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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 22, 2014

Title 31Subtitle BChapter IISubchapter A → Part 357


Title 31: Money and Finance: Treasury


PART 357—REGULATIONS GOVERNING BOOK-ENTRY TREASURY BONDS, NOTES AND BILLS HELD IN TREASURY/RESERVE AUTOMATED DEBT ENTRY SYSTEM (TRADES) AND LEGACY TREASURY DIRECT


Contents

Subpart A—General Information

§357.0   Book-entry systems.
§357.1   Effective date.
§357.2   Definitions.

Subpart B—Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES)

§357.10   Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.
§357.11   Laws governing other interests in Treasury securities.
§357.12   A Participant's Security Entitlement.
§357.13   Obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to Book-entry Securities and security interests.
§357.14   What authority does a Federal Reserve Bank have?
§357.15   How can a debtor's interest in a Security Entitlement be reached by creditors?

Subpart C—Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct)

§357.20   Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct®.
§357.21   Registration.
§357.22   Transfers.
§357.23   Judicial proceedings—sovereign immunity.
§357.24   Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct® records.
§357.25   Security interests.
§357.26   Direct Deposit.
§357.27   Reinvestment.
§357.28   Transaction requests.
§357.29   Time required for processing transaction request.
§357.30   Cases of delay or suspension of payment.
§357.31   Certifying individuals.
§357.32   Submission of transaction requests; further information.

Subpart D—Additional Provisions

§357.40   Additional requirements.
§357.41   Waiver of regulations.
§357.42   Liability of Department and Federal Reserve Banks.
§357.43   Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct®.
§357.44   [Reserved]
§357.45   Supplements, amendments, or revisions.
Appendix A to Part 357—Discussion of Final Rule
Appendix B to Part 357—TRADES Commentary

Authority: 31 U.S.C. chapter 31; 5 U.S.C. 301; 12 U.S.C. 391.

Source: 51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 357 appear at 70 FR 57431, Sept. 30, 2005.

Subpart A—General Information

§357.0   Book-entry systems.

(a) Treasury securities. Treasury securities are maintained in one of the following book-entry systems:

(1) Commercial book-entry system. The commercial book-entry system is the book-entry system in which Treasury securities are held in a tiered system through securities intermediaries such as financial institutions or brokerage firms. A Treasury security is maintained in the commercial book-entry system if it is credited by a Federal Reserve Bank to a Participant's Securities Account. The regulations governing the commercial book-entry system are found at subpart B of this part, and are referred to as Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES).

(2) Legacy Treasury Direct®. The Legacy Treasury Direct system is a non-Internet-based book-entry system maintained by Treasury for purchasing and holding marketable Treasury securities as book-entry products. A Treasury security is maintained in Legacy Treasury Direct if it is credited to a Legacy Treasury Direct account as described in §357.20 of this part. Treasury securities are held directly by the Department of the Treasury in accounts maintained in the investor's name. A Legacy Treasury Direct account may be accessed through a designated Federal Reserve Bank or the Bureau of the Fiscal Service. See subpart C of this part for rules pertaining to Legacy Treasury Direct.

(3) TreasuryDirect®. TreasuryDirect is a book-entry, online system maintained by the Department of the Treasury for purchasing and holding eligible marketable Treasury securities, United States Savings Bonds, and certificates of indebtedness in electronic form as a computer record on the books of Treasury. The regulations governing TreasuryDirect are found at 31 CFR part 363.

(b) Transferability between Legacy Treasury Direct and other systems. A Treasury security maintained in Legacy Treasury Direct may be transferred to an account in TRADES or to an account in TreasuryDirect in accordance with §357.22(a). Securities may not be transferred to Legacy Treasury Direct from other systems.

[67 FR 64278, Oct. 17, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 57431, Sept. 30, 2005; 70 FR 57441, Sept. 30, 2005; 76 FR 18063, Apr. 1, 2011]

§357.1   Effective date.

Subpart B of this part, the definitions of Adverse Claim, Book-entry Security, Entitlement Holder, Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular, Funds Account, Issue, Participant, Participant's Securities Account, Person, Revised Article 8, Securities Intermediary, Security Entitlement, State, and Transfer Message and revisions to the definitions of Security and TRADES, and §§357.42 and 357.44 and the revisions to §357.41 are effective January 1, 1997. All other provisions in effect prior to January 1, 1997, remain in effect.

[61 FR 43628, Aug. 23, 1996]

§357.2   Definitions.

In this part, unless the context indicates otherwise:

Adverse claim means a claim that a claimant has a property interest in a Security and that it is a violation of the rights of the claimant for another Person to hold, transfer, or deal with the Security.

Bill means an obligation of the United States, with a term of not more than one year, issued at a discount, under chapter 31 of title 31 of the United States Code, in book-entry form.

Bond means an obligation of the United States, with a term of more than ten years, issued under chapter 31 of title 31 of the United States Code, in book-entry form.

Book-entry security means a Treasury security maintained as a computer record in the commercial book-entry system, Legacy Treasury Direct®, or TreasuryDirect®.

Business day means any day other than a Saturday, Sunday, or other day on which the Federal Reserve Banks are not open for business.

Department means the United States Department of the Treasury, and, where appropriate, the Federal Reserve Banks acting as fiscal agents of the United States.

Depository institution means an entity described in section 19(b)(1)(A)(i)-(vi) of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)(A)(i)-(vi). Under section 19(b) of the Federal Reserve Act, the term depository institution includes:

(1) Any insured bank as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813 or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under 12 U.S.C. 1815;

(2) Any mutual savings bank as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813 or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under 12 U.S.C. 1815;

(3) Any savings bank as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813 or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under 12 U.S.C. 1815;

(4) Any insured credit union as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1752 or any credit union which is eligible to make application to become an insured credit union under 12 U.S.C. 1781;

(5) Any member as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1422; and

(6) Any savings association (as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1813) which is an insured depository institution, as defined in the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, 12 U.S.C. 1811, et seq., or is eligible to apply to become an insured depository institution under such Act.

Entitlement holder means a Person to whose account an interest in a Book-entry Security is credited on the records of a Securities Intermediary.

Federal Reserve Bank or Reserve Bank means a Federal Reserve Bank or Branch.

Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular means the publication issued by each Federal Reserve Bank that sets forth the terms and conditions under which the Reserve Bank maintains Book-entry Securities accounts and transfers Book-entry Securities.

Financial institution means, for purposes of direct deposit, an institution which has agreed to receive credit payments under 31 CFR part 210, as amended from time to time, and has not withdrawn its participation in a direct deposit program under part 210, or an institution which is willing to agree to receive credit payments under 31 CFR part 210 and has enrolled with its Federal Reserve Bank.

Funds account means a reserve and/or clearing account at a Federal Reserve Bank to which debits or credits are posted for transfers against payment, book-entry securities transaction fees, or principal and interest payments.

Incompetent means an individual who is legally, medically or mentally incapable of handling his or her business affairs, except that a minor is not an incompetent solely because of age.

Issue means a group of securities, as defined in this section, that is identified by the same CUSIP (Committee on Uniform Securities Identification Practices) number.

Legacy Treasury Direct is the Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System.

Maturity value is the amount that the Department is obligated to pay when a security matures.

Minor means an individual who is under the age of majority, as determined by applicable state law.

Note means an obligation of the United States, with a term of at least one year, but of not more than ten years, issued under chapter 31 of title 31 of the United States Code, in book-entry form.

Original issue means Treasury's offering of a marketable Treasury security to the public and its issuance in book-entry form.

Owner, as used in subpart C, means the individual(s) or entity in whose name a security is registered. If a security is registered in more than one name, the term owner incudes all those whose names appear on the registration and are authorized by this part to make a transaction request on a security held in Legacy Treasury Direct.

Participant means a Person that maintains a Participant's Securities Account with a Federal Reserve Bank.

Participant's Securities Account means an account in the name of a Participant at a Federal Reserve Bank to which Book-entry Securities held for a Participant are or may be credited.

Person means and includes an individual, corporation, company, governmental entity, association, firm, partnership, trust, estate, representative and any other similar organization, but does not mean or include the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank.

Redemption means payment of a security at maturity, or pursuant to a call for redumption in accordance with the terms of a security.

Representative includes an executor, administrator, legal guardian, committee, conservator, and any similar person or entity appointed by a court to represent the estate of a decedent, minor, or incompetent, as well as a trustee, whether appointed by a court or otherwise.

Revised Article 8 means Uniform Commercial Code, Revised Article 8, Investment Securities (with Conforming and Miscellaneous Amendments to Articles 1, 3, 4, 5, 9 and 10) 1994 Official Text. The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference of Revised Article 8 of the Uniform Commercial Code in this part, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Revised Article 8 was adopted by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners On Uniform State Laws and approved by the American Bar Association on February 14, 1995. Copies of Revised Article 8 are available from the Executive Office of the American Law Institute, 4025 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 211 East Ontario Street, Suite 1300, Chicago, IL 60611. Copies are also available for public inspection at the Department of the Treasury Library, Room 1428, Main Treasury Building, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20220 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

Revised Article 9 means Uniform Commercial Code, Revised Article 9, Secured Transactions (with conforming amendments to Articles 1, 2, 2A, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8), 1999 official text. The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference of Revised Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code in this part, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Revised Article 9 was approved by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners On Uniform State Laws in 1998. Copies of Revised Article 9 are available from the Executive Office of the American Law Institute, 4025 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 211 East Ontario Street, Suite 1300, Chicago, IL 60611. Copies are also available for public inspection at the Department of the Treasury Library, Room 1428, Main Treasury Building, 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20220,or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

Securities Intermediary means:

(1) A Person that is registered as a “clearing agency” under the federal securities laws; a Federal Reserve Bank; any other person that provides clearance or settlement services with respect to a Book-entry Security that would require it to register as a clearing agency under the federal securities laws but for an exclusion or exemption from the registration requirement, if its activities as a clearing corporation, including promulgation of rules, are subject to regulation by a federal or state governmental authority; or

(2) A Person (other than an individual, unless such individual is registered as a broker or dealer under the federal securities laws) including a bank or broker, that in the ordinary course of its business maintains securities accounts for others and is acting in that capacity.

Security means a bill, note, or bond, each as defined in this section. It also means any other obligation issued by the Department that, by the terms of the applicable offering circular or announcement, is made subject to this part. Solely for purposes of this part, it also means:

(1) The interest and principal components of a security eligible for Separate Trading of Registered Interest and Principal of Securities (“STRIPS”), if such security has been divided into such components as authorized by the express terms of the offering circular under which the security was issued and the components are maintained separately on the books of one or more Federal Reserve Banks; and

(2) The interest coupons that have been converted to book-entry form under the Treasury's Coupons Under Book-Entry Safekeeping Program (“CUBES”), pursuant to agreement and the regulations in 31 CFR part 358.

Security Entitlement means the rights and property interest of an Entitlement Holder with respect to a Book-entry Security.

Signature guarantee program means a signature guarantee program established in response to Rule 17 Ad-15 (17 CFR 240.17Ad-15), issued under authority of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. For the purpose of the regulations in this part, the Securities Transfer Agents Medallion Program (STAMP), the Stock Exchanges Medallion Program (SEMP), and the New York Stock Exchange, Inc. Medallion Signature Program (MSP) are recognized by Treasury as such signature guarantee programs.

State means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or any other territory or possession of the United States.

Taxpayer identifying number or TIN means a social security account number or an employer identification number, as appropriate.

TRADES is the Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System, also referred to as the commercial book-entry system.

Transaction request means a request to effect a change in an account master record or securities portfolio maintained in Legacy Treasury Direct.

Transaction request form means a form or series of forms prescribed for use by the Department to request a transaction in Legacy Treasury Direct. (This term includes a document that the Department has determined contains all of the elements required by the transaction request form.)

Transfer Message means an instruction of a Participant to a Federal Reserve Bank to effect a transfer of a Book-entry Security maintained in TRADES, as set forth in Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars.

Voluntary representative means the person qualified by the Department of the Treasury to accept payment or direct distribution of a decedent's securities pursuant to §357.28.

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 59 FR 59038, Nov. 15, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 61 FR 43628, Aug. 23, 1996; 62 FR 18694, Apr. 16, 1997; 62 FR 33548, June 20, 1997; 67 FR 7079, Feb. 15, 2002; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004; 70 FR 57431, Sept. 30, 2005; 70 FR 57441, Sept. 30, 2005; 76 FR 18063, Apr. 1, 2011]

Subpart B—Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (TRADES)

Source: 67 FR 7080, Feb. 15, 2002, unless otherwise noted.

§357.10   Laws governing a Treasury book-entry security, TRADES, and security interests or entitlements.

(a) What law governs the rights and obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks; and the rights of any Person against the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks? Except as we provide in paragraph (b) of this section, the following are governed solely by Treasury regulations, including the regulations of this part, the applicable offering circular (which is 31 CFR part 356, in the case of securities issued on and after March 1, 1993), the announcement of the offering, and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars:

(1) The rights and obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to a Book-entry Security or Security Entitlement and the operation of TRADES, and

(2) The rights of any Person, including a Participant, against the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to a Book-entry Security or Security Entitlement and the operation of TRADES.

(b) What law governs security interests in Security Entitlements that are not recorded on a Federal Reserve Bank's books? See the following table:

If a security interest in a security entitlement is—And it is—Then it is governed by—
(1) in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank from a Participantnot recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §357.12(e)(2)the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of the jurisdiction where the head office of the Federal Reserve Bank maintaining the Participant's Securities Account is located.
(2) in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank from a Person that is not a Participantnot recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §357.12(e)(2)the law determined in the manner specified in §357.11.

(c) What law governs if the jurisdiction in paragraph (b)(1) of this section did not adopt Revised Article 8, or Revised Article 8 as amended by Revised Article 9 (both incorporated by reference, see Sec. 357.2)? The law specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall be the law of that State as though that State adopted Revised Article 8.

§357.11   Laws governing other interests in Treasury securities.

(a) What does the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of a Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction govern? To the extent not inconsistent with these regulations, the law (not including the conflict-of-law rules) of a Security Intermediary's jurisdiction governs the following:

(1) When a Person acquires a Security Entitlement from the Securities Intermediary;

(2) The rights and duties of the Securities Intermediary and Entitlement Holder that arise out of a Security Entitlement;

(3) Whether the Securities Intermediary owes any duties to an adverse claimant to a Security Entitlement;

(4) Whether a Person may assert an Adverse Claim against a Person who acquires a Security Entitlement from the Securities Intermediary or against a Person who purchases a Security Entitlement or interest therein from an Entitlement Holder; and

(5) The perfection, effect of perfection or non-perfection and priority of a security interest in a Security Entitlement (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c) of this section).

(b) What is the “Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction” for purposes of this section? See the following table:

   If  .  .  .Then the securities intermediary's jurisdiction is  .  .  .
(1) An agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder governing the securities account expressly provides that a particular jurisdiction is the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction for purposes of Part 1 of Article 8 of the Uniform Commercial Code, Article 8 of the Uniform Commercial Code, or the Uniform Commercial Codethe jurisdiction agreed upon.
(2) An agreement between the Securities Intermediary and its Entitlement Holder governing the securities account expressly provides that it is governed by the law of a particular jurisdictionthe jurisdiction agreed upon.
(3) The statements in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this table do not apply, but the agreement expressly specifies that the securities account is maintained at an office in a particular jurisdictionthe jurisdiction where the office is located.
(4) The statements in paragraphs (b)(1) through (3) of this table do not apply and an account statement identifies the office serving the Entitlement Holder's accountthe jurisdiction where the office is located.
(5) None of the statements in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this table applythe jurisdiction in which the chief executive office of the Securities Intermediary is located.

(c) What law governs the perfection of a security interest automatically or by filing? The law (but not the conflict-of-law rules) of the jurisdiction in which the Person creating a security interest is located governs whether and how the security interest may be perfected automatically or by filing a financing statement. (This is despite the general rule in (a)(5) of this section).

(d) Where is a Person located, for purposes of paragraph (c) of this section? A Person's location is determined under state law, including Revised Article 9 (incorporated by reference, see §357.2), as it may be amended from time to time.

(e) What law governs if the jurisdiction in table (b) of this section did not adopt Revised Article 8 or Revised Article 8 as amended by Revised Article 9 (both incorporated by reference, see §357.2)? The law for the matters specified in paragraph (a) of this section shall be the law of that State as though the State adopted Revised Article 8.

(f) What other rules apply? For purposes of the matters specified in paragraph (a) of this section, the Federal Reserve Bank maintaining the Securities Account is a clearing corporation and the Participant's interest in a Book-entry Security is a Security Entitlement.

§357.12   A Participant's Security Entitlement.

(a) How is a Participant's Security Entitlement created? A Federal Reserve Bank indicates by book entry that a Book-entry Security has been credited to a Participant's Securities Account.

(b) What else do I need to know about a Participant's Security Entitlement? See the following table:

If a security interest in a security entitlement of a participant .  .  .Then .  .  .
(1) Meets all of the following criteria:
(i) is in favor of the United States
(ii) is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank
(iii) is to secure deposits of public money (including without limitation deposits to the Treasury tax and loan accounts, or other security interested required by Federal statute, regulation, or agreement)
it is created; it is perfected; and it has priority over any other interest in the securities.

(c) What is the effect of the marking of a security interest in favor of the United States in a Security Entitlement of a Participant on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank? Where a security interest in favor of the United States in a Security Entitlement of a Participant is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank, such Reserve Bank may rely, and is protected in relying, exclusively on the order of an authorized Representative of the United States directing the transfer of the Security.

(d) Who is an authorized Representative of the United States, for purposes of paragraph (c) in this section? The official designated in the applicable regulations or in an agreement to which a Federal Reserve Bank is a party, governing the security interest.

(e)(1) Must the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks agree to act on behalf of any Person or to recognize the interest of any transferee of a security interest or other limited interest in favor of any Person? No, they need not agree to act or recognize any party's interest, except:

(i) To the extent of any specific requirement of Federal law or regulation, or

(ii) To the extent set forth in any specific agreement with the Federal Reserve Bank on whose books the interest of the Participant is recorded.

(2) May a security interest be created and perfected by a Federal Reserve Bank marking its books? Yes, a security interest in a Security Entitlement that is in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank or a Person may be created and perfected by a Federal Reserve Bank marking its books to record the security interest to the extent required by law, regulation, or an agreement with a Federal Reserve Bank or the Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular.

(3) Does this security interest have priority over other interests? A security interest in a Security Entitlement marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank has priority over any other interest in the securities, except a security in favor of the United States, as provided in table (b) of this section.

(4) In addition to the method provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this section, may a security interest, including a security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank, be perfected in another way? Yes, a security interest may be perfected by any method under applicable law as described in §357.10(b) or §357.11.

(i) The applicable law governs the perfection, effect of perfection or non-perfection and priority of a security interest.

(ii) A security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank shall be treated as a security interest in favor of a clearing corporation in all respects under that law.

(iii) A Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular shall be treated as a rule adopted by a clearing corporation for these purposes.

§357.13   Obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to Book-entry Securities and security interests.

(a) Who is entitled to deal with an interest in a Book-entry Security that has been credited to a Participant's Security Account? Except in the case of a security interest in favor of the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank or otherwise as provided in §357.12 (e), for the purposes of this subpart B, the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks treat the Participant as exclusively entitled to perform the following functions, even if the Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank has any information or notice to the contrary:

(1) Issue a Transfer Message,

(2) Receive interest and other payments with respect thereof, and

(3) Exercise all the rights and powers with respect to the Security,

(b) Are the Federal Reserve Banks and Treasury liable for Adverse Claims? The Federal Reserve Banks and Treasury are not liable to a Person asserting or having an Adverse Claim to a Security Entitlement or to a Book-entry Security in a Participant's Securities Account. This includes any such claim arising as a result of the transfer or disposition of a Book-entry Security by a Federal Reserve Bank, pursuant to a Transfer Message that the Federal Reserve Bank reasonably believes to be genuine.

(c) When is the obligation of the United States to pay interest and principal with respect to Book-entry Securities discharged? The obligation is discharged once payment is made as follows:

(1) A Federal Reserve Bank credits the appropriate amount of interest on Book-entry Securities to a Funds Account maintained at the Bank, or pays it as directed by the Participant.

(2) Book-entry Securities are redeemed according to their terms, a Federal Reserve Bank withdraws the securities from the Participant's Securities Account in which they are maintained, and either:

(i) Credits the amount of the Redemption proceeds, including both principal and interest, where applicable, to a Funds Account at the Bank, or

(ii) Pays such principal and interest as directed by the Participant.

(d) What does a Participant need to do in connection with the Redemption of a Book-entry Security? No action by the Participant is required.

§357.14   What authority does a Federal Reserve Bank have?

(a) Each Federal Reserve Bank has the authority as fiscal agent of the United States to:

(1) Perform functions with respect to the issuance of Book-entry Securities offered and sold by the Department to which this subpart applies, in accordance with the terms of the applicable offering circular and with procedures established by the Department;

(2) Service and maintain Book-entry Securities in accounts established for such purposes;

(3) Make payments of principal and interest, as directed by the Department;

(4) Effect transfer of Book-entry Securities between Participants' Securities Accounts as directed by the Participants; and

(5) Perform such other duties as fiscal agent that the Department may request.

(b) Each Federal Reserve Bank may issue Operating Circulars that are consistent with this part, governing the details of its handling of Book-entry Securities, Security Entitlements, and the operation of the book-entry system under this part.

§357.15   How can a debtor's interest in a Security Entitlement be reached by creditors?

(a) The interest of a debtor may be reached by creditors only by legal process upon the Securities Intermediary with whom the debtor's securities account is maintained. Exception: If a Security Entitlement is maintained in the name of a secured party, the debtor's interest may be reached by legal process upon the secured party.

(b) These regulations do not state whether a Federal Reserve Bank is required to honor an order or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases.

Subpart C—Legacy Treasury Direct Book-Entry Securities System (Legacy Treasury Direct)

§357.20   Securities account in Legacy Treasury Direct®.

(a) Account. A securities account consists of:

(1) An account master record, and

(2) A securities portfolio.

(b) Security. A security in Legacy Treasury Direct is evidenced by the account master record and a description of the security as set out in the securities portfolio associated with an account master record.

(c) Account master record. In order for a security to be maintained in Legacy Treasury Direct, the account owner must have previously established an account master record, except that a new account may be established for the conversion of a definitive security pursuant to 31 CFR 306.23. The account master record includes, but is not limited to, the following data:

(1) The exact form of registration in which the securities are held;

(2) The Legacy Treasury Direct account number;

(3) The correspondence address for the account;

(4) The TIN of the owner, or in the case of ownership by two individuals, of the first-named owner; and

(5) Payment instructions. (See §357.26.)

(d) Securities portfolio. The securities portfolio contains a description of each security and is the aggregate of all securities in the securities account.

(e) Statement of account. The Department shall send a statement of account (statement):

(1) Upon the establishment of an account master record;

(2) Upon a change in the securities portfolio;

(3) At an owner's request; or

(4) Upon the determination on December 31 that an owner has not received a statement of account for that current calendar year.

The statement shall contain information regarding the account as of the date of such statement. The price associated with each security in the securities portfolio will also appear on the statement.1 The statement may be sent to the correspondence address designated in the account master record, or may be sent by electronic means. When the statement is issued as a result of a change in ownership of a security, statements will be sent, where appropriate, to both the former and current owners. Other information regarding the account may be obtained in accordance with §357.24.

1IRS regulations require reporting of income information on a security.

(1) If the security is a bill, the price information will be used to comply with this requirement. The earnings reported to IRS for the year of a bill's maturity will be the difference between the par value of the bill and its price.

(a) If a bill was deposited in Legacy Treasury Direct at original issue, the price shown will be the issue price.

(b) If a bill was transferred to Legacy Treasury Direct from TRADES, the price shown will be that included in the transfer wire or supplied subsequently by the bill owner. If a price was not furnished, the price shown will be the weighted average price of the bill of the longest maturity having the identical CUSIP number.

(c) If a bill is transferred from one Legacy Treasury Direct account to another, the price shown in the receiving (transferee's) account will be that shown on the transfer instructions or supplied subsequently by the transferee. If a price is not furnished, the price shown will be the weighted average price at original issue of the bill of the longest maturity having the identical CUSIP number, unless the term of the bill can be determined from the account record in which case the price shown will be the weighted average price at original issue of the bill with that term.

(2) If the security is a note or bond, the earnings reported to IRS for a year will be the periodic interest payments made during that year. If a note or bond is transferred to a Legacy Treasury Direct account between interest payment dates, the earnings reported to IRS for the transferee will show the interest for the entire interest payment period. The price for notes and bonds will be shown on the statement of account for the account owner's information. The price shown will be determined following the procedures described above for bills.

(3) The security owner should report directly to the IRS (a) adjustments to annual earnings amounts arising from acquisition of notes and bonds between interest payment periods and (b) price corrections for bills reported after preparation of the reports to the IRS.

(f) Confirmation notice. The Department shall send a confirmation notice (notice):

(1) Upon a change in an account master record;

(2) Upon scheduling or canceling a reinvestment; or

(3) To confirm the interest earned on a Treasury Inflation Indexed Security. The notice shall contain information regarding the account as of the date of such confirmation. The notice may be sent to the correspondence address designated in the account master record, or may be sent by electronic means. All changes reflected in paragraph (f) (1) and (2) of this section will be included in the next regularly scheduled statement of account. See paragraph (e) of this section for the statement schedule.

(g) Account maintenance fees. An annual maintenance fee shall be charged for each Legacy Treasury Direct securities account holding securities that in the aggregate exceed a stipulated par amount. The amount of the fee will be published by notice in the Federal Register.

(h) Closing an account. If a Legacy Treasury Direct account has no holdings, we reserve the right to close the account.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 60 FR 4377, Jan. 23, 1995; 62 FR 18004, Apr. 11, 1997; 62 FR 32033, June 12, 1997; 76 FR 18063, Apr. 1, 2011]

§357.21   Registration.

(a) General. (1) Registration of a security conclusively establishes ownership, except in the case of partnership nominees, in which case the Department reserves the right to treat the registration as conclusive of ownership. The registration may not, except as provided in this subpart, include any restriction on the authority of an owner to change the data in the account master record, transfer the security, or effect any other change in the securities portfolio.

(2) The registration of all securities held by an owner should be uniform with respect to the owner's name. An owner must be identified by the name by which the owner is ordinarily known, preferably including at least one full given name. A suffix, such as Sr. or Jr., must be included when ordinarily used, or when necessary to distinguish members of the same family.

(3) If an additional security is deposited in an existing account, the security will be registered in the same name and form of registration that appears in the designated account master record. One who holds a security as John Allen Doe should use that name when depositing another security rather than J. Allen Doe, or John A. Doe'. Minor variations in names used in acquiring a security to be deposited in an established account may be resolved by the Department.

(b) Natural persons. A security may be registered in the names of one or two individuals, but only in one of the following forms:

(1) Single ownership. In the name of one individual.

Example: Robert W. Woods

An individual who is sole proprietor of a business conducted under a trade name may include a reference to the trade name.

Example: John A. Doe, doing business as Doe's Home Appliance Store.

(2) Ownership by two individuals—(i) “And” form—Joint Ownership—(A) Without right of survivorship. In the names of two individuals, joined by the word “and”, and followed by the words “without right of survivorship”. A security so registered shall conclusively confer on each owner an undivided interest in the security.

Example: Elizabeth Black and Jane Brown, without right of survivorship.

Any registration which purports, by its terms, to preclude the right of survivorship, or any registration in the names of two persons without indicating whether survivorship rights attach (other than a registration under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section), will be presumed to be ownership without right of survivorship. If a security is registered in this form, a transaction request, other than a request by one owner to transfer the security to the other owner, and other than a request for reinvestment, must be executed by both owners.

(B) With right of survivorship. In the names of two individuals, joined by the word “and”, and followed by the words “with right of survivorship”. A security so registered shall confer on each owner an undivided interest in the security and shall create a conclusive right of survivorship.

Example: Mark A. Doe and Mary B. Doe, with right of survivorship.

If a security is registered in this form, a transaction request, other than a request by one owner to transfer the security to the other owner, and other than a request for reinvestment, must be executed by both owners.

(ii) “Or” form—“Coownership”. In the names of two individuals, joined by the word “or”. A security so registered shall confer on each owner an undivided interest in the security and shall create a conclusive right of survivorship.

Example: Robert Woods or Laura Woods.

If a security is registered in this form, either coowner may make a transaction request, but if the Department receives conflicting requests at or about the same time, it may refuse to process them.

(iii) Beneficiary. In the name of one individual followed by the words “Payable on death to” (or “P.O.D.”) another individual.

Example: Jack S. Jones, payable on death to Marie Jones.

If a minor or an incompetent is named as a beneficiary, the status of the beneficiary must be identified in the registration. A minor or an incompetent may not be designated as an owner. See paragraphs (b)(3) and (4) of this section.

Example: John Perry, P.O.D. John Perry, Jr., a minor.

Registration in this form shall create ownership rights in the beneficiary only if the beneficiary survives the owner. During an owner's lifetime, a transaction request may be executed by the owner without the consent of the beneficiary. If the beneficiary dies before the owner, the security will be deemed to be registered in the owner's name alone.

(3) Minors—(i) General. A security may not be registered in the name of a minor in his or her own right as an owner. If a security is so registered and the Department thereafter receives evidence or information of that fact, the Department may suspend processing of any transaction request with respect to the security until either a legal guardian has been appointed or a natural guardian, as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, has been recognized. Where a legal guardian is appointed, the Department will require a certified copy of the court order making such appointment. See §357.28(c).

(ii) Natural guardians of minors. A security may be registered in the name of a natural guardian of a minor for whose estate no legal representative has been appointed. The parent with whom the minor resides will be recognized as the natural guardian. If the minor resides with both parents, either or both may be recognized as natural guardian(s). If the minor does not reside with either parent, the Department may recognize the person who furnishes the minor's chief support as the natural guardian.

Examples: Michael Jones, as natural guardian of Alice Jones, a minor. Michael Jones and Evelyn Jones, as natural guardians of Alice Jones, a minor.

The security may also be registered in one of the forms authorized under paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

Examples: James Green, as natural guardian of William Green, a minor, and Anne Green, without right of survivorship. James Green, as natural guardian of William Green, a minor, POD Lynne Green.

(iii) Custodian under statute authorizing gifts to minors. A security may be registered as provided under an applicable gift to minors statute.

Example: Virginia McDonald, as custodian for Lynne Gorman, under the New York Uniform Gifts to Minors Act.

Any request to alter the rights of ownership of the security must be made as provided in the applicable statute.

(4) Incompetents—(i) General. A security may not be registered in the name of an individual in his or her own right as an owner if that individual is incompetent. If a security is so registered, or if the owner subsequently becomes incompetent after the security is purchased, and the Department receives evidence or information of that fact, the Department may suspend any transaction with respect to the security until a legal guardian, conservator, or other representative of the incompetent's estate has been appointed, or a voluntary guardian, as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, has been recognized. Where a legal guardian, conservator, or other representative is appointed, the Department will require a certified copy of the court order making such appointment. See §357.28(c).

(ii) Voluntary guardian of incompetent. If a legal guardian has not been appointed, and the face amount of the securities held in one or more accounts in Legacy Treasury Direct® by an owner who had become incompetent does not exceed, in the aggregate, $20,000 (par amount), upon submission to, and approval by, the Department of an appropriate form, a relative or other person responsible for an incompetent's care and support will be recognized as voluntary guardian for purpose of making a transaction request under §357.28(b)(4). All persons known by the Department to have an interest in the incompetent's estate, as required by the application form, must agree to the designation of the voluntary guardian. The security may be re-registered in the name of the voluntary guardian.

Example: Richard Melrose, as voluntary guardian for James W. Brundige.

(c) Representatives. A security may be registered in the name of a representative of an estate. If there is more than one representative, the names of some representatives may be omitted if followed by language that indicates the existence of other representatives. In such cases, those named in the registration shall be conclusively presumed by the Department to have authority to make a transaction request on behalf of all the representatives. The form of registration must identify the specific capacity of the representative(s) and the estate represented.

Examples: ABC National Bank of Chicago, Illinois and Harold Smith, co-executors of the will (or administrators of the estate) of Charles Johnson, deceased. William Brown, guardian of the estate of Henry Jones, a minor.

Robert Smith, Richard Smith, et al., executors of the will of Lorraine Smith, deceased.

If the representative is a trustee, the form of registration must identify specifically the authority or document creating the trust.

Examples: Sarah Jones and XYZ Trust Co., trustees under the will of Matthew Smith, deceased. Cynthia Doe and Margaret Jones, trustees under agreement with Martha Roe, dated April 13, 1979. Cynthia Doe, trustee under declaration of trust, dated April 13, 1979. Richard Smith, James Jones, and Frank Brown, trustees under the will of Henry K. James, deceased. ABC Corporation, Myrna Banker, et al., trustees of Profit-Sharing Plan of Ace Manufacturing Co., under B/D resolution, dated May 18, 1975.

If there are several trustees designated as a board or authorized to act as a unit, their names should be omitted and the words, “Board of Trustees” substituted.

Example: Board of Trustees of Super Co. Retirement Fund, under collective bargaining agreement, dated March 18, 1969.

An organization (other than a bank) or individual seeking to act as trustee or custodian of an Individual Retirement Account (“IRA”), must be authorized to so act by the Internal Revenue Service. As appropriate, registration of the security should be in the form shown below:

Examples: ABC Bank, trustee for John Doe IRA, under agreement dated December 21, 1990.

EFG Broker, Inc., custodian for Mary Smith IRA, under agreement dated September 4, 1991.

(d) Private organizations (corporations, unincorporated associations and partnerships). A security may be registered in the name of a private corporation, unincorporated association, or partnership. The full legal name of the organization, as set forth in its charter, articles of incorporation, constitution, partnership agreement, or other documents from which its powers are derived, must be included in the registration. The name may be followed by a reference to a particular account or fund, other than a trust fund, such as an escrow account.

(1) A corporation. The legal name of a business, fraternal, religious, or other private corporation must be followed by descriptive words indicating the corporate status unless the term corporation or the abbreviation Inc. is part of the name or the name is that of a corporation or association organized under Federal law, such as a national bank or Federal savings and loan association.

Examples: Brown Manufacturing Co., a corporation (Education Fund). The Apex Manufacturing Corporation. XYZ National Bank of El Paso, TX. Goodworks, Unlimited, a not-for-profit corporation.

(2) An unincorporated association. Unless the name of a lodge, club, labor union, veterans or religious organization, or similar organization which is not incorporated (whether or not it is chartered by or affiliated with a parent organization which is incorporated) includes the words an unincorporated association, the registration must include descriptive words indicating the organization's unincorporated status. A security may not be registered in the name of an unincorporated association if the legal title to its property or the legal title to the funds with which the security is to be purchased is held by trustees. In such a case, the security should be registered in the name of the trustees in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. The term unincorporated association should not be used to describe a trust fund, a partnership or a business conducted under a trade name.

Examples: Local Union No. 13, Brotherhood of Operating Engineers, an unincorporated association. The Simpson Society, an unincorporated association.

(3) Partnership. Unless the name of a partnership includes the word partnership, the registration must include descriptive words indicating partnership status.

Examples: Red & Blue, a partnership. Abco and Co., a nominee partnership.

(e) Governmental entities and officers. A security may be registered in the name of a State, county, city, town, village, school district, or other governmental entity, body, or corporation established by law. If a governmental officer is authorized to act as a trustee or custodian, a security may be registered in the title, or name and title, of the governmental officer. The form of registration should reflect the capacity in which the governmental entity or officer is authorized to hold property (e.g., it may be authorized to hold property in its own name or as trustee or custodian).

Examples: Laura Woods, Treasurer, City of Twin Falls, Mo. State of Michigan. Village of Gaithersburg, Md. Pennsylvania State Highway Administration (Highway Road Repair Fund). Insurance Commissioner of Florida, trustee for benefit of policy holders of Sunshine Insurance Co. under F.S.A. Sec. 629.104. Commonwealth of Virginia, in trust for Virginia Surplus Property Agency. Gleason County Cemetery Commission, trustee under Md. Code Ann. Sec. 310.29.

(f) The United States Treasury. A security may be registered in the name of an individual, with the United States Treasury as beneficiary, provided a reference to the statute which authorizes gifts to be made to the United States to reduce the public debt, is included.

Example: John S. Green, payable on death [or P.O.D.] to U.S. Treasury to reduce the public debt (31 U.S.C. 3113).

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 57 FR 38774, Aug. 27, 1992; 76 FR 18063, Apr. 1, 2011]

§357.22   Transfers.

(a) General. A security may be transferred only as authorized by this part. A security may be transferred from an account in Legacy Treasury Direct® to an account in the commercial book-entry system or to an account in TreasuryDirect®. A security may also be transferred between accounts in Legacy Treasury Direct. The Department may delay transfer of a newly purchased security from a Legacy Treasury Direct account to an account in commercial book entry or TreasuryDirect for a period not to exceed (30) calendar days from the date of issue. This provides time for the investor to become aware of any unauthorized debits.

(1) Identification of securities to be transferred. The owner must identify the securities to be transferred, in the manner required by the transaction request. If such identification is not provided, the request will not be processed and will be returned.

(2) Denominational amounts. A security may be transferred from an account only in a denominational amount authorized by the offering under which the security was issued. Any security remaining in the securities portfolio after the transfer must also be in an authorized denominational amount.

(3) When transfer effective—(i) Transfer within Legacy Treasury Direct. A transfer of a security within Legacy Treasury Direct is effective when an appropriate entry is made in the name of the transferee on the Legacy Treasury Direct records.

(ii) Transfer from Legacy Treasury Direct to the commercial book-entry system. A transfer of a security from Legacy Treasury Direct to the commercial book-entry system is effective as provided in subpart B. If a transfer cannot be completed, and the security is sent back to Legacy Treasury Direct, the Department will redeposit the security in the original account.

(iii) Transfer from Legacy Treasury Direct to TreasuryDirect. A transfer of a security from Legacy Treasury Direct to TreasuryDirect is effective as provided in 31 CFR part 363. If the transfer cannot be completed, the Department will redeposit the security in the original account.

(b) Transfer upon death of an owner—(1) Right of survivorship. If a security is registered in beneficiary form or a form which provides for a right of survivorship, upon the death of an owner, the beneficiary or survivor shall be the sole and absolute owner, notwithstanding any purported testamentary disposition by the decedent and notwithstanding any State or other law to the contrary. The Department will honor a transaction request by a beneficiary or a survivor (in the case of a security registered in the form described in §357.21(b)(2)(i)(B)) only upon proof of death of an owner.

(2) Succession under law of domicile. If a security is registered in a form that does not provide for a right of survivorship, succession shall be determined in accordance with the applicable law of the deceased owner's domicile at the time of death.

(c) Representative succession. If a security is registered in the name of a representative who has died, resigned, or been removed, succession shall be determined in accordance with applicable law and the terms of the document under which the representative was acting.

(d) Organizational succession—(1) Corporation and unincorporated association. If a security is registered in the name of a corporation or an unincorporated association that has been dissolved, merged or consolidated into another organization, succession shall be determined in accordance with applicable law and the terms of the documents by which the dissolution, merger, or consolidation was effected.

(2) Partnership. If a partnership is dissolved or terminated, succession shall be determined in accordance with applicable law and the terms of the partnership agreement.

(e) Succession of governmental officer. If a security is registered in the name and title of a governmental officer who has died, resigned, or has been removed, succession shall be determined in accordance with applicable law.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986; 51 FR 18884, May 23, 1986, as amended at 53 FR 10074, Mar. 29, 1988; 62 FR 46861, Sept. 4, 1997; 64 FR 6527, Feb. 10, 1999; 70 FR 57441, Sept. 30, 2005; 75 FR 78901, Dec. 17, 2010; 76 FR 18064, Apr. 1, 2011]

§357.23   Judicial proceedings—sovereign immunity.

(a) Department and Federal Reserve Banks not proper parties. The Department and the Federal Reserve Banks are not proper defendants in a judicial proceeding involving competing claims to a security held in Legacy Treasury Direct® nor are they subject to any injunction or restraining order issued with respect to a security. The Department will not recognize a notice of a pending or contemplated judicial or administrative proceeding affecting a security in Legacy Treasury Direct.

(b) Orders—(1) Ownership rights. The Department will recognize a final order entered by a court that affects ownership rights in a security in Legacy Treasury Direct if:

(i) The order is consistent with the provisions of this subpart and the terms and conditions of the security; and

(ii) The Department has received evidence of the order, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Transaction request. The Department will honor a transaction request submitted by a person appointed by a court and having authority under an order of a court to dispose of the security or payment with respect thereto if:

(i) The ordered disposition of the security or payments with respect thereto is consistent with the provisions of this subpart and the terms and conditions of the security; and

(ii) The Department has received evidence of the appointment and order, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) Evidence required. Before the Department will recognize an order or determination entered by a court, the Department must have received a certified copy of the judgment, decree, or order and any additional documents deemed necessary by the Department. A certificate from the clerk of the court, bearing the seal of the court, must also be submitted stating that the judgment, decree, or order is still in full force and has not been stayed or appealed, and that the time for filing an appeal has passed. Before the Department will honor a transaction request submitted by a person appointed by a court, the Department must receive a certified copy of the order making the appointment and describing specifically the person's authority, and any additional documents deemed necessary by the Department.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

§357.24   Availability and disclosure of Legacy Treasury Direct® records.

(a) General. All records with respect to a Legacy Treasury Direct account are held confidential. Consistent with the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), information relating to those accounts will be released only to the owner except:

(1) As provided in these regulations;

(2) As provided in Treasury regulations contained in 31 CFR part 323; or

(3) As otherwise provided by law.

(b) Inquiries by owners. Information requested will be disclosed to an owner provided that:

(1) Sufficient information is provided to identify the owner; and

(2) Sufficient information is provided to identify the Legacy Treasury Direct account.

(c) Conditions for release. A request for information will be honored only if, in the sole judgment of the Department or the Federal Reserve Bank to which the inquiry is made, the identity and right of the requester to the information have been established.

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986; 51 FR 18884, May 23, 1986]

§357.25   Security interests.

(a) General. The Department will not recognize any notice or claim of a lien, encumbrance, or security interest of any kind, including a pledge, in a security in Legacy Treasury Direct® except as provided in §357.23 and in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Security for the performance of duty or obligation under Federal law. The Department will accept and hold pursuant to the provisions of 31 U.S.C. 9303, book-entry bonds, notes or bills submitted in lieu of a surety bond as security for the performance of a duty or obligation required by Federal law in accordance with said section.

§357.26   Direct Deposit.

(a) General. A payment by the Department with respect to a security shall be by direct deposit unless it is deemed necessary by the Department to make payment by another means. Direct Deposit payments are governed by the regulations at 31 CFR part 370.

(b) Names on account. Where the Legacy Treasury Direct® securities account is in the name of individual(s) in their own right, and the deposit account at the financial institution is in the name of individual(s) in their own right, the two accounts must contain at least one name that is common to both.

(c) Inquiry to financial institution. Where the deposit account to which payments are to be directed is held in the name of the financial institution itself acting as sole trustee, or as co-trustee, or is in the name of a commercially-managed investment fund, particular inquiry should first be made of the financial institution to make certain that the direct deposit payments can be received, and alternate arrangements made if it cannot do so.

(d) Payments to master account. All payments relating to a single account master record must be made to the same designated account at a financial institution.

(e) Deposit account. The deposit account to which payments are directed should preferably be established in a form identical to the registration of the securities account, particularly where the securities are registered jointly or with right of survivorship, to assure that the rights of ownership and of survivorship can be more easily identified and preserved. Neither the United States nor any Federal Reserve Bank shall be liable for any loss sustained because the interests of the holder(s) of a deposit account to which payments are made are not the same as the interests of the owner(s) of the security.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 57 FR 38774, Aug. 27, 1992; 61 FR 6113, Feb. 16, 1996; 64 FR 40487, July 26, 1999]

§357.27   Reinvestment.

(a) General. Upon the request of an owner, the redemption proceeds of a security may be reinvested at maturity in a new security in the same form of registration, provided a new security is then being offered by the Department and provision for reinvestment is made in the offering. The new security must be in an authorized denominational amount and will be issued in accordance with the terms of the offering. If the new security is issued at a premium or with accrued interest, an additional payment will be required from the investor. If the new security is issued at a discount, the difference will be remitted to the owner.

(b) Treasury bills. A request by an owner for a single or successive reinvestment of a Treasury bill must be made in accordance with the terms prescribed on the tender form submitted at the time of purchase of the original bill, or by a subsequent transaction request received not less than ten (10) business days prior to the maturity date of the bill. A request to revoke a direction to reinvest the proceeds of a bill must be received by the Department not less than ten (10) business days prior to the maturity date of the bill. If either a request for reinvestment or revocation of a reinvestment request is received less than ten (10) business days prior to maturity of the original bill, the Department may in its discretion act on such request if sufficient time remains for processing.

(c) Issue date not coincidental with maturity date. If the date on which a security matures or is called does not coincide with the issue date of the security being purchased through reinvestment, the Department may, at its option, hold the redemption proceeds in the same form of registration as the maturing or called security, but no interest shall accrue or be paid on such funds.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 18694, Apr. 16, 1997]

§357.28   Transaction requests.

(a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the Department, a transaction request must be submitted on a transaction request form. In the case of certain transactions specified by the Department, the owner's signature on the form must be certified or guaranteed, as provided in §357.31. If the transaction request form is received more than six (6) months after its execution, it will not be honored by the Department and will be returned to the sender for further instructions.

(b) Individuals—(1) General. A transaction request must be signed by the owner of the security. In addition to any required certification, a transaction request form executed by a person by mark, e.g., “(X)”, must be witnessed by a disinterested person. The following language should be added to the form and be signed by the witness:

Witness to signature by mark

 

Signature of witness

 

Address of witness

(2) Change of name. If an individual's name has been changed from that appearing in the registration, the individual should sign both names to the transaction request form and state the manner in which the change occurred.

Example: Deborah L. Gains, changed by order of court from Deborah G. O'Brien.

The individual must provide evidence, such as a certified copy of a court order, which confirms the change, unless it is indicated that the change of name resulted from marriage.

Example: Catherine M. Cole, changed by marriage from Catherine T. Murray.

(3) Natural guardians. A transaction request involving a security registered in the name of a natural guardian of a minor may be executed by the natural guardian. If a security is registered in the names of both parents as natural guardians of a minor, both must execute a transaction request. However, the Department will not honor a transaction request by the natural guardian(s):

(i) Which would transfer the security to a natural guardian in his or her own right; or

(ii) After the Department receives notice of the minor's attainment of majority, the qualification of a legal guardian or similar representative, or the death of the minor.

(4) Voluntary guardians. A transaction request involving a security belonging to an owner who has become incompetent may be executed by a voluntary guardian, but only after approval by the Department of the voluntary guardian's application for such designation. However, the Department will not honor a transaction request by the voluntary guardian:

(i) Which would transfer the security to a voluntary guardian in his or her own right; or

(ii) After the Department receives notice of the ward's restoration to competency, the qualification of a legal guardian or similar representative, or the death of the ward. See §357.21(b)(4).

(c) Representatives—(1) General. Any representative of an owner's estate, other than a trustee, may execute a transaction request form if the representative submits to the Department properly authenticated evidence of the authority to act. The evidence will not be accepted if dated more than one year prior to the date of submission of the transaction request.

(2) Decedent's estate has been settled previously. If a decedent's estate has been settled previously through judicial proceedings, the persons entitled may make a transaction request. A certified copy of the court-approved final accounting for the estate, the court's decree of distribution, or other appropriate evidence will be required.

(3) Special provisions under the law of the jurisdiction of the decedent's domicile. If there is no formal or regular administration and no representative of the decedent's estate is to be appointed, the person appointed to receive or distribute the assets of a decedent's estate without regular administration under applicable local law summary or small estates procedures may make a transaction request. Appropriate evidence will be required.

(4) When administration is required. If the total redemption value of the Treasury securities and undelivered payments, if any, held directly on our records that are the property of the decedent's estate is greater than $100,000, administration of the decedent's estate will be required. The redemption value of savings bonds and the principal amount of marketable securities will be used to determine the value of securities, and will be determined as of the date of death. Administration may also be required at the discretion of the Department for any case.

(5) Voluntary representative for small estates of decedents that are not being otherwise administered—(i) General. A voluntary representative is a person qualified according to paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section, to make a transaction request. The voluntary representative procedures are for the convenience of the Department; entitlement to the decedent's securities and held payments, if any, is determined by the law of the jurisdiction in which the decedent was domiciled at the date of death. Voluntary representative procedures may be used only if:

(A) There has been no administration, no administration is contemplated, and no summary or small estate procedures under applicable local law have been used;

(B) The total redemption value of the Treasury securities and held payments, if any, that are the property of the decedent's estate is $100,000 or less as of the date of death; and

(C) There is a person eligible to serve as the voluntary representative according to paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Authority of voluntary representative. A voluntary representative may make a transaction request to distribute the securities to or for the benefit of the persons entitled by laws of the jurisdiction in which the decedent was domiciled at the date of death.

(iii) Order of precedence for voluntary representative. An individual eighteen years of age or older may act as a voluntary representative according to the following order of precedence: A surviving spouse; if there is no surviving spouse, then a child of the decedent; if there are none of the above, then a descendant of a deceased child of the decedent; if there are none of the above, then a parent of the decedent; if there are none of the above, then a brother or sister of the decedent; if there are none of the above, then a descendant of a deceased brother or sister of the decedent; if there are none of the above, then a next of kin of the decedent, as determined by the law of the jurisdiction in which the decedent was domiciled at the date of death. As used in this order of precedence, child means a natural or adopted child of the decedent.

(iv) Liability. By serving, the voluntary representative warrants that the distribution of securities or proceeds is to or on behalf of the persons entitled by the law of the jurisdiction in which the decedent was domiciled at the date of death. The United States is not liable to any person for the improper distribution of securities or proceeds. Upon distribution of the securities or proceeds at the request of the voluntary representative, the United States is released to the same extent as if it had paid or delivered to a representative of the estate appointed pursuant to the law of the jurisdiction in which the decedent was domiciled at the date of death. The voluntary representative shall indemnify and hold harmless the United States and all creditors and persons entitled to the estate of the decedent. The amount of the indemnification is limited to an amount no greater than the value received by the voluntary representative.

(v) Creditor. If there has been no administration, no administration is contemplated, no summary or small estate procedures under applicable local law have been used, and there is no person eligible to serve as a voluntary representative pursuant to paragraph (e) of this section, then a creditor may make a claim for payment of the amount of the debt, providing the debt has not been barred by applicable local law.

(d) Private organizations—(1) Corporations and unincorporated associations. A transaction request involving a security registered in the name of a corporation or an unincorporated association (either in its own right or in a representative capacity), may be executed by an authorized person on its behalf. The request must be supported by evidence of the person's authority to act.

(2) Partnerships. A transaction request involving a security registered in the name of a partnership must be executed by a general partner.

(e) Government entities. A transaction request involving a security registered in the name of a State, county, city, school district, or other governmental entity, public body or corporation, must be executed by an authorized officer of the entity. The request must be supported by evidence of the officer's authority to act.

(f) Public officers. A transaction request involving a security registered in the title of a public officer must be executed by the officer. The request must be supported by evidence of incumbency.

(g) Attorneys-in-fact. A transaction request made by an attorney-in-fact must be accompanied by the original power of attorney or a properly authenticated copy. A power of attorney must be executed in the presence of a notary public or a certifying individual. See §357.31. The power of attorney will not be accepted if it was executed more than two (2) years before the date the transaction request was executed, unless the power provides that the authority of the attorney-in-fact continues notwithstanding the incapacity of the principal. If two or more attorneys-in-fact are named, all must execute the transaction request unless the power authorizes fewer than all to act. A transaction request executed by an attorney-in-fact seeking transfer of a security to the attorney-in-fact will not be accepted unless expressly authorized by the document appointing the attorney-in-fact.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986; 51 FR 18884, May 23, 1986, as amended at 70 FR 57431, Sept. 30, 2006]

§357.29   Time required for processing transaction request.

For purposes of a transaction request affecting payment instructions with respect to a security, a proper request must be received not less than ten (10) business days preceding the next payment date. If a transaction request is received less than ten (10) business days preceding a payment date, the Department may in its discretion act on such request if sufficient time remains for processing. If a transaction request is received too late for completion of the requested transaction, the transaction request will be acted upon with respect to future payments only.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1535-0068)

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 62 FR 18694, Apr. 16, 1997]

§357.30   Cases of delay or suspension of payment.

If evidence required by the Department in support of a transaction request is not received by the Department at least ten (10) business days before the maturity date of the security, or if payment at maturity has been suspended pursuant to 31 CFR 370.10, in cases of reinvestment, the Department will redeem the security and hold the redemption proceeds in the same form of registration as the security redeemed, pending further disposition. No other interest shall accrue or be paid on such proceeds after the security is redeemed.

[64 FR 40487, July 26, 1999]

§357.31   Certifying individuals.

(a) General. The following individuals may certify signatures on transaction request forms:

(1) Officers and employees of depository institutions, corporate central credit unions, and institutions that are members of Treasury-recognized signature guarantee programs who have been authorized:

(i) Generally to bind their respective institutions by their acts;

(ii) Unqualifiedly to guarantee signatures to assignments of securities; or

(iii) To certify assignments of securities.

(2) Officers and authorized employees of Federal Reserve Banks.

(3) Officers of Federal Land Banks, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and Banks for Cooperatives, the Central Bank for Cooperatives, and Federal Home Loan Banks.

(4) Commissioned officers and warrant officers of the Armed Forces of the United States but only with respect to signatures executed by Armed Forces personnel, civilian field employees, and members of their families.

(5) Such other persons as the Commissioner of the Fiscal Service or his designee may authorize.

(b) Foreign countries. The following individuals are authorized to certify signatures on transaction request forms executed in a foreign country:

(1) United States diplomatic or consular officials.

(2) Managers and officers of foreign branches of depository institutions and institutions that are members of Treasury-recognized signature guarantee programs.

(3) Notaries public and other officers authorized to administer oaths, provided their official position and authority are certified by a United States diplomatic or consular official under seal of the office.

(c) Duties and liabilities of certifying individuals—(1) General. Except as specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, a certifying individual shall require that the transaction request form be signed in the certifying individual's presence after he or she has established the identity of the person seeking the certification. An employee who is not an officer should insert the words “Authorized signature” in the space provided for the title. A certifying individual and the organization for which he or she is acting are jointly and severally liable for any loss the United States may incur as a result of the individual's negligence in making the certification.

(2) Signature guaranteed. The transaction request form need not be executed in the presence of a certifying individual if he or she unqualifiedly guarantees the signature, in which case the certifying individual shall, after the signature, add the following endorsement: “Signature guaranteed, First National Bank of Smithville, Smithville, NH, by A.B. Doe, President”, and add the date. In guaranteeing a signature, the certifying individual and the organization for which he or she is acting warrant to the Department that the signature is genuine and that the signer had the legal capacity to execute the transaction request.

(3) Absence of signature guaranteed by depository institution. A transaction request form need not be actually signed by the owner in any case where a certifying individual associated with a depository institution has placed an endorsement on the form reading substantially as follows: “Absence of signature by owner and validity of transaction guaranteed, Second State Bank of Jonesville, Jonesville, NC, by B.R. Butler, Vice President”. The endorsement should be dated, and the seal of the institution should be added. This form of endorsement is an unconditional guarantee to the Department that the institution is acting for the owner under proper authorization.

(d) Evidence of certifying individual's authority. The authority of a certifying individual to act is evidenced by affixing to the certification the following:

(1) Officers and employees of depository institutions. The institution's seal or signature guarantee stamp; if the institution is an authorized paying agent for U.S. Savings Bonds, a legible imprint of the paying agent's stamp; or, if the institution is a member of the Security Transfer Agents Medallion Program (STAMP), a legible imprint of the STAMP signature guarantee stamp.

(2) Officers and authorized employees of institutions that are members of Treasury-recognized signature guarantee programs. A legible imprint of the program's signature guarantee stamp, e.g., the STAMP, SEMP, MSP stamp for members of the Securities Transfer Agents Medallion Program, the Stock Exchanges Medallion Program, or the New York Stock Exchange Incorporated Medallion Signature Program, respectively.

(3) Officers and authorized employees of Federal Reserve Banks. Whatever is prescribed in procedures established by the Department.

(4) Officers and employees of corporate central credit unions and other entities listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. The entity's seal.

(5) Notaries public, diplomatic or consular officials. The official seal or stamp of the office. If the certifying individual has no seal or stamp, then the official's position must be certified by some other authorized individual, under seal or stamp, or otherwise proved to the satisfaction of the Department.

(6) Commissioned or warrant officers of the United States Armed Forces. A statement which sets out the officer's rank and the fact that the person executing the transaction request is one whose signature the officer is authorized to certify under the regulations in this part.

(7) Such other persons as the Commissioner of the Fiscal Service or his designee may authorize. The evidence specified by the Commissioner or his designee.

(e) Interested persons not to act as certifying individual. Neither the transferor, the transferee, nor any person having an interest in a security involved in the transaction may act as a certifying individual. However, an authorized officer or employee of a depository institution or of an institution that is a member of a Treasury-recognized signature guarantee program may act as a certifying individual on a transaction request for transfer of a security to the institution, or any request executed by another individual on behalf of the institution.

[59 FR 59038, Nov. 15, 1994]

§357.32   Submission of transaction requests; further information.

Transaction requests and requests for forms and information may be submitted to any Federal Reserve Bank currently serving as a Treasury Retail Securities Site or to the Bureau of the Fiscal Service, Legacy Treasury Direct®, P.O. Box 426, Parkersburg, West Virginia 26106-0426. A list of the Federal Reserve Banks currently serving as Treasury Retail Securities Sites is available upon request to the Bureau. The Federal Reserve Banks, as fiscal agents of the United States, are authorized to perform such functions as may be delegated to them by the Department in order to carry out the provisions of this part.

[51 FR 18265, May 16, 1986, as amended at 76 FR 18064, Apr. 1, 2011]

Subpart D—Additional Provisions

§357.40   Additional requirements.

In any case or any class of cases arising under these regulations, the Secretary of the Treasury (“Secretary”) may require such additional evidence and a bond of indemnity, with or without surety, as may in the judgment of the Secretary be necessary for the protection of the interests of the United States.

§357.41   Waiver of regulations.

The Secretary reserves the right, in the Secretary's discretion, to waive any provision(s) of these regulations in any case or class of cases for the convenience of the United States or in order to relieve any person(s) of unnecessary hardship, if such action is not inconsistent with law, does not adversely affect any substantial existing rights, and the Secretary is satisfied that such action will not subject the United States to any substantial expense or liability.

[61 FR 43630, Aug. 23, 1996]

§357.42   Liability of Department and Federal Reserve Banks.

The Department and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a tender, transaction request form, or Transfer Message, and are not required to verify the information. The Department and the Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set out in a tender, transaction request form, or Transfer Message, or evidence submitted in support thereof.

[61 FR 43630, Aug. 23, 1996]

§357.43   Liability for transfers to and from Legacy Treasury Direct®.

A depository institution or other entity that transfers to, or receives, a security from Legacy Treasury Direct is deemed to be acting as agent for its customer and agrees thereby to indemnify the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks for any claim, liability, or loss resulting from the transaction.

§357.44   [Reserved]

§357.45   Supplements, amendments, or revisions.

The Secretary may, at any time, prescribe additional supplemental, amendatory or revised regulations with respect to securities, including charges and fees for the maintenance and servicing of securities in book-entry form.

Appendix A to Part 357—Discussion of Final Rule

Background

Twenty-four written comments were received to the notice of proposed rulemaking from various sources, including Federal agencies, trade associations, as well as financial and commercial investment institutions. With the exception of one bank, all commentators endorsed the concept of a certificateless security.

The grouping and identification of the comments received have been made on a section-by-section basis, with an explanation of the action taken with respect thereto. As circumstances necessitated the publication of the rule in two segments, in order to make each part more understandable, certain definitions, such as those for “Department” and “securities”, have appeared in the proposed rule for both Legacy Treasury Direct® and TRADES, and were slightly modified in the proposed rules on TRADES. Because these modifications represent non-substantive clarifications, and to avoid confusion as between the two portions of the rules, the definitions as used in TRADES have been adopted.

Section-By-Section Analysis

Section 357.21   Registration.

The forms of registrations provided for securities to be held in Legacy Treasury Direct have different legal effect from those currently provided for in the case of definitive Treasury securities and for the Treasury's book-entry Treasury bill system. A comment was received that, as a result, this could lead to some confusion, and that the Treasury bill forms of recordation currently offered should be changed, particularly since Treasury bills will be phased into Legacy Treasury Direct gradually. The Bureau believes that the benefits of uniformity of rights and interests that Legacy Treasury Direct investors will derive far outweigh any possible confusion. As for confusion with the current Treasury bill book-entry system, given the fact that Treasury bills have a term of not more than a year, it is believed that the problem, if any, will be short-lived.

Given the importance of the change that Legacy Treasury Direct provides as to registration, the discussion thereof that accompanied the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is re-published below.

Forms of Registration. The proposed rule provides the investor with a variety of registration options. They are essentially similar to those provided for registered, definitive marketable Treasury securities. Investors should be particularly aware that, where the security is held in the names of two individuals, the registration chosen may establish rights of survivorship.

“The reason for establishing the rights of ownership for securities held in Legacy Treasury Direct is that it will give investors the assurance that the forms of registration they select will establish conclusively the rights to their book-entry securities. It will also serve to eliminate some of the uncertainties, as well as possible conflicts, between the varying laws of the several States.

“A Federal rule of ownership is being adopted by the Treasury for Legacy Treasury Direct securities. This regulatory approach is consistent with the one previously taken in the case of United States Savings Bonds. It will have the effect of overriding inconsistent State laws. See, Free v. Bland, 369 U.S. 663 (1962).

“In the case of individuals (who are likely to be by far the majority of holders of securities in Legacy Treasury Direct), the options offered will permit virtually all the preferred forms of ownership. At the investor's option, it will be possible to provide for the disposition of the securities upon death through rights of survivorship.

Coownership registration. One option is the coownership form of registration, i.e., “A or B.” Unlike the current Treasury bill book-entry system being administered by the Bureau of the Fiscal Service, a security held in Legacy Treasury Direct registered in this form will be transferable upon the written request of either coowner. Other changes in the account may also be made upon the request of either party. While this form of registration will facilitate the receipt of payments and provide ease in conducting transactions, care should obviously be exercised in designating a coowner.

Joint ownership. For those who would prefer to have the transferability of a security held in two names contingent upon the request of both, the joint form of registration will be appropriate. This form of registration, i.e., “A and B, with [without] the right of survivorship,” will require the agreement of both parties to conduct any authorized transaction.

Beneficiary form. The beneficiary form, i.e., “A payable on death to (POD) B,” will permit the owner to have sole control of the account during his/her lifetime, but in the event of death, the account will pass by right of survivorship to the beneficiary.”

One commentator questioned the “natural guardian” and “voluntary guardian” forms of registration provided in the regulations, pointing out that financial institutions are reluctant to establish an account in the name of a natural guardian of a minor because of the uncertainties as to who might be entitled to the funds on the death of the natural guardian or minor, or when the minor reached majority. It was mentioned that a bank would be reluctant to open an account in the name of a voluntary guardian, or to release funds from an existing account to a voluntary guardian because of the potential risk in the event of a claim from a court-appointed guardian. It seems apparent that the comment was prompted by the provision that appeared in the proposed rule that the account held in Legacy Treasury Direct and the deposit account to which payments are to be directed should be in the same form. As hereafter pointed out in the discussion under the payment section, this is not a requirement.

While parents are universally recognized as the natural guardians of the person of minors, they have generally not been recognized as entitled to control the estates of these minors, except perhaps in the case of small amounts. Traditionally, the guardian of the estate of a minor involves judicial appointment and supervision. In order to provide a means of dealing with the problem of disposing of securities inadvertently registered in the name of minors without requiring the appointment of a legal guardian and to provide a means for investing funds of a minor, which did not technically qualify for investment under the Uniform Gifts to Minors Act, the Department decided to provide recognition for natural guardians.

The voluntary guardianship procedure is wholly a creature of the Department's regulations. It was established in recognition of the burden placed on an incompetent's estate and his/her family by requiring the appointment of a legal guardian to receive the interest on, or to redeem securities for, the account of an individual who has become incompetent, at least where the incompetent's estate is relatively modest. This form of registration is not available on original issue and is limited to an aggregate of $20,000 (par amount) of Legacy Treasury Direct securities. The $20,000 limit in connection with the use of the voluntary guardianship procedure is in keeping with the limits used in connection with the summary administration of decedents' estates under the laws of many States.

Section 357.23   Judicial proceedings.

No comments were received regarding the provisions on judicial proceedings. Given their importance, the discussion that accompanied the publication thereof in proposed form is included here.

Judicial proceedings. Under the principle of sovereign immunity, neither the Department nor a Federal Reserve Bank, acting as fiscal agent of the United States, will recognize a court order that attempts to restrain or enjoin the Department or a Federal Reserve Bank from making payment on a security or from disposing of a security in accordance with instructions of the owner as shown on the Department's records.

“The Department will recognize a final court order affecting ownership rights in Legacy Treasury Direct securities provided that the order is consistent with the provisions of subpart C and the terms and conditions of the security, and the appropriate evidence, as described in §357.23(c), is supplied to the Department. For example, the Department may recognize final orders arising from divorce or dissolution of marriage, creditor or probate proceedings, or cases involving application of a State slayer's act. The Department will also recognize a transaction request submitted by a person appointed by a court and having authority under an order of a court to dispose of the security or payment with respect thereto, provided conditions similar to those above are met.”

Section 357.25   Security interests.

Legacy Treasury Direct is not designed to reflect or handle the various types of security interests that may arise in connection with a Treasury bond, note or bill. However, the Treasury has from time to time and to a limited extent held in safekeeping, for such agencies as the Customs Service and Immigration and Naturalization Service, Treasury securities submitted in lieu of surety bonds in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 9303. While the Federal Reserve Banks handle the majority of such pledges and will continue to do so, as this statute requires the Treasury to accept these Government obligations so pledged, a provision has been added for accepting and holding book-entry securities submitted for such purposes.

Section 357.26   Payments.

(a) General. Most comments focused on the provisions on payments. A key feature of Legacy Treasury Direct will be the making of payments by the direct deposit method (also known as the electronic funds transfer or ACH method). Checks will be issued only under extraordinary circumstances. A number of comments endorsed the concept of payment by direct deposit as an improvement given the difficulties associated with checks.

One comment expressed concern as to who would have the burden of resolving errors in cases where a receiving financial institution fails to properly credit a payment. The Department has concluded that while the direct deposit payment method is not without risks, it is far superior to the use of checks, in terms of the risks, potential losses, and costs. In a case where a receiving institution fails to act in accordance with the instructions given it, the Bureau intends to use its best efforts to assist investors in rectifying the error.

(b) Direct deposit. A number of comments expressed the view that the Legacy Treasury Direct payment system should adopt either the rules governing the direct deposit of Government payments (31 CFR part 210), or the rules of the National Automated Clearing House Association (“NACHA Rules”), but not separate rules. The final rules have adopted some of the existing practices applicable to commercial ACH payments, but it is not possible for the Department of the Treasury to conform to all of these rules. For example, the Treasury has no authority to indemnify recipients of direct deposit payments, although such indemnification by a sender is contemplated in the NACHA rules and was advocated in several comments. It should also be noted that the rules applicable to Legacy Treasury Direct payments are modeled, to some extent, on the rules for Government direct deposit payments in order to take advantage of the large number of entities that are a part of the Government direct deposit network. See the discussion under paragraph (b)(2). Where there are unique rules applicable to Legacy Treasury Direct, however, they are explained here.

Given the variance between the procedures set out in the proposed rules and existing practice, and the increased burdens resulting therefrom, several clearing house associations and financial institutions requested that the implementation of Legacy Treasury Direct be delayed from July 1986 to July 1987. The Treasury is satisfied that the added burdens that would have been imposed on financial institutions to receive Legacy Treasury Direct payments under the proposed rules have been effectively eliminated in the final rule. Thus, Treasury plans to implement the system on or about the original target date. The final rules are being published, however, in advance of actual implementation so as to give financial institutions an opportunity to make whatever remaining, minor procedural changes as may be necessary.

(b)(1) Information on deposit account at financial institution. The proposed regulations provided that the owner of a security in Legacy Treasury Direct, or in the case of ownership by two individuals, the first-named owner, must be an owner of, and so designated, on the account at the receiving financial institution. The regulations also provided that in any case in which a security is held jointly or with right of survivorship, the account at the financial institution should be established in a form that assures that the rights of each joint owner or survivor will be preserved.

The rule requiring the naming of the first-named owner on the receiving financial institution account was based on tax reporting considerations. It has now been determined that the first-named security owner need not be named on the receiving deposit account.

The rule relating to establishment of the receiving account in joint ownership cases in the same form as the registration of the security was intended to be a notice to investors of a potential problem, rather than a requirement. In cases where an investor intends a beneficiary, joint owner or coowner to receive securities after the investor's death, this intention may be defeated if the recipient is not also named on the receiving deposit account. It is up to the investor to examine his or her particular circumstances and determine whether the form in which the deposit account will be held is satisfactory. This matter has been clarified in paragraph (b)(1)(v) of the final rule. Except for the restriction described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) (see below), the Treasury does not intend to establish any limitations on how the receiving deposit account is held.

Several comments addressed the issue of the registration of the security versus the title of the deposit account. Two comments pointed out that if the deposit account must be in the same form as the registration of the security, then existing traditional forms of ownership for bank accounts, which do not include all the forms of registration for securities held in Legacy Treasury Direct, would not suffice. Concerns were also expressed that with multiple forms of ownership, financial institutions could become involved in disputes with investors. As noted above, there is no requirement that the Legacy Treasury Direct account and the deposit account be identical. The responsibility to choose the title of the deposit account rests with the investor.

Another comment objected to the rule that the first-named security owner be named on the receiving deposit account because the rule would eliminate the possibility of payment to an account at a financial institution in the name of a mutual fund, security dealer, or insurance company. Although the change in the tax reporting rule described above permits payment to such accounts, as well as to trust accounts, since it appears that there is a question as to the capability of some receiving institutions to handle such payments, investors are strongly urged to consult their financial institution before requesting such payment arrangements. See paragraph (b)(1)(iii).

It should be emphasized that any payments that must be made by check will be made in the form in which the Legacy Treasury Direct account is held, which may be different than the form of the deposit account. Investors should be aware that this may result in checks being issued, and thus payment being made, in a form different than they intended the direct deposit payments to be made. For example, if Investor A purchases a security in his or her name alone with instructions that payments be directed to a financial institution for the account of a money market fund, any checks that must be issued will be drawn in the name of Investor A. This could happen if Investor A furnishes erroneous payment instructions and the problem cannot be resolved before a payment date, in which case a check would be issued.

The one restriction on the form of the deposit account that appears in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of the final regulations is a rule that where the Legacy Treasury Direct account is in the name of individual(s), and the receiving deposit account is also in the name of individual(s), one of the individuals on the Legacy Treasury Direct account must be named on the deposit account. This rule is intended to provide a means to determine the disposition of the payment, if necessary. The Treasury does not expect financial institutions to monitor this rule.

Provision has been made in paragraph (b)(1)(vii) to permit financial institutions to request “mass changes” of deposit account numbers without the submission of individual requests from investors to Legacy Treasury Direct. This procedure is intended for use where an institution changes all or an entire group of its account numbers, typically as a result of an organizational change. Legacy Treasury Direct will honor requests from a financial institution to change deposit account numbers under such circumstances, with the understanding that the institution agrees to indemnify the Treasury and the security owners for any losses resulting from errors made by the institution. If the institutions does not wish to use the “mass change” procedure, then the change in account number must be requested by the investor, using the authorized transaction request form. See §357.28.

Some institutions voiced concern in general about investor errors in furnishing the Legacy Treasury Direct a deposit account number and the financial institution's routing number. Although the Treasury plans to provide as much assistance to investors as possible, the investor must bear the responsibility for securing accurate payment information. Investors are urged to consult with their receiving institution to verify the accuracy of the payment information, since neither the Treasury nor the receiving financial institution would be responsible for payment errors resulting from erroneous information provided by investors.

The proposed rule provided in §357.26(b)(1)(iii) that the designation of a financial institution by a security owner to receive payments from Legacy Treasury Direct would constitute the appointment of the financial institution as agent for the owner for the receipt of payments. The crediting of a payment to the financial institution for deposit to the owner's account, in accordance with the owner's instructions, would discharge the United States of any further responsibility for the payment. One comment noted that, in contrast, the rule in 31 CFR 210.13 for Federal recurring payments is that the United States is not acquitted until the payment is credited to the account of the recipient on the books of a financial institution.

Although, in principle, the same rules should apply to all Government payments, the proposed Legacy Treasury Direct rule has been retained in the final regulations on the basis of the major differences in the procedures to be used in Legacy Treasury Direct. Most significantly, the Treasury will not be securing any written verification (i.e., an enrollment form) from a financial institution as to the accuracy of the deposit account number and other payment information, as is now the practice in the case of payments under 31 CFR part 210. Under these circumstances, the Treasury cannot, in effect, guarantee that a payment will be credited by a financial institution to the correct account. It should also be noted that this rule on acquittance of the United States is consistent with the provision in §357.10(c) of the proposed regulations on TRADES. In practice, however, the Treasury plans to participate actively in seeking to locate and recover any payments that have been misdirected.

(b)(2) Agreement of financial institution. The proposed rule provided, in §357.26(b)(2), that a financial institution which has agreed to accept payments under 31 CFR part 210 shall be deemed to have agreed to accept payments from Legacy Treasury Direct. The rule further provided that an institution could not be designated to receive Legacy Treasury Direct payments unless it had agreed to accept direct deposit payments under 31 CFR part 210.

One financial institution commented that a receiving institution that has already agreed to accept part 210 payments should have the choice as to whether to accept payments from Legacy Treasury Direct. The basis for this comment was the perception that the receipt of Legacy Treasury Direct payments would require the implementation of special procedures by the financial institution and expose it to additional risks. As explained earlier, the Treasury has significantly modified the procedures and reduced the requirements imposed upon a financial institution in order to receive Legacy Treasury Direct payments, and decreased as well the risks an institution will incur in the receipt of such payments. Thus, the proposed rule on eligibility of receiving institutions has been retained in the final rule in essentially the same form.

Two other comments were made to the effect that the category of institutions receiving payments should be broadened. In deciding to authorize payments to all institutions receiving part 210 payments, the Treasury considered the fact that many more institutions are designated endpoints for Government (direct deposit) payments than for commercial ACH payments. In order to afford investors the widest choice of recipient institutions, all institutions that had agreed to accept part 210 payments were designated as authorized recipients. Treasury has now broadened the rule further to also authorize those financial institutions that are willing to agree to accept part 210 payments in the future. This rule will permit investors to designate institutions that are not now receiving Government direct deposit payments as the recipients of their Legacy Treasury Direct payments if the institutions make appropriate arrangements with the Federal Reserve Bank of their District.

(b)(3) Pre-notification. A significant feature of the Legacy Treasury Direct payment procedure will be the use of a pre-notification message sent to the receiving financial institution in advance of the first payment. This procedure, already in use for commercial ACH payments, alerts the institution that a payment will be made and provides an opportunity for verification of the accuracy of the account information.

The proposed regulations provided that the financial institution would be required to reject the pre-notification message within four calendar days after the date of receipt if the information contained in the message did not agree with the records of the institution or if for any other reason the institution would not be able to credit the payment. The rules also stated that a failure to reject the message within the specified time period would be deemed an acceptance of the pre-notification and a warranty that the information in the message was accurate.

Because there was some confusion over when the pre-notification message woud be sent, the final rules clarify, in paragraph (b)(3)(i), that in most cases, this will occur shortly after establishment of a Legacy Treasury Direct account. The Treasury has under consideration a system change that would permit a second pre-notification to be sent closer to the time of the payment if the first payment is to occur a substantial length of time after account establishment.

One of the items of information contained in a pre-notification message is the name the investor has indicated appears on the deposit account. Comments were received that existing procedures and software do not permit automatic verification of the account name. Although there is apparently some variation in practice, and some institutions undertake to verify the account name information manually, the Treasury has decided to drop the account name verification requirement in the final rules. This means that under paragraph (b)(3)(ii), a financial institution need only verify the account number and type designations on the pre-notification message. However, the Treasury urges institutions which are able to verify account names to do so and encourages the development of software that would have this capability.

A number of comments urged that the four-day period provided for an institution to reject a pre-notification message be lengthened. After consideration of the various alternatives proposed, the Treasury has concluded that an eight-day period will meet the needs of most institutions. See paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of the final rule. In responding to a pre-notification message, an institution may use the NACHA's “notification of change” procedure, standardized automated rejection codes, or any other similar standard procedure. Upon receipt of such notification, the Treasury will either make the necessary changes in the Legacy Treasury Direct account or contact the investor, depending on the circumstances.

One commentator objected to the warranty by the receiving institution as to the accuracy of the pre-notification information, particularly in view of the manual verification or changes in procedures that would be required, and the resulting possibility of error. As previously noted, the requirement to verify an account name has been eliminated. In addition, language has been added to make it clear that the verification is limited to the time of pre-notification. The Treasury is of the view that the warranty is a useful concept in encouraging institutions to respond to pre-notification messages and will benefit all concerned by increasing the likelihood that payments will be made accurately and to the appropriate party.

(b)(5) Responsibility of financial institution. The proposed regulations provided, in §357.26(b)(5)(ii), that a financial institution that receives a Legacy Treasury Direct payment on behalf of a customer would be required to promptly notify the Treasury when it has made a change in the status or ownership of the customer's deposit account, such as the deletion of the first-named owner of the security from the title of the account, or when the institution is on notice of the death or incompetency of the owner of the deposit account.

Several financial institutions objected to this requirement on the grounds that it would be burdensome and would require the development of new procedures to monitor the changes in deposit accounts. Specifically, several institutions indicated they would be unable to relate the receipt of Legacy Treasury Direct payments, which would be handled in a centralized area of the institution, to the changes being made in a deposit account, which are handled in another operational area of the institution. These institutions said they would not necessarily be aware of who is the first-named owner of the security in Legacy Treasury Direct, and that more responsibility should be placed on the security owner in reporting changes.

In response to these comments, the Treasury has narrowed the notification rule, in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of the final rule, to require a financial institution to notify Legacy Treasury Direct only in cases where it is on notice of the death or legal incapacity of an individual named on the deposit account, or where it is on notice of the dissolution of a corporation named in the deposit account. Upon receipt of notice by the area of the institution that receives credit payments, the institution will be required to return any Legacy Treasury Direct payments received thereafter.

(b)(6) Payments in error/duplicate payments. The proposed regulations, in §357.26(b)(6), set out rules describing the procedure that would be followed in cases where the Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank has made a duplicate payment or a payment in error. First, the financial institution to which the payment was directed would be provided with a notice asking for the return of the amount of the payment remaining in the deposit account. If the financial institution were unable to return any part of the payment, it would be required to notify the Treasury or its Federal Reserve Bank, and provide the names and addresses of the persons who withdrew funds from the deposit account after the date of the duplicate payment or the payment in error. If the financial institution did not respond to the notice within 30 days, the financial institution's account at its Federal Reserve Bank could be debited in the amount of the duplicate or improper payment.

Several institutions raised objections about various aspects of the above procedures. One stated that 30 days was an insufficient time to respond and urged conformity with the rules in 31 CFR part 210 permitting a 60-day response time. Some objected to furnishing information about the persons who withdrew money from an account. Several objected in principle to the provision authorizing the debiting of their accounts. Several comments indicated that if a payment is returned by a financial institution using an automated payment reversal procedure, then only the full amount of the payment (not a partial amount) can be reversed.

In the final rule, the Treasury has clarified the procedures. The requirement to provide the names of persons who withdrew funds from an account has been changed. In paragraph (b)(6)(i), financial institutions are asked to provide only such information as they have about the matter. The debiting of an institution's account at a Federal Reserve Bank is intended to be simply a last resort if the institution fails totally to respond to the notice of a duplicate payment or payment made in error. See paragraph (b)(6)(iii). The time provided for response to this notice has been lengthened to 60 days.

The final rule has also been clarified in paragraph (b)(6)(i) to provide that the amount that should be returned is an amount equal to the payment. The Treasury reserves the right, however, to request the return by other than automated means of a partial amount of a payment made in error. It is anticipated that such a procedure would occur only if the notice of a payment made in error is not issued immediately after the payment was made.

(d) Handling of payments by Federal Reserve Banks. Some of the comments raised a question about the liability of the Federal Reserve Banks in making payments. The proposed rule, in §357.26(d)(2), provided that each Federal Reserve Bank would be responsible only to the Department and would not be liable to any other party for any loss resulting from its handling of payments. This rule was taken from the existing regulations in 31 CFR part 210 (see §210.3(f)), and is simply a restatement of existing law.

In making payments, the Federal Reserve Banks are acting in the capacity as fiscal agents of the United States, pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 391. They are not acting in an individual (banking) capacity. If a Federal Reserve Bank misdirects a payment contrary to instructions provided by the investor, the United States, as principal, may remain liable to the investor for the payment. The United States could seek to recover any loss from its agent, the Fedeal Reserve Bank. However, because the proposed rule simply stated a legal conclusion and tended to create the impression that the rule was broader than intended, it has been omitted from the final regulations.

Section 357.31   Certifying individuals.

For clarity, the warranties which accompany the use of a “Signature guaranteed” stamp have been set out.

Section 357.42   Preservation of existing rights.

This section has been deleted. The same subject-matter will be covered in §357.1, as finally adopted.

Section 357.43   Liability of Department and Federal Reserve Banks.

This section was published as §357.42 in the notice of proposed rulemaking for TRADES. The final version will be published after all the comments on the rulemaking for TRADES have been reviewed and considered.

Section 357.46   Supplements, amendments, or revisions.

Provision for “charges and fees for services and maintenance of book-entry Treasury securities” has been added in the event circumstances should dictate their imposition.

[51 FR 18260, May 16, 1986; 51 FR 18884, May 23, 1986]

Appendix B to Part 357—TRADES Commentary

Introduction

The adoption of regulations for the Treasury/Reserve Automated Debt Entry System (“TRADES”) is the culmination of a multi-year Treasury process of moving from issuing securities only in definitive (physical/certificated/paper) form to issuing securities exclusively in book-entry form. The TRADES regulations provide the legal framework for all commercially-maintained Treasury book-entry securities. For a more detailed explanation of the procedural and legal development of book-entry and the TRADES regulations, see the preamble to the rule proposed March 4, 1996 (61 FR 8420), as well as the earlier proposals cited therein 51 FR 8846 (March 14, 1986); 51 FR 43027 (November 28, 1986); 57 FR 12244 (April 9, 1992).

Comparison of TRADES and Legacy Treasury Direct

A person may hold interests in Treasury book-entry securities either in TRADES1 or Legacy Treasury Direct. The following summarizes the major differences between the two systems.

1In TRADES a Person's interest in a Treasury book-entry security is a Security Entitlement, as described in TRADES. A Participant's interest in a marketable Treasury book-entry security also is a Security Entitlement. A Participant's Security Entitlement is different than a Security Entitlement as described in Revised Article 8, with respect to the Participant's rights against the issuer. A non-Participant's Security Entitlement is described in Revised Article 8.

Persons holding Treasury book-entry securities in TRADES hold their interests in such securities in a tiered system of ownership accounts. In TRADES, Treasury, through its fiscal agents, the Federal Reserve Banks, recognizes the identity only of Participants (persons with a direct account relationship with a Federal Reserve Bank). While Participants may be beneficial owners of interests in Treasury book-entry securities, there are many beneficial owners of such interests that are not Participants. Such beneficial owners hold their interests through one or more Securities Intermediaries such as banks, brokerage firms or securities clearing organizations.

In TRADES, the rights of non-Participant beneficial owners may be exercised only through their Securities Intermediaries. Neither Treasury nor the Federal Reserve Banks have any obligation to a non-Participant beneficial owner of an interest in a Treasury book-entry security. Two examples illustrate this principle. First, except where a pledge has been recorded directly on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §357.12(c)(1), Federal Reserve Banks, as Treasury's fiscal agents, will act only on instructions of the Participant in whose Securities Account the Treasury book-entry security is maintained in recording transfers of an interest in a Treasury book-entry security. A beneficial owner of the interest that is a non-Participant has no ability to direct a transfer on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank. Second, Treasury discharges its payment obligation with respect to a Treasury book-entry security when payment is credited to a Participant's account or paid in accordance with the Participant's instructions. Neither Treasury nor a Federal Reserve Bank has any payment obligation to a non-Participant beneficial owner of an interest in a Treasury book-entry security. A non-Participant beneficial owner receives its payment when its Securities Intermediary credits the owner's account.

Persons holding Treasury book-entry securities in Legacy Treasury Direct, on the other hand, hold their securities accounts on records maintained by Treasury through its fiscal agents, the Federal Reserve Banks. The primary characteristic of Legacy Treasury Direct is a direct account relationship between the beneficial owner of a Treasury book-entry security and Treasury. In Legacy Treasury Direct, Treasury discharges its payment obligation when payment is credited to the depository institution specified by the beneficial owner of the Treasury book-entry security, paid directly to the beneficial owner by check, or paid in accordance with the beneficial owner's instructions. Unlike TRADES, Legacy Treasury Direct does not provide a mechanism for the exchange of cash to settle a secondary market transaction, nor are pledges of Treasury book-entry securities held in Legacy Treasury Direct generally recognized. Accordingly, Legacy Treasury Direct is suited for persons who plan to hold their Treasury securities until maturity, and provides an alternative for investors who are concerned about holding securities through intermediaries and who do not wish to hold their interests in Treasury securities indirectly in TRADES.

Scope of Regulation

Just as the scope of Revised Article 8 is limited,2 the scope of this regulation is limited. It is not a comprehensive codification of the law governing securities, transactions in securities or the law of contracts for the purchase or sale of securities. Similarly, it is not a codification of all laws that could affect a person's interest in a Treasury book-entry security. For example, state laws regarding divorce or intestate succession could well affect which persons have rights in the interest in a Treasury book-entry security. Moreover, the regulations deal with certain aspects of transactions in Treasury securities, such as perfection of a security interest and its effects and not other aspects, such as the contractual relationship between a debtor and its secured party, which are left to applicable law3. See the discussion under §357.10 of the Section-by-Section Analysis.

2U.C.C. Revised Article 8, Prefatory Note at 12.

3The regulations in 31 CFR 306.118(b), which are being supplanted by TRADES, state that “applicable law” covers how a transfer or pledge is “effected” as well as perfected. Except with respect to security interests marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank, TRADES does not address how a security interest in a Treasury book-entry security is created or what law governs the creation of a security interest. Section 357.11(a) of TRADES, which establishes the choice of law for interests other than those covered by §357.10, addresses the choice of law with respect to the perfection, effect of perfection or non-perfection, and priority of security interests, but does not address the law governing creation or attachment of a security interest. This is consistent with the scope and choice of law provisions of Revised Article 8.

Section-by-Section Analysis

Section 357.0   Dual book-entry systems.

Section 357.0 sets forth that Treasury provides two systems for maintaining Treasury book-entry securities—TRADES and Legacy Treasury Direct. Subpart A of part 357 of 31 CFR contains general information about TRADES and Legacy Treasury Direct. Subpart B contains the TRADES regulations. Subpart C contains the Legacy Treasury Direct regulations. Subpart D contains miscellaneous provisions. Thus, in its totality, part 357 sets forth in one place the complete set of governing rules for Treasury securities issued in book-entry form.

Section 357.1   Effective date.

Section 357.1 establishes the effective date for TRADES. TRADES applies to outstanding securities formerly governed by 31 CFR part 306, subpart O. Conforming changes to parts 306, 356, and 358 are being made to coincide with the publication of TRADES in final form. Consistent with the approach set forth in Revised Article 8 (see §8-603 and the official comment thereto), on and after the effective date these regulations will apply to all transactions, including transactions commenced prior to the effective date. Revised Article 8, in Section 8-603, gave secured parties four months after the effective date to take action to continue the perfection of their security interests. TRADES, through its delayed effectiveness, provides a similar period. In TRADES, January 1, 1997, becomes the date by which such actions must be completed.

The effective date for TRADES is January 1, 1997. While TRADES is based in large part on Revised Article 8 that has received widespread attention in the financial community and already has been adopted in 28 states,4 Treasury has determined that TRADES will be effective on January 1, 1997, to ensure a smooth transition to TRADES. In making that determination, Treasury has taken into account the time required by other Government-Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) to promulgate similar regulations for their securities. Such an effective date, when combined with TRADES having been published in proposed form with a 60-day comment period, should provide sufficient time for an orderly transition to the new TRADES rules.

4As of August 1, 1996, those states are: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming. See discussion accompanying footnote 11.

Section 357.2   Definitions.

Section 357.2 contains definitions for use in subparts B and C. While most of the definitions are straightforward, four terms—Participant, Entitlement Holder, Security Entitlement and Securities Intermediary—are critical to an understanding of the proposed TRADES regulations.

(a) Participant. A Participant is a person that has a securities account relationship in its name with a Federal Reserve Bank. Accordingly, the Federal Reserve Bank and Treasury know both the identity of the persons maintaining these accounts and the Treasury book-entry securities held in these accounts.

(b) Securities Intermediary. Securities Intermediaries are persons (other than individuals, except as described below) that are in the business of holding interests in Treasury book-entry securities for others. Participants can be, and usually are, Securities Intermediaries.

In addition, entities such as clearing corporations, banks, brokers and dealers can be Securities Intermediaries in a single chain of ownership of a Treasury security. An individual, unless registered as a broker or dealer under the federal securities laws, cannot be a Securities Intermediary. As an illustration of a possible chain of ownership, in the following chart, the Federal Reserve Bank, Participant and Broker-Dealer are all Securities Intermediaries.

Treasury
   
Federal Reserve Bank
|
Participant
|
Broker-Dealer
|
Individual Holder

(c) Entitlement Holder. An Entitlement Holder is any person for whom a Securities Intermediary holds an interest in a Treasury book-entry security. In the above example Individual Holder, Broker-Dealer and Participant are all Entitlement Holders. Thus, a person can be both a Securities Intermediary and an Entitlement Holder. See also the commentary on “Security Entitlement.”

(d) Security Entitlement. A Security Entitlement is the interest that an Entitlement Holder has in a Treasury book-entry security. In the example, Participant, Broker-Dealer and Individual Holder all hold Security Entitlements. The rights and property interests associated with a Security Entitlement of a Participant held on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank (“Participant's Security Entitlement”) are, however, different from the rights and property interests associated with other Security Entitlements. As provided in §357.10(a), Federal law defines the scope and nature of a Participant's Security Entitlement. While TRADES is based in large part on Revised Article 8, the meaning of Security Entitlement under federal law is different than under Revised Article 8. For example, Participants have a direct claim against the United States for interest and principal even though, under state law, an Entitlement Holder would only have a claim against its Securities Intermediary for such payment. To the extent not inconsistent with this regulation, the scope and nature of a Security Entitlement of an Entitlement Holder below the level of a Participant, (Broker-dealer and Individual Holder in the example above), is defined by applicable state law, as determined pursuant to §357.11. It should also be noted that while a Participant's rights have Federal law components under §357.10(a), the nature of a Security Entitlement held by a lower tier intermediary on the books of a Participant is determined pursuant to applicable law as provided in §357.11.

Section 357.10   Law governing the United States and Reserve Banks.

Section 357.10(a) provides that the rights and obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks (with one exception detailed below), with respect to both the TRADES system and Treasury book-entry securities maintained in TRADES are governed solely and exclusively by Federal law. Thus, claims against the United States and Federal Reserve Banks of both Participants and all other persons with an interest (or claiming an interest) in a Treasury book-entry security maintained in TRADES are governed by Federal law. Federal law is defined to include TRADES, the offering circulars pursuant to which the Treasury securities are sold, the offering announcements and Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circulars.5 Prior to March 1, 1993, the terms of each offering of Treasury securities, except for Treasury bills were set forth in an offering circular published in the Federal Register.6 Since March 1, 1993, all Treasury book-entry securities have been offered pursuant to a uniform offering circular set forth at 31 CFR part 356.

5A “Federal Reserve Bank Operating Circular” is defined in §357.2 as the publication issued by each Federal Reserve Bank that sets forth the terms and conditions under which the Reserve Bank maintains Book-entry Securities Accounts and transfers Book-entry Securities.

6Treasury bills were issued pursuant to one master offering circular (31 CFR part 349, removed, and replaced by 31 CFR part 356) effective March 1, 1993. (58 FR 412)

While TRADES is based in large measure on Revised Article 8, a fundamental principle of these regulations (and a divergence from Revised Article 8) is that the obligations of the issuer (the United States) and the Federal Reserve Banks, as well as all claims with respect to TRADES or a Treasury book-entry security against Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank, are governed solely by Federal law. Thus, for example, those parts of Revised Article 8 that detail obligations of issuers (or their agents) of securities are not applicable to either the United States or Federal Reserve Banks.7 In addition, neither the United States nor Federal Reserve Banks have any obligations to persons holding their interests in a Treasury book-entry security at levels below the level of a Participant or to any other person claiming an interest in a Treasury book-entry security (with the limited exception set out in §357.12(c)(1)). Thus, there are no derivative rights against either the United States or the Federal Reserve Banks.

7The regulations in subpart C of this part set out other obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks for securities held in Legacy Treasury Direct. These regulations preempt applicable state law.

In interpreting this section, it is important to note that the scope of TRADES, like that of Revised Article 8, is limited. Accordingly, the governing law set forth in §357.10(a) is applicable only to the matters set forth in §357.10(a). Other laws remain applicable and could affect the holders of book-entry securities.

For example, the tax treatment of Securities Entitlements is outside the scope of TRADES and other law (the Federal income tax code) is applicable in determining such tax treatment. Similarly, nothing in §357.10(a) limits the applicability of other laws to matters such as whether the activities of Participants or Securities Intermediaries with respect to interests in Treasury book-entry securities are subject to banking or securities laws.

While TRADES in §357.10(a) defines what law governs the contract between the United States, as issuer, and the holder of a Security Entitlement, it is not a complete statement of the contract law applicable to the United States or Federal Reserve Banks. For example, if a Participant obtains a discount window loan from a Federal Reserve Bank and agrees to pledge collateral, including Treasury book-entry securities, to the Federal Reserve Bank as security for the loan, §357.10(a) does not establish the law for determining the validity or enforceability of the contract or the law applicable to the creation and perfection of security interests in property that is not a Treasury book-entry security. Section 357.10(a) does provide the law applicable for how a security interest in Treasury book-entry securities is perfected, the priority of such interest and, if §357.12(c)(1) is applicable, how such security interest is created. Similarly, nothing in §357.10(a) affects the continuing applicability or enforceability of Federal Reserve Bank operating circulars such as the circular setting forth provisions regarding electronic access to services provided by Federal Reserve Banks and agreements executed in connection with such circulars.

The law applicable with respect to interests granted to a Federal Reserve Bank depends on the manner in which the security interest is granted.

Where a security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank is marked on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank under Section 357.12(c)(1), §357.10(a) establishes the applicable law. A security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank would be recorded on the Federal Reserve Bank's books where, for example, the Federal Reserve Bank made a discount window loan to a depository institution and any Treasury book-entry securities provided by the depository institution as collateral have been deposited to a pledge account on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank. For a borrowing depository institution that is not a Participant, the book-entry securities used as collateral generally would be deposited to the Federal Reserve Bank pledge account by the borrowing institution's Securities Intermediary. See Hypothetical 5.

Section 357.10(b) sets forth law applicable with respect to security interests in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank that have not been marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank. A security interest in the Securities Entitlement of a Participant in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank that is not marked on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank is governed by the law of the state in which the head office of the Federal Reserve Bank is located. Such a security interest could arise, for example, where the delivery of book-entry securities to the securities account of the Participant results in an overdraft in the Participant's Funds Account. The extent to which the Federal Reserve Bank has an interest in the Participant's book-entry securities to secure the overdraft therefore would be determined under the law of the state in which the Reserve Bank's head office is located. If the State in which the head office of the Federal Reserve Bank is located has not adopted Revised Article 8, under §357.10(c) that State is deemed to have adopted Revised Article 8.

In certain very limited circumstances, a Federal Reserve Bank also may have a security interest in the book-entry securities of a non-Participant that is not marked on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank. Section 357.10(b) provides a separate rule for such a security interest, which would be governed by the law of the non-Participant's Securities Intermediary, as determined under §357.11. Under §357.11, the perfection, effect of perfection, and priority of a security interest created under such an agreement would be governed by the law of the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction, as determined under §357.11(b). Under §357.11(d), if the jurisdiction specified in §357.11(b) has not adopted Revised Article 8, jurisdiction would be deemed to have adopted Revised Article 8.8

8An interest in book-entry securities of a non-Participant that is not marked on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank, while uncommon, could arise where the Federal Reserve Bank lends to a non-Participant depository institution and enters into a triparty agreement with the depository institution and its Securities Intermediary rather than requiring the deposit of the book-entry securities in a pledge account on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank through an instruction given by the non-Participant depository institution to its Securities Intermediary.

For purposes of applying the state law chosen under the rules of §357.10(b), Federal Reserve Banks are treated as clearing corporations. As a result, a security interest in a Securities Entitlement of a Participant in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank under §357.12(c)(2) has the same priority as security interests granted to other clearing corporations under state law. This is consistent with the treatment accorded to Federal Reserve Banks generally under Revised Article 8.

Section 357.11   Law governing other interests.

(a) Law governing the rights and obligation of Participants and third parties. Section 357.11 is a choice of law rule. The substantive matters subject to this choice of law rule are set forth in §357.11(a). The matters set forth in §357.11(a) are meant to be coextensive with those matters covered by Revised Article 8 with respect to a person's interest in a Treasury book-entry security (other than those related to a person's relationship to Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank which are governed solely by federal law). For purposes of these choice of law rules Participants are Securities Intermediaries.

Section 357.11(b) adopts Revised Article 8's general choice of law rule. Section 357.11(c) sets forth a special choice of law rule with respect to security interests perfected automatically or by filing, which also is included in Revised Article 8. Generally, the law applicable to the Securities Intermediary will govern matters involving an interest in a book-entry security held through that intermediary. This approach is not followed with respect to perfection of security interests automatically or by filing. In those cases, the law of the jurisdiction in which the debtor is located is the governing law. Since filing systems are based on the location of the debtor, this approach should reduce uncertainty and preserve the normal practice of searching records based on the debtor's location.9 The language “person creating a security interest” is used in lieu of the term “debtor” in this provision to avoid any confusion. The word “debtor” has two meanings in the Uniform Commercial Code and the expression “person creating a security interest” provides clarity with respect to who is covered by this section. The term does not refer to a creditor. The language “is located” is intended to conform to its meaning under applicable law, as it may be amended from time to time. See, e.g., U.C.C. section 9-103(3)(d). Section 357.11(d) provides for the application of Revised Article 8 if the choice of law analysis required by §357.11(b) results in the choice of the law of a State that has not yet adopted Revised Article 8. As noted elsewhere, in such a situation, the State's law is viewed as if it had adopted Revised Article 8. This section also provides that, for purposes of applying state law, the Federal Reserve Banks are clearing corporations and Participants' interests in book-entry securities are Security Entitlements.

9The substantive effect of filing is limited and applies only in states which have adopted Revised Article 8. Since the effect of filing is a unique state law matter, in this one area, Treasury has determined that possible lack of uniformity does not justify altering state law.

(b) Limited scope of Federal preemption. In an earlier TRADES proposal Treasury contemplated adopting a comprehensive regulation governing the rights of all persons in Treasury book-entry securities held in TRADES. Such an approach was proposed because Treasury believed that a uniform rule was necessary to preserve the efficiency and liquidity of the market for Treasury securities—the most liquid and efficient market in the world. Treasury believed then, and believes now, that the material rights of a holder in the United States of an interest in a Treasury security should not vary solely by virtue of such holder's geographic location or the location of the financial institution through which it holds its interest in Treasury securities. In light of Revised Article 8, Treasury has determined that it is possible to achieve this uniformity without developing an independent system of Federal commercial law.10 The questions inherent in a tiered system of ownership have been analyzed, and, in Treasury's view, satisfactorily addressed by Revised Article 8.

10As noted previously, the substantive scope of this regulation is limited.

As of August 1, 1996, 28 states have adopted Revised Article 8 and Treasury understands that it will soon be adopted in additional states. As with all uniform laws, the adoption process takes several years. In order to assure uniformity, in light of the unavoidable delays in the state-by-state adoption process of Revised Article 8, Treasury is promulgating regulations with a limited form of preemption. As provided in both §§357.10(c) and 357.11(d), if the choice of law rules set forth in TRADES would lead to the application of the law of a State that has not yet adopted Revised Article 8, TRADES will apply Revised Article 8 (with conforming and miscellaneous amendments to other Articles) in the form approved by the ALI and NCCUSL. Treasury expects that these provisions will be operative only during the state-by-state adoption process and would plan to amend TRADES to delete reference to these provisions once the adoption process has been completed.

While Revised Article 8 is defined to mean the official text of Article 8 as approved by the ALI and NCCUSL, Treasury recognizes that states may make minor changes in that text when adopting Article 8. Treasury has concluded that minor changes should not prevent Revised Article 8, as adopted by a state, from being the appropriate law. In other words, if a state passes a version of Article 8 that is substantially identical to Revised Article 8, reference to Revised Article 8 (as defined) would no longer be required. Treasury has determined that the versions of Article 8 passed by 5011 states that have enacted Article 8 meet this standard. Accordingly, §§357.10(c) and 357.11(d) would not be applicable if the choice of law provisions of TRADES directed a person to one of those states. As additional states adopt Revised Article 8, Treasury will provide notice in the Federal Register as to whether the enactments are “substantially identical” to the uniform version for purposes of these regulations and on an annual basis, the Commentary will be amended to reflect subsequent enactments. This approach represents a significantly reduced form of preemption of state law from former versions of TRADES and preserves Treasury's preeminent interest in a uniform system of rules applicable to all holders of interests in Treasury book-entry securities.

11Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming.

Section 357.12   Obtaining an interest in a book-entry security.

(a) Creation of a Participant's Security Entitlement. A Participant's interest in a Treasury book-entry security is a Securities Entitlement. Section 357.12(a) provides that a Participant's Securities Entitlement is created when a Federal Reserve Bank indicates by book entry that a Book-entry Security has been credited to a Participant's Securities Account. Instead of the concept of initial credit and transfer of a Treasury book-entry security, as set forth in the existing regulations, this proposal focuses on the creation of a Participant's Securities Entitlement and, in this way, is similar to Section 8-501 of Revised Article 8.

The regulation focuses on the creation of a Participant's Security Entitlement because Security Entitlement is the term used to describe the Participant's interest in a Treasury book-entry security. Once a Participant obtains that interest, the regulation sets forth what that interest is. Thus, as provided in §357.10, federal law describes a Participant's rights against the United States and the Federal Reserve Bank where it maintains its Securities Account. To the extent not inconsistent with §357.10, §357.11 describes the applicable law to determine Participants' rights and obligations with respect to all other persons. Under these regulations, Participants can still transfer their interests in a Treasury book-entry security as they did before—by issuing a Transfer Message to the Federal Reserve Bank where they hold such interest. Transfer of interests between Participants can occur by a Participant holding such interest issuing a Transfer Message. As a result of such message, the Federal Reserve Bank will make a book entry in favor of the receiving Participant (thereby creating a Security Entitlement in favor of such Participant) and also will make a book entry deleting the initiator Participant's interest in such Treasury book-entry security (thereby eliminating that Participant's Security Entitlement). In addition, if authorized under applicable state law, Participants may enter into agreements with other Participants that, as to the Participants, constitute a transfer. Such action is without effect to either the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank.

(b) Creation and priority of a Security Interest. (i) Security Interests of the United States. Section 357.12(b) provides that a security interest in favor of the United States has priority over the interests of any other person in a Treasury book-entry security. The United States obtains security interests in Treasury securities as collateral to secure funds in a variety of situations such as Treasury Tax and Loan accounts; government agency funds or funds under the control of the Federal Courts held at financial institutions; and securities pledged in lieu of surety by contractors and others. The priority provided the United States in these situations is consistent with existing law.

In addition, Federal Reserve Banks do recognize on their books and records security interests in favor of the United States. In that situation, the Federal Reserve Bank will not transfer the security without the permission of the United States. This section provides that a Federal Reserve Bank may rely exclusively on the directions of an authorized representative of the United States to transfer a security and is protected in so relying. Ordinarily, an authorized representative of the United States would take such action under circumstances such as the default or insolvency of the pledgor.

(ii) Security Interests on the books of a Reserve Bank. Where required by Federal law or regulation or pursuant to a specific agreement with a Federal Reserve Bank, a security interest in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank or other person may be created or perfected by a Federal Reserve Bank marking its books to record the security interest under §357.12(c)(1). An example of a security interest that is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank would be the pledge in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank of a Participant's book-entry securities as collateral for a discount window loan.12 For limited categories of pledges, Federal Reserve Banks may agree to record a security interest in favor of a third party on their books. For example, in some circumstances a Federal Reserve Bank may permit the establishment of a pledge account to hold book-entry securities pledged to governmental entities other than the United States government. It is important to note that there is no obligation for either Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank to agree to record a security interest on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank, except as required by Federal law or regulation. If they do so, the security interest is perfected when the Federal Reserve Bank records a security interest on its books. In addition, the security interest has priority over all other interests in the Treasury book-entry security except an interest of the United States.

12Book-entry securities pledged by a non-Participant to a Federal Reserve Bank generally would be deposited by the non-Participant's Securities Intermediary to a pledge account at the Federal Reserve Bank, and therefore also would be marked on the books of the Federal Reserve Bank. See the discussion under D. (§357.10).

(iii) Other security interests. As provided in §357.12(c)(2), a security interest in a book-entry security may be perfected by any method available under applicable state law, as determined under §357.10(b) or §357.11.13 The perfection and priority of such interests shall be governed by applicable law. Security interests under this section may include security interests in favor of a Federal Reserve Bank, such as a clearing lien or pledge by a non-participant of book-entry securities held through a Securities Intermediary where the securities have not been deposited to a Federal Reserve Bank pledge account. Consistent with Revised Article 8, a Federal Reserve Bank would be treated as a clearing corporation under the applicable state law.

13Under both of these sections, if the state has not yet adopted Revised Article 8, the applicable law would be that state's law as it would be amended by Revised Article 8.

If a Person perfects a security interest pursuant to §357.12(c)(2), obligations of the Treasury and the Federal Reserve Banks with respect to that security interest are limited. Specifically, unless special arrangements are agreed to by the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §357.12(c)(1), neither the Federal Reserve Bank nor the United States will recognize the interests of any person other than the person in whose securities account the interest in a Treasury book-entry security is maintained. This does not mean that such a security interest is invalid. Rather, it means that the creditor's recourse will be solely against the debtor Participant or other third party.

Section 357.13   Rights and obligations of Treasury and the Reserve Banks.

(a) Adverse claims. Section 357.13(a) sets forth the general rule that, with limited exceptions, Treasury and the Federal Reserve Banks will recognize only the interest of a Participant in a Treasury book-entry security in whose Securities Account such interest is maintained.

As noted previously, Treasury book-entry securities maintained in TRADES are held in a tiered system of ownership. The records of a Federal Reserve Bank reflect only the ownership at the top tier. Institutions maintaining a Securities Account with a Federal Reserve Bank frequently will hold interests in Treasury book-entry securities for their customers (which can include broker-dealers and other Securities Intermediaries) and in certain cases those customers will hold interests in securities for their customers. Accordingly, neither Treasury nor a Federal Reserve Bank will know the identity or recognize a claim of a Participant's customer if that customer were to present it to Treasury or a Federal Reserve Bank.

In addition, except in the limited case where a security interest is marked on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to §357.12(c)(1), neither the Treasury nor a Federal Reserve Bank will recognize the claims of any other person asserting a claim in a Treasury book-entry security. Persons at levels below the Participant level must present their claims to their Securities Intermediary.

(b) Payment obligations. Section 357.13(b) contains a corollary to the rule set forth in §357.13(a). This section provides that Treasury discharges its payment responsibility with respect to a security that it has issued when a Federal Reserve Bank credits the funds account of a Participant with amounts due on that security or makes payment in some other manner specified by the Participant. This is consistent with existing law and the first TRADES proposal.14 In Revised Article 8, the issuer discharges its obligations when it makes payment to an owner registered on its books. Under common commercial practice, the registered owner in the indirect system may be a clearing corporation or the clearing corporation's nominee. Although the Federal Reserve Banks are treated as clearing corporations under both Revised Article 8 and TRADES, Treasury remains liable until payment is made to, or in accordance with the instructions of, a Participant. Section 357.13(b)(2) establishes the mechanism of how Treasury book-entry securities are paid at maturity. It is intended to cover a variety of procedures, including where the proceeds of pledged securities are credited to a suspense account pending substitution or release. This paragraph makes clear that the payment takes place automatically and that, unlike with physical certificates, there is no act of presentment required by the Participant.

1451 FR 8846, 8848 (March 14, 1986).

Section 357.14   Authority of Reserve Banks.

Section 357.14 provides that Federal Reserve Banks are authorized, as fiscal agents of Treasury, to operate the commercial book-entry system for Treasury.

Section 357.44   Notices.

Section 357.44 contains a revised version of a provision that appeared in earlier TRADES proposals. Similar to the rule in Revised Article 8 (see section 8-112), it provides where certain legal process should be directed. While providing instructions on where notice should be directed, it makes clear that the regulations do not establish whether a Federal Reserve Bank is required to honor any such order or notice.

J.   Hypotheticals

Hypothetical 1

TREASURY
   
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
|
PARTICIPANT
|
DEALER
|
INVESTOR

The first hypothetical is designed to show what law applies at different levels of the tiered book-entry system. TRADES provides that federal law, and only federal law (defined in §357.10(a)), governs the rights and obligations of the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks (except for those matters involving Federal Reserve Banks set forth in §357.10(b)). Thus, for example, Treasury discharges its payment obligations with respect to a security it has issued in the manner described in §357.13(b). Federal law both defines the payment obligation and describes how Treasury fulfills that obligation. Those portions of Revised Article 8 dealing with issuer obligations are not applicable to Treasury or the Federal Reserve Banks.15 Similarly, with certain limited exceptions as set forth in §357.12(c)(1), Treasury and the Federal Reserve Banks will recognize only the interest of a Participant in a Treasury book-entry security in whose Security Account the interest is maintained. Accordingly, as a matter of federal law, neither Treasury nor a Federal Reserve Bank will recognize any claim by Dealer or Investor.16

15As provided in §357.14, Federal Reserve Banks, among other things, effect transfers of book-entry securities between Participants' Security Accounts.

16One comment questioned whether similar language in the March 4, 1996 release implied that, under Revised Article 8, in the above example Investor could have a claim against Participant. No such implication was intended. The only point of the language is to make it clear that Federal, not state, law governs the rights and obligations of Treasury and the Federal Reserve Banks.

In the hypothetical above, as between Participant and Dealer, Participant is the Securities Intermediary. With respect to the matters set forth in §357.11(a), the law of the Securities Intermediary's jurisdiction governs. Thus, with respect to the matters in §357.11(a), the law of Participant's jurisdiction applies as between Participant and Dealer.17 If Participant's jurisdiction, as determined under §357.11(b), has not adopted Revised Article 8, the law of Participant's jurisdiction, as it would be amended by Revised Article 8, applies. Similarly, as between Dealer and Investor, Dealer is a Securities Intermediary, with respect to the matters in §357.11(a), the law of Dealer's jurisdiction applies as between Dealer and Investor. If Dealer's jurisdiction has not adopted Revised Article 8, the law of Dealer's jurisdiction, as it would be amended by Article 8, applies.

17As described in the March 4 Release, the scope of TRADES is limited. As a general rule, if a matter is not covered in §357.11(a), TRADES is not applicable. One comment questioned whether TRADES covered the creation and attachment of a security interest. The omission of creation and attachment in §357.11(a) is intentional.

Hypothetical 2

Assume that Dealer A sells its interest in a Treasury book-entry security to Dealer B. The transaction likely would take the following form. Dealer A will instruct Participant A to transfer its interest in a Treasury security to Participant B against cash payment. Dealer B will instruct Participant B to transfer cash to Participant A against delivery of an interest in the specified securities. Participant A will instruct the Federal Reserve Bank to transfer its interest in the Treasury security to Participant B against simultaneous credit of cash. The Federal Reserve Bank will debit Participant A's security account and credit Participant B's security account and simultaneously credit Participant A's cash account and debit Participant B's cash account. Participant A will mark its books to show that it has debited Dealer A's securities account and credited Dealer A's cash account. Participant B will mark its books to show the Security Entitlement in the Treasury security in favor of Dealer B and a debit against Dealer B's cash account. Federal law, set forth in §357.12(a) provides that Participant B acquires its interest in the Treasury book-entry security when the Federal Reserve Bank indicates by book-entry that the interest in the security has been credited to Participant B's Securities Account. Pursuant to §357.11(a), but subject to §357.11(d), Participant B's jurisdiction governs Dealer B's acquisition of a Securities Entitlement from Participant B.

Hypothetical 3

TREASURY
   
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
|
PARTICIPANT

Assume Participant wishes to obtain a loan from Federal Reserve Bank and, as part of the transaction, will grant Federal Reserve Bank a security interest in its Securities Entitlement with respect to Treasury book-entry securities. The transaction can be accomplished in one of two ways. Pursuant to §357.12(c)(1), the Federal Reserve Bank can mark its books to reflect the security interest. As a matter of federal law, that action creates and perfects the Federal Reserve Bank's security interest and grants the Federal Reserve Bank priority over all other claimants (other than the United States pursuant to §357.12(b)).18 A second method for completing the transaction, as set forth in §357.12(c)(2), would be to take whatever actions are authorized by applicable law. In that case, applicable law is the law of the jurisdiction of the head office of the Federal Reserve Bank. If that jurisdiction had adopted Revised Article 8, it would be the law of that jurisdiction. If that jurisdiction had not adopted Revised Article 8, it would be the law of that jurisdiction as if the jurisdiction had adopted Revised Article 8. Under Revised Article 8, the Federal Reserve Bank's interest would be that of a clearing corporation.

18In certain limited circumstances, a Federal Reserve Bank may enter into an agreement under which it agrees to record on its books an interest in Participant's book-entry securities in favor of a non-Participant, such as a governmental entity. Under these circumstances, the non-Participant would have a perfected security interest with priority over other claimants (other than the United States under §357.12(b)). It should be noted that, as set forth in §357.12(c)(1), there is no requirement that either the United States or a Federal Reserve Bank agree to creation and perfection of a security interest in this way, except as provided in §357.12(c)(1).

Hypothetical 4

TREASURY
   
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
||
PARTICIPANT APARTICIPANT B

Assume that Participant A wishes to borrow from Participant B and grant Participant B a security interest in its Security Entitlement in Treasury book-entry securities. As provided in §357.12(c)(2), the transaction would be completed pursuant to applicable law determined in accordance with 357.11. Although such an interest could be recorded on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank under §357.12(c)(1), Federal Reserve Banks generally do not mark their books to record this type of security interest for Participants.

Hypothetical 5

TREASURY
   
FEDERAL RESERVE BANK
|
PARTICIPANT A
|
DEALER A
|
BANK A

Assume that Bank A wishes to borrow from the Federal Reserve Bank and will pledge its interest in Treasury book-entry securities held at Dealer A to collateralize that loan. The transaction could be accomplished in two ways. Pursuant to §357.12(c)(1), the interest could be created and perfected on the books of a Federal Reserve Bank. Such a transaction would take place in the following fashion. Bank A could have Dealer A instruct Participant A to deposit securities to a pledge account specified by the Federal Reserve Bank. The Federal Reserve Bank likely would create an account on its books and specify that account to Bank A as the account to receive Bank A's interest in Treasury book-entry securities. Participant A, upon receiving Dealer A's instructions, would then instruct the Federal Reserve Bank to debit its account at the Federal Reserve Bank and credit the account created by the Federal Reserve Bank. The second way the transaction could take place is by any method permitted by the law of Dealer A's (Bank A's Securities Intermediary) jurisdiction. This could involve a tri-party agreement among the Federal Reserve Bank, Dealer A, and Bank A. As set forth in §357.11(b)(1), that agreement likely would specify which jurisdiction's law is to govern the transaction and could specify that such choice of law supersedes any other choice of law agreement previously entered into by Dealer A and Bank A. If Dealer A's jurisdiction has not adopted Revised Article 8, the applicable law would be the law of Dealer A's jurisdiction as it would be amended by Revised Article 8.

[61 FR 43631, Aug. 23, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 43284, Aug. 13, 1997; 63 FR 69191, Dec. 16, 1998]



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