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Title 40: Protection of Environment
(a) All terms used in this subpart that are not defined below have the meaning given to them in the CAA and in subpart A (General Provisions) of this part.
Adhesive means any chemical substance that is applied for the purpose of bonding two surfaces together other than by mechanical means. Under this subpart, adhesives shall not be considered coatings or finishing materials. Products used on humans and animals, adhesive tape, contact paper, or any other product with an adhesive incorporated onto or in an inert substrate shall not be considered adhesives under this subpart.
Administrator means the Administrator of the United States Environmental Protection Agency or his or her authorized representative.
Aerosol adhesive means an adhesive that is dispensed from a pressurized container as a suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in gas.
Affected source means a wood furniture manufacturing facility that is engaged, either in part or in whole, in the manufacture of wood furniture or wood furniture components and that is located at a plant site that is a major source as defined in 40 CFR part 63.2, excluding sources that meet the criteria established in §63.800(a), (b) and (c) of this subpart.
Affirmative defense means, in the context of an enforcement proceeding, a response or defense put forward by a defendant, regarding which the defendant has the burden of proof and the merits of which are independently and objectively evaluated in a judicial or administrative proceeding.
Alternative method means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that is not a reference or equivalent method but has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction to, in specific cases, produce results adequate for a determination of compliance.
As applied means the HAP and solids content of the coating or contact adhesive that is actually used for coating or gluing the substrate. It includes the contribution of materials used for in-house dilution of the coating or contact adhesive.
Basecoat means a coat of colored material, usually opaque, that is applied before graining inks, glazing coats, or other opaque finishing materials, and is usually topcoated for protection.
Baseline conditions means the conditions that exist prior to an affected source implementing controls, such as a control system.
Building enclosure means a building housing a process that meets the requirements of a temporary total enclosure. The EPA Method 204E is used to identify all emission points from the building enclosure and to determine which emission points must be tested. For additional information see Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency, January 1994. Docket No. A-93-10, Item No. IV-B-1.
Capture device means a hood, enclosed room, floor sweep, or other means of collecting solvent emissions or other pollutants into a duct so that the pollutant can be directed to a pollution control device such as an incinerator or carbon adsorber.
Capture efficiency means the fraction of all organic vapors generated by a process that are directed to a control device.
Certified product data sheet (CPDS) means documentation furnished by coating or adhesive suppliers or an outside laboratory that provides:
(1) The VHAP content of a finishing material, contact adhesive, or solvent, by percent weight, measured using the EPA Method 311 (as promulgated in this subpart), or an equivalent or alternative method (or formulation data if the coating meets the criteria specified in §63.805(a));
(2) The solids content of a finishing material or contact adhesive by percent weight, determined using data from the EPA Method 24, or an alternative or equivalent method (or formulation data if the coating meets the criteria specified in §63.805 (a)); and
(3) The density, measured by EPA Method 24 or an alternative or equivalent method. Therefore, the reportable VHAP content shall represent the maximum aggregate emissions potential of the finishing material, adhesive, or solvent in concentrations greater than or equal to 1.0 percent by weight or 0.1 percent for VHAP that are carcinogens, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR part 1910), as formulated. Only VHAP present in concentrations greater than or equal to 1.0 percent by weight, or 0.1 percent for VHAP that are carcinogens, must be reported on the CPDS. The purpose of the CPDS is to assist the affected source in demonstrating compliance with the emission limitations presented in §63.802.
Note: Because the optimum analytical conditions under EPA Method 311 vary by coating, the coating or adhesive supplier may also choose to include on the CPDS the optimum analytical conditions for analysis of the coating, adhesive, or solvent using EPA Method 311. Such information may include, but not be limited to, separation column, oven temperature, carrier gas, injection port temperature, extraction solvent, and internal standard.)
Cleaning operations means operations in which organic HAP solvent is used to remove coating materials or adhesives from equipment used in wood furniture manufacturing operations.
Coating means a protective, decorative, or functional film applied in a thin layer to a surface. Such materials include, but are not limited to, paints, topcoats, varnishes, sealers, stains, washcoats, basecoats, enamels, inks, and temporary protective coatings. Aerosol spray paints used for touch-up and repair are not considered coatings under this subpart.
Coating application station means the part of a coating operation where the coating is applied, e.g., a spray booth.
Coating operation means those activities in which a coating is applied to a substrate and is subsequently air-dried, cured in an oven, or cured by radiation.
Coating solids (or solids) means the part of the coating which remains after the coating is dried or cured; solids content is determined using data from the EPA Method 24, or an equivalent or alternative method.
Compliant coating/contact adhesive means a finishing material, contact adhesive, or strippable booth coating that meets the emission limits specified in Table 3 of this subpart.
Contact adhesive means an adhesive that is applied to two substrates, dried, and mated under only enough pressure to result in good contact. The bond is immediate and sufficiently strong to hold pieces together without further clamping, pressure, or airing.
Continuous coater means a finishing system that continuously applies finishing materials onto furniture parts moving along a conveyor. Finishing materials that are not transferred to the part are recycled to a reservoir. Several types of application methods can be used with a continuous coater including spraying, curtain coating, roll coating, dip coating, and flow coating.
Continuous compliance means that the affected source is meeting the emission limitations and other requirements of the rule at all times and is fulfilling all monitoring and recordkeeping provisions of the rule in order to demonstrate compliance.
Control device means any equipment that reduces the quantity of a pollutant that is emitted to the air. The device may destroy or secure the pollutant for subsequent recovery. Includes, but is not limited to, incinerators, carbon adsorbers, and condensers.
Control device efficiency means the ratio of the pollutant released by a control device and the pollutant introduced to the control device.
Control system means the combination of capture and control devices used to reduce emissions to the atmosphere.
Conventional air spray means a spray coating method in which the coating is atomized by mixing it with compressed air and applied at an air pressure greater than 10 pounds per square inch (gauge) at the point of atomization. Airless and air assisted airless spray technologies are not conventional air spray because the coating is not atomized by mixing it with compressed air. Electrostatic spray technology is also not considered conventional air spray because an electrostatic charge is employed to attract the coating to the workpiece.
Data quality objective (DQO) approach means a set of approval criteria that must be met so that data from an alternative test method can be used in determining the capture efficiency of a control system. For additional information, see Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency, January 1994. (Docket No. A-93-10, Item No. IV-B-1).
Day means a period of 24 consecutive hours beginning at midnight local time, or beginning at a time consistent with a facility's operating schedule.
Disposed offsite means sending used organic HAP solvent or coatings outside of the facility boundaries for disposal.
Emission means the release or discharge, whether directly or indirectly, of HAP into the ambient air.
Enamel means a coat of colored material, usually opaque, that is applied as a protective topcoat over a basecoat, primer, or previously applied enamel coats. In some cases, another finishing material may be applied as a topcoat over the enamel.
Equipment leak means emissions of VHAP from pumps, valves, flanges, or other equipment used to transfer or apply coatings, adhesives, or organic HAP solvents.
Equivalent method means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction to have a consistent and quantitatively known relationship to the reference method, under specific conditions.
Finishing material means a coating used in the wood furniture industry. Such materials include, but are not limited to, stains, basecoats, washcoats, enamels, sealers, and topcoats.
Finishing operation means those operations in which a finishing material is applied to a substrate and is subsequently air-dried, cured in an oven, or cured by radiation.
Foam adhesive means a contact adhesive used for gluing foam to fabric, foam to foam, and fabric to wood.
Gluing operation means those operations in which adhesives are used to join components, for example, to apply a laminate to a wood substrate or foam to fabric.
Incidental wood furniture manufacturer means a major source that is primarily engaged in the manufacture of products other than wood furniture or wood furniture components and that uses no more than 100 gallons per month of finishing material or adhesives in the manufacture of wood furniture or wood furniture components.
Incinerator means, for the purposes of this industry, an enclosed combustion device that thermally oxidizes volatile organic compounds to CO and CO2. This term does not include devices that burn municipal or hazardous waste material.
Janitorial maintenance means the upkeep of equipment or building structures that is not directly related to the manufacturing process, for example, cleaning of restroom facilities.
Low-formaldehyde means, in the context of a coating or contact adhesive, a product concentration of less than or equal to 1.0 percent formaldehyde by weight, as described in a certified product data sheet for the material.
Lower confidence limit (LCL) approach means a set of approval criteria that must be met so that data from an alternative test method can be used in determining the capture efficiency of a control system. For additional information, see Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency, January 1994. (Docket No. A-93-10, Item No. IV-B-1).
Material safety data sheet (MSDS) means the documentation required for hazardous chemicals by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR part 1910) for a solvent, cleaning material, contact adhesive, coating, or other material that identifies select reportable hazardous ingredients of the material, safety and health considerations, and handling procedures.
Noncompliant coating/contact adhesive means a finishing material, contact adhesive, or strippable booth coating that has a VHAP content (VOC content for the strippable booth coating) greater than the emission limitation presented in Table 3 of this subpart.
Nonporous substrate means a surface that is impermeable to liquids. Examples include metal, rigid plastic, flexible vinyl, and rubber.
Normally closed container means a container that is closed unless an operator is actively engaged in activities such as emptying or filling the container.
Operating parameter value means a minimum or maximum value established for a control device or process parameter that, if achieved by itself or in combination with one or more other operating parameter values, determines that an owner or operator has complied with an applicable emission limit.
Organic HAP solvent means a HAP that is a volatile organic liquid used for dissolving or dispersing constituents in a coating or contact adhesive, adjusting the viscosity of a coating or contact adhesive, or cleaning equipment. When used in a coating or contact adhesive, the organic HAP solvent evaporates during drying and does not become a part of the dried film.
Overall control efficiency means the efficiency of a control system, calculated as the product of the capture and control device efficiencies, expressed as a percentage.
Permanent total enclosure means a permanently installed enclosure that completely surrounds a source of emissions such that all emissions are captured and contained for discharge through a control device. For additional information, see Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency, January 1994. (Docket No. A-93-10, Item No. IV-B-1).
Recycled onsite means the reuse of an organic HAP solvent in a process other than cleaning or washoff.
Reference method means any method of sampling and analyzing for an air pollutant that is published in appendix A of 40 CFR part 60.
Research or laboratory facility means any stationary source whose primary purpose is to conduct research and development to develop new processes and products where such source is operated under the close supervision of technically trained personnel and is not engaged in the manufacture of products for commercial sale in commerce, except in a de minimis manner.
Responsible official has the meaning given to it in 40 CFR part 70, State Operating Permit Programs (Title V permits).
Sealer means a finishing material used to seal the pores of a wood substrate before additional coats of finishing material are applied. Special purpose finishing materials that are used in some finishing systems to optimize aesthetics are not sealers.
Solvent means a liquid used in a coating or contact adhesive to dissolve or disperse constituents and/or to adjust viscosity. It evaporates during drying and does not become a part of the dried film.
Stain means any color coat having a solids content by weight of no more than 8.0 percent that is applied in single or multiple coats directly to the substrate. It includes, but is not limited to, nongrain raising stains, equalizer stains, prestains, sap stains, body stains, no-wipe stains, penetrating stains, and toners.
Storage containers means vessels or tanks, including mix equipment, used to hold finishing, gluing, cleaning, or washoff materials.
Strippable spray booth material means a coating that:
(1) Is applied to a spray booth wall to provide a protective film to receive over spray during finishing operations;
(2) That is subsequently peeled off and disposed; and
(3) By achieving (1) and (2) of this definition reduces or eliminates the need to use organic HAP solvents to clean spray booth walls.
Substrate means the surface onto which a coating or contact adhesive is applied (or into which a coating or contact adhesive is impregnated).
Temporary total enclosure means an enclosure that meets the requirements of §63.805(e)(1) (i) through (iv) and is not permanent, but constructed only to measure the capture efficiency of pollutants emitted from a given source. Additionally, any exhaust point from the enclosure shall be at least four equivalent duct or hood diameters from each natural draft opening. For additional information, see Guidelines for Determining Capture Efficiency, January 1994. (Docket No. A-93-10, Item No. IV-B-1).
Thinner means a volatile liquid that is used to dilute coatings or contact adhesives (to reduce viscosity, color strength, and solids, or to modify drying conditions).
Topcoat means the last film-building finishing material that is applied in a finishing system.
Touchup and repair means the application of finishing materials to cover minor finishing imperfections.
VHAP means any volatile hazardous air pollutant listed in Table 2 to Subpart JJ.
VHAP of potential concern means any VHAP from the list in table 6 of this subpart.
Volatile organic compound (VOC) means any organic compound which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions, that is, any organic compound other than those which the Administrator designates as having negligible photochemical reactivity. A VOC may be measured by a reference method, an equivalent method, an alternative method, or by procedures specified under any rule. A reference method, an equivalent method, or an alternative method, however, may also measure nonreactive organic compounds. In such cases, the owner or operator may exclude the nonreactive organic compounds when determining compliance with a standard. For a list of compounds that the Administrator has designated as having negligible photochemical reactivity, refer to 40 CFR part 51.10.
Washcoat means a transparent special purpose finishing material having a solids content by weight of 12.0 percent by weight or less. Washcoats are applied over initial stains to protect, to control color, and to stiffen the wood fibers in order to aid sanding.
Washoff operations means those operations in which organic HAP solvent is used to remove coating from wood furniture or a wood furniture component.
Wood furniture means any product made of wood, a wood product such as rattan or wicker, or an engineered wood product such as particleboard that is manufactured at any facility that is engaged, either in part or in whole, in the manufacture of wood furniture or wood furniture components, including, but not limited to, facilities under any of the following standard industrial classification codes: 2434, 2511, 2512, 2517, 2519, 2521, 2531, 2541, 2599, or 5712.
Wood furniture component means any part that is used in the manufacture of wood furniture. Examples include, but are not limited to, drawer sides, cabinet doors, seat cushions, and laminated tops. However, foam seat cushions manufactured and fabricated at a facility that does not engage in any other wood furniture or wood furniture component manufacturing operation are excluded from this definition.
Wood furniture manufacturing operations means the finishing, gluing, cleaning, and washoff operations associated with the production of wood furniture or wood furniture components.
(b) The nomenclature used in this subpart has the following meaning:
(1) Ak = the area of each natural draft opening (k) in a total enclosure, in square meters.
(2) Cc = the VHAP content of a finishing material (c), in kilograms of volatile hazardous air pollutants per kilogram of coating solids (kg VHAP/kg solids), as supplied. Also given in pounds of volatile hazardous air pollutants per pound of coating solids (lb VHAP/lb solids).
(3) Caj = the concentration of VHAP in gas stream (j) exiting the control device, in parts per million by volume.
(4) Cbi = the concentration of VHAP in gas stream (i) entering the control device, in parts per million by volume.
(5) Cdi = the concentration of VHAP in gas stream (i) entering the control device from the affected source, in parts per million by volume.
(6) Cfk = the concentration of VHAP in uncontrolled gas stream (k) emitted directly to the atmosphere from the affected source, in parts per million by volume.
(7) E = the emission limit achieved by an emission point or a set of emission points, in kg VHAP/kg solids (lb VHAP/lb solids).
(8) F = the control device efficiency, expressed as a fraction.
(9) FV = the average inward face velocity across all natural draft openings in a total enclosure, in meters per hour.
(10) G = the VHAP content of a contact adhesive, in kg VHAP/kg solids (lb VHAP/lb solids), as applied.
(11) M = the mass of solids in finishing material used monthly, kg solids/month (lb solids/month).
(12) N = the capture efficiency, expressed as a fraction.
(13) Qaj = the volumetric flow rate of gas stream (j) exiting the control device, in dry standard cubic meters per hour.
(14) Qbi = the volumetric flow rate of gas stream (i) entering the control device, in dry standard cubic meters per hour.
(15) Qdi = the volumetric flow rate of gas stream (i) entering the control device from the emission point, in dry standard cubic meters per hour.
(16) Qfk = the volumetric flow rate of uncontrolled gas stream (k) emitted directly to the atmosphere from the emission point, in dry standard cubic meters per hour.
(17) Qin i = the volumetric flow rate of gas stream (i) entering the total enclosure through a forced makeup air duct, in standard cubic meters per hour (wet basis).
(18) Qout j = the volumetric flow rate of gas stream (j) exiting the total enclosure through an exhaust duct or hood, in standard cubic meters per hour (wet basis).
(19) R = the overall efficiency of the control system, expressed as a percentage.
(20) S = the VHAP content of a solvent, expressed as a weight fraction, added to finishing materials.
(21) W = the amount of solvent, in kilograms (pounds), added to finishing materials during the monthly averaging period.
(22) ac = after the control system is installed and operated.
(23) bc = before control.
(24) Cf = the formaldehyde content of a finishing material (c), in pounds of formaldehyde per gallon of coating (lb/gal).
(25) Ftotal = total formaldehyde emissions in each rolling 12 month period.
(26) Gf = the formaldehyde content of a contact adhesive (g), in pounds of formaldehyde per gallon of contact adhesive (lb/gal).
(27) Vc = the volume of formaldehyde-containing finishing material (c), in gal.
(28) Vg = the volume of formaldehyde-containing contact adhesive (g), in gal.
[60 FR 62936, Dec. 7, 1995, as amended at 62 FR 30260, June 3, 1997; 62 FR 31363, June 9, 1997; 63 FR 71380, Dec. 28, 1998; 76 FR 72072, Nov. 21, 2011]