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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of December 18, 2014

Title 48Chapter 99Subchapter B → Part 9905


Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System


PART 9905—COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS


Contents
9905.501   Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions.
9905.501-10   [Reserved]
9905.501-20   Purpose.
9905.501-30   Definitions.
9905.501-40   Fundamental requirement.
9905.501-50   Techniques for application.
9905.501-60   Illustration. [Reserved]
9905.501-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]
9905.501-62   Exemption.
9905.501-63   Effective date.
9905.502   Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions.
9905.502-10   [Reserved]
9905.502-20   Purpose.
9905.502-30   Definitions.
9905.502-40   Fundamental requirement.
9905.502-50   Techniques for application.
9905.502-60   Illustrations.
9905.502-61   Interpretation.
9905.502-62   Exemption.
9905.502-63   Effective date.
9905.505   Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions.
9905.505-10   [Reserved]
9905.505-20   Purpose.
9905.505-30   Definitions.
9905.505-40   Fundamental requirement.
9905.505-50   Techniques for application.
9905.505-60   Illustrations.
9905.505-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]
9905.505-62   Exemption.
9905.505-63   Effective date.
9905.506   Cost accounting period—Educational institutions.
9905.506-10   [Reserved]
9905.506-20   Purpose.
9905.506-30   Definitions.
9905.506-40   Fundamental requirement.
9905.506-50   Techniques for application.
9905.506-60   Illustrations.
9905.506-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]
9905.506-62   Exemption.
9905.506-63   Effective date.

Authority: Pub. L. 100-679, 102 Stat. 4056, 41 U.S.C. 422.

Source: 59 FR 55770, Nov. 8, 1994, unless otherwise noted.

9905.501   Cost accounting standard—consistency in estimating, accumulating and reporting costs by educational institutions.

9905.501-10   [Reserved]

9905.501-20   Purpose.

The purpose of this Cost Accounting Standard is to ensure that each educational institution's practices used in estimating costs for a proposal are consistent with cost accounting practices used by the institution in accumulating and reporting costs. Consistency in the application of cost accounting practices is necessary to enhance the likelihood that comparable transactions are treated alike. With respect to individual contracts, the consistent application of cost accounting practices will facilitate the preparation of reliable cost estimates used in pricing a proposal and their comparison with the costs of performance of the resulting contract. Such comparisons provide one important basis for financial control over costs during contract performance and aid in establishing accountability for costs in the manner agreed to by both parties at the time of contracting. The comparisons also provide an improved basis for evaluating estimating capabilities.

9905.501-30   Definitions.

(a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those definitions unless paragraph (b) of this subsection requires otherwise.

(1) Accumulating costs means the collecting of cost data in an organized manner, such as through a system of accounts.

(2) Actual cost means an amount determined on the basis of cost incurred (as distinguished from forecasted cost), including standard cost properly adjusted for applicable variance.

(3) Estimating costs means the process of forecasting a future result in terms of cost, based upon information available at the time.

(4) Indirect cost pool means a grouping of incurred costs identified with two or more objectives but not identified specifically with any final cost objective.

(5) Pricing means the process of establishing the amount or amounts to be paid in return for goods or services.

(6) Proposal means any offer or other submission used as a basis for pricing a contract, contract modification or termination settlement or for securing payments thereunder.

(7) Reporting costs means the providing of cost information to others.

(b) The following modifications of terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 are applicable to this Standard: None.

9905.501-40   Fundamental requirement.

(a) An educational institution's practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal shall be consistent with the institution's cost accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting costs.

(b) An educational institution's cost accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting actual costs for a contract shall be consistent with the institution's practices used in estimating costs in pricing the related proposal.

(c) The grouping of homogeneous costs in estimates prepared for proposal purposes shall not per se be deemed an inconsistent application of cost accounting practices under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this subsection when such costs are accumulated and reported in greater detail on an actual cost basis during contract performance.

9905.501-50   Techniques for application.

(a) The standard allows grouping of homogeneous costs in order to cover those cases where it is not practicable to estimate contract costs by individual cost element. However, costs estimated for proposal purposes shall be presented in such a manner and in such detail that any significant cost can be compared with the actual cost accumulated and reported therefor. In any event, the cost accounting practices used in estimating costs in pricing a proposal and in accumulating and reporting costs on the resulting contract shall be consistent with respect to:

(1) The classification of elements of cost as direct or indirect;

(2) The indirect cost pools to which each element of cost is charged or proposed to be charged; and

(3) The methods of allocating indirect costs to the contract.

(b) Adherence to the requirement of 9905.501-40(a) of this standard shall be determined as of the date of award of the contract, unless the contractor has submitted cost or pricing data pursuant to 10 U.S.C. 2306(a) or 41 U.S.C. 254(d) (Pub. L. 87-653), in which case adherence to the requirement of 9905.501-40(a) shall be determined as of the date of final agreement on price, as shown on the signed certificate of current cost or pricing data. Notwithstanding 9905.501-40(b), changes in established cost accounting practices during contract performance may be made in accordance with part 9903 (48 CFR part 9903).

(c) The standard does not prescribe the amount of detail required in accumulating and reporting costs. The basic requirement which must be met, however, is that for any significant amount of estimated cost, the contractor must be able to accumulate and report actual cost at a level which permits sufficient and meaningful comparison with its estimates. The amount of detail required may vary considerably depending on how the proposed costs were estimated, the data presented in justification or lack thereof, and the significance of each situation. Accordingly, it is neither appropriate nor practical to prescribe a single set of accounting practices which would be consistent in all situations with the practices of estimating costs. Therefore, the amount of accounting and statistical detail to be required and maintained in accounting for estimated costs has been and continues to be a matter to be decided by Government procurement authorities on the basis of the individual facts and circumstances.

9905.501-60   Illustration. [Reserved]

9905.501-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]

9905.501-62   Exemption.

None for this Standard.

9905.501-63   Effective date.

This Standard is effective as of January 9, 1995.

9905.502   Cost accounting standard—consistency in allocating costs incurred for the same purpose by educational institutions.

9905.502-10   [Reserved]

9905.502-20   Purpose.

The purpose of this Standard is to require that each type of cost is allocated only once and on only one basis to any contract or other cost objective. The criteria for determining the allocation of costs to a contract or other cost objective should be the same for all similar objectives. Adherence to these cost accounting concepts is necessary to guard against the overcharging of some cost objectives and to prevent double counting. Double counting occurs most commonly when cost items are allocated directly to a cost objective without eliminating like cost items from indirect cost pools which are allocated to that cost objective.

9905.502-30   Definitions.

(a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those definitions unless paragraph (b) of this subsection requires otherwise.

(1) Allocate means to assign an item of cost, or a group of items of cost, to one or more cost objectives. This term includes both direct assignment of cost and the reassignment of a share from an indirect cost pool.

(2) Cost objective means a function, organizational subdivision, contract, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, products, jobs, capitalized projects, etc.

(3) Direct cost means any cost which is identified specifically with a particular final cost objective. Direct costs are not limited to items which are incorporated in the end product as material or labor. Costs identified specifically with a contract are direct costs of that contract. All costs identified specifically with other final cost objectives of the educational institution are direct costs of those cost objectives.

(4) Final cost objective means a cost objective which has allocated to it both direct and indirect costs, and in the educational institution's accumulation system, is one of the final accumulation points.

(5) Indirect cost means any cost not directly identified with a single final cost objective, but identified with two or more final cost objectives or with at least one intermediate cost objective.

(6) Indirect cost pool means a grouping of incurred costs identified with two or more cost objectives but not identified with any final cost objective.

(7) Intermediate cost objective means a cost objective that is used to accumulate indirect costs or service center costs that are subsequently allocated to one or more indirect cost pools and/or final cost objectives.

(b) The following modifications of terms defined elsewhere in this Chapter 99 are applicable to this Standard: None.

9905.502-40   Fundamental requirement.

All costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, are either direct costs only or indirect costs only with respect to final cost objectives. No final cost objective shall have allocated to it as an indirect cost any cost, if other costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, have been included as a direct cost of that or any other final cost objective. Further, no final cost objective shall have allocated to it as a direct cost any cost, if other costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, have been included in any indirect cost pool to be allocated to that or any other final cost objective.

9905.502-50   Techniques for application.

(a) The Fundamental Requirement is stated in terms of cost incurred and is equally applicable to estimates of costs to be incurred as used in contract proposals.

(b) The Disclosure Statement to be submitted by the educational institution will require that the institution set forth its cost accounting practices with regard to the distinction between direct and indirect costs. In addition, for those types of cost which are sometimes accounted for as direct and sometimes accounted for as indirect, the educational institution will set forth in its Disclosure Statement the specific criteria and circumstances for making such distinctions. In essence, the Disclosure Statement submitted by the educational institution, by distinguishing between direct and indirect costs, and by describing the criteria and circumstances for allocating those items which are sometimes direct and sometimes indirect, will be determinative as to whether or not costs are incurred for the same purpose. Disclosure Statement as used herein refers to the statement required to be submitted by educational institutions as a condition of contracting as set forth in subpart 9903.2.

(c) In the event that an educational institution has not submitted a Disclosure Statement, the determination of whether specific costs are directly allocable to contracts shall be based upon the educational institution's cost accounting practices used at the time of contract proposal.

(d) Whenever costs which serve the same purpose cannot equitably be indirectly allocated to one or more final cost objectives in accordance with the educational institution's disclosed accounting practices, the educational institution may either use a method for reassigning all such costs which would provide an equitable distribution to all final cost objectives, or directly assign all such costs to final cost objectives with which they are specifically identified. In the event the educational institution decides to make a change for either purpose, the Disclosure Statement shall be amended to reflect the revised accounting practices involved.

(e) Any direct cost of minor dollar amount may be treated as an indirect cost for reasons of practicality where the accounting treatment for such cost is consistently applied to all final cost objectives, provided that such treatment produces results which are substantially the same as the results which would have been obtained if such cost had been treated as a direct cost.

9905.502-60   Illustrations.

(a) Illustrations of costs which are incurred for the same purpose:

(1) An educational institution normally allocates all travel as an indirect cost and previously disclosed this accounting practice to the Government. For purposes of a new proposal, the educational institution intends to allocate the travel costs of personnel whose time is accounted for as direct labor directly to the contract. Since travel costs of personnel whose time is accounted for as direct labor working on other contracts are costs which are incurred for the same purpose, these costs may no longer be included within indirect cost pools for purposes of allocation to any covered Government contract. The educational institution's Disclosure Statement must be amended for the proposed changes in accounting practices.

(2) An educational institution normally allocates purchasing activity costs indirectly and allocates this cost to instruction and research on the basis of modified total costs. A proposal for a new contract requires a disproportionate amount of subcontract administration to be performed by the purchasing activity. The educational institution prefers to continue to allocate purchasing activity costs indirectly. In order to equitably allocate the total purchasing activity costs, the educational institution may use a method for allocating all such costs which would provide an equitable distribution to all applicable indirect cost pools. For example, the institution may use the number of transactions processed rather than its former allocation base of modified total costs. The educational institution's Disclosure Statement must be amended for the proposed changes in accounting practices.

(b) Illustrations of costs which are not incurred for the same purpose:

(1) An educational institution normally allocates special test equipment costs directly to contracts. The costs of general purpose test equipment are normally included in the indirect cost pool which is allocated to contracts. Both of these accounting practices were previously disclosed to the Government. Since both types of costs involved were not incurred for the same purpose in accordance with the criteria set forth in the educational institution's Disclosure Statement, the allocation of general purpose test equipment costs from the indirect cost pool to the contract, in addition to the directly allocated special test equipment costs, is not considered a violation of the Standard.

(2) An educational institution proposes to perform a contract which will require three firemen on 24-hour duty at a fixed-post to provide protection against damage to highly inflammable materials used on the contract. The educational institution presently has a firefighting force of 10 employees for general protection of its facilities. The educational institution's costs for these latter firemen are treated as indirect costs and allocated to all contracts; however, it wants to allocate the three fixed-post firemen directly to the particular contract requiring them and also allocate a portion of the cost of the general firefighting force to the same contract. The institution may do so but only on condition that its disclosed practices indicate that the costs of the separate classes of firemen serve different purposes and that it is the institution's practice to allocate the general firefighting force indirectly and to allocate fixed-post firemen directly.

9905.502-61   Interpretation.

(a) 9905.502, Cost Accounting Standard—Consistency in Allocating Costs Incurred for the Same Purpose by Educational Institutions, provides, in 9905.502-40, that “*** no final cost objective shall have allocated to it as a direct cost any cost, if other costs incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances, have been included in any indirect cost pool to be allocated to that or any other final cost objective.”

(b) This interpretation deals with the way 9905.502 applies to the treatment of costs incurred in preparing, submitting, and supporting proposals. In essence, it is addressed to whether or not, under the Standard, all such costs are incurred for the same purpose, in like circumstances.

(c) Under 9905.502, costs incurred in preparing, submitting, and supporting proposals pursuant to a specific requirement of an existing contract are considered to have been incurred in different circumstances from the circumstances under which costs are incurred in preparing proposals which do not result from such a specific requirement. The circumstances are different because the costs of preparing proposals specifically required by the provisions of an existing contract relate only to that contract while other proposal costs relate to all work of the educational institution.

(d) This interpretation does not preclude the allocation, as indirect costs, of costs incurred in preparing all proposals. The cost accounting practices used by the educational institution, however, must be followed consistently and the method used to reallocate such costs, of course, must provide an equitable distribution to all final cost objectives.

9905.502-62   Exemption.

None for this Standard.

9905.502-63   Effective date.

This Standard is effective as of January 9, 1995.

9905.505   Accounting for unallowable costs—Educational institutions.

9905.505-10   [Reserved]

9905.505-20   Purpose.

(a)(1) The purpose of this Cost Accounting Standard is to facilitate the negotiation, audit, administration and settlement of contracts by establishing guidelines covering:

(i) Identification of costs specifically described as unallowable, at the time such costs first become defined or authoritatively designated as unallowable, and

(ii) The cost accounting treatment to be accorded such identified unallowable costs in order to promote the consistent application of sound cost accounting principles covering all incurred costs.

(2) The Standard is predicated on the proposition that costs incurred in carrying on the activities of an educational institution—regardless of the allowability of such costs under Government contracts—are allocable to the cost objectives with which they are identified on the basis of their beneficial or causal relationships.

(b) This Standard does not govern the allowability of costs. This is a function of the appropriate procurement or reviewing authority.

9905.505-30   Definitions.

(a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those definitions unless paragraph (b) of this subsection requires otherwise.

(1) Directly associated cost means any cost which is generated solely as a result of the incurrence of another cost, and which would not have been incurred had the other cost not been incurred.

(2) Expressly unallowable cost means a particular item or type of cost which, under the express provisions of an applicable law, regulation, or contract, is specifically named and stated to be unallowable.

(3) Indirect cost means any cost not directly identified with a single final cost objective, but identified with two or more final cost objectives or with at least one intermediate cost objective.

(4) Unallowable cost means any cost which, under the provisions of any pertinent law, regulation, or contract, cannot be included in prices, cost reimbursements, or settlements under a Government contract to which it is allocable.

(b) The following modifications of terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 are applicable to this Standard: None.

9905.505-40   Fundamental requirement.

(a) Costs expressly unallowable or mutually agreed to be unallowable, including costs mutually agreed to be unallowable directly associated costs, shall be identified and excluded from any billing, claim, or proposal applicable to a Government contract.

(b) Costs which specifically become designated as unallowable as a result of a written decision furnished by a contracting officer pursuant to contract disputes procedures shall be identified if included in or used in the computation of any billing, claim, or proposal applicable to a Government contract. This identification requirement applies also to any costs incurred for the same purpose under like circumstances as the costs specifically identified as unallowable under either this paragraph or paragraph (a) of this subsection.

(c) Costs which, in a contracting officer's written decision furnished pursuant to contract disputes procedures, are designated as unallowable directly associated costs of unallowable costs covered by either paragraph (a) or (b) of this subsection shall be accorded the identification required by paragraph (b) of this subsection.

(d) The costs of any work project not contractually authorized, whether or not related to performance of a proposed or existing contract, shall be accounted for, to the extent appropriate, in a manner which permits ready separation from the costs of authorized work projects.

(e) All unallowable costs covered by paragraphs (a) through (d) of this subsection shall be subject to the same cost accounting principles governing cost allocability as allowable costs. In circumstances where these unallowable costs normally would be part of a regular indirect-cost allocation base or bases, they shall remain in such base or bases. Where a directly associated cost is part of a category of costs normally included in an indirect-cost pool that will be allocated over a base containing the unallowable cost with which it is associated, such a directly associated cost shall be retained in the indirect-cost pool and be allocated through the regular allocation process.

(f) Where the total of the allocable and otherwise allowable costs exceeds a limitation-of-cost or ceiling-price provision in a contract, full direct and indirect cost allocation shall be made to the contract cost objective, in accordance with established cost accounting practices and Standards which regularly govern a given entity's allocations to Government contract cost objectives. In any determination of unallowable cost overrun, the amount thereof shall be identified in terms of the excess of allowable costs over the ceiling amount, rather than through specific identification of particular cost items or cost elements.

9905.505-50   Techniques for application.

(a) The detail and depth of records required as backup support for proposals, billings, or claims shall be that which is adequate to establish and maintain visibility of identified unallowable costs (including directly associated costs), their accounting status in terms of their allocability to contract cost objectives, and the cost accounting treatment which has been accorded such costs. Adherence to this cost accounting principle does not require that allocation of unallowable costs to final cost objectives be made in the detailed cost accounting records. It does require that unallowable costs be given appropriate consideration in any cost accounting determinations governing the content of allocation bases used for distributing indirect costs to cost objectives. Unallowable costs involved in the determination of rates used for standard costs, or for indirect-cost bidding or billing, need be identified only at the time rates are proposed, established, revised or adjusted.

(b)(1) The visibility requirement of paragraph (a) of this subsection, may be satisfied by any form of cost identification which is adequate for purposes of contract cost determination and verification. The Standard does not require such cost identification for purposes which are not relevant to the determination of Government contract cost. Thus, to provide visibility for incurred costs, acceptable alternative practices would include:

(i) The segregation of unallowable costs in separate accounts maintained for this purpose in the regular books of account,

(ii) The development and maintenance of separate accounting records or workpapers, or

(iii) The use of any less formal cost accounting techniques which establishes and maintains adequate cost identification to permit audit verification of the accounting recognition given unallowable costs.

(2) Educational institutions may satisfy the visibility requirements for estimated costs either:

(i) By designation and description (in backup data, workpapers, etc.) of the amounts and types of any unallowable costs which have specifically been identified and recognized in making the estimates, or

(ii) By description of any other estimating technique employed to provide appropriate recognition of any unallowable costs pertinent to the estimates.

(c) Specific identification of unallowable costs is not required in circumstances where, based upon considerations of materiality, the Government and the educational institution reach agreement on an alternate method that satisfies the purpose of the Standard.

9905.505-60   Illustrations.

(a) An auditor recommends disallowance of certain direct labor and direct material costs, for which a billing has been submitted under a contract, on the basis that these particular costs were not required for performance and were not authorized by the contract. The contracting officer issues a written decision which supports the auditor's position that the questioned costs are unallowable. Following receipt of the contracting officer's decision, the educational institution must clearly identify the disallowed direct labor and direct material costs in the institution's accounting records and reports covering any subsequent submission which includes such costs. Also, if the educational institution's base for allocation of any indirect cost pool relevant to the subject contract consists of direct labor, direct material, total prime cost, total cost input, etc., the institution must include the disallowed direct labor and material costs in its allocation base for such pool. Had the contracting officer's decision been against the auditor, the educational institution would not, of course, have been required to account separately for the costs questioned by the auditor.

(b) An educational institution incurs, and separately identifies, as a part of a service center or expense pool, certain costs which are expressly unallowable under the existing and currently effective regulations. If the costs of the service center or indirect expense pool are regularly a part of the educational institution's base for allocation of other indirect expenses, the educational institution must allocate the other indirect expenses to contracts and other final cost objectives by means of a base which includes the identified unallowable indirect costs.

(c) An auditor recommends disallowance of certain indirect costs. The educational institution claims that the costs in question are allowable under the provisions of Office Of Management and Budget Circular A-21, Cost Principles For Educational Institutions; the auditor disagrees. The issue is referred to the contracting officer for resolution pursuant to the contract disputes clause. The contracting officer issues a written decision supporting the auditor's position that the total costs questioned are unallowable under the Circular. Following receipt of the contracting officer's decision, the educational institution must identify the disallowed costs and specific other costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances in any subsequent estimating, cost accumulation or reporting for Government contracts, in which such costs are included. If the contracting officer's decision had supported the educational institution's contention, the costs questioned by the auditor would have been allowable and the educational institution would not have been required to provide special identification.

(d) An educational institution incurred certain unallowable costs that were charged indirectly as general administration and general expenses (GA&GE). In the educational institution's proposals for final indirect cost rates to be applied in determining allowable contract costs, the educational institution identified and excluded the expressly unallowable GA&GE costs form the applicable indirect cost pools. In addition, during the course of negotiation of indirect cost rates to be used for bidding and billing purposes, the educational institution agreed to classify as unallowable cost, various directly associated costs of the identifiable unallowable costs. On the basis of negotiations and agreements between the educational institution and the contracting officer's authorized representatives, indirect cost rates were established, based on the net balance of allowable GA&GE. Application of the rates negotiated to proposals, and to billings, for covered contracts constitutes compliance with the Standard.

(e) An employee, whose salary, travel, and subsistence expenses are charged regularly to the general administration and general expenses (GA&GE), an indirect cost category, takes several business associates on what is clearly a business entertainment trip. The entertainment costs of such trips is expressly unallowable because it constitutes entertainment expense prohibited by OMB Circular A-21, and is separately identified by the educational institution. In these circumstances, the employee's travel and subsistence expenses would be directly associated costs for identification with the unallowable entertainment expense. However, unless this type of activity constituted a significant part of the employee's regular duties and responsibilities on which his salary was based, no part of the employee's salary would be required to be identified as a directly associated cost of the unallowable entertainment expense.

9905.505-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]

9905.505-62   Exemption.

None for this Standard.

9905.505-63   Effective date.

This Standard is effective as of January 9, 1995.

9905.506   Cost accounting period—Educational institutions.

9905.506-10   [Reserved]

9905.506-20   Purpose.

The purpose of this Cost Accounting Standard is to provide criteria for the selection of the time periods to be used as cost accounting periods for contract cost estimating, accumulating, and reporting. This Standard will reduce the effects of variations in the flow of costs within each cost accounting period. It will also enhance objectivity, consistency, and verifiability, and promote uniformity and comparability in contract cost measurements.

9905.506-30   Definitions.

(a) The following are definitions of terms which are prominent in this Standard. Other terms defined elsewhere in this part 99 shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those definitions unless paragraph (b) of this subsection requires otherwise.

(1) Allocate means to assign an item of cost, or a group of items of cost, to one or more cost objectives. This term includes both direct assignment of cost and the reassignment of a share from an indirect cost pool.

(2) Cost objective means a function, organizational subdivision, contract, or other work unit for which cost data are desired and for which provision is made to accumulate and measure the cost of processes, products, jobs, capitalized projects, etc.

(3) Fiscal year means the accounting period for which annual financial statements are regularly prepared, generally a period of 12 months, 52 weeks, or 53 weeks.

(4) Indirect cost pool means a grouping of incurred costs identified with two or more cost objectives but not identified specifically with any final cost objective.

(b) The following modifications of terms defined elsewhere in this chapter 99 are applicable to this Standard: None.

9905.506-40   Fundamental requirement.

(a) Educational institutions shall use their fiscal year as their cost accounting period, except that:

(1) Costs of an indirect function which exists for only a part of a cost accounting period may be allocated to cost objectives of that same part of the period as provided in 9905.506-50(a).

(2) An annual period other than the fiscal year may, as provided in 9905.506-50(d), be used as the cost accounting period if its use is an established practice of the institution.

(3) A transitional cost accounting period other than a year shall be used whenever a change of fiscal year occurs.

(b) An institution shall follow consistent practices in the selection of the cost accounting period or periods in which any types of expense and any types of adjustment to expense (including prior-period adjustments) are accumulated and allocated.

(c) The same cost accounting period shall be used for accumulating costs in an indirect cost pool as for establishing its allocation base, except that the contracting parties may agree to use a different period for establishing an allocation base as provided in 9905.506-50(e).

9905.506-50   Techniques for application.

(a) The cost of an indirect function which exists for only a part of a cost accounting period may be allocated on the basis of data for that part of the cost accounting period if the cost is:

(1) Material in amount,

(2) Accumulated in a separate indirect cost pool or expense pool, and

(3) Allocated on the basis of an appropriate direct measure of the activity or output of the function during that part of the period.

(b) The practices required by 9905.506-40(b) of this Standard shall include appropriate practices for deferrals, accruals, and other adjustments to be used in identifying the cost accounting periods among which any types of expense and any types of adjustment to expense are distributed. If an expense, such as insurance or employee leave, is identified with a fixed, recurring, annual period which is different from the institution's cost accounting period, the Standard permits continued use of that different period. Such expenses shall be distributed to cost accounting periods in accordance with the institution's established practices for accruals, deferrals, and other adjustments.

(c) Indirect cost allocation rates, based on estimates, which are used for the purpose of expediting the closing of contracts which are terminated or completed prior to the end of a cost accounting period need not be those finally determined or negotiated for that cost accounting period. They shall, however, be developed to represent a full cost accounting period, except as provided in paragraph (a) of this subsection.

(d) An institution may, upon mutual agreement with the Government, use as its cost accounting period a fixed annual period other than its fiscal year, if the use of such a period is an established practice of the institution and is consistently used for managing and controlling revenues and disbursements, and appropriate accruals, deferrals or other adjustments are made with respect to such annual periods.

(e) The contracting parties may agree to use an annual period which does not coincide precisely with the cost accounting period for developing the data used in establishing an allocation base: Provided,

(1) The practice is necessary to obtain significant administrative convenience,

(2) The practice is consistently followed by the institution,

(3) The annual period used is representative of the activity of the cost accounting period for which the indirect costs to be allocated are accumulated, and

(4) The practice can reasonably be estimated to provide a distribution to cost objectives of the cost accounting period not materially different from that which otherwise would be obtained.

(f)(1) When a transitional cost accounting period is required under the provisions of 9905.506-40(a)(3), the institution may select any one of the following:

(i) The period, less than a year in length, extending from the end of its previous cost accounting period to the beginning of its next regular cost accounting period,

(ii) A period in excess of a year, but not longer than 15 months, obtained by combining the period described in paragraph (f)(1) of this subsection with the previous cost accounting period, or

(iii) A period in excess of a year, but not longer than 15 months, obtained by combining the period described in subparagraph (f)(1) of this subsection with the next regular cost accounting period.

(2) A change in the institution's cost accounting period is a change in accounting practices for which an adjustment in the contract price may be required in accordance with subdivision (a)(4)(ii) or (iii) of the contract clause set out at 9903.201-4(e).

9905.506-60   Illustrations.

(a) An institution allocates indirect expenses for Organized Research on the basis of a modified total direct cost base. In a proposal for a covered contract, it estimates the allocable expenses based solely on the estimated amount of indirect costs allocated to Organized Research and the amount of the modified total direct cost base estimated to be incurred during the 8 months in which performance is scheduled to be commenced and completed. Such a proposal would be in violation of the requirements of this Standard that the calculation of the amounts of both the indirect cost pools and the allocation bases be based on the contractor's cost accounting period.

(b) An institution whose cost accounting period is the calendar year, installs a computer service center to begin operations on May 1. The operating expense related to the new service center is expected to be material in amount, will be accumulated in an intermediate cost objective, and will be allocated to the benefiting cost objectives on the basis of measured usage. The total operating expenses of the computer service center for the 8-month part of the cost accounting period may be allocated to the benefiting cost objectives of that same 8-month period.

(c) An institution changes its fiscal year from a calendar year to the 12-month period ending May 31. For financial reporting purposes, it has a 5-month transitional “fiscal year.” The same 5-month period must be used as the transitional cost accounting period; it may not be combined as provided in 9905.506-50(f), because the transitional period would be longer than 15 months. The new fiscal year must be adopted thereafter as its regular cost accounting period. The change in its cost accounting period is a change in accounting practices; adjustments of the contract prices may thereafter be required in accordance with subdivision (a)(4) (ii) or (iii) of the contract clause at 9903.201-4(e).

(d) Financial reports are prepared on a calendar year basis on a university-wide basis. However, the contracting segment does all internal financial planning, budgeting, and internal reporting on the basis of a twelve month period ended June 30. The contracting parties agree to use the period ended June 30 and they agree to overhead rates on the June 30 basis. They also agree on a technique for prorating fiscal year assignment of the university's central system office expenses between such June 30 periods. This practice is permitted by the Standard.

(e) Most financial accounts and contract cost records are maintained on the basis of a fiscal year which ends November 30 each year. However, employee vacation allowances are regularly managed on the basis of a “vacation year” which ends September 30 each year. Vacation expenses are estimated uniformly during each “vacation year.” Adjustments are made each October to adjust the accrued liability to actual, and the estimating rates are modified to the extent deemed appropriate. This use of a separate annual period for determining the amounts of vacation expense is permitted under 9905.506-50(b).

9905.506-61   Interpretation. [Reserved]

9905.506-62   Exemption.

None for this Standard.

9905.506-63   Effective date.

This Standard is effective as of January 9, 1995. For institutions with no previous CAS-covered contracts, this Standard shall be applied as of the start of its next fiscal year beginning after receipt of a contract to which this Standard is applicable.



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