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§1066.20 Units of measure and overview of calculations.
(a) System of units. The procedures in this part follow both conventional English units and the International System of Units (SI), as detailed in NIST Special Publication 811, which we incorporate by reference in §1066.1010. Except where specified, equations work with either system of units. Where the equations depend on the use of specific units, the regulation identifies the appropriate units.
(b) Units conversion. Use good engineering judgment to convert units between measurement systems as needed. For example, if you measure vehicle speed as kilometers per hour and we specify a precision requirement in terms of miles per hour, convert your measured kilometer per hour value to miles per hour before comparing it to our specification. The following conventions are used throughout this document and should be used to convert units as applicable:
(1) 1 hp = 33,000 ft · lbf/min = 550 ft · lbf/s = 0.7457 kW.
(2) 1 lbf = 32.174 ft · lbm/s2 = 4.4482 N.
(3) 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
(4) 1 mile = 1609.344 m.
(5) For ideal gases, 1 µmol/mol = 1 ppm.
(6) For ideal gases, 10 mmol/mol = 1%.
(c) Temperature. We generally designate temperatures in units of degrees Celsius ( °C) unless a calculation requires an absolute temperature. In that case, we designate temperatures in units of Kelvin (K). For conversion purposes throughout this part, 0 °C equals 273.15 K. Unless specified otherwise, always use absolute temperature values for multiplying or dividing by temperature.
(d) Absolute pressure. Measure absolute pressure directly or calculate it as the sum of atmospheric pressure plus a differential pressure that is referenced to atmospheric pressure. Always use absolute pressure values for multiplying or dividing by pressure.
(e) Rounding. The rounding provisions of 40 CFR 1065.20 apply for calculations in this part. This generally specifies that you round final values but not intermediate values. Use good engineering judgment to record the appropriate number of significant digits for all measurements.
(f) Interpretation of ranges. Interpret a range as a tolerance unless we explicitly identify it as an accuracy, repeatability, linearity, or noise specification. See 40 CFR 1065.1001 for the definition of tolerance. In this part, we specify two types of ranges:
(1) Whenever we specify a range by a single value and corresponding limit values above and below that value (such as X ± Y), target the associated control point to that single value (X). Examples of this type of range include “±10% of maximum pressure”, or “(30 ± 10) kPa”. In these examples, you would target the maximum pressure or 30 kPa, respectively.
(2) Whenever we specify a range by the interval between two values, you may target any associated control point to any value within that range. An example of this type of range is “(40 to 50) kPa”.
(g) Scaling of specifications with respect to an applicable standard. Because this part 1066 applies to a wide range of vehicles and emission standards, some of the specifications in this part are scaled with respect to a vehicle's applicable standard or weight. This ensures that the specification will be adequate to determine compliance, but not overly burdensome by requiring unnecessarily high-precision equipment. Many of these specifications are given with respect to a “flow-weighted mean” that is expected at the standard or during testing. Flow-weighted mean is the mean of a quantity after it is weighted proportional to a corresponding flow rate. For example, if a gas concentration is measured continuously from the raw exhaust of an engine, its flow-weighted mean concentration is the sum of the products of each recorded concentration times its respective exhaust flow rate, divided by the sum of the recorded flow rates. As another example, the bag concentration from a CVS system is the same as the flow-weighted mean concentration, because the CVS system itself flow-weights the bag concentration.