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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 40: Protection of Environment
Terms that are not defined in this section or restated herein, shall have the meaning set forth in section 101 of CERCLA or the 1990 NCP or any final revision thereto. As used in this part, the following words and terms shall have the meanings set forth below:
Act or CERCLA both mean the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.
Administrative hearing means an administrative adjudication required by section 112(b)(2) of CERCLA in the event a claimant contests a determination of his claim made by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Assistance agreement means the legal instrument EPA uses to transfer money, property, services, or anything of value to a recipient to accomplish a public purpose. It is either a grant or cooperative agreement (see 40 CFR part 35) and will specify: budget and project periods; the Federal share of eligible project costs; a description of the work to be accomplished; and any special conditions.
Claim means a demand in writing for a sum certain presented to the Fund in accordance with sections 111 and 112 of CERCLA.
Claimant means any person who presents a claim to the Fund for reimbursement under section 112(b)(1) of CERCLA.
Contractor claim means the disputed portion of a written demand or written assertion by any contractor who has contracted with a person (i.e., the owner) for the conduct of a preauthorized response action, seeking as a matter of right, the payment of money, adjustment, or interpretation of contract terms, or other relief, arising under or related to a contract, which has been finally rejected or not acted upon by the owner and which is subsequently settled by the owner or is awarded by a third party in accordance with the disputes clause of the contract document.
Eligible claim means any claim that has satisfied the requirements set forth in §307.21(b).
Facility as defined by section 101(9) of CERCLA, means any:
(1) Building, structure, installation, equipment, pipe or pipeline (including any pipe into sewer or publicly owned treatment works), well, pit, pond, lagoon, impoundment, ditch, landfill, storage container, motor vehicle, rolling stock, or aircraft; or
(2) Any site or area where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, or placed, or otherwise come to be located; but does not include any consumer product in consumer use or any vessel.
Fund means the Hazardous Substance Superfund established by section 9507 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.
Hazardous substance as defined by section 101(14) of CERCLA, means:
(1) Any substance designated pursuant to section 311(b)(2)(A) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.);
(2) Any element, compound, mixture, solution, or substance designated pursuant to section 102 of CERCLA;
(3) Any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under or listed pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6801 et seq.) (but not including any waste the regulation of which under the Solid Waste Disposal Act has been suspended by Act of Congress);
(4) Any toxic pollutant listed under section 307(a) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act;
(5) Any hazardous air pollutant listed under section 112 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.); and
(6) Any imminently hazardous chemical substance or mixture with respect to which the Administrator of EPA (Administrator) has taken action pursuant to section 7 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (15 U.S.C. 2601 et seq.). The term does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance under paragraphs (1) through (6) of this definition, and the term does not include natural gas, natural gas liquids, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas usable for fuel (or mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas).
National Contingency Plan, or NCP means the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (40 CFR part 300) developed under section 311(c) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act and revised pursuant to section 105 of CERCLA.
Necessary costs means “necessary response costs” as required by section 111(a)(2) of CERCLA for Fund reimbursement of a preauthorized response action. Necessary response costs are costs determined to be:
(1) Required (based upon the site-specific circumstances);
(2) Reasonable (nature and amount do not exceed that estimated or which would be incurred by a prudent person);
(3) Allocable (incurred specifically for the site at issue); and
(4) Otherwise allowable (consistent with the limitations and exclusions under the appropriate Federal cost principles). See OMB Circular A-122 (non-profit organizations); OMB Circular A-87 (States and political subdivisions); and 48 CFR part 31, subparts 31.1 and 31.2 (profit-making organizations).
NPL means the National Priorities List established pursuant to section 105 of CERCLA and 40 CFR 300.425, which consists of uncontrolled hazardous substance facilities in the United States that need to be addressed under CERCLA authorities. Only NPL sites are eligible for Fund-financed remedial action.
Operable unit means a discrete action that comprises an incremental step toward comprehensively addressing site problems. This discrete portion of a remedial response manages migration, or eliminates or mitigates a release, threat of release, or pathway of exposure. The cleanup of a site can be divided into a number of operable units, depending on the complexity of the problems associated with the site. Operable units may address geographical portions of a site, specific site problems, or initial phases of an action, or may consist of any set of actions performed over time or any actions that are concurrent but located in different parts of a site. Operable units will not impede implementation of subsequent actions, including final action at the site.
Party means EPA or a claimant.
Perfected means the point at which EPA determines that the written demand for a sum certain (i.e., claim) has the documentation necessary to substantiate the appropriateness of the amounts claimed; i.e., the claim is technically complete.
Person as defined by section 101(21) of CERCLA, means an individual, firm, corporation, association, partnership, consortium, joint venture, commercial entity, United States Government, State, municipality, commission, political subdivision of a State, or any interstate body.
Political subdivision means any general purpose unit of a local or State government.
Pollutant or Contaminant as defined by section 101(33) of CERCLA, includes, but is not limited to, any element, substance, compound, or mixture, including disease-causing agents, which after release into the environment and upon exposure, ingestion, inhalation, or assimilation into any organism, either directly from the environment or indirectly by ingestion through food chains, will or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, disease, behavioral abnormalities, cancer, genetic mutation, physiological malfunctions (including malfunctions in reproduction) or physical deformations in such organisms or their offspring. The term does not include petroleum, including crude oil and any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance under section 101(14)(A) through (F) of the Act, nor does it include natural gas, liquefied natural gas, or synthetic gas of pipeline quality (or mixtures of natural gas and such synthetic gas).
Preauthorization means EPA's prior approval to submit a claim against the Fund for necessary response costs incurred as a result of carrying out the NCP. The process of preauthorization consists of three steps:
(1) EPA's receipt of the application for preauthorization;
(2) EPA's review and analysis of the application; and
(3) EPA's issuance of the Preauthorization Decision Document, which sets forth the terms and conditions for reimbursement.
Preauthorized response actions are response actions approved through the preauthorization process.
Respond or Response as defined by section 101(25) of CERCLA, means remove, removal, remedy, and remedial action, all such terms (including removal and remedial action) including enforcement activities related thereto.
Response claim means a preauthorized demand in writing for a sum certain for response costs referred to in section 111(a)(2) of CERCLA, including certain costs of actions referred to in section 122(b)(1) of CERCLA.