250
Over 54 in. to 60 inches.100.129.157.187.129.157.187.250.157.250.250.187.250.312
Thickness (aluminum):
Distances between heads (and bulkheads baffles and ring stiffeners when used as tank reinforcement):
36 in. or less.144.187.227.270.144.187.227.270.144.187.227.187.227.270
Over 36 in. to 54 inches.144.187.227.270.144.187.227.270.187.227.270.157.360.360
Over 54 in. to 60 inches.144.187.227.270.187.227.270.360.227.360.360.270.360.450

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25031, June 12, 1989; 54 FR 28750, July 7, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990; 68 FR 19285, Apr. 18, 2003]

§178.348-3   Pumps, piping, hoses and connections.

Each pump and all piping, hoses and connections on each cargo tank motor vehicle must conform to §178.345-9, except that the use of nonmetallic pipes, valves, or connections are authorized on DOT 412 cargo tanks.

[Amdt. 178-89, 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996]

§178.348-4   Pressure relief.

(a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with §178.345-10 and this section.

(b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum.

(c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The setting of the pressure relief devices must be in accordance with §178.345-10(d), except as provided in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(d) Venting capacities. (1) The vacuum relief system must limit the vacuum to less than 80 percent of the design vacuum capability of the cargo tank.

(2) If pressure loading or unloading devices are provided, the pressure relief system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit tank pressure to the cargo tank test pressure at the maximum loading or unloading rate. The maximum loading and unloading rates must be included on the metal specification plate.

(3) Cargo tanks used in dedicated service for materials classed as corrosive material, with no secondary hazard, may have a total venting capacity which is less than required by §178.345-10(e). The minimum total venting capacity for these cargo tanks must be determined in accordance with the following formula (use of approximate values given for the formula is acceptable):

Formula in Nonmetric Units

Q = 37,980,000 A0.82 (ZT)0.5 / (LC)(M0.5)

Where:

Q = The total required venting capacity, in cubic meters of air per hour at standard conditions of 15.6 °C and 1 atm (cubic feet of air per hour at standard conditions of 60 °F and 14.7 psia);

T = The absolute temperature of the vapor at the venting conditions—degrees Kelvin (°C+273) [degrees Rankine (°F+460)];

A = The exposed surface area of tank shell—square meters (square feet);

L = The latent heat of vaporization of the lading—calories per gram (BTU/lb);

Z = The compressibility factor for the vapor (if this factor is unknown, let Z equal 1.0);

M = The molecular weight of vapor;

C = A constant derived from (K), the ratio of specific heats of the vapor. If (K) is unknown, let C = 315.

C = 520[K(2/(K+1))[(K+1)/(K−1)]]0.5

Where:

K = Cp / Cv

Cp = The specific heat at constant pressure, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.); and

Cv = The specific heat at constant volume, in -calories per gram degree centigrade (BTU/lb °F.).

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37065, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996; 72 FR 55696, Oct. 1, 2007; 72 FR 59146, Oct. 18, 2007]

§178.348-5   Pressure and leakage test.

(a) Each cargo tank must be tested in accordance with §178.345-13 and this section.

(b) Pressure test. Test pressure must be as follows:

(1) Using the hydrostatic test method, the test pressure must be at least 1.5 times MAWP.

(2) Using the pneumatic test method, the test pressure must be at least 1.5 times tank MAWP, and the inspection pressure is tank MAWP.

[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25032, June 12, 1989. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-112, 61 FR 18934, Apr. 29, 1996]

Subpart K—Specifications for Packagings for Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials

§178.350   Specification 7A; general packaging, Type A.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each packaging must meet all applicable requirements of subpart B of part 173 of this subchapter and be designed and constructed so that it meets the requirements of §§173.403, 173.410, 173.412, 173.415 and 173.465 of this subchapter for Type A packaging.

(b) Each Specification 7A packaging must be marked on the outside “USA DOT 7A Type A.”

(c) Each Specification 7A packaging must comply with the marking requirements of §178.3. In paragraph 178.3(a)(2), the term “packaging manufacturer” means the person certifying that the package meets all requirements of this section.

[Amdt. 178-109, 60 FR 50336, Sept. 28, 1995; 60 FR 54409, Oct. 23, 1995, as amended at 69 FR 3696, Jan. 26, 2004; 70 FR 56099, Sept. 23, 2005]

§178.356   Specification 20PF phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

§178.356-1   General requirements.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each overpack must meet all of the applicable requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter.

(b) The maximum gross weight of the package, including the inner cylinder and its contents, must not exceed the following:

(1) Specification 20PF-1—138 kg (300 pounds).

(2) Specification 20PF-2—320 kg (700 pounds).

(3) Specification 20PF-3—455 kg (1000 pounds).

(c) The general configuration of the overpack must be a right cylinder, consisting of an insulated base section, a steel liner lid, and an insulated top section. The inner liner and outer shell must be at least 16-gauge and 18-gauge steel, respectively, with the intervening cavity filled with a molded-in-place, fire-resistant, phenolic-foam insulation interspersed with wooden members for bracing and support Wood pieces must be securely attached to both the liner and shell. No hole is permitted in the liner. Each joint between sections must be stepped a minimum of 5 cm (2 inches) and gaps between mating surfaces must not exceed 5 mm (0.2 inch). Gaps between foam surface of top section and liner lid must not exceed 1 cm (0.4 inch) or 5 cm (2 inches) where taper is required for mold stripping. For the specification 20PF-1, the top section may consist of a plug of foam insulation and a steel cover. The liner and shell closures must each be gasketed against moisture penetration. The liner must have a bolted flange closure. Shell closure must conform to paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) Drums over 5 gallons capacity must be closed by means of 12-gauge bolted ring with drop forged lugs, one of which is threaded, and having 38 inch bolt and nut for drums not over 30 gallons capacity and 58 inch bolt and nut for drums over 30 gallons capacity. Five gallon drums must be of lug type closure with cover having at least 16 lugs.

(e) Drawings in DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1 and Supplement 1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), which include bills of material, are a part of this specification.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45247, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 65 FR 58632, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 45386, 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.356-2   Materials of construction and other requirements.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire-resistant and fabricated in accordance with USDOE Material and Equipment Specification SP-9, Rev. 1 and Supplement (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), which is a part of this specification. (Note: Packagings manufactured under USAEC Specification SP-9 and Rev. 1 thereto are authorized for continued manufacture and use.) A 13.7 cm (5.4-inch) minimum thickness of foam must be provided over the entire liner except:

(1) Where wood spacers replace the foam; or

(2) At protrusions of liner or shell, such as flanges, baffles, etc., where minimum insulation thickness is 9 cm (3.5 inches); or

(3) Where alternate top section (specification 20PF-1) is used. Foam must not interfere with proper seating of screws in inner liner flange assembly. Average density of insulation must be 0.13 g/cc (8 pounds per cubic foot (pcf)) minimum for bottom section and 0.16 g/cc (10 pcf) minimum for top section, except 0.1 g/cc (6.5 pcf) for the specification 20PF-1 top section.

(b) Gaskets must be as follows:

(1) Inner liner flange—Neoprene rubber of 30 to 60 type A durometer hardness or other equivalent gasket material which is compatible with the specific contents.

(2) Outer shell—Synthetic rubber conforming to MIL-R-6855 (available from the Naval Publications Forms Center, 5801 Tabor Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19120) class 2, grade 60.

(3) Support and pressure pads for inner liner top and bottom must be sponge rubber or equivalent.

(c) Alternate top section (specification 20PF-1 only). Average insulation density must be 0.16 g/cc (10 pcf minimum). Thickness of plug must be 11 cm (4.3 inches) minimum, except thickness may be reduced to 10 cm (4 inches) to clear bolt heads. A flush mounted top lifting device must be securely fastened to a wood block encapsulated by the foam.

(d) Vent holes 5 mm (0.2-inch) diameter must be drilled in the outer shell to provide pressure relief during the insulation foaming and in the event of a fire. These holes, which must be drilled in all areas of the shell that mate with the foam insulation, must be spaced in accordance with DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1 and Supplement 1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(e) Welding must be by a fusion welding process in accordance with American Welding Society Codes B-3.0 and D-1.0 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Body seams and joints for the liner or shell must be continuous welds.

(f) Waterproofing. Each screw hole in the outer shell must be sealed with appropriate resin-type sealing material, or equivalent, during installation of the screw. All exposed foam surfaces, including any vent hole, must be sealed with waterproofing material as prescribed in USDOE Material and Equipment Specification SP-9, Rev. 1 and Supplement, or equivalent.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45247, Dec. 31, 1974, as amended by Amdt. 178-56, 44 FR 49458, Aug. 23, 1979. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.356-3   Tests.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Leakage test—Each inner liner assembly must be tested for leakage prior to installation. Seam welds of the liner must be covered for a distance of at least 15 cm (6 inches) on either side of the seam with soapsuds, heavy oil, or equivalent material, and interior air pressure applied to at least 776 mm Hg (15 p.s.i.g.) above atmospheric pressure must be held for at least 30 seconds. Liners failing to pass this test may not be used until repairs are made, and retests successfully passed.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45247, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002]

§178.356-4   Required markings.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Marking must be as prescribed in §178.3.

(b) Marking on the outside of each overpack must be as follows:

(1) “USA-DOT-20PF-1” or “-2,” as appropriate, and if the entire liner is made of stainless steel, additional marking such as “3041-SS” to indicate the type of stainless steel used.

(2) “TARE WT: xxx lbs.” where xxx is the tare weight of the assembled overpack without the inner container.

(3) Year of manufacture.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45247, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 63 FR 37462, July 10, 1998]

§178.356-5   Typical assembly detail.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Specifications 20PF-1.

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(b) Specification 20PF-2.

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(c) Specification 20PF-3.

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[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45247, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990]

§178.358   Specification 21PF fire and shock resistant, phenolic-foam insulated, metal overpack.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

§178.358-1   General requirements.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each overpack must meet all of the applicable requirements of §§173.24, 173.411, and 173.412 of this subchapter.

(1) Specification 21PF-1 overpacks includes the series of 21PF-1, 21PF-1A, and 21PF-1B models. Details of the three models are included in DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1 and Supplement 1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(2) Drawings in CAPE-1662, Rev. 1 and Supplement 1, that include bills of materials, and KSS-471 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), are a part of this specification.

(b) Each overpack is authorized for use in applications where the maximum gross weight of the package, including the inner container and contents does not exceed 3725 kg (8200 pounds), (horizontally-loaded specification 21 PF-1 unit), or 3900 kg (8600 pounds), (end-loaded specification 21 PF-2 unit).

(c) The general configuration of the overpack must be a right cylinder, consisting of a steel inner liner (at least 16-gauge) and steel outer shell (at least 14-gauge) with the intervening cavity filled with a molded-in-place, fire-resistant, phenolic foam insulation and interspersed wooden members for bracing and support. Two specific configurations are authorized; a horizontal loading unit (specification 21PF-1) consisting of insulated base and top sections jointed in a longitudinal peripheral closure joint; or an end-loading unit (specification 21PF-2), consisting of an insulated main section, a steel plate liner lid, and an insulated end cap. For either type each joint between sections must be stepped at least 1.8 cm (0.75-inch) and gaps between mating surfaces may not exceed 5 mm (0.2-inch). Bolted closures, which must each be gasketed against moisture penetration, must be in accordance with CAPE-1662. Each bolt must be equipped with a locking device to prevent loosening from vibration. Outer steel bracing and support framework must be attached to the shell to facilitate normal handling.

(d) Specification 21PF-1 overpacks in use or under construction before April 1, 1989, must be modified to Specification 21PF-1A before April 1, 1991. All new construction to Specification 21PF-1 beginning after March 31, 1989, must meet Specification 21PF-1B. Use of unmodified 21PF-1 overpacks after March 31, 1991, is prohibited.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45250, Dec. 31, 1974; 40 FR 2435, Jan. 13, 1975, as amended by Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36551, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.358-2   Materials of construction and other requirements.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Phenolic foam insulation must be fire resistant and fabricated in accordance with USDOE Material and Equipment Specification SP-9, Rev. 1 and Supplement (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), which is a part of this specification. (Note: Packagings manufactured under USAEC Specification SP-9, and Rev. 1 thereto are authorized for continued manufacture and use.) A 14 cm (5.5-inch) minimum thickness of foam must be provided over the entire liner except where:

(1) Wood spacers replace the foam material; or

(2) At protrusions of liner or shell, such as flanges, baffles, etc., where the minimum thickness of foam, wood, or a combination of these is 10 cm (4 inches).

(3) Solid wood or laminated wood solidly glued may be used to replace the foam between liner and shell (i.e., in ends of overpack). In this case, minimum wood thickness is 10 cm (4 inches). Average density of insulation must be 0.1g/cc (6.75 pounds per cubic foot (pcf)) minimum, except that 0.13 g/cc (8 pcf) is required in the removable end cap of the specification 21PF-2, which must have a minimum foam thickness of 12.7 cm (5 inches).

(b) Gaskets for inner liner, outer shell, or where otherwise specified in DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), must be as specified in DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1.

(c) Support and pressure pads for the inner liner must be of neoprene, sponge rubber, or equivalent.

(d) Fire-retardant (intumescent) paint must be applied to any wood blocking which is located at any joint in the shell.

(e) Vent holes 5 mm (0.2-inch) diameter must be drilled in the outer shell to provide pressure relief during the insulation foaming and in the event of a fire. These holes, which must be drilled in all areas of the shell which made with the foam insulation, must be spaced in accordance with CAPE-1662.

(f) Welding must be by a fusion process in accordance with the American Welding Society Codes B-3.0 and D-1.0 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Body seams and joints for the liner and shell must be continuous welds.

(g) Waterproofing. Each screw hole in the outer shell must be sealed with appropriate resin-type sealing material, or equivalent, during installation of the screw. All exposed foam surfaces, including any vent hole, must be sealed with either:

(1) Waterproofing material as prescribed in USDOE Material and Equipment Specification SP-9, Rev. 1 and Supplement, or

(2) As specified in CAPE-1662, Revision 1.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45250, Dec. 31, 1974, as amended by Amdt. 178-56, 44 FR 49459, Aug. 23, 1979; Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36551, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.358-3   Modification of Specification 21PF-1 overpacks.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each Specification 21PF-1 overpack for which construction began or was completed before April 1, 1989, in conformance with drawing E-S-31536-J, Rev. 1 of DOE CAPE-1662 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), must be modified in conformance with drawing S1E-31536-J1-D of DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1, Supplement 1, before April 1, 1991.

(b) Each such existing Specification 21PF-1 overpack must be dried and weighed in accordance with the following procedures:

(1) Drill out or otherwise clean the plug material from the vent holes originally provided for foam expansion. See drawing S1E-31536-J1-D of CAPE-1662, Revision 1, Supplement 1, for locations.

(2) Weigh each packaging element (top and bottom halves) separately to an accuracy of ±2.3 kg (±5 pounds) and record the weights. If this measured weight exceeds the initially measured weight at the time of fabrication by 11.3 kg (25 pounds) (indicating a significant retained water content), the packaging element must be dried.

(3) Place overpack element in drying oven; maintain temperature between 87.8-98.9 °C (190° and 210 °F) for a minimum of 72 hours. The oven should have a provision for air exchange or other means of removing moisture driven from the foam structure.

(4) Drying may be discontinued after 72 hours if the weight of the packaging element does not exceed the initially measured tare weight of that element at the time of fabrication by more than 11.3 kg (25 pounds). If the weight of the packaging element exceeds the initial fabricated weight (indicating a significant remaining water content) by more than 11.3 kg (25 pounds), drying must be continued until the weight differential is not higher than 11.3 kg (25 pounds), or until the rate of weight loss is less than 1.1 kg (2.5 pounds) per day.

(5) As an alternate moisture measurement, a calibrated moisture meter reading for 20 percent maximum water content may be used to indicate an end point in the drying cycle, which is detailed in report “Renovation of DOT Specification 21PF-1 Protective Shipping Packages,” Report No. K-2057, Revision 1, November 21, 1986, available from the USDOE and part of USDOE Report No. KSS-471 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(6) Following drying, each overpack element (top and bottom halves) must be weighed and the weight in both pounds and kilograms must be engraved on the identification plate required by §178.358-5(c).

(c) After modification as provided for herein, each Specification 21PF-1 overpack must be marked “USA-DOT-21PF-1A”. See the marking requirements of §178.358-5.

[Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36551, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; Amdt. 178-110, 60 FR 49111, Sept. 21, 1995; 63 FR 37462, July 10, 1998; 66 FR 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.358-4   Construction of Specification 21PF-1B overpacks.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each Specification 21PF-1 overpack for which construction began after March 31, 1989, must meet the requirements of Specification 21PF-1B, in conformance with drawings E-S-31536-J-P, and S1E-31536-J2-B of DOE CAPE-1662, Rev. 1, Supplement 1 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) With the exception of the closure nuts and bolts, all metal parts of the Specification 21PF-1B must be of stainless steel as shown on the drawings referred to in paragraph (a) of this section.

[Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36551, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

§178.358-5   Required markings.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Markings must be as prescribed in §178.3.

(b) Specification marking on the outside of each overpack must be as follows: “USA-DOT-21PF-1”, “1A”, “1B”, or “2”, as appropriate.

(1) For Specifications 21PF-1 and 21PF-2 only, if the inner shell is constructed of stainless steel, additional marking such as “304L-SS” are to be marked on the outside of the overpack to indicate the type of stainless steel used.

(2) For Specification 21PF-1 and 21PF-2 only, “TARE WT: *  *  *  lbs. (*  *  *  kg)” where *  *  *  is the tare weight in pounds and kilograms, respectively, of the assembled overpack without the inner product container.

(3) For Specification 21PF-1A and 21PF-1B only: “TARE WT. of Cover: *  *  *  lbs (*  *  *  kg) TARE WT. of BOTTOM: *  *  *  lbs (*  *  *  kg)” where *  *  *  is the tare weight in pounds and kilograms, respectively, of the separate halves of the overpack without the inner product container. For Specification 21PF-1A overpacks, the previous tare weight must be changed to reflect the modified tare weight value or must be covered or removed.

(4) Year of manufacture followed by the year of modification, if applicable.

(5) The name or symbol of maker or party certifying compliance with specification requirements. A symbol, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(c) For Specification 21PF-1A and -1B only, the markings required by this section must be affixed to each overpack by inscription upon a metal identification plate 11 inches wide × 15 inches long (28 cm × 38 cm), fabricated of 16 to 20 gauge stainless steel sheet, ASTM A-240/A 240M (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304L.

[Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36552, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990, and amended at Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66287, Dec. 20, 1991; 63 FR 37462, July 10, 1998; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51660, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004]

§178.358-6   Typical assembly detail.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Specification 21PF-1 (horizontal loading overpack).

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(b) Specification 21PF-1A and 21PF-1B (horizontal loading overpack).

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(c) Specification 21PF-2 (end loading overpack).

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[Amdt. 178-90, 53 FR 36552, Sept. 20, 1988. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990]

§178.360   Specification 2R; inside containment vessel.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

§178.360-1   General requirements.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each vessel must be made of stainless steel, malleable iron, or brass, or other material having equivalent physical strength and fire resistance.

(b) Each vessel must meet all of the applicable requirements of §173.24 (c) and (d) of this subchapter. Letters and numerals at least 6 mm ( 14 -inch) in height are authorized for the marking of a vessel not exceeding 5 cm (2 inches) inside diameter.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45245, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.360-2   Manufacture.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

The ends of the vessel must be fitted with screw-type closures or flanges (see §178.360-4), except that one or both ends of the vessel may be permanently closed by a welded or brazed plate. Welded or brazed side seams are authorized.

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45245, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 63 FR 37462, July 10, 1998]

§178.360-3   Dimensions.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) The inside diameter of the vessel may not exceed 30 cm (12 inches) exclusive of flanges for handling or fastening devices and must have wall thickness and length in accordance with the following:

Inside diameter maximumThreaded closureWall thickness minimum—Flanged closureLength maximum
InchesCmInchesMmInchesCm
253/322.5Not less than that prescribed for schedule 40 pipe1641
6151/83.272183
12301/46.572183

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45245, Dec. 31, 1974. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52716, Dec. 21, 1990; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.360-4   Closure devices.

Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 40618, July 11, 2014.

(a) Each closure device must be as follows:

(1) Screw-type cap or plug; number of threads per inch must not be less than United States standard pipe threads and must have sufficient length of thread to engage at least 5 threads when securely tightened. Pipe threads must be luted with an appropriate non-hardening compound which must be capable of withstanding up to 149 °C (300 °F) without loss of efficiency. Tightening torque must be adequate to maintain leak tightness with the specific luting compound.

(2) An opening may be closed by a securely bolted flange and leak-tight gasket. Each flange must be welded or brazed to the body of the 2R vessel per (ANSI) Standard B16.5 or (AWWA) Standard C207-55, section 10 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). A torque wrench must be used in securing the flange with a corresponding torque of no more than twice the force necessary to seal the selected gasket. Gasket material must be capable of withstanding up to 149 °C (300 °F) without loss of efficiency. The flange, whether of ferrous or nonferrous metal, must be constructed from the same metal as the vessel and must meet the dimensional and fabrication specifications for welded construction as follows:

(i) Pipe flanges described in Tables 13, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25 and 26 of ANSI B16.5 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) For nominal pipe sizes, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches, AWWA Standard C207-55, Table 1, class B, may be used in place of the tables prescribed by paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

(iii) Sizes under 6 inches, nominal pipe size, the following table with the same configuration as illustrated in AWWA C207-55, Table 1, class B, may be used in place of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

Nominal pipe sizeFlange O.D.Number of boltsBolt circle diameterDiameter of boltsFlange thickness
InchesCmInchesCmInchesCmInchesCmInchesCm
25615443/411.81/21.25/81.6
21/26.2717.5451/213.81/25/8
37.571/218.846151/25/8
31/28.881/221.38717.51/25/8
410922.5871/218.81/25/8
512.61025.4881/221.31/25/8

(iv) Cast iron flanges prohibited.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-35, 39 FR 45245, Dec. 31, 1974; 40 FR 2435, Jan. 13, 1975, as amended at 40 FR 44327, Sept. 26, 1975. Redesignated by Amdt. 178-97, 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003]

Subpart L—Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards

Source: Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§178.500   Purpose, scope and definitions.

(a) This subpart prescribes certain requirements for non-bulk packagings for hazardous materials. Standards for these packagings are based on the UN Recommendations.

(b) Terms used in this subpart are defined in §171.8 of this subchapter.

§178.502   Identification codes for packagings.

(a) Identification codes for designating kinds of packagings consist of the following:

(1) A numeral indicating the kind of packaging, as follows:

(i) “1” means a drum.

(ii) “2” means a wooden barrel.

(iii) “3” means a jerrican.

(iv) “4” means a box.

(v) “5” means a bag.

(vi) “6” means a composite packaging.

(vii) “7” means a pressure receptacle.

(2) A capital letter indicating the material of construction, as follows:

(i) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments).

(ii) “B” means aluminum.

(iii) “C” means natural wood.

(iv) “D” means plywood.

(v) “F” means reconstituted wood.

(vi) “G” means fiberboard.

(vii) “H” means plastic.

(viii) “L” means textile.

(ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall.

(x) “N” means metal (other than steel or aluminum).

(xi) “P” means glass, porcelain or stoneware.

(3) A numeral indicating the category of packaging within the kind to which the packaging belongs. For example, for steel drums (“1A”), “1” indicates a non-removable head drum (i.e., “1A1”) and “2” indicates a removable head drum (i.e., “1A2”).

(b) For composite packagings, two capital letters are used in sequence in the second position of the code, the first indicating the material of the inner receptacle and the second, that of the outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”.

(c) For combination packagings, only the code number for the outer packaging is used.

(d) Identification codes are set forth in the standards for packagings in §§178.504 through 178.523 of this subpart.

Note to §178.502: Plastics materials include other polymeric materials such as rubber.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; 74 FR 2269, Jan. 14, 2009]

§178.503   Marking of packagings.

(a) A manufacturer must mark every packaging that is represented as manufactured to meet a UN standard with the marks specified in this section. The markings must be durable, legible and placed in a location and of such a size relative to the packaging as to be readily visible, as specified in §178.3(a). Except as otherwise provided in this section, every reusable packaging liable to undergo a reconditioning process which might obliterate the packaging marks must bear the marks specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) and (a)(9) of this section in a permanent form (e.g. embossed) able to withstand the reconditioning process. A marking may be applied in a single line or in multiple lines provided the correct sequence is used. As illustrated by the examples in paragraph (e) of this section, the following information must be presented in the correct sequence. Slash marks should be used to separate this information. A packaging conforming to a UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the United Nations symbol as illustrated in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section (for embossed metal receptacles, the letters “UN” may be applied in place of the symbol);

(2) A packaging identification code designating the type of packaging, the material of construction and, when appropriate, the category of packaging under §§178.504 through 178.523 of this subpart within the type to which the packaging belongs. The letter “V” must follow the packaging identification code on packagings tested in accordance with §178.601(g)(2); for example, “4GV”. The letter “W” must follow the packaging identification code on packagings when required by an approval under the provisions of §178.601(h) of this part;

(3) A letter identifying the performance standard under which the packaging design type has been successfully tested, as follows:

(i) X—for packagings meeting Packing Group I, II and III tests;

(ii) Y—for packagings meeting Packing Group II and III tests; or

(iii) Z—for packagings only meeting Packing Group III tests;

(4) A designation of the specific gravity or mass for which the packaging design type has been tested, as follows:

(i) For packagings without inner packagings intended to contain liquids, the designation shall be the specific gravity rounded down to the first decimal but may be omitted when the specific gravity does not exceed 1.2; and

(ii) For packagings intended to contain solids or inner packagings, the designation shall be the maximum gross mass in kilograms;

(5)(i) For single and composite packagings intended to contain liquids, the test pressure in kilopascals rounded down to the nearest 10 kPa of the hydrostatic pressure test that the packaging design type has successfully passed;

(ii) For packagings intended to contain solids or inner packagings, the letter “S”;

(6) The last two digits of the year of manufacture. Packagings of types 1H and 3H shall also be marked with the month of manufacture in any appropriate manner; this may be marked on the packaging in a different place from the remainder of the markings;

(7) The state authorizing allocation of the mark. The letters ‘USA’ indicate that the packaging is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter;

(8) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subpart L and subpart M of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator;

(9) For metal or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer packagings of a composite packaging, the thickness of the packaging material, expressed in mm (rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm), as follows:

(i) Metal drums or jerricans must be marked with the nominal thickness of the metal used in the body. The marked nominal thickness must not exceed the minimum thickness of the steel used by more than the thickness tolerance stated in ISO 3574 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). (See appendix C of this part.) The unit of measure is not required to be marked. When the nominal thickness of either head of a metal drum is thinner than that of the body, the nominal thickness of the top head, body, and bottom head must be marked (e.g., “1.0-1.2-1.0” or “0.9-1.0-1.0”).

(ii) Plastic drums or jerricans must be marked with the minimum thickness of the packaging material. Minimum thicknesses of plastic must be as determined in accordance with §173.28(b)(4). The unit of measure is not required to be marked;

(10) In addition to the markings prescribed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, every new metal drum having a capacity greater than 100 L must bear the marks described in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6), and (a)(9)(i) of this section, in a permanent form, on the bottom. The markings on the top head or side of these packagings need not be permanent, and need not include the thickness mark described in paragraph (a)(9) of this section. This marking indicates a drum's characteristics at the time it was manufactured, and the information in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section that is marked on the top head or side must be the same as the information in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section permanently marked by the original manufacturer on the bottom of the drum; and

(11) Rated capacity of the packaging expressed in liters may be marked.

(b) For a packaging with a removable head, the markings may not be applied only to the removable head.

(c) Marking of reconditioned packagings. (1) If a packaging is reconditioned, it shall be marked by the reconditioner near the marks required in paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section with the following additional information:

(i) The name of the country in which the reconditioning was performed (in the United States, use the letters “USA”);

(ii) The name and address or symbol of the reconditioner. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator;

(iii) The last two digits of the year of reconditioning;

(iv) The letter “R”; and

(v) For every packaging successfully passing a leakproofness test, the additional letter “L”.

(2) When, after reconditioning, the markings required by paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section no longer appear on the top head or the side of the metal drum, the reconditioner must apply them in a durable form followed by the markings in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. These markings may identify a different performance capability than that for which the original design type had been tested and marked, but may not identify a greater performance capability. The markings applied in accordance with this paragraph may be different from those which are permanently marked on the bottom of a drum in accordance with paragraph (a)(10) of this section.

(d) Marking of remanufactured packagings. For remanufactured metal drums, if there is no change to the packaging type and no replacement or removal of integral structural components, the required markings need not be permanent (e.g., embossed). Every other remanufactured drum must bear the marks required in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section in a permanent form (e.g., embossed) on the top head or side. If the metal thickness marking required in paragraph (a)(9)(i) of this section does not appear on the bottom of the drum, or if it is no longer valid, the remanufacturer also must mark this information in permanent form.

(e) The following are examples of symbols and required markings.

(1)(i) The United Nations symbol is:

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(ii) The circle that surrounds the letters “u” and “n” may have small breaks provided the following provisions are met:

(A) The total gap space does not exceed 15 percent of the circumference of the circle;

(B) There are no more than four gaps in the circle;

C) The spacing between gaps is separated by no less than 20 percent of the circumference of the circle (72 degrees); and

D) The letters “u” and “n” appear exactly as depicted in §178.503(e)(1)(i) with no gaps.

(2) Examples of markings for a new packaging are as follows:

(i) For a fiberboard box designed to contain an inner packaging:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (9) of this subpart).

(ii) For a steel drum designed to contain liquids:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (10) of this subpart).

(iii) For a steel drum to transport solids or inner packagings:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (8) of this subpart).

(3) Examples of markings for reconditioned packagings are as follows:

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(as in §178.503(c)(1)).

(f) A manufacturer must mark every UN specification package represented as manufactured to meet the requirements of §178.609 for packaging of infectious substances with the marks specified in this section. The markings must be durable, legible, and must be readily visible, as specified in §178.3(a). An infectious substance packaging that successfully passes the tests conforming to the UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) The United Nations symbol as illustrated in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) The code designating the type of packaging and material of construction according to the identification codes for packagings specified in §178.502.

(3) The text “CLASS 6.2”.

(4) The last two digits of the year of manufacture of the packaging.

(5) The country authorizing the allocation of the mark. The letters “USA” indicate the packaging is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(6) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subparts L and M of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety.

(7) For packagings meeting the requirements of §178.609(i)(3), the letter “U” must be inserted immediately following the marking designating the type of packaging and material required in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28493, June 2, 1994; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67520, 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-107, 60 FR 26806, May 18, 1995; 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 67 FR 53143, Aug. 14, 2002; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003; 75 FR 5395, Feb. 2, 2010; 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 78 FR 60755, Oct. 2, 2013]

§178.504   Standards for steel drums.

(a) The following are identification codes for steel drums:

(1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and

(2) 1A2 for a removable head steel drum.

(b) Construction requirements for steel drums are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of steel sheet of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) Body seams must be welded on drums designed to contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids.

(3) Chimes must be mechanically seamed or welded. Separate reinforcing rings may be applied.

(4) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, they must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(5) Openings for filling, emptying and venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1A1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1A2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be mechanically seamed or welded in place. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(6) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and drums will remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(7) If materials used for body, heads, closures, and fittings are not in themselves compatible with the contents to be transported, suitable internal protective coatings or treatments must be applied. These coatings or treatments must retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport.

(8) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(9) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-110, 60 FR 49111, Sept. 21, 1995]

§178.505   Standards for aluminum drums.

(a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums:

(1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum; and

(2) 1B2 for a removable head aluminum drum.

(b) Construction requirements for aluminum drums are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of aluminum at least 99 percent pure or an aluminum base alloy. Material must be of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and the intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) All seams must be welded. Chime seams, if any, must be reinforced by the application of separate reinforcing rings.

(3) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, the hoops must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(4) Openings for filling, emptying, or venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1B1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1B2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be welded in place so that the weld provides a leakproof seam. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and drums remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(6) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994]

§178.506   Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

(a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum:

(1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and

(2) 1N2 for a removable head metal drum.

(b) Construction requirements for metal drums other than steel or aluminum are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of metal (other than steel or aluminum) of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and the intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) All seams must be welded. Chime seams, if any, must be reinforced by the application of separate reinforcing rings.

(3) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, the hoops must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(4) Openings for filling, emptying, or venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1N1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1N2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be welded in place so that the weld provides a leakproof seam. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and drums remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(6) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994]

§178.507   Standards for plywood drums.

(a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D.

(b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from any defect likely to lessen the effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least equivalent strength and durability, may be used for the manufacture of the heads.

(2) At least two-ply plywood must be used for the body and at least three-ply plywood for the heads; the plies must be firmly glued together, with their grains crosswise.

(3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity of the drum and its intended use.

(4) In order to prevent sifting of the contents, lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference.

(5) Maximum capacity of drum: 250 L (66 gallons).

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992]

§178.508   Standards for fiber drums.

(a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G.

(b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows:

(1) The body of the drum must be constructed of multiple plies of heavy paper or fiberboard (without corrugations) firmly glued or laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar materials.

(2) Heads must be of natural wood, fiberboard, metal, plywood, plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar material.

(3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the drum.

(4) The assembled packaging must be sufficiently water-resistant so as not to delaminate under normal conditions of transport.

(5) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

§178.509   Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

(a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans:

(1) 1H1 for a non-removable head plastic drum;

(2) 1H2 for a removable head plastic drum;

(3) 3H1 for a non-removable head jerrican; and

(4) 3H2 for a removable head jerrican.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic drums and jerricans are as follows:

(1) The packaging must be manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and intended use. No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used unless approved by the Associate Administrator. The packaging must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport.

(2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is required, it must be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the packaging. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments or inhibitors other than those used in the manufacture of the design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3 percent by mass; the content of inhibitors of ultra-violet radiation is not limited.

(3) Additives serving purposes other than protection against ultra-violet radiation may be included in the composition of the plastic material provided they do not adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the packaging material.

(4) The wall thickness at every point of the packaging must be appropriate to its capacity and its intended use, taking into account the stresses to which each point is liable to be exposed. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(5) Openings for filling, emptying and venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1H1) drums and jerricans (3H1) may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums and jerricans with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1H2 and 3H2). Closures for openings in the bodies or heads of drums and jerricans must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(6) Closure devices for removable head drums and jerricans must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets must be used with all removable heads unless the drum or jerrican design is such that when the removable head is properly secured, the drum or jerrican is inherently leakproof.

(7) Maximum capacity of drums and jerricans: 1H1, 1H2: 450 L (119 gallons); 3H1, 3H2: 60 L (16 gallons).

(8) Maximum net mass: 1H1, 1H2: 400 kg (882 pounds); 3H1, 3H2: 120 kg (265 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994; 64 FR 10782, Mar. 5, 1999; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.510   Standards for wooden barrels.

(a) The following are identification codes for wooden barrels:

(1) 2C1 for a bung type wooden barrel; and

(2) 2C2 for a slack type (removable head) wooden barrel.

(b) Construction requirements for wooden barrels are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be of good quality, straight-grained, well-seasoned and free from knots, bark, rotten wood, sapwood or other defects likely to lessen the effectiveness of the barrel for the purpose intended.

(2) The body and heads must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the barrel.

(3) Staves and heads must be sawn or cleft with the grain so that no annual ring extends over more than half the thickness of a stave or head.

(4) Barrel hoops must be of steel or iron of good quality. The hoops of 2C2 barrels may be of a suitable hardwood.

(5) For wooden barrels 2C1, the diameter of the bung-hole may not exceed half the width of the stave in which it is placed.

(6) For wooden barrels 2C2, heads must fit tightly into crozes.

(7) Maximum capacity of barrel: 250 L (66 gallons).

(8) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

§178.511   Standards for aluminum and steel jerricans.

(a) The following are identification codes for aluminum and steel jerricans:

(1) 3A1 for a non-removable head steel jerrican;

(2) 3A2 for a removable head steel jerrican;

(3) 3B1 for a non-removable head aluminum jerrican; and

(4) 3B2 for a removable head aluminum jerrican.

(b) Construction requirements for aluminum and steel jerricans are as follows:

(1) For steel jerricans the body and heads must be constructed of steel sheet of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity of the jerrican and its intended use. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to jerricans intended for reuse.

(2) For aluminum jerricans the body and heads must be constructed of aluminum at least 99% pure or of an aluminum base alloy. Material must be of a type and of adequate thickness in relation to the capacity of the jerrican and to its intended use.

(3) Chimes of all jerricans must be mechanically seamed or welded. Body seams of jerricans intended to carry more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquid must be welded. Body seams of jerricans intended to carry 40 L (11 gallons) or less must be mechanically seamed or welded.

(4) Openings in jerricans (3A1) may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Jerricans with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type. Closures must be so designed that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures, unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) If materials used for body, heads, closures and fittings are not in themselves compatible with the contents to be transported, suitable internal protective coatings or treatments must be applied. These coatings or treatments must retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport.

(6) Maximum capacity of jerrican: 60 L (16 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 120 kg (265 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994; Amdt. 178-119, 62 FR 24742, May 6, 1997]

§178.512   Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

(a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes:

(1) 4A for a steel box;

(2) 4B for an aluminum box; and

(3) 4N for an other metal box.

(b) Construction requirements for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes are as follows:

(1) The strength of the metal and the construction of the box must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box.

(2) Boxes must be lined with fiberboard or felt packing pieces or must have an inner liner or coating of suitable material in accordance with subpart C of part 173 of this subchapter. If a double seamed metal liner is used, steps must be taken to prevent the ingress of materials, particularly explosives, into the recesses of the seams.

(3) Closures may be of any suitable type, and must remain secure under normal conditions of transport.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

§178.513   Standards for boxes of natural wood.

(a) The following are the identification codes for boxes of natural wood:

(1) 4C1 for an ordinary box; and

(2) 4C2 for a box with sift-proof walls.

(b) Construction requirements for boxes of natural wood are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. The tops and bottoms may be made of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hard board, particle board or other suitable type.

(2) Fastenings must be resistant to vibration experienced under normal conditions of transportation. End grain nailing must be avoided whenever practicable. Joints which are likely to be highly stressed must be made using clenched or annular ring nails or equivalent fastenings.

(3) Each part of the 4C2 box must be one piece or equivalent. Parts are considered equivalent to one piece when one of the following methods of glued assembly is used: Linderman joint, tongue and groove joint, ship lap or rabbet joint, or butt joint with at least two corrugated metal fasteners at each joint.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

§178.514   Standards for plywood boxes.

(a) The identification code for a plywood box is 4D.

(b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows:

(1) Plywood used must be at least 3 ply. It shall be made from well-seasoned rotary cut, sliced or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. All adjacent plies must be glued with water-resistant adhesive. Other suitable materials may be used together with plywood in the construction of boxes. Boxes must be nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or assembled with other equally suitable devices.

(2) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

§178.515   Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

(a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F.

(b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows:

(1) The walls of boxes must be made of water-resistant, reconstituted wood such as hardboard, particle board, or other suitable type. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity of the boxes and their intended use.

(2) Other parts of the box may be made of other suitable materials.

(3) Boxes must be securely assembled by means of suitable devices.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

§178.516   Standards for fiberboard boxes.

(a) The identification code for a fiberboard box is 4G.

(b) Construction requirements for fiberboard boxes are as follows:

(1) Strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multi-wall) must be used, appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. The water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 g per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot)—see ISO 535 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.

(2) The ends of boxes may have a wooden frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other suitable material may be used.

(3) Manufacturing joints. (i) Manufacturing joints in the bodies of boxes must be—

(A) Taped;

(B) Lapped and glued; or

(C) Lapped and stitched with metal staples.

(ii) Lapped joints must have an appropriate overlap.

(4) Where closing is effected by gluing or taping, a water resistant adhesive must be used.

(5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents.

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

(7) Authorization to manufacture, mark, and sell UN4G combination packagings with outer fiberboard boxes and with inner fiberboard components that have individual containerboard or paper wall basis weights that vary by not more than plus or minus 5% from the nominal basis weight reported in the initial design qualification test report.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, and amended by Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 79 FR 15046, Mar. 18, 2014]

§178.517   Standards for plastic boxes.

(a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes:

(1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and

(2) 4H2 for a solid plastic box.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic boxes are as follows:

(1) The box must be manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and intended use. The box must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation.

(2) An expanded plastic box must consist of two parts made of a molded expanded plastic material: a bottom section containing cavities for the inner receptacles, and a top section covering and interlocking with the bottom section. The top and bottom sections must be so designed that the inner receptacles fit snugly. The closure cap for any inner receptacle may not be in contact with the inside of the top section of the box.

(3) For transportation, an expanded plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box from opening. The adhesive tape must be weather-resistant and its adhesive compatible with the expanded plastic material of the box. Other closing devices at least equally effective may be used.

(4) For solid plastic boxes, protection against ultra-violet radiation, if required, must be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment or inhibitors other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be waived if the carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3 percent by mass; the content of inhibitors of ultra-violet radiation is not limited.

(5) Additives serving purposes other than protection against ultra-violet radiation may be included in the composition of the plastic material if they do not adversely affect the material of the box. Addition of these additives does not change the design type.

(6) Solid plastic boxes must have closure devices made of a suitable material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening.

(7) Maximum net mass 4H1: 60 kg (132 pounds); 4H2: 400 kg (882 pounds).

§178.518   Standards for woven plastic bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags:

(1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag;

(2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and

(3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven plastic bag.

(b) Construction requirements for woven plastic fabric bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made from stretched tapes or monofilaments of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag.

(2) If the fabric is woven flat, the bags must be made by sewing or some other method ensuring closure of the bottom and one side. If the fabric is tubular, the bag must be closed by sewing, weaving, or some other equally strong method of closure.

(3) Bags, sift-proof, 5H2 must be made sift-proof by appropriate means such as use of paper or a plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag or one or more separate inner liners made of paper or plastic material.

(4) Bags, water-resistant, 5H3: To prevent the entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof by appropriate means, such as separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft paper), or plastic film bonded to the inner or outer surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastic liners.

(5) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, and amended by Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993]

§178.519   Standards for plastic film bags.

(a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and the intended use of the bag. Joints and closures must be capable of withstanding pressures and impacts liable to occur under normal conditions of transportation.

(2) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

§178.520   Standards for textile bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for textile bags:

(1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;

(2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and

(3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag.

(b) Construction requirements for textile bags are as follows:

(1) The textiles used must be of good quality. The strength of the fabric and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag.

(2) Bags, sift-proof, 5L2: The bag must be made sift-proof, by appropriate means, such as by the use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as bitumen, plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic material.

(3) Bags, water-resistant, 5L3: To prevent entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof by appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, tarred paper, or plastic-coated kraft paper), or plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil.

(4) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991]

§178.521   Standards for paper bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for paper bags:

(1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and

(2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper bag.

(b) Construction requirements for paper bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made of a suitable kraft paper, or of an equivalent paper with at least three plies. The strength of the paper and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag. Seams and closures must be sift-proof.

(2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies. A 5M2 bag of three plies must be made waterproof by the use of a water-resistant ply as the outermost ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also be placed next to the substance. Seams and closures must be waterproof.

(3) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

(4) UN5M1 and UN5M2 multi wall paper bags that have paper wall basis weights that vary by not more than plus or minus 5% from the nominal basis weight reported in the initial design qualification test report.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 79 FR 15046, Mar. 18, 2014]

§178.522   Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

(a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles:

(1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel drum;

(2) 6HA2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel crate or box;

(3) 6HB1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective aluminum drum.

(4) 6HB2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective aluminum crate or box.

(5) 6HC for a plastic receptacle within a protective wooden box.

(6) 6HD1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plywood drum;

(7) 6HD2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plywood box;

(8) 6HG1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective fiber drum;

(9) 6HG2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective fiberboard box;

(10) 6HH1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plastic drum; and

(11) 6HH2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plastic box.

(b) Construction requirements for composite packagings with inner receptacles of plastic are as follows:

(1) Inner receptacles must be constructed under the applicable construction requirements prescribed in §178.509(b) (1) through (7) of this subpart.

(2) The inner plastic receptacle must fit snugly inside the outer packaging, which must be free of any projections which may abrade the plastic material.

(3) Outer packagings must be constructed as follows:

(i) 6HA1 or 6HB1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for steel drums in §178.504(b) of this subpart, or aluminum drums in §178.505(b) of this subpart.

(ii) 6HA2 or 6HB2: Protective packagings with steel or aluminum crate must conform to the requirements for steel or aluminum boxes found in §178.512(b) of this subpart.

(iii) 6HC protective packaging must conform to the requirements for wooden boxes in §178.513(b) of this subpart.

(iv) 6HD1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plywood drums, in §178.507(b) of this subpart.

(v) 6HD2: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements of plywood boxes, in §178.514(b) of this subpart.

(vi) 6HG1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for fiber drums, in §178.508(b) of this subpart.

(vii) 6HG2: protective packaging must conform to the requirements for fiberboard boxes, in §178.516(b) of this subpart.

(viii) 6HH1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plastic drums, in §178.509(b).

(ix) 6HH2: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plastic boxes, in §178.517(b).

(4) Maximum capacity of inner receptacles is as follows: 6HA1, 6HB1, 6HD1, 6HG1, 6HH1—250 L (66 gallons); 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2, 6HG2, 6HH2—60 L (16 gallons).

(5) Maximum net mass is as follows: 6HA1, 6HB1, 6HD1, 6HG1, 6HH1—400kg (882 pounds); 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2, 6HG2, 6HH2—75 kg (165 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

§178.523   Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

(a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of glass, porcelain, or stoneware:

(1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel drum;

(2) 6PA2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel crate or box;

(3) 6PB1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective aluminum drum;

(4) 6PB2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective aluminum crate or box;

(5) 6PC for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective wooden box;

(6) 6PD1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective plywood drum;

(7) 6PD2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective wickerwork hamper;

(8) 6PG1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective fiber drum;

(9) 6PG2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective fiberboard box;

(10) 6PH1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective expanded plastic packaging; and

(11) 6PH2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective solid plastic packaging.

(b) Construction requirements for composite packagings with inner receptacles of glass, porcelain, or stoneware are as follows:

(1) Inner receptacles must conform to the following requirements:

(i) Receptacles must be of suitable form (cylindrical or pear-shaped), be made of good quality materials free from any defect that could impair their strength, and be firmly secured in the outer packaging.

(ii) Any part of a closure likely to come into contact with the contents of the receptacle must be resistant to those contents. Closures must be fitted so as to be leakproof and secured to prevent any loosening during transportation. Vented closures must conform to §173.24(f) of this subchapter.

(2) Protective packagings must conform to the following requirements:

(i) For receptacles with protective steel drum 6PAl, the drum must comply with §178.504(b) of this subpart. However, the removable lid required for this type of packaging may be in the form of a cap.

(ii) For receptacles with protective packaging of steel crate or steel box 6PA2, the protective packaging must conform to the following:

(A) Section 178.512(b) of this subpart.

(B) In the case of cylindrical receptacles, the protective packaging must, when upright, rise above the receptacle and its closure; and

(C) If the protective crate surrounds a pear-shaped receptacle and is of matching shape, the protective packaging must be fitted with a protective cover (cap).

(iii) For receptacles with protective aluminum drum 6PB1, the requirements of §178.505(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(iv) For receptacles with protective aluminum box or crate 6PB2, the requirements of §178.512(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(v) For receptacles with protective wooden box 6PC, the requirements of §178.513(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(vi) For receptacles with protective plywood drum 6PD1, the requirements of §178.507(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(vii) For receptacles with protective wickerwork hamper 6PD2, the wickerwork hamper must be properly made with material of good quality. The hamper must be fitted with a protective cover (cap) so as to prevent damage to the receptacle.

(viii) For receptacles with protective fiber drum 6PG1, the drum must conform to the requirements of §178.508(b) of this subpart.

(ix) For receptacles with protective fiberboard box 6PG2, the requirements of §178.516(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(x) For receptacles with protective solid plastic or expanded plastic packaging 6PH1 or 6PH2, the requirements of §178.517(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging. Solid protective plastic packaging must be manufactured from high-density polyethylene from some other comparable plastic material. The removable lid required for this type of packaging may be a cap.

(3) Quantity limitations are as follows:

(i) Maximum net capacity for packaging for liquids: 60 L (16 gallons).

(ii) Maximum net mass for packagings for solids: 75 kg (165 pounds).

Subpart M—Testing of Non-bulk Packagings and Packages

Source: Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52723, Dec. 21, 1990, unless otherwise noted.

§178.600   Purpose and scope.

This subpart prescribes certain testing requirements for performance-oriented packagings identified in subpart L of this part.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, and amended by Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993]

§178.601   General requirements.

(a) General. The test procedures prescribed in this subpart are intended to ensure that packages containing hazardous materials can withstand normal conditions of transportation and are considered minimum requirements. Each packaging must be manufactured and assembled so as to be capable of successfully passing the prescribed tests and of conforming to the requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter at all times while in transportation.

(b) Responsibility. It is the responsibility of the packaging manufacturer to assure that each package is capable of passing the prescribed tests. To the extent that a package assembly function, including final closure, is performed by the person who offers a hazardous material for transportation, that person is responsible for performing the function in accordance with §§173.22 and 178.2 of this subchapter.

(c) Definitions. For the purpose of this subpart:

(1) Design qualification testing is the performance of the tests prescribed in §178.603, §178.604, §178.605, §178.606, §178.607, §178.608, or §178.609, as applicable, for each new or different packaging, at the start of production of that packaging.

(2) Periodic retesting is the performance of the drop, leakproofness, hydrostatic pressure, and stacking tests, as applicable, as prescribed in §178.603, §178.604, §178.605, or §178.606, respectively, at the frequency specified in paragraph (e) of this section. For infectious substances packagings required to meet the requirements of §178.609, periodic retesting is the performance of the tests specified in §178.609 at the frequency specified in paragraph (e) of this section.

(3) Production testing is the performance of the leakproofness test prescribed in §178.604 of this subpart on each single or composite packaging intended to contain a liquid.

(4) A different packaging is one that differs (i.e. is not identical) from a previously produced packaging in structural design, size, material of construction, wall thickness or manner of construction but does not include:

(i) A packaging which differs only in surface treatment;

(ii) A combination packaging which differs only in that the outer packaging has been successfully tested with different inner packagings. A variety of such inner packagings may be assembled in this outer packaging without further testing;

(iii) A plastic packaging which differs only with regard to additives which conform to §178.509(b)(3) or §178.517(b) (4) or (5) of this part;

(iv) A combination packaging with inner packagings conforming to the provisions of paragraph (g) of this section;

(v) Packagings which differ from the design type only in their lesser design height; or

(vi) For a steel drum, variations in design elements which do not constitute a different design type under the provisions of paragraph (g)(8) of this section.

(d) Design qualification testing. The packaging manufacturer shall achieve successful test results for the design qualification testing at the start of production of each new or different packaging.

(e) Periodic retesting. The packaging manufacturer must achieve successful test results for the periodic retesting at intervals established by the manufacturer of sufficient frequency to ensure that each packaging produced by the manufacturer is capable of passing the design qualification tests. Changes in retest frequency are subject to the approval of the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety. For single or composite packagings, the periodic retests must be conducted at least once every 12 months. For combination packagings, the periodic retests must be conducted at least once every 24 months. For infectious substances packagings, the periodic retests must be conducted at least once every 24 months.

(f) Test samples. The manufacturer shall conduct the design qualification and periodic tests prescribed in this subpart using random samples of packagings, in the numbers specified in the appropriate test section. In addition, the leakproofness test, when required, shall be performed on each packaging produced by the manufacturer, and each packaging prior to reuse under §173.28 of this subchapter, by the reconditioner.

(g) Selective testing. The selective testing of packagings that differ only in minor respects from a tested type is permitted as described in this section. For air transport, packagings must comply with §173.27(c)(1) and (c)(2) of this subchapter.

(1) Selective testing of combination packagings. Variation 1. Variations are permitted in inner packagings of a tested combination package, without further testing of the package, provided an equivalent level of performance is maintained and, when a package is altered under Variation 1 after October 1, 2010, the methodology used to determine that the inner packaging, including closure, maintains an equivalent level of performance is documented in writing by the person certifying compliance with this paragraph and retained in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section. Permitted variations are as follows:

(i) Inner packagings of equivalent or smaller size may be used provided—

(A) The inner packagings are of similar design to the tested inner packagings (i.e. shape—round, rectangular, etc.);

(B) The material of construction of the inner packagings (glass, plastic, metal, etc.) offers resistance to impact and stacking forces equal to or greater than that of the originally tested inner packaging;

(C) The inner packagings have the same or smaller openings and the closure is of similar design (e.g., screw cap, friction lid, etc.);

(D) Sufficient additional cushioning material is used to take up void spaces and to prevent significant moving of the inner packagings;

(E) Inner packagings are oriented within the outer packaging in the same manner as in the tested package; and,

(F) The gross mass of the package does not exceed that originally tested.

(ii) A lesser number of the tested inner packagings, or of the alternative types of inner packagings identified in paragraph (g)(1)(i) of this section, may be used provided sufficient cushioning is added to fill void space(s) and to prevent significant moving of the inner packagings.

(2) Selective testing of combination packagings. Variation 2. Articles or inner packagings of any type, for solids or liquids, may be assembled and transported without testing in an outer packaging under the following conditions:

(i) The outer packaging must have been successfully tested in accordance with §178.603 with fragile (e.g. glass) inner packagings containing liquids at the Packing Group I drop height;

(ii) The total combined gross mass of inner packagings may not exceed one-half the gross mass of inner packagings used for the drop test;

(iii) The thickness of cushioning material between inner packagings and between inner packagings and the outside of the packaging may not be reduced below the corresponding thickness in the originally tested packaging; and when a single inner packaging was used in the original test, the thickness of cushioning between inner packagings may not be less than the thickness of cushioning between the outside of the packaging and the inner packaging in the original test. When either fewer or smaller inner packagings are used (as compared to the inner packagings used in the drop test), sufficient additional cushioning material must be used to take up void spaces.

(iv) The outer packaging must have successfully passed the stacking test set forth in §178.606 of this subpart when empty, i.e., without either inner packagings or cushioning materials. The total mass of identical packages must be based on the combined mass of inner packagings used for the drop test;

(v) Inner packagings containing liquids must be completely surrounded with a sufficient quantity of absorbent material to absorb the entire liquid contents of the inner packagings;

(vi) When the outer packaging is intended to contain inner packagings for liquids and is not leakproof, or is intended to contain inner packagings for solids and is not siftproof, a means of containing any liquid or solid contents in the event of leakage must be provided in the form of a leakproof liner, plastic bag, or other equally efficient means of containment. For packagings containing liquids, the absorbent material required in paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this section must be placed inside the means of containing liquid contents; and

(vii) Packagings must be marked in accordance with §178.503 of this part as having been tested to Packing Group I performance for combination packagings. The marked maximum gross mass may not exceed the sum of the mass of the outer packaging plus one half the mass of the filled inner packagings of the tested combination packaging. In addition, the marking required by §178.503(a)(2) of this part must include the letter “V”.

(3) Variation 3. Packagings other than combination packagings which are produced with reductions in external dimensions (i.e., length, width or diameter) of up to 25 percent of the dimensions of a tested packaging may be used without further testing provided an equivalent level of performance is maintained. The packagings must, in all other respects (including wall thicknesses), be identical to the tested design-type. The marked gross mass (when required) must be reduced in proportion to the reduction in volume.

(4) Variation 4. Variations are permitted in outer packagings of a tested design-type combination packaging, without further testing, provided an equivalent level of performance is maintained, as follows:

(i) Each external dimension (length, width and height) is less than or equal to the corresponding dimension of the tested design-type;

(ii) The structural design of the tested outer packaging (i.e. methods of construction, materials of construction, strength characteristics of materials of construction, method of closure and material thicknesses) is maintained;

(iii) The inner packagings are identical to the inner packagings used in the tested design type except that their size and mass may be less; and they are oriented within the outer packaging in the same manner as in the tested packaging;

(iv) The same type or design of absorbent materials, cushioning materials and any other components necessary to contain and protect inner packagings, as used in the tested design type, are maintained. The thickness of cushioning material between inner packagings and between inner packagings and the outside of the packaging may not be less than the thicknesses in the tested design type packaging; and

(v) Sufficient additional cushioning material is used to take up void spaces and to prevent significant moving of the inner packagings.

An outer packaging qualifying for use in transport in accordance with all of the above conditions may also be used without testing to transport inner packagings substituted for the originally tested inner packagings in accordance with the conditions set out in Variation 1 in paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(5) Variation 5. Single packagings (i.e., non-bulk packagings other than combination packagings), that differ from a tested design type only to the extent that the closure device or gasketing differs from that used in the originally tested design type, may be used without further testing, provided an equivalent level of performance is maintained, subject to the following conditions (the qualifying tests):

(i) A packaging with the replacement closure devices or gasketing must successfully pass the drop test specified in §178.603 in the orientation which most severely tests the integrity of the closure or gasket;

(ii) When intended to contain liquids, a packaging with the replacement closure devices or gasketing must successfully pass the leakproofness test specified in §178.604, the hydrostatic pressure test specified in §178.605, and the stacking test specified in §178.606.

Replacement closures and gasketings qualified under the above test requirements are authorized without additional testing for packagings described in paragraph (g)(3) of this section. Replacement closures and gasketings qualified under the above test requirements also are authorized without additional testing for different tested design types packagings of the same type as the originally tested packaging, provided the original design type tests are more severe or comparable to tests which would otherwise be conducted on the packaging with the replacement closures or gasketings. (For example: The packaging used in the qualifying tests has a lesser packaging wall thickness than the packaging with replacement closure devices or gasketing; the gross mass of the packaging used in the qualifying drop test equals or exceeds the mass for which the packaging with replacement closure devices or gasketing was tested; the packaging used in the qualifying drop test was dropped from the same or greater height than the height from which the packaging with replacement closure devices or gasketing was dropped in design type tests; and the specific gravity of the substance used in the qualifying drop test was the same or greater than the specific gravity of the liquid used in the design type tests of the packaging with replacement closure devices or gasketing.)

(6) The provisions in Variations 1, 2, and 4 in paragraphs (g)(1), (2) and (4) of this section for combination packagings may be applied to packagings containing articles, where the provisions for inner packagings are applied analogously to the articles. In this case, inner packagings need not comply with §173.27(c)(1) and (c)(2) of this subchapter.

(7) Approval of selective testing. In addition to the provisions of §178.601(g)(1) through (g)(6) of this subpart, the Associate Administrator may approve the selective testing of packagings that differ only in minor respects from a tested type.

(8) For a steel drum with a capacity greater than 12 L (3 gallons) manufactured from low carbon, cold-rolled sheet steel meeting ASTM designations A 366/A 366M or A 568/A 568M, variations in elements other than the following design elements are considered minor and do not constitute a different drum design type, or “different packaging” as defined in paragraph (c) of this section for which design qualification testing and periodic retesting are required. Minor variations authorized without further testing include changes in the identity of the supplier of component material made to the same specifications, or the original manufacturer of a DOT specification or UN standard drum to be remanufactured. A change in any one or more of the following design elements constitutes a different drum design type:

(i) The packaging type and category of the original drum and the remanufactured drum, i.e., 1A1 or 1A2;

(ii) The style, (i.e., straight-sided or tapered);

(iii) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, the rated (marked) capacity and outside dimensions;

(iv) The physical state for which the packaging was originally approved (e.g., tested for solids or liquids);

(v) An increase in the marked level of performance of the original drum (i.e., to a higher packing group, hydrostatic test pressure, or specific gravity to which the packaging has been tested);

(vi) Type of side seam welding;

(vii) Type of steel;

(viii) An increase greater than 10% or any decrease in the steel thickness of the head, body, or bottom;

(ix) End seam type, (e.g., triple or double seam);

(x) A reduction in the number of rolling hoops (beads) which equal or exceed the diameter over the chimes;

(xi) The location, type or size, and material of closures (other than the cover of UN 1A2 drums);

(xii) The location (e.g., from the head to the body), type (e.g., mechanically seamed or welded flange), and materials of closure (other than the cover of UN 1A2 drums); and

(xiii) For UN 1A2 drums:

(A) Gasket material (e.g., plastic), or properties affecting the performance of the gasket;

(B) Configuration or dimensions of the gasket;

(C) Closure ring style including bolt size (e.g., square or round back, 0.625 inches bolt); and

(D) Closure ring thickness,

(E) Width of lugs or extensions in crimp/lug cover.

(h) Approval of equivalent packagings. A packaging having specifications different from those in §§178.504-178.523 of this part, or which is tested using methods or test intervals, other than those specified in subpart M of this part, may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. Such packagings must be shown to be equally effective, and testing methods used must be equivalent.

(i) Proof of compliance. Notwithstanding the periodic retest intervals specified in paragraph (e) of this section, the Associate Administrator may at any time require demonstration of compliance by a manufacturer, through testing in accordance with this subpart, that packagings meet the requirements of this subpart. As required by the Associate Administrator, the manufacturer shall either—

(1) Conduct performance tests, or have tests conducted by an independent testing facility, in accordance with this subpart; or

(2) Supply packagings, in quantities sufficient to conduct tests in accordance with this subpart, to the Associate Administrator or a designated representative of the Associate Administrator.

(j) Coatings. If an inner treatment or coating of a packaging is required for safety reasons, the manufacturer shall design the packaging so that the treatment or coating retains its protective properties even after withstanding the tests prescribed by this subpart.

(k) Number of test samples. Except as provided in this section, one test sample must be used for each test performed under this subpart.

(1) Stainless steel drums. Provided the validity of the test results is not affected, a person may perform the design qualification testing of stainless steel drums using three (3) samples rather than the specified eighteen (18) samples under the following provisions:

(i) The packaging must be tested in accordance with this subpart by subjecting each of the three containers to the following sequence of tests:

(A) The stacking test in §178.606,

(B) The leakproofness test in §178.604,

(C) The hydrostatic pressure test in §178.608, and

(D) Diagonal top chime and flat on the side drop tests in §178.603. Both drop tests may be conducted on the same sample.

(ii) For periodic retesting of stainless steel drums, a reduced sample size of one container is authorized.

(2) Packagings other than stainless steel drums. Provided the validity of the test results is not affected, several tests may be performed on one sample with the approval of the Associate Administrator.

(l) Record retention. Following each design qualification test and each periodic retest on a packaging, a test report must be prepared.

(1) The test report must be maintained at each location where the packaging is manufactured, certified, and a design qualification test or periodic retest is conducted as follows:

Responsible partyDuration
Person manufacturing the packagingAs long as manufactured and two years thereafter.
Person performing design testingDesign test maintained for a single or composite packaging for six years after the test is successfully performed and for a combination packaging or packaging intended for infectious substances for seven years after the test is successfully performed.
Person performing periodic retestingPerformance test maintained for a single or composite packaging for one year after the test is successfully performed and for a combination packaging or packaging intended for infectious substances for two years after the test is successfully performed.

(2) The test report must be made available to a user of a packaging or a representative of the Department upon request. The test report, at a minimum, must contain the following information:

(i) Name and address of test facility;

(ii) Name and address of applicant (where appropriate);

(iii) A unique test report identification;

(iv) Date of the test report;

(v) Manufacturer of the packaging;

(vi) Description of the packaging design type (e.g., dimensions, materials, closures, thickness, etc.), including methods of manufacture (e.g., blow molding) and which may include drawing(s) and/or photograph(s);

(vii) Maximum capacity;

(viii) Characteristics of test contents, e.g., viscosity and relative density for liquids and particle size for solids;

(ix) Test descriptions and results; and

(x) Signed with the name and title of signatory.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52723, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991; 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, 67522, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-117, 61 FR 50628, Sept. 26, 1996; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 53143, Aug. 14, 2002; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 68 FR 61942, Oct. 30, 2003; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010; 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 77 FR 60944, Oct. 5, 2012; 78 FR 1118, Jan. 7, 2013; 78 FR 14715, Mar. 7, 2013; 78 FR 65487, Oct. 31, 2013]

§178.602   Preparation of packagings and packages for testing.

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, each packaging and package must be closed in preparation for testing and tests must be carried out in the same manner as if prepared for transportation, including inner packagings in the case of combination packagings.

(b) For the drop and stacking test, inner and single-unit receptacles other than bags must be filled to not less than 95% of maximum capacity (see §171.8 of this subchapter) in the case of solids and not less than 98% of maximum in the case of liquids. Bags containing solids shall be filled to the maximum mass at which they may be used. The material to be transported in the packagings may be replaced by a non-hazardous material, except for chemical compatibility testing or where this would invalidate the results of the tests.

(c) If the material to be transported is replaced for test purposes by a non-hazardous material, the material used must be of the same or higher specific gravity as the material to be carried, and its other physical properties (grain, size, viscosity) which might influence the results of the required tests must correspond as closely as possible to those of the hazardous material to be transported. Water may also be used for the liquid drop test under the conditions specified in §178.603(e) of this subpart. It is permissible to use additives, such as bags of lead shot, to achieve the requisite total package mass, so long as they are placed so that the test results are not affected.

(d) Paper or fiberboard packagings must be conditioned for at least 24 hours immediately prior to testing in an atmosphere maintained—

(1) At 50 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 23 °C±2 °C (73 °F±4 °F). Average values should fall within these limits. Short-term fluctuations and measurement limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ±5 percent relative humidity without significant impairment of test reproducibility;

(2) At 65 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 20 °C±2 °C (68 °F±4 °F), or 27 °C±2 °C (81 °F±4 °F). Average values should fall within these limits. Short-term fluctuations and measurement limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ±5 percent relative humidity without significant impairment of test reproducibility; or

(3) For testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient conditions.

(e) Except as otherwise provided, each packaging must be closed in preparation for testing in the same manner as if prepared for actual shipment. All closures must be installed using proper techniques and torques.

(f) Bung-type barrels made of natural wood must be left filled with water for at least 24 hours before the tests.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52723, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66286, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67522, Dec. 29, 1994; 69 FR 76186, Dec. 20, 2004; 71 FR 78635, Dec. 29, 2006]

§178.603   Drop test.

(a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all packaging design types and performed periodically as specified in §178.601(e). For other than flat drops, the center of gravity of the test packaging must be vertically over the point of impact. Where more than one orientation is possible for a given drop test, the orientation most likely to result in failure of the packaging must be used. The number of drops required and the packages' orientations are as follows:

PackagingNo. of tests (samples)Drop orientation of samples
Steel drums, Aluminum drums, Metal drums (other than steel or aluminum), Steel Jerricans, Plywood drums, Wooden barrels, Fiber drums, Plastic drums and Jerricans, Composite packagings which are in the shape of a drumSix—(three for each drop)First drop (using three samples): The package must strike the target diagonally on the chime or, if the packaging has no chime, on a circumferential seam or an edge. Second drop (using the other three samples): The package must strike the target on the weakest part not tested by the first drop, for example a closure or, for some 7 cylindrical drums, the welded longitudinal seam of the drum body.
Boxes of natural wood, Plywood boxes, Reconstituted wood boxes, Fiberboard boxes, Plastic boxes, Steel, aluminum or other metal boxes, Composite packagings that are in the shape of a boxFive—(one for each drop)First drop: Flat on the bottom (using the first sample). Second drop: Flat on the top (using the second sample). Third drop: Flat on the long side (using the third sample). Fourth drop: Flat on the short side (using the fourth sample). Fifth drop: On a corner (using the fifth sample).
Bags—single-ply with a side seamThree—(three drops per bag)First drop: Flat on a wide face (using all three samples). Second drop: Flat on a narrow face (using all three samples). Third drop: On an end of the bag (using all three samples).
Bags—single-ply without a side seam, or multi-plyThree—(two drops per bag)First drop: Flat on a wide face (using all three samples). Second drop: On an end of the bag (using all three samples).

(b) Exceptions. For testing of single or composite packagings constructed of stainless steel, nickel, or monel at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than design qualification testing), the drop test may be conducted with two samples, one sample each for the two drop orientations. These samples may have been previously used for the hydrostatic pressure or stacking test. Exceptions for the number of steel, aluminum and other metal packaging samples used for conducting the drop test are subject to the approval of the Associate Administrator.

(c) Special preparation of test samples for the drop test. (1) Testing of plastic drums, plastic jerricans, plastic boxes other than expanded polystyrene boxes, composite packagings (plastic material), and combination packagings with plastic inner packagings other than plastic bags intended to contain solids or articles must be carried out when the temperature of the test sample and its contents has been reduced to −18 °C (0 °F) or lower. Test liquids must be kept in the liquid state, if necessary, by the addition of anti-freeze. Water/anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at −18 °C (0 °F) or lower are considered acceptable test liquids. Test samples prepared in this way are not required to be conditioned in accordance with §178.602(d).

(d) Target. The target must be a rigid, non-resilient, flat and horizontal surface.

(e) Drop height. Drop heights, measured as the vertical distance from the target to the lowest point on the package, must be equal to or greater than the drop height determined as follows:

(1) For solids and liquids, if the test is performed with the solid or liquid to be transported or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristic, the drop height must be determined according to packing group, as follows:

(i) Packing Group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet).

(ii) Packing Group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet).

(iii) Packing Group III: 0.8 m (2.6 feet).

(2) For liquids in single packagings and for inner packagings of combination packagings, if the test is performed with water:

(i) Where the materials to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, drop height must be determined according to packing group, as follows:

(A) Packing Group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet).

(B) Packing Group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet).

(C) Packing Group III: 0.8 m (2.6 feet).

(ii) Where the materials to be transported have a specific gravity exceeding 1.2, the drop height must be calculated on the basis of the specific gravity (SG) of the material to be carried, rounded up to the first decimal, as follows:

(A) Packing Group I: SG × 1.5 m (4.9 feet).

(B) Packing Group II: SG × 1.0 m (3.3 feet).

(C) Packing Group III: SG × 0.67 m (2.2 feet).

(f) Criteria for passing the test. A package is considered to successfully pass the drop tests if for each sample tested—

(1) For packagings containing liquid, each packaging does not leak when equilibrium has been reached between the internal and external pressures, except for inner packagings of combination packagings when it is not necessary that the pressures be equalized;

(2) For removable head drums for solids, the entire contents are retained by an inner packaging (e.g., a plastic bag) even if the closure on the top head of the drum is no longer sift-proof;

(3) For a bag, neither the outermost ply nor an outer packaging exhibits any damage likely to adversely affect safety during transport;

(4) The packaging or outer packaging of a composite or combination packaging must not exhibit any damage likely to affect safety during transport. Inner receptacles, inner packagings, or articles must remain completely within the outer packaging and there must be no leakage of the filling substance from the inner receptacles or inner packagings;

(5) Any discharge from a closure is slight and ceases immediately after impact with no further leakage; and

(6) No rupture is permitted in packagings for materials in Class 1 which would permit spillage of loose explosive substances or articles from the outer packaging.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52723, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66286, Dec. 20, 1991; 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992; Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67522, Dec. 29, 1994; 65 FR 50462, Aug. 18, 2000; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 69 FR 76186, Dec. 20, 2004; 76 FR 3389, Jan. 19, 2011; 78 FR 1097, Jan. 7, 2013]

§178.604   Leakproofness test.

(a) General. The leakproofness test must be performed with compressed air or other suitable gases on all packagings intended to contain liquids, except that:

(1) The inner receptacle of a composite packaging may be tested without the outer packaging provided the test results are not affected; and

(2) This test is not required for inner packagings of combination packagings.

(b) Number of packagings to be tested—(1) Production testing. All packagings subject to the provisions of this section must be tested and must pass the leakproofness test:

(i) Before they are first used in transportation; and

(ii) Prior to reuse, when authorized for reuse by §173.28 of this subchapter.

(2) Design qualification and periodic testing. Three samples of each different packaging must be tested and must pass the leakproofness test. Exceptions for the number of samples used in conducting the leakproofness test are subject to the approval of the Associate Administrator.

(c) Special preparation—(1) For design qualification and periodic testing, packagings must be tested with closures in place. For production testing, packagings need not have their closures in place. Removable heads need not be installed during production testing.

(2) For testing with closures in place, vented closures must either be replaced by similar non-vented closures or the vent must be sealed.

(d) Test method. The packaging must be restrained under water while an internal air pressure is applied; the method of restraint must not affect the results of the test. The test must be conducted, for other than production testing, for a minimum time of five minutes. Other methods, at least equally effective, may be used in accordance with appendix B of this part.

(e) Pressure applied. An internal air pressure (gauge) must be applied to the packaging as indicated for the following packing groups:

(1) Packing Group I: Not less than 30 kPa (4 psi).

(2) Packing Group II: Not less than 20 kPa (3 psi).

(3) Packing Group III: Not less than 20 kPa (3 psi).

(f) Criteria for passing the test. A packaging passes the test if there is no leakage of air from the packaging.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52723, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66286, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67522, Dec. 29, 1994; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

§178.605   Hydrostatic