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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 22, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 85—CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES


Subpart W—Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests


Contents
§85.2201   Applicability.
§85.2202   General provisions.
§85.2203   Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles.
§85.2204   Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.
§§85.2205-85.2206   [Reserved]
§85.2207   On-board diagnostics test standards.
§85.2208   Alternative standards and procedures.
§85.2209   2500 rpm/idle test—EPA 81.
§85.2210   Engine restart 2500 rpm/idle test—EPA 81.
§85.2211   Engine restart idle test—EPA 81.
§85.2212   Idle test—EPA 81.
§85.2213   Idle test—EPA 91.
§85.2214   Two speed idle test—EPA 81.
§85.2215   Two speed idle test—EPA 91.
§85.2216   Loaded test—EPA 81.
§85.2217   Loaded test—EPA 91.
§85.2218   Preconditioned idle test—EPA 91.
§85.2219   Idle test with loaded preconditioning—EPA 91.
§85.2220   Preconditioned two speed idle test—EPA 91.
§85.2221   [Reserved]
§85.2222   On-board diagnostic test procedures.
§85.2223   On-board diagnostic test report.
§85.2224   Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81.
§85.2225   Steady state test exhaust analysis system—EPA 91.
§§85.2226-85.2228   [Reserved]
§85.2229   Dynamometer—EPA 81.
§85.2230   Steady state test dynamometer—EPA 91.
§85.2231   On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.
§85.2232   Calibrations, adjustments—EPA 81.
§85.2233   Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control—EPA 91.
§§85.2234-85.2236   [Reserved]
§85.2237   Test report—EPA 81.
§85.2238   Test report—EPA 91.

Authority: Secs. 207, 301(a), Clean Air Act as amended (42 U.S.C. 7541(b) and 7601(a)).

§85.2201   Applicability.

(a) This subpart contains the short tests and standards to be employed in conjunction with the Emissions Performance Warranty, subpart V.

(b) Calendar and model year limitations. Certain test procedures contained in this subpart are subject to calendar and model year limitations. Otherwise, unless specifically indicated, the provisions of this subpart may be used to establish warranty eligibility for any 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicle and light-duty truck when tested during its useful life as prescribed under the Emissions Performance Warranty, in subpart V of this part.

(c) Special recommendations for Ford Motor Company and Honda Prelude vehicles. Due to unique emission control systems, 1981 through 1987 model year vehicles manufactured by Ford Motor Company and 1984 through 1985 model year Honda Preludes must be tested with procedures that either incorporate a special engine restart feature or utilize a dynamometer to simulate a road load. The Agency has included short tests with the special engine restart feature in this subpart even though these vehicles are no longer eligible for the Emissions Performance Warranty, to ensure they are properly tested by state or other I/M authorities. Short tests incorporating the restart feature are the Engine restart 2500 rpm/Idle test—EPA 81 (§85.2210), Engine restart idle test—EPA 81 (§85.2211), Idle test—EPA 91 (§85.2213), Two speed idle test—EPA 91 (§85.2215), Preconditioned idle test—EPA 91 (§85.2218), Idle test with loaded preconditioning—EPA 91 (§85.2219), and Preconditioned two speed idle test—EPA 91 (§85.2220). Short tests utilizing a dynamometer are the Loaded test—EPA 81 (§85.2216) and Loaded test—EPA 91 (§85.2217). This recommendation does not apply to tests conducted at altitudes above 4000 feet. Any of the short test procedures may be used for other vehicles which are similarly no longer eligible for performance warranty coverage.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58400, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2202   General provisions.

The definitions and abbreviations in subpart A of part 86 of this chapter apply to this subpart.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984]

§85.2203   Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles.

(a) For light-duty vehicles for which the test procedures described in §85.2209, §85.2210, §85.2211, §85.2212, §85.2214, or §85.2216 are used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles at low altitude and 1982 and later model year vehicles at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 1.5 g/mile HC and 15 g/mile CO or less apply), short test emissions for all tests and test modes may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.2%.

(b) For light-duty vehicles for which the test procedure described in §85.2214 is used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles at low altitude and 1982 and later model year vehicles at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 1.5 g/mile HC and 15 g/mile CO or less apply), the lowest readings from the two idle modes must be used to determine compliance. Short test emissions may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 200 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.0%.

(c) For gasoline-fueled light-duty vehicles for which any of the test procedures described in §85.2213, §85.2215, §85.2217, §85.2218, §85.2219, or §85.2220 are utilized to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty vehicles at low altitude and 1982 and later model year vehicles at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 1.5 g/mile HC and 15 g/mile CO or less apply), short test emissions for all tests and test modes may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.2%.

[58 FR 58401, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2204   Short test standards for 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks.

(a) For light-duty trucks for which the test procedures described in §85.2209, §85.2210, §85.2211, §85.2212, §85.2214, or §85.2216 are used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks at low altitude and 1982 and later model year trucks at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 2.0 g/mile HC and 26 g/mile CO or less apply), short test emissions may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.2%.

(b) For light-duty trucks for which the test procedure described in §85.2214 is used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks at low altitude and 1982 and later model year trucks at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 2.0 g/mile HC and 26 g/mile CO or less apply), the lowest readings from the two idle modes must be used to determine compliance. Short test emissions may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 200 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.0%.

(c) For 1981 and later model year gasoline-fueled light-duty trucks for which any of the test procedures described in §85.2213, §85.2215, §85.2217, §85.2218, §85.2219, or §85.2220 are utilized to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility (that is, 1981 and later model year light-duty trucks at low altitude and 1982 and later model year trucks at high altitude to which high altitude certification standards of 2.0 g/mile HC and 26 g/mile CO or less apply), short test emissions for all tests and test modes may not exceed the standards listed in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(1) Hydrocarbons: 220 ppm as hexane.

(2) Carbon monoxide: 1.2%.

[58 FR 58401, Nov. 1, 1993]

§§85.2205-85.2206   [Reserved]

§85.2207   On-board diagnostics test standards.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) A vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostics test if it is a 1996 or newer vehicle and the vehicle connector is missing, has been tampered with, or is otherwise inoperable.

(c) A vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostics test if the malfunction indicator light is commanded to be illuminated and it is not visually illuminated according to visual inspection.

(d) A vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostics test if the malfunction indicator light is commanded to be illuminated for one or more OBD diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs), as defined by SAE J2012. The procedure shall be done in accordance with SAE J2012 Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions, (MAR92). This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of SAE J2012 may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Copies may be inspected at the EPA Docket No. A-94-21 at EPA's Air Docket, (LE-131) Room 1500 M, 1st Floor, Waterside Mall, 401 M Street SW, Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(e) [Reserved]

[61 FR 40946, Aug. 6, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 24433, May 4, 1998; 66 FR 18178, Apr. 5, 2001]

§85.2208   Alternative standards and procedures.

(a)(1) As a part of the certification process, as set forth in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S, a manufacturer may request an alternative short test standard or short test procedure for any vehicle or engine for which the standards or procedures specified in this subpart are not appropriate. The requestor shall supply relevant test data and technical support to substantiate the claim and shall also recommend alternative test procedures and/or standards for the Administrator's consideration. Upon an acceptable showing that the general standards or procedures are not appropriate, the Administrator shall set alternative standards or procedures through rulemaking. The administrative provisions of the certification process (see 40 CFR part 86, subparts A and S), apply to such a request for alternative standards or procedures.

(2) Any such alternative standards or test procedures must be specified on the emission control information label to be effective for that particular vehicle or engine. The Administrator may waive this requirement if it is determined that a given model year of production for which an alternative test procedure is promulgated is too far advanced at the time of promulgation to make such a requirement practical.

(3) Alternative test procedures may be approved if the Administrator finds that:

(i) Such procedures are in accordance with good engineering practice, including errors of commission (at cutpoints corresponding to equivalent emission reductions) no higher than the tests they would replace;

(ii) Such procedures show a correlation with the Federal Test Procedure (with respect to their ability to detect high emitting vehicles and ensure their effective repair) equal to or better than the tests they would replace; and

(iii) Such procedures would produce equivalent emission reductions in combination with other program elements.

(b) A State or other I/M authority conducting or supervising tests under this subpart may request to use quality control procedures which are different than those in §85.2217. After an appropriate opportunity for public comment, the Administrator may approve the requested procedures provided the requested procedures are equivalent to those in §85.2217. The requestor shall supply relevant test data and technical support to substantiate the claim that the procedures are equivalent to the specifications described in §85.2217. Following a preliminary determination by the Administrator that an alternative procedure is equvalent, a Federal Register notice will be published announcing the request and explaining EPA's preliminary determination. All information relevant to the preliminary determination will be made available for comment in the public docket. Interested parties will be given 30 days to submit comments, and if EPA concludes that the preliminary determination was not in error, a final Federal Register notice will be published granting the State permission to use the alternative procedure.

(c)(1) A state or other I/M authority conducting or supervising tests under this subpart may request to use alternative short test standards or procedures. The requester must supply relevant test data and technical support to substantiate the claim and must also recommend alternative standards or test procedures for the Administrator's consideration. If the Administrator determines that the alternative standards or procedures satisfy the provisions of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7541 paragraphs (b)(i), (b)(ii), and (b)(iii) of this section, the Administrator will set alternative standards or procedures through rulemaking.

(2) Alternative test procedures may be approved if the Administrator finds that:

(i) Such procedures are in accordance with good engineering practice, including errors of commission (at cutpoints corresponding to equivalent emission reductions) no higher than the tests they would replace;

(ii) Such procedures show a correlation with the Federal Test Procedure (with respect to their ability to detect high emitting vehicles and ensure their effective repair) equal to or better than the tests they would replace; and

(iii) Such procedures would produce equivalent emission reductions in combination with other program elements.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58401, Nov. 1, 1993; 64 FR 23920, May 4, 1999]

§85.2209   2500 rpm/idle test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off.

(c) Test sequence. (1) Analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operating condition and adjusted as required in §85.2217.

(2) Attach tachometer pick up.

(3) With engine idling and transmission in neutral, the sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe.

(4) The engine speed shall be increased to 2500 ±300 rpm, with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling multiple tailpipes may be used. However, if this hardware is not used, exhaust concentrations from each pipe shall be measured within the 30 second period if stable readings can be obtained from both pipes before the 30 seconds have elapsed. If this is not possible, the procedures shall be conducted through step (5) for the first pipe and then the entire procedure beginning from step (3) shall be repeated for the second pipe. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust systems in which the exhaust pipes originate from a common point.

(5) The engine speed shall be reduced to free idle with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. Repeat as specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section for multiple exhaust pipes, unless hardware capable of simultaneous sampling of multiple exhaust pipes is used.

(6) For vehicles with multiple exhaust pipes, the separate results from each pipe for each mode (as specified in paragraphs (c)(4) and (5) of this section) must be numerically averaged for each pollutant, unless hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling multiple exhaust pipes has been used.

(7) Exhaust concentration measurements from both the idle mode and the high speed mode are required.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58402, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2210   Engine restart 2500 rpm/idle test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off.

(c) Test sequence. (1) Analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operating condition and adjusted as required in §85.2217.

(2) Attach tachometer pick up.

(3) The engine shall be turned off and then restarted.

(4) With engine idling and transmission in neutral, the sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe.

(5) The engine speed shall be increased to 2500 ±300 rpm, with the transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. However, if this hardware is not used, exhaust concentrations from each pipe shall be measured within the 30 second period if stable readings can be obtained from both pipes before the 30 seconds have elapsed. If this is not possible, the procedure shall be conducted through step (6) for the first pipe and then the entire procedure beginning from step (3) shall be repeated for the second pipe. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust pipes originating from a common point.

(6) The engine speed shall be reduced to free idle with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. However, if this hardware is not used, exhaust concentrations from both pipes shall be measured in this step (6) within the 30 second period if stable readings can be obtained before the 30 seconds have elasped. If this is not possible, the entire procedure beginning from step (3) shall be repeated for the second pipe. For vehicles with multiple exhaust pipes only one of which was measured in step (5) before the 30 seconds at 2500 ±300 rmp had elapsed, the entire procedure beginning from step (3) shall be repeated for the second pipe after this step (6) is completed for the first pipe. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust pipes originating from a common point.

(7) For vehicles with multiple exhaust pipes, the separate results from each pipe for each mode (as specified in paragraphs (c) (5) and (6) of this section) must be numerically averaged for each pollutant, unless hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling multiple exhaust pipes has been used.

(8) Exhaust concentration measurements from both the idle mode and the high speed mode are required.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58402, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2211   Engine restart idle test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off.

(c) Test sequence. (1) Analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operation condition and adjusted as required in §85.2217.

(2) Attach tachometer pick up.

(3) The engine shall be turned off and then restarted.

(4) With engine idling and transmission in neutral, the sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe.

(5) The engine speed shall be increased to 2500 rpm ±300 rpm, with transmission in neutral, for 30 seconds.

(6) The engine speed shall be reduced to free idle with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. However, if this type of hardware is not used, exhaust concentrations from each pipe shall be measured within the 30 second period if stable readings can be obtained from both pipes before the 30 seconds have elapsed. If this is not possible, the entire procedure beginning from step (3) shall be repeated for the second pipe. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust systems in which the exhaust pipes originate from a common point.

(7) Multiple readings from multiple exhaust pipes shall be numerically averaged, if taken.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58402, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2212   Idle test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off.

(c) Test sequence. (1) Analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operating condition and adjusted as required in §85.2217.

(2) Optional: The engine may be preconditioned by operating it at 2500 ±300 rpm for up to 30 seconds.

(3) With engine idling and transmission in neutral, the sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust systems in which the exhaust pipes originate from a common point.

(4) Multiple readings from multiple exhaust pipes shall be numerically averaged, if taken.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984, as amended at 58 FR 58403, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2213   Idle test—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations must begin ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 second. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous measured values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below six percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a first-chance test and a second-chance test as described in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The first-chance test, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, consists of an idle mode.

(ii) The second-chance test as described under paragraph (d) of this section is performed only if the vehicle fails the first-chance test.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements listed in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (iv) of this section are met.

(i) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with the transmission in neutral or park and all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(ii) For all pre-1996 model year vehicles, a tachometer shall be attached to the vehicle in accordance with the analyzer manufacturer's instructions. For 1996 and newer model year vehicles the OBD data link connector will be used to monitor RPM. In the event that an OBD data link connector is not available or that an RPM signal is not available over the data link connector, a tachometer shall be used instead.

(iii) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(iv) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to six percent.

(c) First-chance test. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met. The overall maximum test time for the first-chance test is 145 seconds (tt=145). The first-chance test consists of an idle mode only.

(1) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum mode length is determined as described under paragraph (c)(2) of this section. The maximum mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(2) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(2) (i) through (v) of this section.

(i) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(ii) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test terminates at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), if prior to that time the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section are not satisfied and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iv) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2) (i), (ii), and (iii) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90). Alternatively, the vehicle may be failed if the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section are not met within an elapsed time of 30 seconds.

(v) Optional. The vehicle may fail the first-chance test and the second-chance test may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration lower than 1800 ppm HC is found by an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(d) Second-chance test. If the vehicle fails the first-chance test, the test timer resets to zero (tt=0) and a second-chance test is performed. The overall maximum test time for the second-chance test is 425 seconds (tt=425). The test consists of a preconditioning mode followed immediately by an idle mode.

(1) Preconditioning mode. The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. The mode continues for an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180). If engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than five seconds in any one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing.

(2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and restarted. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the idle mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), if prior to that time the criteria of paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section are not satisfied and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58403, Nov. 1, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 40947, Aug. 6, 1996]

§85.2214   Two speed idle test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off.

(c) Test sequence. (1) Analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operating condition and adjusted as required in §85.2217.

(2) Attach tachometer pick up.

(3) With engine idling and transmission in neutral, the sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust systems in which the exhaust pipes originate from a common point.

(4) The engine speed is increased to 2500 ±300 rpm, with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. Repeat as specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section for multiple exhaust pipes, if necessary.

(5) The engine speed is reduced to free idle with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. Repeat as specified in paragraph (c)(3) of this section for multiple exhaust pipes, if necessary.

(6) For vehicles with multiple exhaust pipes, the separate results from each pipe for each mode (as specified in paragraphs (c)(3), (4), and (5) of this section) must be numerically averaged for each pollutant, unless hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling multiple tailpipe vehicles has been used.

(7) The idle mode final results shall be the lowest HC and lowest CO readings from steps (3) and (5).

(d) Exhaust concentration measurements from both the idle mode and the high-speed mode are not required. The short test may be used to evaluate emissions from either mode alone or from both modes, the choice being made by the jurisdiction implementing the inspection program. If exhaust concentrations are not measured on a given mode, the vehicle must be operated at the specified test condition for 15 to 30 seconds. The final idle mode, described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section, may be omitted if only high-speed mode exhaust concentrations are to be measured or if the vehicle is below idle standards on the first measurement, paragraph (c)(3) of this section. The high-speed mode may be omitted if only idle mode exhaust concentrations are to be measured and if the vehicle is below idle standards on the first measurement.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58404, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2215   Two speed idle test—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations begins ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a rate of once every 0.75 second. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below six percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a first-chance test and a second-chance test as described in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The first-chance test, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, consists of an idle mode followed by a high-speed mode.

(ii) The second-chance high-speed mode, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, immediately follows the first-chance high-speed mode. It is performed only if the vehicle fails the first-chance test. The second-chance idle mode, as described under paragraph (d) of this section, follows the second-chance high-speed mode and is performed only if the vehicle fails the idle mode of the first-chance test.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements listed in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (iv) of this section are met.

(i) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with the transmission in neutral or park and all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(ii) For all pre-1996 model year vehicles, a tachometer shall be attached to the vehicle in accordance with the analyzer manufacturer's instructions. For 1996 and newer model year vehicles the OBD data link connector will be used to monitor RPM. In the event that an OBD data link connector is not available or that an RPM signal is not available over the data link connector, a tachometer shall be used instead.

(iii) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(iv) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to six percent.

(c) First-chance test and second-chance high-speed mode. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met. The overall maximum test time for the first-chance test and second-chance high-speed mode is 425 seconds (tt=425). The first-chance test consists of an idle mode followed immediately by a high-speed mode. This is followed immediately by an additional second-chance high-speed mode, if necessary.

(1) First-chance idle mode. (i) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(ii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode terminated as described in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) (A) through (E) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the mode is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the mode is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the mode is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the mode is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90). Alternatively, the vehicle may be failed if the provisions of paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) (A) and (B) of this section are not met within an elapsed time of 30 seconds.

(E) Optional. The vehicle may fail the first-chance test and the second-chance test may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration less than 1800 ppm HC is found by an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(2) First-chance and second-chance high-speed modes. This mode includes both the first-chance and second-chance high-speed modes, and follows immediately upon termination of the first-chance idle mode.

(i) The mode timer resets (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. If engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than two seconds in one excursion, or more than six seconds over all excursions within 30 seconds of the final measured value used in the pass/fail determination, the measured value is invalidated and the mode continued. If any excursion lasts for more than ten seconds, the mode timer resets to zero (mt=0) and timing resumes. The minimum high-speed mode length is determined as described under paragraphs (c)(2) (ii) and (iii) of this section. The maximum high-speed mode length is 180 seconds elapsed time (mt=180).

(ii) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. For 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes, the pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10) using the following procedure. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles.

(A) For vehicles that passed the idle mode, a pass or fail determination is used to determine whether the high-speed test should be terminated prior to or at the end of an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180), as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A) (1) through (4) of this section.

(1) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), the measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(2) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(3) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 180 seconds (mt=180), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(4) Restart. If at an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90) the measured values are greater than the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the vehicle's engine must be shut off for not more than ten seconds after returning to idle and then is restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. The mode timer will stop upon engine shut off (mt=90) and resume upon engine restart. The pass/fail determination resumes as follows after 100 seconds have elapsed (mt=100).

(i) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 100 seconds (mt=100) and 180 seconds (mt=180), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(4)(i) of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(B) A pass or fail determination is made for vehicles that failed the idle mode and the high-speed mode terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(B) (1) and (2) of this section.

(1) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated at an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) if any measured values of HC and CO exhaust gas concentrations during the high-speed mode are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Restart. If at an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90) the measured values of HC and CO exhaust gas concentrations during the high-speed mode are greater than the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the vehicle's engine must be shut off for not more than ten seconds after returning to idle and then is restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. The mode timer will stop upon engine shut off (mt=90) and resume upon engine restart. The pass/fail determination resumes, as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(B)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section after 100 seconds have elapsed (mt=100).

(i) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated at an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) if any measured values of HC and CO exhaust gas concentrations during the high-speed mode are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B)(2)(i) of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(iii) All other light-duty motor vehicles. The pass/fail analysis for vehicles not specified in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10) using the procedure described in paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) For vehicles that passed the idle mode, a pass or fail determination is used to determine whether the high-speed mode should be terminated prior to or at the end of an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180), as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(iii)(A) (1) through (4) of this section.

(1) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), any measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(2) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(iii)(A)(1) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(3) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 180 seconds (mt=180), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(4) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(iii)(A) (1), (2), and (3) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(B) A pass or fail determination is made for vehicles that failed the idle mode and the high-speed mode terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(iii)(B) (1) and (2) of this section.

(1) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated at an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) if any measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if paragraph (c)(2)(iii)(B)(1) of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(d) Second-chance idle mode. If the vehicle fails the first-chance idle mode and passes the high-speed mode, the test timer resets to zero (tt=0) and a second-chance idle mode begins. The overall maximum test time for the second-chance idle mode is 145 seconds (tt=145). The test consists of an idle mode only.

(1) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles.

(2) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If the engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum second-chance idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. The maximum second-chance idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(3) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the second-chance idle mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(3) (i) through (iv) of this section.

(i) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), any measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(ii) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iv) The vehicle fails the second-chance idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(3) (i), (ii), and (iii) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58405, Nov. 1, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 40947, Aug. 6, 1996]

§85.2216   Loaded test—EPA 81.

(a)(1) General calendar year applicability. The test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993, except as allowed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(2) Special calendar and model year applicability. (i) The extended applicability described in paragraphs (a)(2) (ii) through (iv) of this section is restricted to 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(ii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic decentralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1993.

(iii) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through June 30, 1994.

(iv) In a state for which the Administrator has approved a State Implementation Plan revision providing for the implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the test procedure described in this section may be used to establish Emissions Performance Warranty eligibility through December 31, 1995.

(b) General requirements. Vehicles shall be tested in as-received condition. Engines shall be at normal operating temperature and not overheating (as indicated by gauge, warning light or boiling radiator) with all accessories off. An auxiliary cooling fan is optional

(c) Test sequence. (1) The dynamometer and analyzers shall be warmed-up, in stabilized operating condition and adjusted as required in §§85.2216 and 85.2217.

(2) The vehicle shall be placed on the dynamometer.

(3) The sample probe shall be inserted into the tailpipe.

(4) Optional. A high speed mode, maximum 50 mph and 30 seconds duration, is permitted if vehicle overheating does not occur.

(5) Drive for automatic or 3rd gear for manual transmissions shall be used. The vehicle shall be operated at 30 ±1 mph roll speed while measuring exhaust HC and CO. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. This process shall be repeated as necessary for multiple exhaust pipes, or hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling vehicles with multiple tailpipes may be used. Neither multiple readings nor simultaneous sampling hardware is necessary for exhaust systems in which the exhaust pipes originate from a common point.

(6) The vehicle must be idled with transmission in neutral. Record exhaust concentrations after stabilized readings are obtained or at the end of 30 seconds, whichever occurs first. Repeat as specified in paragraph (c)(5) of this section for multiple exhaust pipes, if necessary.

(7) For vehicles with multiple exhaust pipes, the separate results from each pipe for each mode (as specified in paragraphs (c)(5) and (6) of this section) must be numerically averaged for each pollutant, unless hardware which is capable of simultaneously sampling multiple tailpipe vehicles has been used.

(d) Exhaust concentration measurements from both the loaded mode and the idle mode are not required. The short test may be used to evaluate emissions from either mode alone or from both modes, the choice being made by the jurisdiction implementing the inspection program. If exhaust concentrations are not measured on the loaded mode the vehicle shall be operated at the specified test condition for 15 to 30 seconds. If idle exhaust concentrations are not measured, the idle mode may be omitted.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58407, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2217   Loaded test—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations begins ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 seconds. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below six percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a loaded mode using a chassis dynamometer followed immediately by an idle mode as described in paragraphs (c) (1) and (2) of this section.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements described in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (v) of this section are met.

(i) The dynamometer must be warmed up, in stabilized operating condition, adjusted, and calibrated in accordance with the procedures of §85.2233. Prior to each test, variable-curve dynamometers must be checked for proper setting of the road-load indicator or road-load controller.

(ii) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(iii) The vehicle must be operated during each mode of the test with the gear selector in the position described in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) In drive for automatic transmissions and in second (or third if more appropriate) for manual transmissions for the loaded mode.

(B) In park or neutral for the idle mode.

(iv) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(v) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to six percent.

(c) Overall test procedure. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met and the mode timer initiates as specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The overall maximum test time is 240 seconds (tt=240). The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(1) Loaded mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and restarted. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the dynamometer speed is within the limits specified for the vehicle engine size according to the following schedule. If the dynamometer speed falls outside the limits for more than five seconds in one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section. The maximum mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

Dynamometer Test Schedule

Gasoline engine size, No. cylinders Roll speed, mph (kph) Normal loading, brake hp (kilowatts)
4 or less22-25 (35-40)2.8-4.1 (2.1-3.1)
5-629-32 (47-52)6.8-8.4 (5.1-6.3)
7 or more32-35 (52-56)8.4-10.8 (6.3-8.1)

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(1)(iii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the loaded mode and the mode is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standard described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(B) The vehicle fails the loaded mode and the mode is terminated if paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

(C) Optional. The vehicle may fail the loaded mode and any subsequent idle mode may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration less than 1800 ppm HC is found by an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and restarted. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) 5 seconds after the dynamometer speed has reached zero. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(iii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test terminates if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58407, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2218   Preconditioned idle test—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations begins ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 second. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below six percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a first-chance test and a second-chance test as described in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The first-chance test, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, consists of a preconditioning mode followed by an idle mode.

(ii) The second-chance test as described under paragraph (d) of this section is performed only if the vehicle fails the first-chance test.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements described in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (iv) of this section are met.

(i) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with the transmission in neutral or park and all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(ii) For all pre-1996 model year vehicles, a tachometer shall be attached to the vehicle in accordance with the analyzer manufacturer's instructions. For 1996 and newer model year vehicles the OBD data link connector will be used to monitor RPM. In the event that an OBD data link connector is not available or that an RPM signal is not available over the data link connector, a tachometer shall be used instead.

(iii) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(iv) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to six percent.

(c) First-chance test. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met. The overall maximum test time is 200 seconds (tt=200). The first-chance test consists of a preconditioning mode followed immediately by an idle mode.

(1) Preconditioning mode. The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. The mode continues for an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30). If engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than five seconds in any one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing.

(2) Idle mode. (i) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(ii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode terminates as described in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) (A) through (E) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test terminates at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test terminates if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90). Alternatively, the vehicle may be failed if the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section are not met within an elapsed time of 30 seconds.

(E) Optional. The vehicle may fail the first-chance test and the second-chance test may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration less than 1800 ppm HC is found at an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(d) Second-chance test. If the vehicle fails the first-chance test, the test timer resets to zero and a second-chance test is performed. The overall maximum test time for the second-chance test is 425 seconds. The test consists of a preconditioning mode followed immediately by an idle mode.

(1) Preconditioning mode. The mode timer starts (mt=0) when engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. The mode continues for an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180). If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than five seconds in any one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing.

(2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and then restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If the engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test immediately terminates if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58408, Nov. 1, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 40947, Aug. 6, 1996]

§85.2219   Idle test with loaded preconditioning—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations begins ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 second. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below 6 percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a first-chance test and a second-chance test as described in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The first-chance test, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, consists of an idle mode.

(ii) The second-chance test as described under paragraph (d) of this section is performed only if the vehicle fails the first-chance test.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements described in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (v) of this section are met.

(i) The dynamometer must be warmed up, in stabilized operating condition, adjusted, and calibrated in accordance with the procedures of §85.2233. Prior to each test, variable-curve dynamometers must be checked for proper setting of the road-load indicator or road-load controller.

(ii) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(iii) The vehicle must be operated during each mode of the test with the gear selector in the position described in paragraphs (b)(2)(iii) (A) and (B) of this section.

(A) In drive for automatic transmissions and in second (or third if more appropriate) for manual transmissions for the loaded preconditioning mode.

(B) In park or neutral for the idle mode.

(iv) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(v) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to 6 percent.

(c) First-chance test. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met. The overall maximum test time is 155 seconds (tt=155). The first-chance test consists of an idle mode only.

(1) The minimum mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section. The maximum mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(2) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode terminates in accordance with paragraphs (c)(2) (i) through (v) of this section.

(i) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(ii) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iv) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(i), (ii), and (iii) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90). Alternatively, the vehicle may be failed if the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section are not met within an elapsed time of 30 seconds.

(v) Optional. The vehicle may fail the first-chance test and the second-chance test may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration less than 1800 ppm HC is found at an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(d) Second-chance test. If the vehicle fails the first-chance test, the test timer resets to zero (tt=0) and a second-chance test is performed. The overall maximum test time for the second-chance test is 200 seconds (tt=200). The test consists of a preconditioning mode using a chassis dynamometer, followed immediately by an idle mode.

(1) Preconditioning mode. (i) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the dynamometer speed is within the limits specified for the vehicle engine size in accordance with the following schedule. The mode continues for a minimum elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30). If the dynamometer speed falls outside the limits for more than five seconds in one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing.

Dynamometer Test Schedule

Gasoline engine size, No. cylinders Roll speed, mph (kph) Normal loading, brake hp (kilowatts)
4 or less22-25 (35-40)2.8-4.1 (2.1-3.1).
5-629-32 (47-52)6.8-8.4 (5.1-6.3).
7 or more32-35 (52-56)8.4-10.8 (6.3-8.1).

(2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and restarted. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) 5 seconds after the dynamometer speed has reached zero. The minimum idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section. The maximum idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(ii)(A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58409, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2220   Preconditioned two speed idle test—EPA 91.

(a) General requirements—(1) Exhaust gas sampling algorithm. The analysis of exhaust gas concentrations begins ten seconds after the applicable test mode begins. Exhaust gas concentrations must be analyzed at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 second. The measured value for pass/fail determinations is a simple running average of the measurements taken over five seconds.

(2) Pass/fail determination. A pass or fail determination is made for each applicable test mode based on a comparison of the short test standards contained in §§85.2203 and 85.2204, and the measured value for HC and CO as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. A vehicle passes the test mode if any pair of simultaneous values for HC and CO are below or equal to the applicable short test standards. A vehicle fails the test mode if the values for either HC or CO, or both, in all simultaneous pairs of values are above the applicable standards.

(3) Void test conditions. The test immediately terminates and any exhaust gas measurements are voided if the measured concentration of CO plus CO2 falls below six percent or the vehicle's engine stalls at any time during the test sequence.

(4) Multiple exhaust pipes. Exhaust gas concentrations from vehicle engines equipped with multiple exhaust pipes must be sampled simultaneously.

(5) The test is immediately terminated upon reaching the overall maximum test time.

(b) Test sequence. (1) The test sequence consists of a first-chance test and a second-chance test as described in paragraphs (b)(1) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) The first-chance test, as described under paragraph (c) of this section, consists of a first-chance high-speed mode followed immediately by a first-chance idle mode.

(ii) The second-chance test as described under paragraph (d) of this section is performed only if the vehicle fails the first-chance test.

(2) The test sequence begins only after the requirements described in paragraphs (b)(2) (i) through (iv) of this section are met.

(i) The vehicle is tested in as-received condition with the transmission in neutral or park and all accessories turned off. The engine must be at normal operating temperature (as indicated by a temperature gauge, temperature lamp, touch test on the radiator hose, or other visual observation indicating that overheating has not occurred).

(ii) For all pre-1996 model year vehicles, a tachometer shall be attached to the vehicle in accordance with the analyzer manufacturer's instructions. For 1996 and newer model year vehicles the OBD data link connector will be used to monitor RPM. In the event that an OBD data link connector is not available or that an RPM signal is not available over the data link connector, a tachometer shall be used instead.

(iii) The sample probe is inserted into the vehicle's tailpipe to a minimum depth of 10 inches. If the vehicle's exhaust system prevents insertion to this depth, a tailpipe extension must be used.

(iv) The measured concentration of CO plus CO2 must be greater than or equal to six percent.

(c) First-chance test. The test timer starts (tt=0) when the conditions specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section are met. The overall maximum test time is 290 seconds (tt=290). The first-chance test consists of a high-speed mode followed immediately by an idle mode.

(1) First-chance high-speed mode. (i) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than two seconds in one excursion, or more than six seconds over all excursions within 30 seconds of the final measured value used in the pass/fail determination, the measured value is invalidated and the mode continued. If any excursion lasts for more than ten seconds, the mode timer resets to zero (mt=0) and timing resumes. The high-speed mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(ii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(1)(ii)(A) through (C) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated at an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90) if any measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(B) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated if the requirements of paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section are not satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

(C) Optional. The vehicle may fail the first-chance test and any subsequent test may be omitted if no exhaust gas concentration lower than 1800 ppm HC is found at an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30).

(2) First-chance idle mode. (i) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If the engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum first-chance idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. The maximum first-chance idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(ii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2)(ii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90). Alternatively, the vehicle may be failed if the provisions of paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section are not met within the elapsed time of 30 seconds.

(d) Second-chance test. (1) If the vehicle fails either mode of the first-chance test, the test timer resets to zero (tt=0) and a second-chance test begins. The second-chance test is performed based on the first-chance test failure mode or modes as described in paragraphs (d)(1) (i) through (iii) of this section.

(i) If the vehicle failed only the first-chance high-speed mode, the second-chance test consists of a second-chance high-speed mode as described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section. The overall maximum test time is 280 seconds (tt=280).

(ii) If the vehicle failed only the first-chance idle mode, the second-chance test consists of a second-chance pre-conditioning mode followed immediately by a second-chance idle mode as described in paragraphs (d) (3) and (4) of this section. The overall maximum test time is 425 seconds (tt=425).

(iii) If both the first-chance high-speed mode and first-chance idle mode were failed, the second-chance test consists of the second-chance high-speed mode followed immediately by the second-chance idle mode as described in paragraphs (d) (2) and (4) of this section. However, if during this second-chance procedure, the vehicle fails the second-chance high-speed mode, then the second-chance idle mode may be eliminated. The overall maximum test time is 425 seconds (tt=425).

(2) Second-chance high-speed mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and then restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles.

(ii) The mode timer resets (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than two seconds in one excursion, or more than six seconds over all excursions within 30 seconds of the final measured value used in the pass/fail determination, the measured value is invalidated and the mode continued. The minimum second-chance high-speed mode length is determined as described in paragraphs (d)(2) (iii) and (iv) of this section. If any excursion lasts for more than ten seconds, the mode timer resets to zero (mt=0) and timing resumes. The maximum second-chance high-speed mode length is 180 seconds elapsed time (mt=180).

(iii) In the case where the second-chance high-speed mode is not followed by the second-chance idle mode, the pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (d)(2)(iii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 180 seconds (mt=180), the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(2)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(iv) In the case where the second-chance high-speed mode is followed by the second-chance idle mode, the pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(2)(iv)(A) and (B) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180) if any measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(B) The vehicle fails the high-speed mode and the mode is terminated if paragraph (d)(2)(iv)(A) of this section is not satisfied by an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180).

(3) Second-chance preconditioning mode. The mode timer starts (mt=0) when engine speed is between 2200 and 2800 rpm. The mode continues for an elapsed time of 180 seconds (mt=180). If the engine speed falls below 2200 rpm or exceeds 2800 rpm for more than five seconds in any one excursion, or 15 seconds over all excursions, the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing.

(4) Second-chance idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten seconds and then restarted. The probe may be removed from the tailpipe or the sample pump turned off if necessary to reduce analyzer fouling during the restart procedure. This procedure may also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles.

(ii) The mode timer starts (mt=0) when the vehicle engine speed is between 350 and 1100 rpm. If the engine speed exceeds 1100 rpm or falls below 350 rpm the mode timer resets to zero and resumes timing. The minimum second-chance idle mode length is determined as described in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) of this section. The maximum second-chance idle mode length is 90 seconds elapsed time (mt=90).

(iii) The pass/fail analysis begins after an elapsed time of ten seconds (mt=10). A pass or fail determination is made for the vehicle and the mode is terminated in accordance with paragraphs (d)(4)(iii) (A) through (D) of this section.

(A) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, prior to an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30), measured values are less than or equal to 100 ppm HC and 0.5 percent CO.

(B) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is terminated at the end of an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) if, prior to that time, the criteria of paragraph (d)(4)(iii)(A) of this section are not satisfied, and the measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards as determined by the procedure described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(C) The vehicle passes the second-chance idle mode and the test is immediately terminated if, at any point between an elapsed time of 30 seconds (mt=30) and 90 seconds (mt=90), measured values are less than or equal to the applicable short test standards described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(D) The vehicle fails the second-chance idle mode and the test is terminated if none of the provisions of paragraphs (d)(4)(iii) (A), (B), and (C) of this section is satisfied by an elapsed time of 90 seconds (mt=90).

[58 FR 58411, Nov. 1, 1993, as amended at 61 FR 40947, Aug. 6, 1996]

§85.2221   [Reserved]

§85.2222   On-board diagnostic test procedures.

The test sequence for the inspection of on-board diagnostic systems on 1996 and newer light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall consist of the following steps:

(a) The on-board diagnostic inspection shall be conducted with the key-on/engine running (KOER), with the exception of inspecting for MIL illumination as required in paragraph (d)(4) of this section, during which the inspection shall be conducted with the key-on/engine off (KOEO).

(b) The inspector shall locate the vehicle connector and plug the test system into the connector.

(c) The test system shall send a Mode $01, PID $01 request in accordance with SAE J1979 to determine the evaluation status of the vehicle's on-board diagnostic system. The test system shall determine what monitors are supported by the on-board diagnostic system, and the readiness evaluation for applicable monitors in accordance with SAE J1979. The procedure shall be done in accordance with SAE J1979 “E/E Diagnostic Test Modes,” (DEC91). This incorporation by reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of SAE J1979 may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Copies may be inspected at the EPA Docket No. A-94-21 at EPA's Air Docket (LE-131), Room 1500 M, 1st Floor, Waterside Mall, 401 M Street SW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(1) Coincident with the beginning of mandatory testing, repair, and retesting based upon the OBD-I/M check, if the readiness evaluation indicates that any on-board tests are not complete the customer shall be instructed to return after the vehicle has been run under conditions that allow completion of all applicable on-board tests. If the readiness evaluation again indicates that any on-board test is not complete the vehicle shall be failed.

(2) An exception to paragraph (c)(1) of this section is allowed for MY 1996 to MY 2000 vehicles, inclusive, with two or fewer unset readiness monitors, and for MY 2001 and newer vehicles with no more than one unset readiness monitor. Vehicles from those model years which would otherwise pass the OBD inspection, but for the unset readiness code(s) in question may be issued a passing certificate without being required to operate the vehicle in such a way as to activate those particular monitors. Vehicles from those model years with unset readiness codes which also have diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs) stored resulting in a lit malfunction indicator light (MIL) must be failed, though setting the unset readiness flags in question shall not be a prerequisite for passing the retest.

(d) The test system shall evaluate the malfunction indicator light status bit and record status information in the vehicle test record.

(1) If the malfunction indicator status bit indicates that the malfunction indicator light (MIL) has been commanded to be illuminated the test system shall send a Mode $03 request to determine the stored diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). The system shall repeat this cycle until the number of codes reported equals the number expected based on the Mode 1 response. All DTCs resulting in MIL illumination shall be recorded in the vehicle test record and the vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostic inspection.

(2) If the malfunction indicator light bit is not commanded to be illuminated the vehicle shall pass the on-board diagnostic inspection, even if DTCs are present.

(3) If the malfunction indicator light bit is commanded to be illuminated, the inspector shall visually inspect the malfunction indicator light to determine if it is illuminated. If the malfunction indicator light is commanded to be illuminated but is not, the vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostic inspection.

(4) If the malfunction indicator light (MIL) does not illuminate at all when the vehicle is in the key-on/engine-off (KOEO) condition, the vehicle shall fail the on-board diagnostic inspection, even if no DTCs are present and the MIL has not been commanded on.

[61 FR 40947, Aug. 6, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 24433, May 4, 1998; 66 FR 18178, Apr. 5, 2001]

§85.2223   On-board diagnostic test report.

(a) Motorists whose vehicles fail the on-board diagnostic test described in §85.2222 shall be provided with the on-board diagnostic test results, including the codes retrieved, the name of the component or system associated with each fault code, the status of the MIL illumination command, and the customer alert statement as stated in paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) In addition to any codes which were retrieved, the test report shall include the following language:

Your vehicle's computerized self-diagnostic system (OBD) registered the fault(s) listed below. This fault(s) is probably an indication of a malfunction of an emission component. However, multiple and/or seemingly unrelated faults may be an indication of an emission-related problem that occurred previously but upon further evaluation by the OBD system was determined to be only temporary. Therefore, proper diagnosis by a qualified technician is required to positively identify the source of any emission-related problem.

[61 FR 40948, Aug. 6, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 18179, Apr. 5, 2001]

§85.2224   Exhaust analysis system—EPA 81.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection apply to short tests conducted under Emissions Performance Warranty through December 31, 1993. The requirements of §85.2225 apply concurrently until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of §85.2225 are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Sampling system—(1) General requirements. The exhaust sampling system shall consist of a sample probe, moisture separator and analyzers for HC and CO.

(2) Dual sample probe requirements. If used, a dual sample probe must provide equal flow in each leg. The equal flow criterion is considered to be met if the flow rate in each leg of the probe (or an identical model) has been measured under two sample flow rates (the normal rate and a rate equal to the onset of low flow), and if the flow rates in each of the legs are found to be equal to each other (±15%).

(c) Analyzers—(1) Accuracy. The HC analyzer shall have an accuracy of ±15 ppm at 200 to 220 ppm concentration HC (as hexane). The CO analyzer shall have an accuracy of ±0.1% CO from 1.0% to 1.2% concentration.

(2) Response time. Response time of the analyzers shall be 15 seconds to 95% of the final reading.

(3) Drift. Analyzer drift (up-scale and down-scale zero and span wander) shall not exceed ±0.1% CO and ±15 ppm HC (as hexane) on the lowest range capable of reading 1.0% or 200 ppm HC (as hexane) during a one-hour period.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58412, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2225   Steady state test exhaust analysis system—EPA 91.

(a) Special calendar and model year applicability. The requirements of §85.2224 apply concurrently for tests conducted under Emission Performance Warranty on 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of this section are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2224 are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994, for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2224 are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995, for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Sampling System—(1) General requirements. The sampling system for steady state short tests consists, at a minimum, of a tailpipe probe; a flexible sample line; a water removal system; particulate trap; sample pump; flow control components; tachometer or dynamometer; analyzers for HC, CO, and CO2; and digital displays for exhaust concentrations of HC, CO, and CO2; and for engine rpm. Materials that are in contact with the gases sampled may not contaminate or change the character of the gases to be analyzed, including gases from alcohol-fueled vehicles. The probe must be capable of being inserted to a depth of at least ten inches into the tailpipe of the vehicle being tested or into an extension boot, if one is used. A digital display for dynamometer speed and load must be included if the test procedures described in §85.2217 or §85.2219 are conducted. Minimum specifications for optional NO analyzers are also described in this section. The analyzer system must be able to test, as specified in §§85.2213, 85.2215, 85.2217, 85.2218, 85.2219, and 85.2220 all model vehicles in service at the time of sale of the analyzer.

(2) Temperature operating range. The sampling system and all associated hardware must be of a design certified to operate within the performance specifications described in paragraph (c) of this section in ambient air temperatures ranging from 41 to 110 °F. The analyzer system must, where necessary, include features to keep the sampling system within the specified range.

(3) Humidity operating range. The sampling system and all associated hardware must be of a design certified to operate within the performance specifications described in paragraph (c) of this section at a minimum of 80 percent relative humidity throughout the required temperature range.

(4) Barometric pressure compensation. Barometric pressure compensation must be provided. Compensation is made for elevations up to 6000 feet (above mean sea level). At any given altitude and ambient conditions specified in paragraphs (b) (2) and (3) of this section, errors due to barometric pressure changes of ±2 inches of mercury may not exceed the accuracy limits specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(5) Dual sample probe requirements. When testing a vehicle with dual exhaust pipes, a dual sample probe of a design certified by the analyzer manufacturer to provide equal flow in each leg must be used. The equal flow requirement is considered to be met if the flow rate in each leg of the probe has been measured under two sample pump flow rates (the normal rate and a rate equal to the onset of low flow), and if the flow rates in each of the legs are found to be equal to each other (within 15 percent of the flow rate in the leg having lower flow).

(6) System lockout during warmup. Functional operation of the gas sampling unit must remain disabled through a system lockout until the instrument meets stability and warmup requirements. The instrument is considered “warmed up” when the zero and span readings for HC, CO, and CO2 have stabilized, within ±3 percent of the full range of low scale, for five minutes without adjustment.

(7) Electromagnetic isolation and interference. Electromagnetic signals found in an automotive service environment may not cause malfunctions or changes in the accuracy in the electronics of the analyzer system. The instrument design must ensure that readings do not vary as a result of electromagnetic radiation and induction devices normally found in the automotive service environment, including high energy vehicle ignition systems, radio frequency transmission radiation sources, and building electrical systems.

(8) Vibration and shock protection. System operation must be unaffected by the vibration and shock encountered under the normal operating conditions encountered in an automotive service environment.

(9) Propane Equivalency Factor. The Propane Equivalency Factor must be displayed in a manner that enables it to be viewed conveniently, while permitting it to be altered only by personnel specifically authorized to do so.

(c) Analyzers—(1) Accuracy. The analyzers must be of a design certified to meet the following accuracy requirements when calibrated to the span points specified in §85.2233(e)(2):

Channel Range Accuracy Noise Repeatability
HC, as hexane0-400 ±1268
   401-1000 ±301015
   1001-2000 ±802030
CO, %0-2.00 ±0.060.020.03
   2.01-5.00 ±0.15.06.08
   5.01-9.99 ±0.40.10.15
CO2, %0-4.0 ±0.6.2.3
   4.1-14.0 ±0.5.2.3
   14.1-16.0 ±0.6.2.3
NO, ppm0-1000 ±321620
   1001-2000 ±602530
   2001-4000 ±1205060

(2) Minimum analyzer display resolution. The analyzer electronics must have sufficient resolution to achieve the level of accuracy indicated in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) through (v) of this section.

(i) HC 1 ppm HC as hexane.

(ii) CO 0.01% CO.

(iii) CO2 0.1% CO2.

(iv) NO 1 ppm NO.

(v) RPM 1 rpm.

(3) Response time. The response time from the probe to the display for HC, CO, and CO2 analyzers may not exceed eight seconds to 90 percent of a step change in input. For NO analyzers, the response time may not exceed twelve seconds to 90 percent of a step change in input.

(4) Display refresh rate. Dynamic information being displayed must be refreshed at a minimum rate of twice per second.

(5) Interference effects. The interference effects for non-interest gases may not exceed ±10 ppm for hydrocarbons, ±0.05 percent for carbon monoxide, ±0.20 percent for carbon dioxide, and ±20 ppm for oxides of nitrogen.

(6) Low flow indication. The analyzer must provide an indication when the sample flow is below the acceptable level. The sampling system must be equipped with a flow meter (or equivalent) that indicates sample flow degradation when meter error exceeds three percent of full scale, or causes system response time to exceed 13 seconds to 90 percent of a step change in input, whichever is less.

(7) Engine speed detection. The analyzer must utilize a tachometer capable of detecting engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm) with a 0.5 second response time and an accuracy of ±3 percent of the true rpm.

(8) Test and mode timers. The analyzer must be capable of simultaneously determining the amount of time elapsed in a test, and in a mode within that test.

(9) Sample rate. The analyzer must be capable of measuring exhaust concentrations of gases specified in this section at a minimum rate of once every 0.75 second.

(d) Demonstration of conformity. The analyzer must be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the inspection program manager, through acceptance testing procedures, to meet the requirements of this section and to be capable of being maintained as required in §85.2233.

[58 FR 58413, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 33913, July 1, 1994]

§§85.2226-85.2228   [Reserved]

§85.2229   Dynamometer—EPA 81.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection apply to short tests conducted under Emissions Performance Warranty through December 31, 1993. The requirements of §85.2230 apply concurrently until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of §85.2230 are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) The loaded test dynamometer shall be adjusted to produce a load of 9.0 ±1.0 hp at 30 mph.

(c) Speed shall be measured from the dynamometer roll(s) with an accuracy of ±1.5 mph at 30 mph true roll speed.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58414, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2230   Steady state test dynamometer—EPA 91.

(a) Special calendar and model year applicability. The requirements of §85.2229 apply concurrently for tests conducted under Emission Performance Warranty on 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of this section are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2229 are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2229 are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) The chassis dynamometer for steady state short tests must provide the capabilities described in paragraphs (b) (1) through (7) of this section.

(1) Power absorption. The dynamometer must be capable of applying a load to the vehicle's driving tire surfaces at the horsepower and speed levels specified in paragraph (c) of this section.

(2) Short-term stability. Power absorption at constant speed may not drift more than ±0.5 horsepower (hp) during any single test mode.

(3) Roll weight capacity. The dynamometer must be capable of supporting a driving axle weight up to four thousand (4,000) pounds or greater.

(4) Between roll wheel lifts. For dual-roll dynamometers, these must be controllable and capable of lifting a minimum of four thousand (4,000) pounds.

(5) Roll brakes. Rolls must be locked when the wheel lift is up.

(6) Speed indications. The dynamometer speed display must have a range of 0 mph to 60 mph (or 0 kph to 100 kph), and a resolution and accuracy of at least 1 mph (or 1 kph).

(7) Safety interlock. A roll speed sensor and safety interlock circuit must be provided which prevents the application of the roll brakes and upward lift movement at any roll speed above 0.5 mph (0.8 kph).

(c) The dynamometer must produce the load speed relationships specified in §§85.2217 and 85.2219.

[58 FR 58414, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2231   On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

(a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector.” The procedure shall be done in accordance with SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector” (JUN92). This incorporation of reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552 (a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of SAE J1962 may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Copies may be inspected at the EPA Docket No. A-94-21 at EPA's Air Docket, (LE-131) Room 1500 M, 1st Floor, Waterside Mall, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) The test system shall be capable of communicating with the standard data link connector of vehicles with certified OBD systems.

(c) The test system shall be capable of checking for the monitors supported by the on-board diagnostic system and the evaluation status of supported monitors (test complete/test not complete) in Mode $01 PID $01, as well as be able to request the diagnostic trouble codes, as specified in SAE J1979. In addition, the system shall have the capability to include bi-directional communication for control of the evaporative canister vent solenoid. SAE J1979 is incorporated by reference and approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of all the SAE documents cited above may be obtained from the Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Copies may be inspected at the EPA Docket No. A-94-21 at EPA's Air Docket, (LE-131) Room 1500 M, 1st Floor, Waterside Mall, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(d) [Reserved]

[61 FR 40948, Aug. 6, 1996, as amended at 63 FR 24434, May 4, 1998; 66 FR 18179, Apr. 5, 2001]

§85.2232   Calibrations, adjustments—EPA 81.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection apply to short tests conducted under Emissions Performance Warranty through December 31, 1993. The requirements of §85.2233 apply concurrently until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of §85.2233 are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Equipment shall be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

(c) Hourly checks. Within one hour prior to a test, the analyzers shall be zeroed and spanned. Ambient air is acceptable as a zero gas; an electrical span check is acceptable. Zero and span checks shall be made on the lowest range capable of reading the short test standard. Analyzers that perform an automatic zero/span adjustment every time a test sequence is initiated are considered to meet the hourly checks.

(d) Daily checks. Within eight hours prior to a loaded test, the dynamometer shall be checked for proper power absorber settings.

(e) Weekly checks—(1) Leak check. For analyzers with a separate calibration or span port, CO readings using the span gas through the probe and through the calibration port shall be made and compared; discrepancies of over 3% shall require repair of leaks. No analyzer adjustments shall be permitted during this check. The leak check and the following gas span check may be combined into one operation.

(2) Gas span check. Within one week of the test, the analyzers shall have been spanned using calibration gases which meet the requirements in paragraph (d)(4) of this section and shall not have been readjusted since to a non-conforming gas. If the analyzer reads the span gas within 2% of the span gas value or within .05% CO and 6 ppm HC (use the larger of the two tolerances), then no adjustment of the analyzer is needed. For this check the span gas may be introduced either through the calibration port (if so equipped) or through the probe. This paragraph does not prevent those who wish to always adjust the analyzer to the exact span value from doing so.

(3) Gas span adjustment. If the analyzer fails to meet the gas span check specifications, then the analyzer shall be adjusted by the following procedures:

(i) For analyzers without a calibration port, perform a simple leak check (e.g., cap the probe). Repair any leaks before continuing with this procedure. Introduce the span gas through the probe for this adjustment.

(ii) For analyzers with a calibration port, introduce the span gas through the port for this adjustment.

(iii) Perform a zero adjustment and a flowing span gas adjustment. Iterate between span and zero, as necessary, to obtain stable readings within the gas span check specifications.

(iv) Check the electrical span without changing the zero or span adjustments set in step (iii). If the electrical span does not match the electrical span line or voltage level, locate the potentiometer that controls the relationship between the gas span and the electrical span. Adjust this control until the electrical span target is achieved.

(v) Following this procedure, if the gas span value cannot be held within the 2% tolerance (or .05% CO and 6 ppm HC) while also meeting the electrical span criteria, then the analysis system and calibration bottle shall be removed from service until the problem is resolved and the adjustment tolerance met.

(vi) Automatic analyzers that perform either a substantially similar adjustment procedure or mathematical correction procedure are considered to meet this adjustment procedure.

(4) Span gases. The span gas used for the weekly check shall be traceable to NBS standards ±2% and have concentrations either:

(i) Between the standards specified in this subpart and the jurisdiction's inspection standards for the 1981 model year light duty vehicles, or

(ii) Within −50% to +100% of the standards in this subpart.

(f) Other checks. In addition to performing span and leak checks on a periodic basis, these checks shall also be used to verify system performance under the following special circumstances.

(1) Gas span check. Within one week of the test, the analyzers must have been spanned using calibration gases which met the requirements in paragraph (e)(4) of this section and must not have been readjusted since to a non-conforming gas. If the analyzer reads the span gas within two percent of the span gas value or within .05 percent of the CO and 6 ppm HC (use the larger of the two tolerances), then no adjustment of the analyzer is needed. (However, adjusting the analyzer to the exact span value is not precluded.) For this check the span gas may be introduced either through the calibration port, if so equipped, or through the probe.

(2) Leak checks. Each time the sample line integrity is broken, a leak check shall be performed prior to testing. A simple vacuum leak check (i.e., block the probe and check for low flow) is considered acceptable for these non-periodic checks.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58415, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2233   Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control—EPA 91.

(a) Special calendar and model year applicability. The requirements of §85.2232 apply concurrently for tests conducted under Emission Performance Warranty on 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of this section are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2232 are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2232 are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Equipment must be calibrated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

(c) Prior to each test—(1) Hydrocarbon hang-up check. Immediately prior to each test the analyzer automatically performs a hydrocarbon hang-up check. If the HC reading, when the probe is sampling ambient air, exceeds 20 ppm, the system must be purged with clean air or zero gas. The analyzer must be inhibited from continuing the test until HC levels drop below 20 ppm.

(2) Automatic zero and span. The analyzer conducts an automatic zero and span check prior to each test. The span check must include the HC, CO, and CO2 channels and, if present, the NO channel. If zero and/or span drift cause the signal levels to move beyond the adjustment range of the analyzer, it must lock out from testing.

(3) Low flow. The system locks out from testing if the sample flow is below the acceptable level as defined in §85.2225(c)(6).

(d) Leak check. A system leak check is performed within 24 hours before the test in low volume stations (those performing less than 4,000 inspections per year) and within four hours in high-volume stations (4,000 or more inspections per year) and may be performed in conjunction with the gas calibration described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. If a leak check is not performed within the preceding 24 hours in low volume stations and within four hours in high-volume stations or if the analyzer fails the leak check, the analyzer must lock out from testing. The leak check must be a procedure demonstrated to effectively check the sample hose and probe for leaks and is performed in accordance with good engineering practices. An error of more than ±2 percent of the reading using low range span gas must cause the analyzer to lock out from testing, and requires repair of leaks.

(e) Gas calibration. (1) On each operating day in high-volume stations, analyzers must automatically require and successfully pass a two-point gas calibration for HC, CO, and CO2 and must continually compensate for changes in barometric pressure. Calibration must be checked within four hours before the test and the analyzer adjusted if the reading is more than two percent different from the span gas value. In low-volume stations, analyzers must undergo a two-point calibration within 72 hours before each test, unless changes in barometric pressure are compensated for automatically and statistical process control demonstrates equal or better quality control using different frequencies. Gas calibration is accomplished by introducing span gas that meets the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section into the analyzer through the calibration port. No adjustment of the analyzer is necessary if the analyzer reads the span gas within the allowable tolerance range; that is, the square root of sum of the squares of the span gas tolerance (described in paragraph (e)(3) of this section) and the calibration tolerance (which is equal to two percent). The gas calibration procedure corrects readings that exceed the allowable tolerance range to the center of the allowable tolerance range. The pressure in the sample cell must be the same with the calibration gas flowing during calibration as with the sample gas flowing during sampling. If the system is not calibrated, or the system fails the calibration check, the analyzer must lock out from testing.

(2) Span points. A two-point gas calibration procedure must be followed. The span is accomplished at one of the pairs of span points listed in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i)(A) 300 ppm and 1200 ppm propane (HC).

(B) 1.0% and 4.0% carbon monoxide (CO).

(C) 6.0% and 12.0% carbon dioxide (CO2).

(D) (if equipped for nitric oxide) 1000 ppm and 3000 ppm nitric oxide (NO).

(ii)(A) 0 ppm and 600 ppm propane (HC).

(B) 0.0% and 1.6% carbon monoxide (CO).

(C) 0.0% and 11.0% carbon dioxide (CO2)

(D) (if equipped for nitric oxide) 0 ppm and 1200 ppm nitric oxide (NO).

(3) Span gases. The analyzed concentrations for the span gases used for calibration must be nominally within two percent of the span points specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section and must be traceable to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standards within two percent. Zero gases must conform to the specifications given in §86.114-79 (a)(5) of this chapter.

(f) Dynamometer checks—(1) Monthly check. Within one month preceding each loaded test, the accuracy of the roll speed indicator must be verified and the dynamometer must be checked for proper power absorber settings.

(2) Semi-annual check. Within six months preceding each loaded test as described in §85.2217, the road-load response of the variable-curve dynamometer or the frictional power absorption of the dynamometer must be checked by a coast down procedure similar to that described in §86.118-78 of this chapter. The check is done at 30 mph (48 kph), and a power absorption load setting to generate a power of 4.1 horsepower (or 3.057 kilowatts). The actual coast down time from 45 mph to 15 mph (72 kph to 24 kph) must be within +1 second of the time calculated by the equation in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section for English system units or paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section for SI units.

eCFR graphic er01no93.000.gif

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where W is the total inertia weight as represented by the weight of the rollers (excluding free rollers), and any inertia flywheels used, measured in pounds, and P is power, measured in horsepower. If the coast down time is not within the specified tolerance the dynamometer must be taken out of service and corrective action must be taken.

eCFR graphic er01no93.001.gif

View or download PDF

where W is the total inertia weight as represented by the weight of the rollers (excluding free rollers), and any inertia flywheels used, measured in kilograms, and P is power, measured in kilowatts. If the coast down time is not within the specified tolerance the dynamometer must be taken out of service and corrective action must be taken.

(g) Other checks. In addition to the other periodic checks described in this section, those described in paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section are also used to verify system performance under the special circumstances described therein.

(1) Gas calibration. (i) Each time the analyzer electronic or optical systems are repaired or replaced, a gas calibration is performed prior to returning the unit to service.

(ii) In high-volume stations, monthly multi-point calibrations are performed. Low-volume stations must perform multi-point calibrations every six months. The calibration curve is checked at 20 percent, 40 percent, 60 percent, and 80 percent of full scale, and must be adjusted or repaired if the specifications in §85.2225(c)(1) are not met.

(2) Leak checks. Each time the sample line integrity is broken, a leak check is performed prior to testing.

[58 FR 58415, Nov. 1, 1993; 59 FR 33913, July 1, 1994]

§§85.2234-85.2236   [Reserved]

§85.2237   Test report—EPA 81.

(a) Applicability. The requirements of this subsection apply to short tests conducted under Emissions Performance Warranty through December 31, 1993. The requirements of §85.2238 apply concurrently until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of §85.2238 are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994, for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of this section are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995, for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Upon failure of a short test, the vehicle's operator or owner shall be furnished with a test report containing:

(1) Vehicle description, including either license plate or manufacturer identification number, and odometer readings.

(2) Date of test.

(3) Name of individual or organization performing the test and location thereof.

(4) Type of short test performed.

(5) Test results, exhaust concentrations for each mode measured.

(c) The test report shall certify that the short test was performed in accordance with these regulations and it shall be signed by an individual who either performed the test or has actual knowledge of the performance of the test.

(d) For purposes of this section, “failure of a short test” means that the vehicle exceeded the standards in this subpart or the Inspection/Maintenance standards of the jurisdiction, whichever is less stringent.

[49 FR 24323, June 12, 1984. Redesignated and amended at 58 FR 58403, 58416, Nov. 1, 1993]

§85.2238   Test report—EPA 91.

(a) Special calendar and model year applicability. The requirements of §85.2237 apply concurrently for tests conducted under Emission Performance Warranty on 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines until December 31, 1993, after which the requirements of this section are solely in effect. The following exceptions apply: In a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of a basic centralized program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2237 are concurrently in effect until June 30, 1994 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines; in a state where the Administrator has approved a SIP revision providing for implementation of an enhanced program meeting the requirements of part 51, subpart S of this chapter, according to the schedule specified in §51.373 of this chapter, the requirements of §85.2237 are concurrently in effect until December 31, 1995 for 1995 and earlier model year vehicles or engines.

(b) Upon failure of a short test, the vehicle's owner or operator must be furnished with a test report containing the information listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (7) of this section.

(1) Vehicle description, including license plate number, vehicle identification number, weight class, and odometer reading.

(2) Date and time of test.

(3) Name or identification number of the individual performing the test and the location of the test station and lane.

(4) Type of emission test performed.

(5) Applicable emission test standards.

(6) Test results, including exhaust concentrations for each mode measured.

(i) The reported exhaust concentrations are that pair of passing exhaust concentrations or, if none are obtained, that pair of failing exhaust concentrations, for which the product of HC+(151*CO) is a minimum.

(ii) If a second-chance test is conducted the reported exhaust concentrations are those obtained from the second-chance test.

(7) A statement indicating the availability of warranty coverage as provided in section 207 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7541).

(c) The test report must certify that the short test was performed in accordance with these regulations and, in the case of service station based programs, it must be signed by the individual who performed the test.

[58 FR 58416, Nov. 1, 1993]



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