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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 16, 2014

Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.503(b)-1   Prohibited transactions.

(a) In general. The term prohibited transaction means any transaction set forth in section 503(b) engaged in by any organization described in paragraph (a) of §1.503(a)-1. Whether a transaction is a prohibited transaction depends on the facts and circumstances of the particular case. This section is intended to deny tax-exempt status to such organizations which engage in certain transactions which inure to the private advantage of (1) the creator of such organization (if it is a trust); (2) any substantial contributor to such organization; (3) a member of the family (as defined in section 267(c)(4) of an individual who is such creator of or such substantial contributor to such organization; or (4) a corporation controlled, as set forth in section 503(b), by such creator or substantial contributor.

(b) Loans as prohibited transactions under section 503(b)(1)—(1) Adequate security. For the purposes of section 503(b)(1), which treats as prohibited transactions certain loans by an organization without receipt of adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest, the term adequate security means something in addition to and supporting a promise to pay, which is so pledged to the organization that it may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, the value and liquidity of which security is such that it may reasonably be anticipated that loss of principal or interest will not result from the loan. Mortgages or liens on property, accommodation endorsements of those financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, and stock or securities issued by corporations other than the borrower may constitute security for a loan to the persons or organizations described in section 503(b). Stock of a borrowing corporation does not constitute adequate security. A borrower's evidence of indebtedness, irrespective of its name, is not security for a loan, whether or not it was issued directly to the exempt organization. However, if any such evidence of indebtedness provides for security that may be sold, foreclosed upon, or otherwise disposed of in default of repayment of the loan, there may be adequate security for such loan. If an organization subject to section 503(b) purchases debentures issued by a person specified in section 503(b), the purchase is considered, for purposes of section 503(b)(1), as a loan made by the purchaser to the issuer on the date of such purchase. For example, if an exempt organization subject to section 503(b) makes a purchase through a registered security exchange of debentures issued by a person described in section 503(b), and owned by an unknown third party, the purchase will be considered as a loan to the issuer by the purchaser. For rules relating to loan of funds to, or investment of funds in stock or securities of, persons described in section 503(b) by an organization described in section 401(a), see paragraph (b)(5) of §1.401-1.

(2) Effective dates. The effective dates for the application of the definition of adequate security in paragraph (b)(1) of this paragraph are:

(i) March 15, 1956, for loans (other than debentures) made after March 15, 1956;

(ii) January 31, 1957, for loans (other than debentures) made before March 16, 1956, and continued after January 31, 1957;

(iii) November 8, 1956, for debentures which were purchased after November 8, 1956;

(iv) December 1, 1958, for debentures which were purchased before November 9, 1956, and held after December 1, 1958;

(v) If an employees' pension, stock bonus, or profit-sharing trust described in section 401(a) made a loan before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, and which would constitute a prohibited transaction if made on or after March 1, 1954, the loan shall not constitute a prohibited transaction if held until maturity (determined without regard to any extension or renewal thereof);

(vi) January 1, 1960, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by supplemental unemployment benefit trusts, described in section 501 (c)(17);

(vii) January 1, 1970, for loans (including the purchase of debentures) made by employees' contribution pension plan trusts described in section 501(c)(18).

(3) Certain exceptions to section 503(b)(1). See section 503(e) and §1.503(e)-1, 1.503(e)-2, and 1.503(e)-3 for special rules providing that certain obligations acquired by trusts described in section 401(a) or section 501(c) (17) or (18) shall not be treated as loans made without the receipt of adequate security for purposes of section 503(b)(1). See section 503(f) and §1.503(f)-1 for an exception to the application of sections 503(b)(1) for certain loans made by employees' trusts described in section 401(a).

(c) Examples. The principles of this section are illustrated by the following examples: (Assume that section 503 (e) and (f) are not applicable.)

Example 1. A, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his unsecured promissory note. The net worth of A is $1,000,000. The net worth of A is not security for such loan and the transaction is a prohibited transaction. If, however, the note is secured by a mortgage on property of sufficient value, or is accompanied by acceptable collateral of sufficient value, or carries with it the secondary promise of repayment by an accommodation endorser financially capable of meeting the indebtedness, it may be adequately secured. However, subordinated debentures bonds of a partnership which are guaranteed by the general partners are not adequately secured since the general partners are liable for the firm's debt and their guaranty adds no additional security.

Example 2. Assume the same facts as in example 1 except that A's promissory note in the amount of $100,000 to the trust is secured by property which has a fair market value of $75,000. A's promissory note secured to the extent of $75,000 is not adequately secured within the meaning of section 503(b)(1) since the security at the time of the transaction must be sufficient to repay the indebtedness, interest, and charges which may pertain thereto.

Example 3. Corporation M, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503, borrows $150,000 from such organization in 1960, giving its promissory note accompanied by stock of the borrowing corporation with a fair market value of $200,000. Since promissory notes and debentures have priority over stock in the event of liquidation of the corporation, stock of a borrowing corporation is not adequate security. Likewise, debenture bonds which are convertible on default into voting stock of the issuing corporation do not constitute adequate security under section 503(b)(1).

Example 4. B, creator of an exempt trust subject to section 503, borrows $100,000 from such trust in 1960, giving his secured promissory note at the rate of 3 percent interest. The prevailing rate of interest charged by financial institutions in the community where the transaction takes place is 5 percent for a loan of the same duration and similarly secured. The loan by the trust to the grantor is a prohibited transaction since section 503(b)(1) requires both adequate security and a reasonable rate of interest. Further, a promise to repay the loan plus a percentage of future profits which may be greater than the prevailing rate of interest does not meet the reasonable rate of interest requirement.

Example 5. N Corporation, a substantial contributor to an exempt organization subject to section 503 borrows $50,000 on or after March 16, 1956, from the organization. If the loan is not adequately secured, the organization has committed a prohibited transaction at the time the loan was made. If the loan had been made on or before March 15, 1956, and is continued after January 31, 1957, it must be adequately secured on February 1, 1957, or it will be considered a prohibited transaction on that date. However, if the exempt organization were an employees' trust, described in section 401(a), and the loan were made before March 1, 1954, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1955, it would not have to be adequately secured on February 1, 1957. Moreover, if the exempt organization were a supplemental unemployment benefit trust, described in section 501(c)(17), and the loan were made before January 1, 1960, repayable by its terms after December 31, 1959, it would not have to be adequately secured on January 1, 1960.

Example 6. An exempt organization subject to section 503 purchases a debenture issued by O Corporation, which is a substantial contributor to the organization. The organization purchases the debenture in an arm's length transaction from a third person on or after November 9, 1956. The purchase is considered as a loan by the organization to O Corporation. The loan must be adequately secured when it is made, or it is considered as a prohibited transaction at that time. If the organization purchased the debenture before November 9, 1956, and holds it after December 1, 1958, the debenture must be adequately secured on December 2, 1958, or it will then be considered as a prohibited transaction. However, if the organization were an employees' trust described in section 401(a), and if the debenture were purchased before March 1, 1954, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1955, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured. Moreover, if the organization were an employees' contribution pension plan trust described in section 501(c)(18), and if the debenture were purchased before January 1, 1970, and its maturity date is after December 31, 1969, the debenture does not have to be adequately secured.

[T.D. 7428, 41 FR 34621, Aug. 16, 1976]



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