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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of July 24, 2014

Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 301—PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION
Jeopardy, Bankruptcy, and Receiverships


§301.6867-1   Presumptions where owner of large amount of cash is not identified.

(a) General rule. For purposes of section 6851 (relating to termination assessments) and section 6861 (relating to jeopardy assessments), if cash in excess of $10,000 is found in the physical possession of an individual who does not claim either ownership of that cash or ownership by some other person whose identity the Commissioner can readily ascertain and who acknowledges ownership of that cash as of the date the cash was found, then, it shall be presumed that—

(1) The cash represents gross income of an unknown single individual; and

(2) That the collection of tax on that income will be jeopardized by delay.

(b) Rules for assessment. The Commissioner may make an assessment pursuant to section 6851 or section 6861, as appropriate, using the rules for assessment specified in this paragraph. In the case of any assessment resulting from the application of paragraph (a) of this section—

(1) The entire amount of cash is treated as taxable income for the taxable year in which the cash is found;

(2) The income is treated as taxable at the highest rate of tax specified in section 1 of the Internal Revenue Code; and

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (c), the possessor of the cash is treated (solely with respect to that cash) as the taxpayer for purposes of chapters 63 and 64 and section 7429(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) Effect of later substitution of true owner—(1) In general. If an assessment resulting from the application of paragraph (a) of this section is later abated and replaced by an assessment against the true owner of the cash, the later assessment is treated for purposes of all laws relating to lien, levy, and collection as relating back to the date of the original assessment. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, any notice and review provided for by section 7429 and the notice of deficiency issued to the true owner relative to the later assessment are to be made within the prescribed time limits, using the actual date of the later assessment against the true owner.

(2) Example. The provisions of paragraph (c)(1) of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. On June 5, 1994, A is found in possession of a bag, containing $200,000, which A claims he was holding for a friend whose name A cannot remember. Because A does not claim ownership of the cash and does not provide the name of the true owner so that the Commissioner can identify the true owner and have that person acknowledge ownership of the cash, it is presumed that the cash represents gross income of an individual for calendar year 1994, and that the collection of tax on that gross income will be jeopardized by delay. Accordingly, on June 17, 1994, a termination assessment under section 6851 is made against A, in his capacity as possessor of the cash. On June 21, 1994, the written statement of information provided for by section 7429(a)(1) is given to A. No request for review under section 7429(a)(2) is made by the true owner within 30 days after the day on which A was furnished the written statement provided for in section 7429(a)(1). Subsequently, individual B comes to the Service and states that he is the owner of the cash. On September 2, 1994, the Service determines that B was the true owner of the cash on June 5, 1994. On September 9, 1994, the Service abates the termination assessment made against A solely as possessor of cash and, after determining that jeopardy exists, replaces it with a termination assessment under section 6851 against B. The lien against B that arises under section 6321 is treated as arising on June 17, 1994. However, within 5 days after September 9, 1994, the Service must give B the written statement of information required by section 7429(a)(1) so that B can make a request for review under section 7429(a)(2). In addition, a notice of deficiency must be sent to B within 60 days after the later of the due date or the actual filing of B's tax return for 1994, as required by section 6851(b).

(d) Rights of possessor of cash—(1) Action permitted. Section 6867 provides that the possessor of cash is treated as the taxpayer for purposes of chapter 63 (relating to assessment) and chapter 64 (relating to collection) of the Internal Revenue Code. Accordingly, the possessor of cash may file a petition with the United States Tax Court, within the applicable time limits, challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash.

(2) Actions not permitted. Section 6867 provides that the possessor of cash is treated as the taxpayer solely for purposes of section 7429(a)(1), and is entitled to the written statement of information provided for by that section. The possessor of cash is not treated as the taxpayer for purposes of sections 7429(a)(2) and 7429(b), relating to administrative and judicial review of termination and jeopardy assessments, and may not maintain an action under section 7429 for such review. The possessor of cash is not treated as the taxpayer for purposes of section 7422, relating to civil actions for refund, or chapter 65 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to abatements, credits, and refunds, and may not institute a suit for refund in district court after the deficiency has been collected.

(e) Rights of true owner of cash—(1) Actions permitted. The true owner of cash may request administrative review under section 7429(a)(2) and may maintain a civil action under section 7429(b) for judicial review of an assessment under section 6851 or section 6861 made against the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. Such an action, however, must be preceded by a request for review under section 7429(a)(2) made by the true owner within 30 days after the day on which the possessor is furnished the written statement provided for in section 7429(a)(1). In addition, after the deficiency asserted against the possessor of cash has been levied upon, the true owner of cash may bring an action in federal district court to recover the cash, as provided in section 7426, relating to civil actions by persons other than taxpayers. See, however, section 6532(c), relating to the 9-month statute of limitations for suits under section 7426. In addition, the true owner of cash, with the permission of the court, may appear before the United States Tax Court in any proceeding that may be filed by the possessor of the cash challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of the cash.

(2) Actions not permitted. The true owner of cash may not file a petition with the United States Tax Court challenging the notice of deficiency issued to the possessor solely in that person's capacity as possessor of cash. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the true owner of cash may file a petition with the United States Tax Court challenging any notice of deficiency issued to the true owner following the abatement of the assessment made against the possessor of cash.

(f) Definitions. For the purposes of this section and section 6867—

(1) Cash. The term cash includes any cash equivalents.

(2) Cash equivalent—(i) In general. The term cash equivalent includes foreign currency, any bearer obligation, and any medium of exchange that is of a type that has been frequently used in illegal activities, as listed in paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Specific cash equivalents. For purposes of paragraph (f)(2)(i), the following are also cash equivalents—

(A) Coins;

(B) Precious metals;

(C) Jewelry;

(D) Precious stones;

(E) Postage stamps;

(F) Traveler's checks in any form;

(G) Negotiable instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, notes, and money orders) that are either in bearer form, endorsed without restriction, made out to a fictitious payee, or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery;

(H) Incomplete instruments (including personal checks, business checks, official bank checks, cashier's checks, notes, and money orders) signed but with the payee's name omitted; and

(I) Securities or stock in bearer form or otherwise in such form that title thereto passes upon delivery.

(iii) Value of cash equivalents. A cash equivalent is taken into account at its fair market value except in the case of a bearer obligation, in which case it is taken into account at its face value.

(3) Possessor of cash. An individual is considered to be the possessor of cash if the cash is found on that individual's person or in that individual's possession or is found in any object, container, vehicle, or area under that individual's custody or control.

(4) True owner of the cash. The true owner of cash is the individual who beneficially owns the cash on the date such cash is found in the physical possession of the individual described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section. An agent, bailee, or other custodian of the cash is not the true owner of cash. A true owner of cash does not include an individual who, subsequent to the date on which the cash is found in the physical possession of the individual described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section, obtains ownership of the cash by purchase, subrogation, descent, or other means.

(g) Effective date. This section is effective with respect to cash found in the physical possession of an individual on or after August 3, 1995.

[T.D. 8605, 60 FR 39654, Aug. 3, 1995]

Bankruptcy and Receiverships



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