The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government produced by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Publishing Office.
Download the Code of Federal Regulations in XML.
Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF
Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.
Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.
Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 16: Commercial Practices
§1500.86 Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.
(a) The term banned hazardous substance as used in section 2(q)(1)(A) of the act (repeated in §1500.3(b)(15)(i)(A)) of the act shall not apply to the following articles:
(1) Toy rattles described in §1500.18(a)(1) in which the rigid wires, sharp protrusions, or loose small objects are internal and provided that such rattles are constructed so that they will not break or deform to expose or release the contents either in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse.
(2) Dolls and stuffed animals and other similar toys described in §1500.18(a)(3) in which the components that have the potential for causing laceration, puncture wound injury, or other similar injury are internal, provided such dolls, stuffed animals, and other similar toys are constructed so that they will not break or deform to expose such components either in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse.
(4) Any article known as a “baby-bouncer” or “walker-jumper” and any other similar article (referred to in this paragraph as “article(s)”), except an infant walker subject to part 1216 of this chapter, described in §1500.18(a)(6) provided:
(i) The frames are designed and constructed in a manner to prevent injury from any scissoring, shearing, or pinching when the members of the frame or other components rotate about a common axis or fastening point or otherwise move relative to one another; and
(ii) Any coil springs which expand when the article is subjected to a force that will extend the spring to its maximum distance so that a space between successive coils is greater than one-eighth inch (0.125 inch) are covered or otherwise designed to prevent injuries; and
(iii) All holes larger than one-eighth inch (0.125 inch) in diameter and slots, cracks, or hinged components in any portion of the article through which a child could insert, in whole or in part a finger, toe, or any other part of the anatomy are guarded or otherwise designed to prevent injuries; and
(iv) The articles are designed and constructed to prevent accidental collapse while in use; and
(v) The articles are designed and constructed in a manner that eliminates from any portion of the article the possibility of presenting a mechanical hazard through pinching, bruising, lacerating, crushing, breaking, amputating, or otherwise injuring portions of the human body when in normal use or when subjected to reasonably foreseeable damage or abuse; and
(vi) Any article which is introduced into interstate commerce after the effective date of this subparagraph is labeled:
(A) With a conspicuous statement of the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller; and
(B) With a code mark on the article itself and on the package containing the article or on the shipping container, in addition to the invoice(s) or shipping document(s), which code mark will permit future identification by the manufacturer of any given model (the manufacturer shall change the model number whenever the article undergoes a significant structural or design modification); and
(vii) The manufacturer or importer of the article shall make, keep, and maintain for 3 years records of sale, distribution, and results of inspections and tests conducted in accordance with this subparagraph and shall make such records available at all reasonable hours upon request by any officer or employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and copy such records, to make such stock inventories as he deems necessary, and to otherwise check the correctness of such records.
(5) Clacker balls described in §1500.18(a)(7) that have been designed, manufactured, assembled, labeled, and tested in accordance with the following requirements, and when tested at the point of production or while in interstate commerce or while held for sale after shipment in interstate commerce do not exceed the failure rate requirements of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section:
(i) The toy shall be so designed and fabricated that:
(A) Each ball: Weighs less than 50 grams; will not shatter, crack, or chip; is free of cracks, flash (ridges due to imperfect molding), and crazing (tiny surface cracks); and is free of rough or sharp edges around any hole where the cord enters or over any surface with which the cord may make contact. Each ball is free of internal voids (holes, cavities, or air bubbles) if the balls are made of materials other than those materials (such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene), nylon, and high-impact polystyrene) that are injection-molded and possess high-impact characteristics.
(B) The cord: Is of high tensile strength, synthetic fibers that are braided or woven, having a breaking strength in excess of 445 Newtons (100 pounds); is free of fraying or any other defect that might tend to reduce its strength in use; is not molded in balls made of casting resins which tend to wick up or run up on the outside of the cord; and is affixed to a ball at the center of the horizontal plane of the ball when it is suspended by the cord. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is less than 12 grams (0.42 oz.) and the distance between the center of the pivot and the center of the ball cannot exceed 180 mm (7.1 inches) may have a minimum cord breaking strength of less than 445 Newtons (100 pounds), as computed by the following formula:
Adjusted Cord Breaking Strength in Newtons = 0.1382(mb) (Rp), where mb = mass of a single ball in grams and
Rp = pivot length in mm.
(C) When the cord is attached to the ball by means of a knot, the end beneath the knot is chemically fused or otherwise treated to prevent the knot from slipping out or untying in use.
(ii) The toy shall be tested at the time of production:
(A) By using the sampling procedure described in the table in subdivision (vi) of this subparagraph to determine the number of units to be tested.
(B) By subjecting each ball tested to 10 drops of a 2.25 kg (5-pound) steel impact rod or weight (57-mm (21⁄4 -inch) diameter with a flat head) dropped 1220 mm (48 inches) in a vented steel or aluminum tube (60-mm (23⁄8 -inch) inside diameter) when the ball is placed on a steel or cast iron mount. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is less than 12 grams (0.42 oz.) and the distance between the center of the pivot and the center of the ball cannot exceed 180 mm (7.1 inches) may be tested by dropping the impact weight from a height of less than 1220 mm (48 in.), where the height is computed as follows:
Adjusted drop height in mm = 179 × 10−5(mb) (Rp2), where mb = mass of a single ball in grams and
Rp = pivot length in mm.
Any ball showing any chipping, cracking, or shattering shall be counted as a failure within the meaning of the third column of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section.
(C) By inspecting each ball tested for smoothness of finish on any surface of the ball which may come in contact with the cord during use. A cotton swab shall be rubbed vigorously over each such surface or area of the ball; if any cotton fibers are removed, the ball shall be counted as a failure within the meaning of the fourth column of the table in subdivision (vi) of this paragraph. The toy shall also be checked to ascertain that there is no visibly perceptible “wicking up” or “running up” of the casting resins on the outside of the cord in the vicinity where the ball is attached.
(D) By fully assembling the toy and testing the cord in such a manner as to test both the strength of the cord and the adequacy with which the cord is attached to the ball and any holding device such as a tab or ring included in the assembly. The fully assembled article shall be vertically suspended by one ball and a 445-Newton (100-pound) test applied to the bottom ball. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is less than 12 grams (0.42 oz.) and the distance between the center of the pivot and the center of the ball cannot exceed 180 mm (7.1 inches) may be tested with a force of under 445 Newtons (100 pounds). The test force for these clacker balls shall be the same as the cord breaking strength calculated in §1500.86(a)(5)(i)(B). Any breaking, fraying, or unraveling of the cord or any sign of slipping, loosening, or unfastening shall be counted as a failure within the meaning of the fourth column of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section.
(E) By additionally subjecting any ring or other holding device to a 222-Newton (50-pound) test load applied to both cords; the holding device is to be securely fixed horizontally in a suitable clamp in such a manner as to support 50 percent of the area of such holding device and the balls are suspended freely. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is less than 12 grams (0.42 oz.) and the distance between the center of the pivot and the center of the ball cannot exceed 180 mm (7.1 inches) may have their holding device tested with a force of less than 222 Newtons (50 pounds). The holding device test force for these clacker balls shall be half of the cord breaking strength calculated in §1500.86(a)(5)(i)(B). Any breaking, cracking, or crazing of the ring or other holding device shall be counted as a failure within the meaning of the fourth column of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section.
(F) By cutting each ball tested in half and then cutting each half perpendicularly to the first cut into three or more pieces of approximately equal thickness. Each portion is to be inspected before and after cutting, and any ball showing any flash, crack, crazing, or internal voids on such inspection is to be counted as a failure within the meaning of the fourth column of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section. Balls that are injection-molded and possess high-impact characteristics (such as injection-molded balls made of ABS, nylon, or high-impact polystyrene) though exempt from the requirements that there be no internal voids, must be tested to determine the presence of any flash, crack or grazing. A transparent ball shall be subjected to the same requirements except that it may be visually inspected without cutting.
(iii) The toy shall be fully assembled for use at time of sale, including the proper attachments of balls, cords, knots, loops, or other holding devices.
(iv) The toy shall be labeled:
(A) With a conspicuous statement of the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, or seller.
(B) To bear on the toy itself and/or the package containing the toy and/or the shipping container, in addition to the invoice(s) and shipping document(s), a code or mark in a form and manner that will permit future identification of any given batch, lot, or shipment by the manufacturer.
(C) To bear a conspicuous warning statement on the main panel of the retail container and display carton and on any accompanying literature: That if cracks develop in a ball or if the cord becomes frayed or loose or unfastened, use of the toy should be discontinued; and if a ring or loop or other holding device is present, the statement “In use, the ring or loop must be placed around the middle finger and the two cords positioned over the forefinger and held securely between the thumb and forefinger,” or words to that effect which will provide adequate instructions and warnings to prevent the holding device from accidentally slipping out of the hand. Such statements shall be printed in sharply contrasting color within a borderline and in letters at least 6 mm ( 1⁄4 inch) high on the main panel of the container and at least 3 mm ( 1⁄8 ) high on all accompanying literature.
(v) The manufacturer of the toy shall make, keep, and maintain for 3 years records of sale, distribution, and results of inspections and tests conducted in accordance with this subparagraph and shall make such records available upon request at all reasonable hours by any officer or employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission, and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and copy such records and to make such inventories of stock as he deems necessary and otherwise to check the correctness of such records.
(vi) The lot size, sample size, and failure rate for testing clacker balls are as follows:
(vii) Applicability of the exemption provided by this paragraph shall be determined through use of the table in paragraph (a)(5)(vi) of this section. A random sample of the number of articles as specified in the second column of the table shall be selected according to the number of articles in a particular batch, shipment, delivery, lot, or retail stock per the first column. A failure rate as shown in either the third or fourth column shall indicate that the entire batch, shipment, delivery, lot, or retail stock has failed and thus is not exempted under this paragraph from classification as a banned hazardous substance.
(7) Dive sticks and similar articles described in §1500.18(a)(19) that come to rest at the bottom of a container of water in a position in which the long axis of the article is greater than 45 degrees from vertical when measured in accordance with the following test method:
(i) Test equipment.
(A) A container that is filled with tap water to a depth at least 3 inches [76 mm] greater than the longest dimension of the dive stick. The container shall:
(1) Be sufficiently wide to allow the dive stick to lie along the bottom with its long axis in a horizontal position,
(2) Have clear side walls to permit observation of the dive stick under water, and
(3) Be placed on a level surface and have a flat bottom.
(B) A protractor or other suitable angle measurement device that has an indicator for 45 degrees from vertical.
(ii) Testing procedure
(A) If the dive stick is sold such that the consumer is required to attach an additional component(s) to the dive stick, then the product shall be tested both with and without the attachment(s).
(B) From just above the water surface, drop the dive stick into the container.
(C) Let the dive stick sink and come to rest at the bottom of the container. If the dive stick is designed so that the weight can be adjusted by adding water or other substance, adjust the weight so that the dive stick sinks and comes to rest with its long axis positioned as close to vertical as possible.
(D) Align the angle measurement device alongside the dive stick underwater and wait for the dive stick to come to rest if there is any water disturbance. Determine whether the long axis of the dive stick is greater than or less than 45 degrees from vertical.
(8) Dive sticks and similar articles described in §1500.18(a)(19) in which the maximum force measured in the following test method is less than 5-lbf [22N]. The test shall be conducted in the ambient environment of the laboratory and not under water.
(i) Test equipment.
(A) A compression rig that has a force gauge or equivalent device that is calibrated for force measurements within a minimum range of 0 to 5 lbf [0-22 N] and with an accuracy of ±0.1 lbf [±0.44 N] or better. The test rig shall have a system to guide this force application in the vertical direction and shall have a means to adjust the rate of load application.
(B) Compression disk—the loading device that is attached to the force gauge shall be a rigid metal disk with a minimum diameter of 1.125 inches [29 mm].
(C) Vise or other clamping device.
(ii) Testing procedure
(A) Position the bottom of the dive stick in the clamping device so that the longest axis of the dive stick is vertical. The bottom end of the dive stick is the end that sinks to the bottom of a pool of water. Secure the bottom of the dive stick in the clamp such that the clamping mechanism covers no more than the bottom 1⁄2 inch [13 mm] of the dive stick.
(B) Apply a downward force at a rate of 0.05 in/sec (±0.01 in/sec) [1.3 mm.sec ±0.3 mm/sec] at the top of the dive stick with the compression disk positioned so that the plane of the disk contact surface is perpendicular to the long axis of the dive stick.
(C) Apply the load for a period of 40 seconds or until the maximum recorded force exceeds 5-lbf [22 N].
(D) Record the maximum force that was measured during the test.
(9) Boston Billow Nursing Pillow and substantially similar nursing pillows that are designed to be used only as a nursing aide for breastfeeding mothers. For example, are tubular in form, C- or crescent-shaped to fit around a nursing mother's waist, round in circumference and filled with granular material.
[38 FR 27012, Sept. 27, 1973, as amended at 53 FR 46839, Nov. 18, 1988; 59 FR 9076, 9077, Feb. 25, 1994; 66 FR 13651, Mar. 7, 2001; 68 FR 70140, Dec. 17, 2003; 73 FR 77495, Dec. 19, 2008; 75 FR 35282, June 21, 2010; 78 FR 66841, Nov. 7, 2013]