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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 40: Protection of Environment
§1.45 Office of Research and Development.
The Office of Research and Development is under the supervision of the Assistant Administrator for Research and Development who serves as the principal science adviser to the Administrator, and is responsible for the development, direction, and conduct of a national research, development and demonstration program in: Pollution sources, fate, and health and welfare effects; pollution prevention and control, and waste management and utilization technology; environmental sciences; and monitoring systems. The Office participates in the development of Agency policy, standards, and regulations and provides for dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge, including analytical methods, monitoring techniques, and modeling methodologies. The Office serves as coordinator for the Agency's policies and programs concerning carcinogenesis and related problems and assures appropriate quality control and standardization of analytical measurement and monitoring techniques utilized by the Agency. The Office exercises review and concurrence responsibilities on an Agencywide basis in all budgeting and planning actions involving monitoring which require Heardquarters approval.
(a) Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental Monitoring and Quality Assurance. The Office of Acid Deposition, Environmental Monitoring and Quality Assurance (OADEMQA), under the supervision of an Office Director, is responsible for planning, managing and evaluating a comprehensive program for:
(1) Monitoring the cause and effects of acid deposition;
(2) Research and development on the causes, effects and corrective steps for the acid deposition phenomenon;
(3) Research with respect to the transport and fate of pollutants which are released into the atmosphere;
(4) Development and demonstration of techniques and methods to measure exposure and to relate ambient concentrations to exposure by critical receptors;
(5) Research, development and demonstration of new monitoring methods, systems, techniques and equipment for detection, identification and characterization of pollutants at the source and in the ambient environment and for use as reference or standard monitoring methods;
(6) Establishment, direction and coordination of Agencywide Quality Assurance Program; and
(7) Development and provision of quality assurance methods, techniques and material including validation and standardization of analytical methods, sampling techniques, quality control methods, standard reference materials, and techniques for data collection, evaluation and interpretation. The Office identifies specific research, development, demonstration and service needs and priorities; establishes program policies and guidelines; develops program plans including objectives and estimates of resources required to accomplish objectives; administers the approved program and activities; assigns program responsibility and resources to the laboratories assigned by the Assistant Administrator; directs and supervises assigned laboratories in program administration; and conducts reviews of program progress and takes action as necessary to assure timeliness, quality and responsiveness of outputs.
(b) Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology Demonstration. The Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology Demonstration (OEETD) under the supervision of a Director, is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating a comprehensive program of research, development, and demonstration of cost effective methods and technologies to:
(1) Control Environmental impacts associated with the extraction, processing, conversion, and transportation of energy, minerals, and other resources, and with industrial processing and manufacturing facilities;
(2) Control environmental impacts of public sector activities including publicly-owned waste water and solid waste facilities;
(3) Control and manage hazardous waste generation, storage, treatment, and disposal;
(4) Provide innovative technologies for response actions under Superfund and technologies for control of emergency spills of oils and hazardous waste;
(5) Improve drinking water supply and system operations, including improved understanding of water supply technology and water supply criteria;
(6) Characterize, reduce, and mitigate indoor air pollutants including radon; and
(7) Characterize, reduce, and mitigate acid rain precursors from stationary sources. Development of engineering data needed by the Agency in reviewing premanufacturing notices relative to assessing potential release and exposure to chemicals, treatability by waste treatment systems, containment and control of genetically engineered organisms, and development of alternatives to mitigate the likelihood of release and exposure to existing chemicals. In carrying out these responsibilities, the Office develops program plans and manages the resources assigned to it; implements the approved programs and activities; assigns objectives and resources to the OEETD laboratories; conducts appropriate reviews to assure the quality, timeliness, and responsiveness of outputs; and conducts analyses of the relative environmental and socioeconomic impacts of engineering methods and control technologies and strategies. The Office of Environmental Engineering and Technology Demonstration is the focal point within the Office of Research and Development for providing liaison with the rest of the Agency and with the Department of Energy on issues associated with energy development. The Office is also the focal point within the Office of Research and Development for liaison with the rest of the Agency on issues related to engineering reseach and development and the control of pollution discharges.
(c) Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research. The Office of Environmental Processes and Effects Research, under the supervision of the Director, is responsible for planning, managing, and evaluating a comprehensive research program to develop the scientific and technological methods and data necessary to understand ecological processes, and predict broad ecosystems impacts, and to manage the entry, movement, and fate of pollutants upon nonhuman organisms and ecosystems. The comprehensive program includes:
(1) The development of organism and ecosystem level effect data needed for the establishment of standards, criteria or guidelines for the protection of nonhuman components of the environment and ecosystems integrity and the prevention of harmful human exposure to pollutants;
(2) The development of methods to determine and predict the fate, transport, and environmental levels which may result in human exposure and exposure of nonhuman components of the environment, resulting from the discharge of pollutants, singly or in combination into the environment, including development of source criteria for protection of environmental quality;
(3) The development and demonstration of methods for the control or management of adverse environmental impacts from agriculture and other rural nonprofit sources;
(4) The development and demonstration of integrated pest management strategies for the management of agriculture and urban pests which utilize alternative biological, cultural and chemical controls;
(5) The development of a laboratory and fieldscale screening tests to provide data that can be used to predict the behavior of pollutants in terms of movement in the environmental, accumulation in the food chain, effects on organisms, and broad escosystem impacts;
(6) Coordination of interagency research activities associated with the health and environmental impacts of energy production and use; and
(7) development and demonstration of methods for restoring degraded ecosystem by means other than source control.
(d) Office of Health Research. The Office of Health Research under the supervision of a Director, is responsible for the management of planning, implementing, and evaluating a comprehensive, integrated human health research program which documents acute and chronic adverse effects to man from environmental exposure to pollutants and determines those exposures which have a potentially adverse effect on humans. This documentation is utilized by ORD for criteria development and scientific assessments in support of the Agency's regulating and standard-setting activities. To attain this objective, the program develops tests systems and associated methods and protocols, such as predictive models to determine similarities and differences among test organisms and man; develops methodology and conducts laboratory and field research studies; and develops interagency programs which effectively use pollutants. The Office of Health Research is the Agency's focal point within the Office of Research and Development for providing liaison relative to human health effects and related human exposure issues (excluding issues related to the planning and implementation of research on the human health effects of energy pollutants that is conducted under the Interagency Energy/Environment Program). It responds with recognized authority to changing requirements of the Regions, program offices and other offices for priority technical assistance. In close coordination with Agency research and advisory committees, other agencies and offices, and interaction with academic and other independent scientific bodies, the Office develops health science policy for the Agency. Through these relationships and the scientific capabilities of its laboratories and Headquarters staffs, the Office provides a focal point for matters pertaining to the effects of human exposure to environmental pollutants.
(e) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA). The Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, under the supervision of a Director, is the principal adviser on matters relating to the development of health criteria, health affects assessment and risk estimation, to the Assistant Administrator for Research and Development. The Director's Office: Develops recommendations on OHEA programs including the identification and development of alternative program goals, priorities, objectives and work plans; develops recommendations on overall office policies and means for their implementation; performs the critical path planning necessary to assure a timely production of OHEA information in response to program office needs; serves as an Agency health assessment advocate for issue resolution and regulatory review in the Agency Steering Committee, Science Advisory Board, and in cooperation with other Federal agencies and the scientific and technical community; and provides administrative support services to the components of OHEA. The Director's Office provides Headquarters coordination for the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Offices.
(f) Office of Exploratory Research. The Office of Exploratory Research (OER), under the supervision of a Director, is responsible for overall planning, administering, managing, and evaluating EPA's anticipatory and extramural grant research in response to Agency priorities, as articulated by Agency planning mechanisms and ORD's Research Committees. The Director advises the Assistance Administrator on the direction, scientific quality and effectiveness of ORD's long-term scientific review and evaluation; and research funding assistance efforts. The responsibilities of this office include: Administering ORD's scientific review of extramural requests for research funding assistance; developing research proposal solicitations; managing grant projects; and ensuring project quality and optimum dissemination of results. The OER is responsible for analyzing EPA's long-range environmental research concerns; forecasting emerging and potential environmental problems and manpower needs; identifying Federal workforce training programs to be used by State and local governments; assuring the participation of minority institutions in environmental research and development activities; and conducting special studies in response to high priority national environmental needs and problems. This office serves as an ORD focal point for university relations and other Federal research and development agencies related to EPA's extramural research program.
[50 FR 26721, June 28, 1985, as amended at 52 FR 30360, Aug. 14, 1987]