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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 18, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter CPart 60 → Subpart KKKK


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES


Subpart KKKK—Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines


Contents

Introduction

§60.4300   What is the purpose of this subpart?

Applicability

§60.4305   Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?
§60.4310   What types of operations are exempt from these standards of performance?

Emission Limits

§60.4315   What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?
§60.4320   What emission limits must I meet for nitrogen oxides (NOX)?
§60.4325   What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)?
§60.4330   What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

General Compliance Requirements

§60.4333   What are my general requirements for complying with this subpart?

Monitoring

§60.4335   How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?
§60.4340   How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?
§60.4345   What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to use this option?
§60.4350   How do I use data from the continuous emission monitoring equipment to identify excess emissions?
§60.4355   How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?
§60.4360   How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?
§60.4365   How can I be exempted from monitoring the total sulfur content of the fuel?
§60.4370   How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel?

Reporting

§60.4375   What reports must I submit?
§60.4380   How are excess emissions and monitor downtime defined for NOX?
§60.4385   How are excess emissions and monitoring downtime defined for SO2?
§60.4390   What are my reporting requirements if I operate an emergency combustion turbine or a research and development turbine?
§60.4395   When must I submit my reports?

Performance Tests

§60.4400   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests, regarding NOX?
§60.4405   How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?
§60.4410   How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?
§60.4415   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests for sulfur?

Definitions

§60.4420   What definitions apply to this subpart?
Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines

Source: 71 FR 38497, July 6, 2006, unless otherwise noted.

Introduction

§60.4300   What is the purpose of this subpart?

This subpart establishes emission standards and compliance schedules for the control of emissions from stationary combustion turbines that commenced construction, modification or reconstruction after February 18, 2005.

Applicability

§60.4305   Does this subpart apply to my stationary combustion turbine?

(a) If you are the owner or operator of a stationary combustion turbine with a heat input at peak load equal to or greater than 10.7 gigajoules (10 MMBtu) per hour, based on the higher heating value of the fuel, which commenced construction, modification, or reconstruction after February 18, 2005, your turbine is subject to this subpart. Only heat input to the combustion turbine should be included when determining whether or not this subpart is applicable to your turbine. Any additional heat input to associated heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) or duct burners should not be included when determining your peak heat input. However, this subpart does apply to emissions from any associated HRSG and duct burners.

(b) Stationary combustion turbines regulated under this subpart are exempt from the requirements of subpart GG of this part. Heat recovery steam generators and duct burners regulated under this subpart are exempted from the requirements of subparts Da, Db, and Dc of this part.

§60.4310   What types of operations are exempt from these standards of performance?

(a) Emergency combustion turbines, as defined in §60.4420(i), are exempt from the nitrogen oxides (NOX) emission limits in §60.4320.

(b) Stationary combustion turbines engaged by manufacturers in research and development of equipment for both combustion turbine emission control techniques and combustion turbine efficiency improvements are exempt from the NOX emission limits in §60.4320 on a case-by-case basis as determined by the Administrator.

(c) Stationary combustion turbines at integrated gasification combined cycle electric utility steam generating units that are subject to subpart Da of this part are exempt from this subpart.

(d) Combustion turbine test cells/stands are exempt from this subpart.

Emission Limits

§60.4315   What pollutants are regulated by this subpart?

The pollutants regulated by this subpart are nitrogen oxide (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

§60.4320   What emission limits must I meet for nitrogen oxides (NOX)?

(a) You must meet the emission limits for NOX specified in Table 1 to this subpart.

(b) If you have two or more turbines that are connected to a single generator, each turbine must meet the emission limits for NOX.

§60.4325   What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)?

You must meet the emission limits specified in Table 1 to this subpart. If your total heat input is greater than or equal to 50 percent natural gas, you must meet the corresponding limit for a natural gas-fired turbine when you are burning that fuel. Similarly, when your total heat input is greater than 50 percent distillate oil and fuels other than natural gas, you must meet the corresponding limit for distillate oil and fuels other than natural gas for the duration of the time that you burn that particular fuel.

§60.4330   What emission limits must I meet for sulfur dioxide (SO2)?

(a) If your turbine is located in a continental area, you must comply with either paragraph (a)(1), (a)(2), or (a)(3) of this section. If your turbine is located in Alaska, you do not have to comply with the requirements in paragraph (a) of this section until January 1, 2008.

(1) You must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from the subject stationary combustion turbine any gases which contain SO2 in excess of 110 nanograms per Joule (ng/J) (0.90 pounds per megawatt-hour (lb/MWh)) gross output;

(2) You must not burn in the subject stationary combustion turbine any fuel which contains total potential sulfur emissions in excess of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your turbine simultaneously fires multiple fuels, each fuel must meet this requirement; or

(3) For each stationary combustion turbine burning at least 50 percent biogas on a calendar month basis, as determined based on total heat input, you must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from the affected source any gases that contain SO2 in excess of 65 ng SO2/J (0.15 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input.

(b) If your turbine is located in a noncontinental area or a continental area that the Administrator determines does not have access to natural gas and that the removal of sulfur compounds would cause more environmental harm than benefit, you must comply with one or the other of the following conditions:

(1) You must not cause to be discharged into the atmosphere from the subject stationary combustion turbine any gases which contain SO2 in excess of 780 ng/J (6.2 lb/MWh) gross output, or

(2) You must not burn in the subject stationary combustion turbine any fuel which contains total sulfur with potential sulfur emissions in excess of 180 ng SO2/J (0.42 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input. If your turbine simultaneously fires multiple fuels, each fuel must meet this requirement.

[71 FR 38497, July 6, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 11861, Mar. 20, 2009]

General Compliance Requirements

§60.4333   What are my general requirements for complying with this subpart?

(a) You must operate and maintain your stationary combustion turbine, air pollution control equipment, and monitoring equipment in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices for minimizing emissions at all times including during startup, shutdown, and malfunction.

(b) When an affected unit with heat recovery utilizes a common steam header with one or more combustion turbines, the owner or operator shall either:

(1) Determine compliance with the applicable NOX emissions limits by measuring the emissions combined with the emissions from the other unit(s) utilizing the common heat recovery unit; or

(2) Develop, demonstrate, and provide information satisfactory to the Administrator on methods for apportioning the combined gross energy output from the heat recovery unit for each of the affected combustion turbines. The Administrator may approve such demonstrated substitute methods for apportioning the combined gross energy output measured at the steam turbine whenever the demonstration ensures accurate estimation of emissions related under this part.

Monitoring

§60.4335   How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

(a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for compliance.

(b) Alternatively, you may use continuous emission monitoring, as follows:

(1) Install, certify, maintain, and operate a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) consisting of a NOX monitor and a diluent gas (oxygen (O2) or carbon dioxide (CO2)) monitor, to determine the hourly NOX emission rate in parts per million (ppm) or pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MMBtu); and

(2) For units complying with the output-based standard, install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a fuel flow meter (or flow meters) to continuously measure the heat input to the affected unit; and

(3) For units complying with the output-based standard, install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a watt meter (or meters) to continuously measure the gross electrical output of the unit in megawatt-hours; and

(4) For combined heat and power units complying with the output-based standard, install, calibrate, maintain, and operate meters for useful recovered energy flow rate, temperature, and pressure, to continuously measure the total thermal energy output in British thermal units per hour (Btu/h).

§60.4340   How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

(a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform annual performance tests in accordance with §60.4400 to demonstrate continuous compliance. If the NOX emission result from the performance test is less than or equal to 75 percent of the NOX emission limit for the turbine, you may reduce the frequency of subsequent performance tests to once every 2 years (no more than 26 calendar months following the previous performance test). If the results of any subsequent performance test exceed 75 percent of the NOX emission limit for the turbine, you must resume annual performance tests.

(b) As an alternative, you may install, calibrate, maintain and operate one of the following continuous monitoring systems:

(1) Continuous emission monitoring as described in §§60.4335(b) and 60.4345, or

(2) Continuous parameter monitoring as follows:

(i) For a diffusion flame turbine without add-on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls, you must define parameters indicative of the unit's NOX formation characteristics, and you must monitor these parameters continuously.

(ii) For any lean premix stationary combustion turbine, you must continuously monitor the appropriate parameters to determine whether the unit is operating in low-NOX mode.

(iii) For any turbine that uses SCR to reduce NOX emissions, you must continuously monitor appropriate parameters to verify the proper operation of the emission controls.

(iv) For affected units that are also regulated under part 75 of this chapter, with state approval you can monitor the NOX emission rate using the methodology in appendix E to part 75 of this chapter, or the low mass emissions methodology in §75.19, the requirements of this paragraph (b) may be met by performing the parametric monitoring described in section 2.3 of part 75 appendix E or in §75.19(c)(1)(iv)(H).

§60.4345   What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to use this option?

If the option to use a NOX CEMS is chosen:

(a) Each NOX diluent CEMS must be installed and certified according to Performance Specification 2 (PS 2) in appendix B to this part, except the 7-day calibration drift is based on unit operating days, not calendar days. With state approval, Procedure 1 in appendix F to this part is not required. Alternatively, a NOX diluent CEMS that is installed and certified according to appendix A of part 75 of this chapter is acceptable for use under this subpart. The relative accuracy test audit (RATA) of the CEMS shall be performed on a lb/MMBtu basis.

(b) As specified in §60.13(e)(2), during each full unit operating hour, both the NOX monitor and the diluent monitor must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing, and data recording) for each 15-minute quadrant of the hour, to validate the hour. For partial unit operating hours, at least one valid data point must be obtained with each monitor for each quadrant of the hour in which the unit operates. For unit operating hours in which required quality assurance and maintenance activities are performed on the CEMS, a minimum of two valid data points (one in each of two quadrants) are required for each monitor to validate the NOX emission rate for the hour.

(c) Each fuel flowmeter shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated according to the manufacturer's instructions. Alternatively, with state approval, fuel flowmeters that meet the installation, certification, and quality assurance requirements of appendix D to part 75 of this chapter are acceptable for use under this subpart.

(d) Each watt meter, steam flow meter, and each pressure or temperature measurement device shall be installed, calibrated, maintained, and operated according to manufacturer's instructions.

(e) The owner or operator shall develop and keep on-site a quality assurance (QA) plan for all of the continuous monitoring equipment described in paragraphs (a), (c), and (d) of this section. For the CEMS and fuel flow meters, the owner or operator may, with state approval, satisfy the requirements of this paragraph by implementing the QA program and plan described in section 1 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter.

§60.4350   How do I use data from the continuous emission monitoring equipment to identify excess emissions?

For purposes of identifying excess emissions:

(a) All CEMS data must be reduced to hourly averages as specified in §60.13(h).

(b) For each unit operating hour in which a valid hourly average, as described in §60.4345(b), is obtained for both NOX and diluent monitors, the data acquisition and handling system must calculate and record the hourly NOX emission rate in units of ppm or lb/MMBtu, using the appropriate equation from method 19 in appendix A of this part. For any hour in which the hourly average O2 concentration exceeds 19.0 percent O2 (or the hourly average CO2 concentration is less than 1.0 percent CO2), a diluent cap value of 19.0 percent O2 or 1.0 percent CO2 (as applicable) may be used in the emission calculations.

(c) Correction of measured NOX concentrations to 15 percent O2 is not allowed.

(d) If you have installed and certified a NOX diluent CEMS to meet the requirements of part 75 of this chapter, states can approve that only quality assured data from the CEMS shall be used to identify excess emissions under this subpart. Periods where the missing data substitution procedures in subpart D of part 75 are applied are to be reported as monitor downtime in the excess emissions and monitoring performance report required under §60.7(c).

(e) All required fuel flow rate, steam flow rate, temperature, pressure, and megawatt data must be reduced to hourly averages.

(f) Calculate the hourly average NOX emission rates, in units of the emission standards under §60.4320, using either ppm for units complying with the concentration limit or the following equation for units complying with the output based standard:

(1) For simple-cycle operation:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.000.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = hourly NOX emission rate, in lb/MWh,

(NOX)h = hourly NOX emission rate, in lb/MMBtu,

(HI)h = hourly heat input rate to the unit, in MMBtu/h, measured using the fuel flowmeter(s), e.g., calculated using Equation D-15a in appendix D to part 75 of this chapter, and

P = gross energy output of the combustion turbine in MW.

(2) For combined-cycle and combined heat and power complying with the output-based standard, use Equation 1 of this subpart, except that the gross energy output is calculated as the sum of the total electrical and mechanical energy generated by the combustion turbine, the additional electrical or mechanical energy (if any) generated by the steam turbine following the heat recovery steam generator, and 100 percent of the total useful thermal energy output that is not used to generate additional electricity or mechanical output, expressed in equivalent MW, as in the following equations:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.001.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

P = gross energy output of the stationary combustion turbine system in MW.

(Pe)t = electrical or mechanical energy output of the combustion turbine in MW,

(Pe)c = electrical or mechanical energy output (if any) of the steam turbine in MW, and

eCFR graphic er06jy06.002.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

Ps = useful thermal energy of the steam, measured relative to ISO conditions, not used to generate additional electric or mechanical output, in MW,

Q = measured steam flow rate in lb/h,

H = enthalpy of the steam at measured temperature and pressure relative to ISO conditions, in Btu/lb, and 3.413 × 106 = conversion from Btu/h to MW.

Po = other useful heat recovery, measured relative to ISO conditions, not used for steam generation or performance enhancement of the combustion turbine.

(3) For mechanical drive applications complying with the output-based standard, use the following equation:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.003.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = NOX emission rate in lb/MWh,

(NOX)m = NOX emission rate in lb/h,

BL = manufacturer's base load rating of turbine, in MW, and

AL = actual load as a percentage of the base load.

(g) For simple cycle units without heat recovery, use the calculated hourly average emission rates from paragraph (f) of this section to assess excess emissions on a 4-hour rolling average basis, as described in §60.4380(b)(1).

(h) For combined cycle and combined heat and power units with heat recovery, use the calculated hourly average emission rates from paragraph (f) of this section to assess excess emissions on a 30 unit operating day rolling average basis, as described in §60.4380(b)(1).

§60.4355   How do I establish and document a proper parameter monitoring plan?

(a) The steam or water to fuel ratio or other parameters that are continuously monitored as described in §§60.4335 and 60.4340 must be monitored during the performance test required under §60.8, to establish acceptable values and ranges. You may supplement the performance test data with engineering analyses, design specifications, manufacturer's recommendations and other relevant information to define the acceptable parametric ranges more precisely. You must develop and keep on-site a parameter monitoring plan which explains the procedures used to document proper operation of the NOX emission controls. The plan must:

(1) Include the indicators to be monitored and show there is a significant relationship to emissions and proper operation of the NOX emission controls,

(2) Pick ranges (or designated conditions) of the indicators, or describe the process by which such range (or designated condition) will be established,

(3) Explain the process you will use to make certain that you obtain data that are representative of the emissions or parameters being monitored (such as detector location, installation specification if applicable),

(4) Describe quality assurance and control practices that are adequate to ensure the continuing validity of the data,

(5) Describe the frequency of monitoring and the data collection procedures which you will use (e.g., you are using a computerized data acquisition over a number of discrete data points with the average (or maximum value) being used for purposes of determining whether an exceedance has occurred), and

(6) Submit justification for the proposed elements of the monitoring. If a proposed performance specification differs from manufacturer recommendation, you must explain the reasons for the differences. You must submit the data supporting the justification, but you may refer to generally available sources of information used to support the justification. You may rely on engineering assessments and other data, provided you demonstrate factors which assure compliance or explain why performance testing is unnecessary to establish indicator ranges. When establishing indicator ranges, you may choose to simplify the process by treating the parameters as if they were correlated. Using this assumption, testing can be divided into two cases:

(i) All indicators are significant only on one end of range (e.g., for a thermal incinerator controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) it is only important to insure a minimum temperature, not a maximum). In this case, you may conduct your study so that each parameter is at the significant limit of its range while you conduct your emissions testing. If the emissions tests show that the source is in compliance at the significant limit of each parameter, then as long as each parameter is within its limit, you are presumed to be in compliance.

(ii) Some or all indicators are significant on both ends of the range. In this case, you may conduct your study so that each parameter that is significant at both ends of its range assumes its extreme values in all possible combinations of the extreme values (either single or double) of all of the other parameters. For example, if there were only two parameters, A and B, and A had a range of values while B had only a minimum value, the combinations would be A high with B minimum and A low with B minimum. If both A and B had a range, the combinations would be A high and B high, A low and B low, A high and B low, A low and B high. For the case of four parameters all having a range, there are 16 possible combinations.

(b) For affected units that are also subject to part 75 of this chapter and that have state approval to use the low mass emissions methodology in §75.19 or the NOX emission measurement methodology in appendix E to part 75, you may meet the requirements of this paragraph by developing and keeping on-site (or at a central location for unmanned facilities) a QA plan, as described in §75.19(e)(5) or in section 2.3 of appendix E to part 75 of this chapter and section 1.3.6 of appendix B to part 75 of this chapter.

§60.4360   How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

You must monitor the total sulfur content of the fuel being fired in the turbine, except as provided in §60.4365. The sulfur content of the fuel must be determined using total sulfur methods described in §60.4415. Alternatively, if the total sulfur content of the gaseous fuel during the most recent performance test was less than half the applicable limit, ASTM D4084, D4810, D5504, or D6228, or Gas Processors Association Standard 2377 (all of which are incorporated by reference, see §60.17), which measure the major sulfur compounds, may be used.

§60.4365   How can I be exempted from monitoring the total sulfur content of the fuel?

You may elect not to monitor the total sulfur content of the fuel combusted in the turbine, if the fuel is demonstrated not to exceed potential sulfur emissions of 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for units located in continental areas and 180 ng SO2/J (0.42 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for units located in noncontinental areas or a continental area that the Administrator determines does not have access to natural gas and that the removal of sulfur compounds would cause more environmental harm than benefit. You must use one of the following sources of information to make the required demonstration:

(a) The fuel quality characteristics in a current, valid purchase contract, tariff sheet or transportation contract for the fuel, specifying that the maximum total sulfur content for oil use in continental areas is 0.05 weight percent (500 ppmw) or less and 0.4 weight percent (4,000 ppmw) or less for noncontinental areas, the total sulfur content for natural gas use in continental areas is 20 grains of sulfur or less per 100 standard cubic feet and 140 grains of sulfur or less per 100 standard cubic feet for noncontinental areas, has potential sulfur emissions of less than less than 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for continental areas and has potential sulfur emissions of less than less than 180 ng SO2/J (0.42 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for noncontinental areas; or

(b) Representative fuel sampling data which show that the sulfur content of the fuel does not exceed 26 ng SO2/J (0.060 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for continental areas or 180 ng SO2/J (0.42 lb SO2/MMBtu) heat input for noncontinental areas. At a minimum, the amount of fuel sampling data specified in section 2.3.1.4 or 2.3.2.4 of appendix D to part 75 of this chapter is required.

§60.4370   How often must I determine the sulfur content of the fuel?

The frequency of determining the sulfur content of the fuel must be as follows:

(a) Fuel oil. For fuel oil, use one of the total sulfur sampling options and the associated sampling frequency described in sections 2.2.3, 2.2.4.1, 2.2.4.2, and 2.2.4.3 of appendix D to part 75 of this chapter (i.e., flow proportional sampling, daily sampling, sampling from the unit's storage tank after each addition of fuel to the tank, or sampling each delivery prior to combining it with fuel oil already in the intended storage tank).

(b) Gaseous fuel. If you elect not to demonstrate sulfur content using options in §60.4365, and the fuel is supplied without intermediate bulk storage, the sulfur content value of the gaseous fuel must be determined and recorded once per unit operating day.

(c) Custom schedules. Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, operators or fuel vendors may develop custom schedules for determination of the total sulfur content of gaseous fuels, based on the design and operation of the affected facility and the characteristics of the fuel supply. Except as provided in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section, custom schedules shall be substantiated with data and shall be approved by the Administrator before they can be used to comply with the standard in §60.4330.

(1) The two custom sulfur monitoring schedules set forth in paragraphs (c)(1)(i) through (iv) and in paragraph (c)(2) of this section are acceptable, without prior Administrative approval:

(i) The owner or operator shall obtain daily total sulfur content measurements for 30 consecutive unit operating days, using the applicable methods specified in this subpart. Based on the results of the 30 daily samples, the required frequency for subsequent monitoring of the fuel's total sulfur content shall be as specified in paragraph (c)(1)(ii), (iii), or (iv) of this section, as applicable.

(ii) If none of the 30 daily measurements of the fuel's total sulfur content exceeds half the applicable standard, subsequent sulfur content monitoring may be performed at 12-month intervals. If any of the samples taken at 12-month intervals has a total sulfur content greater than half but less than the applicable limit, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section. If any measurement exceeds the applicable limit, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section.

(iii) If at least one of the 30 daily measurements of the fuel's total sulfur content is greater than half but less than the applicable limit, but none exceeds the applicable limit, then:

(A) Collect and analyze a sample every 30 days for 3 months. If any sulfur content measurement exceeds the applicable limit, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Otherwise, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(B) of this section.

(B) Begin monitoring at 6-month intervals for 12 months. If any sulfur content measurement exceeds the applicable limit, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Otherwise, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(C) of this section.

(C) Begin monitoring at 12-month intervals. If any sulfur content measurement exceeds the applicable limit, follow the procedures in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section. Otherwise, continue to monitor at this frequency.

(iv) If a sulfur content measurement exceeds the applicable limit, immediately begin daily monitoring according to paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Daily monitoring shall continue until 30 consecutive daily samples, each having a sulfur content no greater than the applicable limit, are obtained. At that point, the applicable procedures of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) or (iii) of this section shall be followed.

(2) The owner or operator may use the data collected from the 720-hour sulfur sampling demonstration described in section 2.3.6 of appendix D to part 75 of this chapter to determine a custom sulfur sampling schedule, as follows:

(i) If the maximum fuel sulfur content obtained from the 720 hourly samples does not exceed 20 grains/100 scf, no additional monitoring of the sulfur content of the gas is required, for the purposes of this subpart.

(ii) If the maximum fuel sulfur content obtained from any of the 720 hourly samples exceeds 20 grains/100 scf, but none of the sulfur content values (when converted to weight percent sulfur) exceeds half the applicable limit, then the minimum required sampling frequency shall be one sample at 12 month intervals.

(iii) If any sample result exceeds half the applicable limit, but none exceeds the applicable limit, follow the provisions of paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section.

(iv) If the sulfur content of any of the 720 hourly samples exceeds the applicable limit, follow the provisions of paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section.

Reporting

§60.4375   What reports must I submit?

(a) For each affected unit required to continuously monitor parameters or emissions, or to periodically determine the fuel sulfur content under this subpart, you must submit reports of excess emissions and monitor downtime, in accordance with §60.7(c). Excess emissions must be reported for all periods of unit operation, including start-up, shutdown, and malfunction.

(b) For each affected unit that performs annual performance tests in accordance with §60.4340(a), you must submit a written report of the results of each performance test before the close of business on the 60th day following the completion of the performance test.

§60.4380   How are excess emissions and monitor downtime defined for NOX?

For the purpose of reports required under §60.7(c), periods of excess emissions and monitor downtime that must be reported are defined as follows:

(a) For turbines using water or steam to fuel ratio monitoring:

(1) An excess emission is any unit operating hour for which the 4-hour rolling average steam or water to fuel ratio, as measured by the continuous monitoring system, falls below the acceptable steam or water to fuel ratio needed to demonstrate compliance with §60.4320, as established during the performance test required in §60.8. Any unit operating hour in which no water or steam is injected into the turbine when a fuel is being burned that requires water or steam injection for NOX control will also be considered an excess emission.

(2) A period of monitor downtime is any unit operating hour in which water or steam is injected into the turbine, but the essential parametric data needed to determine the steam or water to fuel ratio are unavailable or invalid.

(3) Each report must include the average steam or water to fuel ratio, average fuel consumption, and the combustion turbine load during each excess emission.

(b) For turbines using continuous emission monitoring, as described in §§60.4335(b) and 60.4345:

(1) An excess emissions is any unit operating period in which the 4-hour or 30-day rolling average NOX emission rate exceeds the applicable emission limit in §60.4320. For the purposes of this subpart, a “4-hour rolling average NOX emission rate” is the arithmetic average of the average NOX emission rate in ppm or ng/J (lb/MWh) measured by the continuous emission monitoring equipment for a given hour and the three unit operating hour average NOX emission rates immediately preceding that unit operating hour. Calculate the rolling average if a valid NOX emission rate is obtained for at least 3 of the 4 hours. For the purposes of this subpart, a “30-day rolling average NOX emission rate” is the arithmetic average of all hourly NOX emission data in ppm or ng/J (lb/MWh) measured by the continuous emission monitoring equipment for a given day and the twenty-nine unit operating days immediately preceding that unit operating day. A new 30-day average is calculated each unit operating day as the average of all hourly NOX emissions rates for the preceding 30 unit operating days if a valid NOX emission rate is obtained for at least 75 percent of all operating hours.

(2) A period of monitor downtime is any unit operating hour in which the data for any of the following parameters are either missing or invalid: NOX concentration, CO2 or O2 concentration, fuel flow rate, steam flow rate, steam temperature, steam pressure, or megawatts. The steam flow rate, steam temperature, and steam pressure are only required if you will use this information for compliance purposes.

(3) For operating periods during which multiple emissions standards apply, the applicable standard is the average of the applicable standards during each hour. For hours with multiple emissions standards, the applicable limit for that hour is determined based on the condition that corresponded to the highest emissions standard.

(c) For turbines required to monitor combustion parameters or parameters that document proper operation of the NOX emission controls:

(1) An excess emission is a 4-hour rolling unit operating hour average in which any monitored parameter does not achieve the target value or is outside the acceptable range defined in the parameter monitoring plan for the unit.

(2) A period of monitor downtime is a unit operating hour in which any of the required parametric data are either not recorded or are invalid.

§60.4385   How are excess emissions and monitoring downtime defined for SO2?

If you choose the option to monitor the sulfur content of the fuel, excess emissions and monitoring downtime are defined as follows:

(a) For samples of gaseous fuel and for oil samples obtained using daily sampling, flow proportional sampling, or sampling from the unit's storage tank, an excess emission occurs each unit operating hour included in the period beginning on the date and hour of any sample for which the sulfur content of the fuel being fired in the combustion turbine exceeds the applicable limit and ending on the date and hour that a subsequent sample is taken that demonstrates compliance with the sulfur limit.

(b) If the option to sample each delivery of fuel oil has been selected, you must immediately switch to one of the other oil sampling options (i.e., daily sampling, flow proportional sampling, or sampling from the unit's storage tank) if the sulfur content of a delivery exceeds 0.05 weight percent. You must continue to use one of the other sampling options until all of the oil from the delivery has been combusted, and you must evaluate excess emissions according to paragraph (a) of this section. When all of the fuel from the delivery has been burned, you may resume using the as-delivered sampling option.

(c) A period of monitor downtime begins when a required sample is not taken by its due date. A period of monitor downtime also begins on the date and hour of a required sample, if invalid results are obtained. The period of monitor downtime ends on the date and hour of the next valid sample.

§60.4390   What are my reporting requirements if I operate an emergency combustion turbine or a research and development turbine?

(a) If you operate an emergency combustion turbine, you are exempt from the NOX limit and must submit an initial report to the Administrator stating your case.

(b) Combustion turbines engaged by manufacturers in research and development of equipment for both combustion turbine emission control techniques and combustion turbine efficiency improvements may be exempted from the NOX limit on a case-by-case basis as determined by the Administrator. You must petition for the exemption.

§60.4395   When must I submit my reports?

All reports required under §60.7(c) must be postmarked by the 30th day following the end of each 6-month period.

Performance Tests

§60.4400   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests, regarding NOX?

(a) You must conduct an initial performance test, as required in §60.8. Subsequent NOX performance tests shall be conducted on an annual basis (no more than 14 calendar months following the previous performance test).

(1) There are two general methodologies that you may use to conduct the performance tests. For each test run:

(i) Measure the NOX concentration (in parts per million (ppm)), using EPA Method 7E or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part. For units complying with the output based standard, concurrently measure the stack gas flow rate, using EPA Methods 1 and 2 in appendix A of this part, and measure and record the electrical and thermal output from the unit. Then, use the following equation to calculate the NOX emission rate:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.004.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = NOX emission rate, in lb/MWh

1.194 × 10−7 = conversion constant, in lb/dscf-ppm

(NOX)c = average NOX concentration for the run, in ppm

Qstd = stack gas volumetric flow rate, in dscf/hr

P = gross electrical and mechanical energy output of the combustion turbine, in MW (for simple-cycle operation), for combined-cycle operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines, or, for combined heat and power operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines plus all useful recovered thermal output not used for additional electric or mechanical generation, in MW, calculated according to §60.4350(f)(2); or

(ii) Measure the NOX and diluent gas concentrations, using either EPA Methods 7E and 3A, or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part. Concurrently measure the heat input to the unit, using a fuel flowmeter (or flowmeters), and measure the electrical and thermal output of the unit. Use EPA Method 19 in appendix A of this part to calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/MMBtu. Then, use Equations 1 and, if necessary, 2 and 3 in §60.4350(f) to calculate the NOX emission rate in lb/MWh.

(2) Sampling traverse points for NOX and (if applicable) diluent gas are to be selected following EPA Method 20 or EPA Method 1 (non-particulate procedures), and sampled for equal time intervals. The sampling must be performed with a traversing single-hole probe, or, if feasible, with a stationary multi-hole probe that samples each of the points sequentially. Alternatively, a multi-hole probe designed and documented to sample equal volumes from each hole may be used to sample simultaneously at the required points.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2) of this section, you may test at fewer points than are specified in EPA Method 1 or EPA Method 20 in appendix A of this part if the following conditions are met:

(i) You may perform a stratification test for NOX and diluent pursuant to

(A) [Reserved], or

(B) The procedures specified in section 6.5.6.1(a) through (e) of appendix A of part 75 of this chapter.

(ii) Once the stratification sampling is completed, you may use the following alternative sample point selection criteria for the performance test:

(A) If each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±10 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±5ppm or ±0.5 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points, then you may use three points (located either 16.7, 50.0 and 83.3 percent of the way across the stack or duct, or, for circular stacks or ducts greater than 2.4 meters (7.8 feet) in diameter, at 0.4, 1.2, and 2.0 meters from the wall). The three points must be located along the measurement line that exhibited the highest average NOX concentration during the stratification test; or

(B) For turbines with a NOX standard greater than 15 ppm @ 15% O2, you may sample at a single point, located at least 1 meter from the stack wall or at the stack centroid if each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±5 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±3ppm or ±0.3 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points; or

(C) For turbines with a NOX standard less than or equal to 15 ppm @ 15% O2, you may sample at a single point, located at least 1 meter from the stack wall or at the stack centroid if each of the individual traverse point NOX concentrations is within ±2.5 percent of the mean concentration for all traverse points, or the individual traverse point diluent concentrations differs by no more than ±1ppm or ±0.15 percent CO2 (or O2) from the mean for all traverse points.

(b) The performance test must be done at any load condition within plus or minus 25 percent of 100 percent of peak load. You may perform testing at the highest achievable load point, if at least 75 percent of peak load cannot be achieved in practice. You must conduct three separate test runs for each performance test. The minimum time per run is 20 minutes.

(1) If the stationary combustion turbine combusts both oil and gas as primary or backup fuels, separate performance testing is required for each fuel.

(2) For a combined cycle and CHP turbine systems with supplemental heat (duct burner), you must measure the total NOX emissions after the duct burner rather than directly after the turbine. The duct burner must be in operation during the performance test.

(3) If water or steam injection is used to control NOX with no additional post-combustion NOX control and you choose to monitor the steam or water to fuel ratio in accordance with §60.4335, then that monitoring system must be operated concurrently with each EPA Method 20 or EPA Method 7E run and must be used to determine the fuel consumption and the steam or water to fuel ratio necessary to comply with the applicable §60.4320 NOX emission limit.

(4) Compliance with the applicable emission limit in §60.4320 must be demonstrated at each tested load level. Compliance is achieved if the three-run arithmetic average NOX emission rate at each tested level meets the applicable emission limit in §60.4320.

(5) If you elect to install a CEMS, the performance evaluation of the CEMS may either be conducted separately or (as described in §60.4405) as part of the initial performance test of the affected unit.

(6) The ambient temperature must be greater than 0 °F during the performance test.

§60.4405   How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?

If you elect to install and certify a NOX-diluent CEMS under §60.4345, then the initial performance test required under §60.8 may be performed in the following alternative manner:

(a) Perform a minimum of nine RATA reference method runs, with a minimum time per run of 21 minutes, at a single load level, within plus or minus 25 percent of 100 percent of peak load. The ambient temperature must be greater than 0 °F during the RATA runs.

(b) For each RATA run, concurrently measure the heat input to the unit using a fuel flow meter (or flow meters) and measure the electrical and thermal output from the unit.

(c) Use the test data both to demonstrate compliance with the applicable NOX emission limit under §60.4320 and to provide the required reference method data for the RATA of the CEMS described under §60.4335.

(d) Compliance with the applicable emission limit in §60.4320 is achieved if the arithmetic average of all of the NOX emission rates for the RATA runs, expressed in units of ppm or lb/MWh, does not exceed the emission limit.

§60.4410   How do I establish a valid parameter range if I have chosen to continuously monitor parameters?

If you have chosen to monitor combustion parameters or parameters indicative of proper operation of NOX emission controls in accordance with §60.4340, the appropriate parameters must be continuously monitored and recorded during each run of the initial performance test, to establish acceptable operating ranges, for purposes of the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit, as specified in §60.4355.

§60.4415   How do I conduct the initial and subsequent performance tests for sulfur?

(a) You must conduct an initial performance test, as required in §60.8. Subsequent SO2 performance tests shall be conducted on an annual basis (no more than 14 calendar months following the previous performance test). There are three methodologies that you may use to conduct the performance tests.

(1) If you choose to periodically determine the sulfur content of the fuel combusted in the turbine, a representative fuel sample would be collected following ASTM D5287 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) for natural gas or ASTM D4177 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) for oil. Alternatively, for oil, you may follow the procedures for manual pipeline sampling in section 14 of ASTM D4057 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17). The fuel analyses of this section may be performed either by you, a service contractor retained by you, the fuel vendor, or any other qualified agency. Analyze the samples for the total sulfur content of the fuel using:

(i) For liquid fuels, ASTM D129, or alternatively D1266, D1552, D2622, D4294, or D5453 (all of which are incorporated by reference, see §60.17); or

(ii) For gaseous fuels, ASTM D1072, or alternatively D3246, D4084, D4468, D4810, D6228, D6667, or Gas Processors Association Standard 2377 (all of which are incorporated by reference, see §60.17).

(2) Measure the SO2 concentration (in parts per million (ppm)), using EPA Methods 6, 6C, 8, or 20 in appendix A of this part. In addition, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standard, ASME PTC 19-10-1981-Part 10, “Flue and Exhaust Gas Analyses,” manual methods for sulfur dioxide (incorporated by reference, see §60.17) can be used instead of EPA Methods 6 or 20. For units complying with the output based standard, concurrently measure the stack gas flow rate, using EPA Methods 1 and 2 in appendix A of this part, and measure and record the electrical and thermal output from the unit. Then use the following equation to calculate the SO2 emission rate:

eCFR graphic er06jy06.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

E = SO2 emission rate, in lb/MWh

1.664 × 10−7 = conversion constant, in lb/dscf-ppm

(SO2)c = average SO2 concentration for the run, in ppm

Qstd = stack gas volumetric flow rate, in dscf/hr

P = gross electrical and mechanical energy output of the combustion turbine, in MW (for simple-cycle operation), for combined-cycle operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines, or, for combined heat and power operation, the sum of all electrical and mechanical output from the combustion and steam turbines plus all useful recovered thermal output not used for additional electric or mechanical generation, in MW, calculated according to §60.4350(f)(2); or

(3) Measure the SO2 and diluent gas concentrations, using either EPA Methods 6, 6C, or 8 and 3A, or 20 in appendix A of this part. In addition, you may use the manual methods for sulfur dioxide ASME PTC 19-10-1981-Part 10 (incorporated by reference, see §60.17). Concurrently measure the heat input to the unit, using a fuel flowmeter (or flowmeters), and measure the electrical and thermal output of the unit. Use EPA Method 19 in appendix A of this part to calculate the SO2 emission rate in lb/MMBtu. Then, use Equations 1 and, if necessary, 2 and 3 in §60.4350(f) to calculate the SO2 emission rate in lb/MWh.

(b) [Reserved]

Definitions

§60.4420   What definitions apply to this subpart?

As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein will have the meaning given them in the Clean Air Act and in subpart A (General Provisions) of this part.

Biogas means gas produced by the anaerobic digestion or fermentation of organic matter including manure, sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, biodegradable waste, or any other biodegradable feedstock, under anaerobic conditions. Biogas is comprised primarily of methane and CO2.

Combined cycle combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine which recovers heat from the combustion turbine exhaust gases to generate steam that is only used to create additional power output in a steam turbine.

Combined heat and power combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine which recovers heat from the exhaust gases to heat water or another medium, generate steam for useful purposes other than additional electric generation, or directly uses the heat in the exhaust gases for a useful purpose.

Combustion turbine model means a group of combustion turbines having the same nominal air flow, combustor inlet pressure, combustor inlet temperature, firing temperature, turbine inlet temperature and turbine inlet pressure.

Combustion turbine test cell/stand means any apparatus used for testing uninstalled stationary or uninstalled mobile (motive) combustion turbines.

Diffusion flame stationary combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine where fuel and air are injected at the combustor and are mixed only by diffusion prior to ignition.

Duct burner means a device that combusts fuel and that is placed in the exhaust duct from another source, such as a stationary combustion turbine, internal combustion engine, kiln, etc., to allow the firing of additional fuel to heat the exhaust gases before the exhaust gases enter a heat recovery steam generating unit.

Efficiency means the combustion turbine manufacturer's rated heat rate at peak load in terms of heat input per unit of power output—based on the higher heating value of the fuel.

Emergency combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine which operates in an emergency situation. Examples include stationary combustion turbines used to produce power for critical networks or equipment, including power supplied to portions of a facility, when electric power from the local utility is interrupted, or stationary combustion turbines used to pump water in the case of fire or flood, etc. Emergency stationary combustion turbines do not include stationary combustion turbines used as peaking units at electric utilities or stationary combustion turbines at industrial facilities that typically operate at low capacity factors. Emergency combustion turbines may be operated for the purpose of maintenance checks and readiness testing, provided that the tests are required by the manufacturer, the vendor, or the insurance company associated with the turbine. Required testing of such units should be minimized, but there is no time limit on the use of emergency combustion turbines.

Excess emissions means a specified averaging period over which either (1) the NOX emissions are higher than the applicable emission limit in §60.4320; (2) the total sulfur content of the fuel being combusted in the affected facility exceeds the limit specified in §60.4330; or (3) the recorded value of a particular monitored parameter is outside the acceptable range specified in the parameter monitoring plan for the affected unit.

Gross useful output means the gross useful work performed by the stationary combustion turbine system. For units using the mechanical energy directly or generating only electricity, the gross useful work performed is the gross electrical or mechanical output from the turbine/generator set. For combined heat and power units, the gross useful work performed is the gross electrical or mechanical output plus the useful thermal output (i.e., thermal energy delivered to a process).

Heat recovery steam generating unit means a unit where the hot exhaust gases from the combustion turbine are routed in order to extract heat from the gases and generate steam, for use in a steam turbine or other device that utilizes steam. Heat recovery steam generating units can be used with or without duct burners.

Integrated gasification combined cycle electric utility steam generating unit means a coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit that burns a synthetic gas derived from coal in a combined-cycle gas turbine. No solid coal is directly burned in the unit during operation.

ISO conditions means 288 Kelvin, 60 percent relative humidity and 101.3 kilopascals pressure.

Lean premix stationary combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine where the air and fuel are thoroughly mixed to form a lean mixture before delivery to the combustor. Mixing may occur before or in the combustion chamber. A lean premixed turbine may operate in diffusion flame mode during operating conditions such as startup and shutdown, extreme ambient temperature, or low or transient load.

Natural gas means a naturally occurring fluid mixture of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane, ethane, or propane) produced in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface that maintains a gaseous state at standard atmospheric temperature and pressure under ordinary conditions. Additionally, natural gas must either be composed of at least 70 percent methane by volume or have a gross calorific value between 950 and 1,100 British thermal units (Btu) per standard cubic foot. Natural gas does not include the following gaseous fuels: landfill gas, digester gas, refinery gas, sour gas, blast furnace gas, coal-derived gas, producer gas, coke oven gas, or any gaseous fuel produced in a process which might result in highly variable sulfur content or heating value.

Noncontinental area means the State of Hawaii, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, or offshore platforms.

Peak load means 100 percent of the manufacturer's design capacity of the combustion turbine at ISO conditions.

Regenerative cycle combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine which recovers heat from the combustion turbine exhaust gases to preheat the inlet combustion air to the combustion turbine.

Simple cycle combustion turbine means any stationary combustion turbine which does not recover heat from the combustion turbine exhaust gases to preheat the inlet combustion air to the combustion turbine, or which does not recover heat from the combustion turbine exhaust gases for purposes other than enhancing the performance of the combustion turbine itself.

Stationary combustion turbine means all equipment, including but not limited to the turbine, the fuel, air, lubrication and exhaust gas systems, control systems (except emissions control equipment), heat recovery system, and any ancillary components and sub-components comprising any simple cycle stationary combustion turbine, any regenerative/recuperative cycle stationary combustion turbine, any combined cycle combustion turbine, and any combined heat and power combustion turbine based system. Stationary means that the combustion turbine is not self propelled or intended to be propelled while performing its function. It may, however, be mounted on a vehicle for portability.

Unit operating day means a 24-hour period between 12 midnight and the following midnight during which any fuel is combusted at any time in the unit. It is not necessary for fuel to be combusted continuously for the entire 24-hour period.

Unit operating hour means a clock hour during which any fuel is combusted in the affected unit. If the unit combusts fuel for the entire clock hour, it is considered to be a full unit operating hour. If the unit combusts fuel for only part of the clock hour, it is considered to be a partial unit operating hour.

Useful thermal output means the thermal energy made available for use in any industrial or commercial process, or used in any heating or cooling application, i.e., total thermal energy made available for processes and applications other than electrical or mechanical generation. Thermal output for this subpart means the energy in recovered thermal output measured against the energy in the thermal output at 15 degrees Celsius and 101.325 kilopascals of pressure.

[71 FR 38497, July 6, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 11861, Mar. 20, 2009]

Table 1 to Subpart KKKK of Part 60—Nitrogen Oxide Emission Limits for New Stationary Combustion Turbines

Combustion turbine typeCombustion turbine heat input at peak load
(HHV)
NOX emission standard
New turbine firing natural gas, electric generating50 MMBtu/h42 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 290 ng/J of useful output (2.3 lb/MWh).
New turbine firing natural gas, mechanical drive50 MMBtu/h100 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 690 ng/J of useful output (5.5 lb/MWh).
New turbine firing natural gas50 MMBtu/h and 850 MMBtu/h25 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 150 ng/J of useful output (1.2 lb/MWh).
New, modified, or reconstructed turbine firing natural gas850 MMBtu/h15 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 54 ng/J of useful output (0.43 lb/MWh)
New turbine firing fuels other than natural gas, electric generating50 MMBtu/h96 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 700 ng/J of useful output (5.5 lb/MWh).
New turbine firing fuels other than natural gas, mechanical drive50 MMBtu/h150 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 1,100 ng/J of useful output (8.7 lb/MWh).
New turbine firing fuels other than natural gas50 MMBtu/h and 850 MMBtu/h74 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 460 ng/J of useful output (3.6 lb/MWh).
New, modified, or reconstructed turbine firing fuels other than natural gas850 MMBtu/h42 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 160 ng/J of useful output (1.3 lb/MWh).
Modified or reconstructed turbine50 MMBtu/h150 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 1,100 ng/J of useful output (8.7 lb/MWh).
Modified or reconstructed turbine firing natural gas50 MMBtu/h and 850 MMBtu/h42 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 250 ng/J of useful output (2.0 lb/MWh).
Modified or reconstructed turbine firing fuels other than natural gas50 MMBtu/h and 850 MMBtu/h96 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 590 ng/J of useful output (4.7 lb/MWh).
Turbines located north of the Arctic Circle (latitude 66.5 degrees north), turbines operating at less than 75 percent of peak load, modified and reconstructed offshore turbines, and turbine operating at temperatures less than 0 °F30 MW output150 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 1,100 ng/J of useful output (8.7 lb/MWh).
Turbines located north of the Arctic Circle (latitude 66.5 degrees north), turbines operating at less than 75 percent of peak load, modified and reconstructed offshore turbines, and turbine operating at temperatures less than 0 °F30 MW output96 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 590 ng/J of useful output (4.7 lb/MWh).
Heat recovery units operating independent of the combustion turbineAll sizes54 ppm at 15 percent O2 or 110 ng/J of useful output (0.86 lb/MWh).


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