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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 30, 2014

Title 45Subtitle ASubchapter A → Part 73


Title 45: Public Welfare


PART 73—STANDARDS OF CONDUCT


Contents

Subpart A—General Provisions

§73.735-101   Purpose.
§73.735-102   Definitions.
§73.735-103   Applicability.

Subpart B—Responsibilities

§73.735-201   Employees and supervisors.
§73.735-202   Management officials.

Subpart C—Conduct on the Job

§73.735-301   Courtesy and consideration for others.
§73.735-302   Support of department programs.
§73.735-303   Use of government funds.
§73.735-304   Use of government property.
§73.735-305   Conduct in Federal buildings.
§73.735-306   Sexual harassment.
§73.735-307   Use of official information.

Subpart D—Financial Obligations

§73.735-401   General provisions.

Subpart E—Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors

§73.735-501   Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.
§73.735-502   Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.
§73.735-503   Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.
§73.735-504   Gifts to official superiors.
§73.735-505   Acceptance of awards and prizes.
§73.735-506   Gifts and decorations from foreign governments.
§73.735-507   Acceptance of travel and subsistence.
§73.735-508   Other prohibitions.

Subpart F—Political Activity

§73.735-601   Applicability.
§73.735-602   Permissible activities.
§73.735-603   Prohibited activities.

Subpart G—Outside Activities

§73.735-701   General provisions.
§73.735-702   Criminal prohibitions on outside activities.
§73.735-703   Statutory prohibitions related to employment by a foreign government.
§73.735-704   Professional and consultative services.
§73.735-705   Writing and editing.
§73.735-706   Teaching, lecturing, and speechmaking.
§73.735-707   Holding office in professional societies.
§73.735-708   Administrative approval of certain outside activities.
§73.735-709   Annual reporting of outside activities.
§73.735-710   Maintenance of records.

Subpart H—Financial Interest

§73.735-801   Participation in matters affecting a personal financial interest.
§73.735-802   Executive order prohibitions.
§73.735-803   Prohibition against involvement in financial transactions based on information obtained through Federal employment.
§73.735-804   Waiver of the prohibitions in this subpart.
§73.735-805   Advice and guidance on conflicts matters.
§73.735-806   Documentation and publication of opinions.

Subpart I—Reporting Financial Interests

§73.735-901   Reporting requirement of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978.
§73.735-902   Reporting requirements for certain employees not covered by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978.
§73.735-903   Action if conflicts of interest or possible conflicts are noted.
§73.735-904   Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

Subpart J—Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members

§73.735-1001   Coverage.
§73.735-1002   Ethical standards of conduct.
§73.735-1003   Conflicts of interest statutes.
§73.735-1004   Requesting waivers or exemptions.
§73.735-1005   Salary from two sources.
§73.735-1006   Reporting financial interests.
§73.735-1007   Political activity.

Subpart K—Special Government Employees Other Than Consultants

§73.735-1101   General provision.

Subpart L—Disciplinary Action

§73.735-1201   General provisions.

Subpart M—Reporting Violations

§73.735-1301   Responsibility for reporting possible criminal violations.
§73.735-1302   Responsibility for reporting allegations of misconduct.
§73.735-1303   Prohibition of reprisals.
§73.735-1304   Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

Subpart N—Conduct and Responsibilities of Former Employees

§73.735-1401   Prohibitions against post-employment conflicts of interest.
Appendix A to Part 73—List of Some Offenses for Which Disciplinary Action May Be Taken
Appendix B to Part 73—Code of Ethics for Government Service

Authority: 5 U.S.C. 7301, 42 U.S.C. 216; E.O. 11222, 30 FR 6469; 5 CFR 735.101 et seq.

Source: 46 FR 7369, Jan. 23, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart A—General Provisions

§73.735-101   Purpose.

To assure that the business of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is conducted effectively, objectively, and without improper influence or the appearance of improper influence, employees and special Government employees must be persons of integrity and must observe high standards of honesty, impartiality, and behavior. They must not engage in any conduct prejudicial to the Government and must avoid conflicts of private interests with public duties and responsibilities. In accord with these principles, the regulations in this part are issued to inform HHS employees and special Government employees what standards of conduct are expected of them in performing their duties and what activities are permitted or prohibited both while they are employed and after their employment with the Department is ended.

§73.735-102   Definitions.

In this part:

(a) Employee means an officer or employee of HHS other than a special Government employee and includes Commissioned Officers of the Public Health Service who are on active duty, and individuals on assignment or detail to HHS pursuant to the Intergovernmental Personnel Act (5 U.S.C. 3371-3376). The term also includes HHS employees who are detailed to non-Federal or other Federal organizations. At times the term “regular employee” is used in place of “employee” to make a clear distinction between special Government employees and others employed by the Federal government.

(b) Special Government employee means an individual who is retained, designated, appointed, or employed to perform temporary duties either on a full-time or intermittent basis, with or without compensation, for not to exceed 130 days during any period of 365 consecutive days.

(c) Person means an individual, a corporation, a company, an association, a firm, a partnership or any other organization.

(d) Former employee means a former employee of HHS or former special Government employee as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.

(e) Principal Operating Component has the meaning given to that term in the Department's General Administration Manual. In addition, when used in these regulations, it includes the Office of the Secretary.

(f) Department means the Department of Health and Human Services.

§73.735-103   Applicability.

(a) The regulations in this part apply to all employees of the Department and to special Government employees to the extent indicated in Subparts J and K. They apply whether an employee is on leave, including leave without pay, or on duty.

(b) These regulations may be supplemented by regulations governing principal operating components, or sub-units of principal operating components, provided the clearance and publication requirements for standards of conduct regulations are met and approval is obtained from the Department Ethics Counselor and the Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration.

Subpart B—Responsibilities

§73.735-201   Employees and supervisors.

(a) Employees and special Government employees shall be responsible for observing all generally accepted rules of conduct and the specific provisions of law and the regulations of this part that apply to them. They are required to become familiar with these regulations and to exercise informed judgments to avoid misconduct or conflicts of interest. They shall secure approvals when required and file financial disclosure reports or statements in accordance with the provisions of this part. Failure to observe any of these regulations may be cause for disciplinary action. Some of the provisions are required by law and carry criminal penalties which are in addition to any disciplinary action which could be taken. When employees have doubts about any provision, they should consult their supervisor, personnel office, or the Department Ethics Counselor or a deputy counselor.

(b) Supervisors, because of their day-to-day relationships with employees, are responsible to a large degree for making sure high standards of conduct are maintained. They must become familiar with the Department's standards of conduct regulations and apply the standards to the work they do and supervise. Supervisors shall take suitable action, including disciplinary action in accordance with Subpart L of these regulations, when violations occur.

§73.735-202   Management officials.

(a) The Department has an obligation to enforce the requirements of this part in all respects and to help employees, special Government employees, and supervisors carry out their responsibilities to maintain high standards of ethical conduct. This includes an obligation for managers to provide information and training concerning the HHS conduct regulations, to provide advice and guidance with respect to them, and to review for possible conflicts of interest certain outside activities and financial interests of employees. The officials responsible for discharging the Department's oligations in this regard are identified in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section.

(b) Department Ethics Counselor. The Assistant General Counsel, Business and Administrative Law Division, shall be the Department Ethics Counselor and shall serve as the Designated Agency Official for matters arising under the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, (Pub. L. 95-521). The responsibilities of the Department Ethics Counselor shall include:

(1) Rendering authoritative advice and guidance on matters of general applicability under the standards of this part and all other laws and regulations governing employee conduct, with particular reference to conflicts of interest matters.

(2) Coordinating the Department's counselling and training services regarding conflicts of interest and assuring that employees of the Department are kept informed of developments in conflict of interest laws and other related matters of ethics.

(3) Receiving information on conflicts of interest and appearances of conflicts of interest involving employees of the Department and forwarding this information to the appropriate management official, or the Inspector General, as necessary, with his or her legal evaluation of the matters addressed.

(4) Reviewing the financial disclosure reports, requests for approval of outside activities, and similar reports filed by Executive level officers, non-career executives, deputy ethics counselors, and Schedule C employees in the Office of the Secretary for the purpose of identifying and resolving possible and actual conflicts of interest.

(5) Maintaining liaison with the Office of Government Ethics.

(6) Advising management officials on the resolution of conflicts of interest by any of the remedies set forth in §73.735-904 of this part.

(7) Maintaining accurate and complete documentation of all formal guidance and advice regarding conflict of interest matters subject to the provisions of this part, except for routine or repetitious cases where the guidance given is not precedential.

(8) Maintaining and publishing from time to time a list of those circumstances or situations which have resulted or may result in noncompliance with conflict of interest laws or regulations. [Section 206(b)(7), Pub. L. 95-521].

(9) Designating and training an appropriate number of reviewing officials to assist him or her in carrying out the duties of the Designated Agency Offical under the Ethics in Government Act.

(10) Maintaining effective lines of communication with deputy ethics counselors on all matters regarding employee conduct and ethics.

(c) Deputy Ethics Counselors. Assistant General Counsels and Regional Attorneys are designated deputy ethics counselors to assist the Department's Counselor in carrying out his or her responsibilities, particularly with respect to employees in the organization in which the deputy counselor serves. Regional Attorneys shall provide such assistance for all employees of the Department in organizations for which the Principal Regional Official provides personnel services.

(d) The Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration shall be responsible for developing and issuing procedures and requirements for the implementation of these regulations and for monitoring the application of such procedures and requirements throughout the Department.

(e) Heads of Principal Operating Components and the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget for the Office of the Secretary shall be ultimately responsible for assuring that persons who work for their respective organizations comply with the standards of this part. Their responsibilities shall include:

(1) Designating officials to review and approve outside activity requests in accordance with §73.735-708 of this part or statements of employment or financial interests under §73.735-902. A list of the officials designated for these purposes shall be provided to the Department Ethics Counselor and to the Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration and shall be updated in January and July of each year.

(2) Designating for the components of his or her organization, other than those for which a principal regional official provides personnel services, one or more individuals to oversee and coordinate the administrative aspects of these regulations. Responsibilities of such a person include making sure each employee or special government employee is provided a copy of these regulations, or an appropriate summary thereof; ensuring that training in the requirements of the regulations is provided to supervisors and to new employees; providing for the distribution, receipt, review and retention of financial interest reports and statements as directed by the Department Ethics Counselor and the Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration; sending annual reminders as required; providing for a file of outside work requests; giving information and assistance to employees on a day-to-day basis; and making available to employees the names and addresses of the Department's Ethics Counselor and deputy ethics counselors.

(f) Principal Regional Officials (PROs) shall designate one or more regional employees to perform, for components for which personnel services are provided by the PROs, the responsibilities in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

Subpart C—Conduct on the Job

§73.735-301   Courtesy and consideration for others.

(a) An employee's conduct on the job is, in all respects, of concern to the Federal government. Courtesy, consideration, and promptness in dealing with the public must be shown in carrying out official responsibilities, and actions which deny the dignity of individuals or conduct which is disrespectful to others must be avoided. Employees must recognize that inattention to matters of common courtesy can adversely affect the quality of service the Department is responsible for providing. Where appropriate, courtesy to the public should be included in the standards for employee performance.

(b) Of equal importance is the requirement that courtesy be shown in day-by-day interaction with co-workers. Employees shall be polite to and considerate of other employees, and shall respect their needs and concerns in the work environment.

§73.735-302   Support of department programs.

(a) When a Department program is based on law, Executive Order or regulation, every employee has a positive obligation to make it function as efficiently and economically as possible and to support it as long as it is a part of recognized public policy. An employee may, therefore, properly make an address explaining and interpreting such a program, citing its achievements, defending it against uninformed or unjust criticism, or soliciting views for improving it.

(b) An employee shall not, either directly or indirectly, use appropriated funds to influence, or attempt to influence, a Member of Congress to favor or oppose legislation. However, when authorized by his or her supervisor, an employee is not prohibited from:

(1) Testifying, on request, as a representative of the Department on pending legislation or proposals before Congressional Committees; or

(2) Assisting Congressional Committees in drafting bills or reports on request, when it is clear that the employee is serving solely as a technical expert under the direction of committee leadership.

(c) All employees shall be familiar with regulations and published instructions that relate to their official duties and responsibilities and shall comply with those directives. This includes carrying out proper orders from officials authorized to give them.

(d) Employees are required to assist the Inspector General and other investigative officials in the performance of their duties or functions. This requirement includes the giving of statements or evidence to investigators of the Inspector General's office or other HHS investigators authorized to conduct investigations into potential violations.

§73.735-303   Use of government funds.

(a) An employee shall not:

(1) Improperly use official travel;

(2) Improperly use payroll and other vouchers and documents on which Government payments are based;

(3) Take or fail to account for funds with which the employee is entrusted in his or her official position; or

(4) Take other Government funds for personal use. Violation of these prohibitions carry criminal penalties.

(b) In addition, employees shall avoid wasteful actions or behavior in the performance of their assigned duties.

§73.735-304   Use of government property.

(a) An employee shall not directly or indirectly use, or allow the use of, Government property of any kind, including property leased to the Government, for other than officially approved activities. An Employee has a positive duty to protect and conserve Government property, including equipment, supplies, and other property entrusted or issued to him or her. For example:

(1) Only official documents and materials may be processed on Government reproduction facilities. Both supervisors and employees must assure that this rule is strictly followed. (Exception for employee welfare and recreation associations is stated in Chapter 25-10, General Administration Manual. Exception for labor organizations is stated in Personnel Instruction 711-1.)

(2) Employees may drive or use Government automobiles or aircraft only on official business. Use of a Government owned, leased, or rented vehicle or aircraft for non-official purposes may result in suspension for at least 30 days or removal from the Federal service. 31 U.S.C. 638a.

Example: Normally, use of a Government automobile by travel between home and place of duty would not be considered official business and could not be authorized. An exception to this rule might be appropriate in a situation where an employee is required to leave early in the morning to attend a meeting in a distant city, or to return late in the day from such a meeting. Allowing the employee to drive a government car to his or her home the night before in order to leave from home, or to return to his or her home in the evening upon completion of the trip is permissible, provided the employee does not use the car for any personal reason.

§73.735-305   Conduct in Federal buildings.

(a) An employee shall not participate while on Government-owned or leased property or while on duty for the Government, in any gambling activity including the operation of a gambling device, in conducting a lottery or pool, in a game for money or property, or in selling or purchasing a numbers slip or ticket.

(b) An employee shall not while in or on Government-owned or leased property or while on duty for the Government solicit alms and contributions, engage in commercial soliciting and vending, display or distribute commercial advertisements, or collect private debts.

(c) The prohibitions in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not preclude:

(1) Activities necessitated by an employee's law enforcement duties;

(2) Participation in Federally sponsored fund-raising activities conducted pursuant to Executive Order 10927, or similar HHS-approved activities; or

(3) Buying a lottery ticket at an authorized State lottery outlet for a lottery authorized by State law and conducted by an agency of a State within that State.

(d) General Services Administration regulations on “Conduct on Federal Property” apply to all property under the control of the General Services Administration, and they are also applicable to all buildings and space under the control of this Department. These regulations prohibit, among other things, gambling, being intoxicated, and possession, distribution, or use of narcotic or dangerous drugs on the premises. The GSA regulations are found in Subpart 101-20.3 of the GSA Regulations, 41 CFR 101-20.3.

§73.735-306   Sexual harassment.

Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment is unacceptable conduct and is expressly prohibited. In addition, supervisors and managers are prohibited from taking or promising personnel actions in exchange for sexual favors, or failing to take an action because an employee or applicant for employment, refuses to engage in sexual conduct. This same prohibition applies to relationships between Department personnel who take or recommend action on a grant or contract and the grantee or contractor. Those employees who wish to file a complaint of sexual harassment should contact the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) within their respective agencies for guidance. (Time frames for pursuing a charge alleging sexual harassment are the same as for any other complaint based on allegations of sex discrimination.)

§73.735-307   Use of official information.

(a) The public interest requires that certain information in the possession of the Government be kept confidential, and released only with general or specific authority under Department or operating component regulations. Such information may involve the national security or be private, personal, or business information which has been furnished to the Government in confidence. In addition, information in the possession of the Government and not generally available may not be used for private gain. The following paragraphs set forth the rules to be followed by Department employees in handling information in official files or documents:

(1) Classified information. Employees who have access to information which is classified for security reasons in accordance with Executive Order 12065 are responsible for its custody and safekeeping, and for assuring that it is not disclosed to unauthorized persons. See the Department's Security Manual, Part 3 for details.

(2) Security and investigative information. Security and investigative data received from Government agencies or other sources for official use only within the Department or developed under a pledge of confidence is not to be divulged to unauthorized persons or agencies.

(3) Information obtained in confidence. Certain Department units (e.g., Food and Drug Administration, and the Social Security Administration) obtain in the course of their program activities certain information from businesses or individuals which they are forbidden by law from disclosing. These statutory prohibitions are found in 21 U.S.C. 331j, and 18 U.S.C. 1905. Each employee is responsible for observing these laws.

(4) Use of information for private gain. Government employees are sometimes able to obtain information about some action the Government is about to take or some other matter which is not generally known. Information of this kind shall not be used by the employee to further his or her or someone else's private financial or other interests. Such a use of official information is clearly a violation of a public trust. Employees shall not, directly or indirectly, make use of, or permit others to make use of, for the purpose of furthering any private interest, official information not made available to the general public.

(b) The Privacy Act provides criminal penalties for an employee who willfully discloses individually identifiable information from records, disclosure of which is prohibited by that Act. 5 U.S.C. 552a(i).

Subpart D—Financial Obligations

§73.735-401   General provisions.

(a) The Department considers the indebtedness of its employees to be a matter of their own concern. However, employees shall not by failure to meet their just financial obligations reflect adversely on the Government as their employer. Employees are expected to pay each just financial obligation in a proper and timely manner. A “just financial obligation” is one acknowledged by the employee or reduced to judgment by a court, or one imposed by law such as Federal, State, or local taxes. “In a proper and timely manner” is a manner which the Department determines does not, under the circumstances, reflect adversely on the part of an employee in meeting his or her financial obligations, particularly those that relate to support of the employee's family, to payment of Federal, State, or local taxes, or to payments to tax-supported institutions such as a city or State hospital, or educational institution. If for some reason an employee is unable to pay these obligations promptly, he or she is expected to make satisfactory arrangements for payment and abide by these arrangements.

(b) Disciplinary action may be considered when an employee has handled his or her financial affairs in such a way that:

(1) Action on complaints received from creditors requires the use of a considerable amount of official time, or

(2) It appears that financial difficulties are impairing the employee's efficiency on the job, or

(3) Because of the employee's financial irresponsibility, the attitude of the general public toward the Department may be adversely affected; and the employee after counseling does not make arrangements to meet his or her financial obligations.

Subpart E—Gifts, Entertainment, and Favors

§73.735-501   Prohibited acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

(a) Except as provided in §§73.735-502 and 73.735-506, an employee shall not directly or indirectly solicit or accept anything of monetary value, including gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainment or loans from a person who the employee knows, or should know because of the nature of the employee's work:

(1) Has, or is seeking to obtain, contractual or other business or financial relations with the employee's principal operating component, or sub-unit thereof; or with a component of the Department with respect to which the employee has official duties;

(2) Conducts operations or activities that are regulated by the employee's principal operating component, or sub-unit thereof or by a component of the Department with respect to which the employee has official duties; or

(3) Has interests that may be substantially affected by the performance or non-performance of the employee's official duties.

(b) Employees may not designate a person or an organization, including charitable or non-profit organizations, to accept any gift which an employee is prohibited from accepting directly.

§73.735-502   Permissible acceptance of gifts, entertainment, and favors.

(a) An employee may accept a gift, gratuity, favor, entertainment, loan or similar favor of monetary value which stems from a family relationship such as that between the employee and his or her parents, spouse or children, if it is clear that the relationship is the motivating factor.

(b) Loans from banks or other financial institutions may be accepted on customary terms.

(c) Unsolicited advertising or promotional material such as pens, note pads, calendars and similar items of nominal intrinsic value may be accepted.

(d) An employee may accept food or refreshment of nominal value on infrequent occasions in the ordinary course of a luncheon or dinner meeting or on an inspection tour only if the employee is properly in attendance and there is not a reasonable opportunity to pay.

Example 1: Employee is on the premises of Company participating in a meeting at a normal mealtime. A representative of Company provides a meal for all meeting participants from a Company facility and there is no established method for payment. Employee may accept.
Example 2: Employee is on the premises of Company and he or she goes outside for lunch with a representative of the Company. The representative offers to pay the bill. Since it is practical for the employee to pay for his or her own meal, the employee may not accept.

(e) An employee may also accept food or refreshment of nominal value on infrequent occasions if the food and/or refreshment is offered to all participants or attendees of a meeting or convention.

Example 1: During the course of a convention of a professional organization a luncheon open to all attendees is sponsored by a corporation which conducts business with the Department and the employee has official dealings with representatives of the corporation. The employee may attend the luncheon.

§73.735-503   Criminal provisions relating to gifts, entertainment, and favors.

(a) The law provides criminal penalties for whoever, directly or indirectly:

(1) Receives or accepts anything of value for or because of any official act the employee has performed or will perform; or

(2) Gives, offers or promises anything of value for the performance of an official act or to influence the performance of an official act. 18 USC 201.

(b) The law prohibits an employee from receiving any salary or any contribution to, or supplementation of, his or her salary as compensation for services as an officer or employee of the Government from any source other than the United States or any State, county or municipality. This law does not prohibit an employee from continuing to participate in a bona fide pension, retirement, group life, health or accident insurance, profit-sharing, stock bonus or other employee welfare or benefit plan maintained by a former employer. 18 U.S.C. 209.

Example 1: A corporate executive is asked to accept a position in the Department. The corporation offers to continue to pay the executive the difference between his or her salary as a Government employee and that received by an employee of the corporation. Such payment would be considered to be “compensation for” the employee's Government service and is prohibited.
Example 2: A corporate executive is asked to accept a position in the Department. The corporation proposes to pay him or her a special severance payment in anticipation of this or her serving in the Government. This proposal would be prohibited because there is no distinction between the proposed lump-sum payment and the prohibited continuation of salary payments described in the example above.
Example 3: A corporate executive is asked to accept a position in the Department. The corporation has an established policy which provides for an amount of severance pay to be paid any departing executive and proposes to make payment based on that policy when the executive leaves. The executive may accept the payment. Under these circumstances it is clear that the severance pay is in payment for past services not in anticipation of the future services for the Government.

§73.735-504   Gifts to official superiors.

An employee shall not solicit a contribution from another employee for a gift to an official superior, make a donation as a gift to an official superior, or accept a gift from an employee receiving less pay than himself or herself. 5 U.S.C. 7351. This section does not prohibit a voluntary gift of nominal value or donation in nominal amount made on a special occasion such as marriage, illness or retirement.

§73.735-505   Acceptance of awards and prizes.

(a) Employees may accept awards, including cash awards, given in recognition of a meritorious public contribution or achievement. However, if there is any indication that the award may improperly influence the employee in the performance of his or her offical duties, advice about the acceptance of it should be sought from a deputy ethics counselor. Also, an employee may not accept an award from an organization which the employee knows, or should know, has a contractual or other business arrangement with, or is regulated by, the principal operating component, or a sub-unit, in which he or she is employed or with respect to which the employee has official duties, unless acceptance is approved by the head of the employee's principal operating component. The head of the component may not approve acceptance unless he or she is satisfied that no actual conflict of interest would result.

(b) Employees may generally accept trophies, entertainment, rewards, and prizes given to competitors in contests or events which are open to the public.

(c) Employees may not accept gifts, awards, decorations or other things of value from a foreign government except as provided in §73.735-506.

§73.735-506   Gifts and decorations from foreign governments.

(a) An employee may not request or otherwise encourage the tender of a gift or decorations from a foreign government or official thereof.

(b) An employee may accept from a foreign government:

(1) A gift which is in the nature of medical treatment or an educational scholarship;

(2) A tangible gift of minimal value tendered or received as a mark of courtesy; (“Minimal value” means a retail value in the United States at the time of acceptance of not more than one hundred dollars, unless the Administrator of the General Services Administration adjusts the value by regulation.) or

(3) A tangible gift of more than minimal value when it appears that to refuse the gift would be likely to cause offense or embarrassment or otherwise adversely affect the foreign relations of the United States. However, the acceptance of such a gift would be on behalf of the United States and the gift would become the property of the United States. See the Department's General Administration Manual, Chapter 20-25 for information regarding the disposition of a gift accepted under these circumstances.

(c) An employee may also accept from a foreign government gifts of travel or expenses for travel (such as transportation, food and lodging) that take place entirely outside the United States and are of more than minimal value, if such acceptance is consistent with the interests of the United States and is approved by the travel approving authority in accordance with the Department's Travel Manual. See General Administration Manual, Chapter 20-25 for a requirement to report such travel.

(d) An employee may accept, retain, and wear a decoration tendered in recognition of active field service in time of combat operations or awarded for other outstanding or unusually meritorious performance, subject to the approval of the Secretary or his or her designee.

(e) Members of an employee's family and household are also subject to the regulations in this section. A member of an employee's family and household is a relative by blood, marriage or adoption who is a resident of the household. However, if a member of an employee's family and household is employed by another agency of the Government, the offer or acceptance of a gift shall be treated under the regulations of that agency.

(f) For purposes of this section “foreign government” means:

(1) Any unit of foreign government authority including any foreign national, state, local and municipal government;

(2) Any international or multinational organization whose membership is composed of any unit of foreign government described in paragraph (f)(1) of this section; or

(3) Any agent or representative of any such unit or organization when acting as such agent or representative. (5 U.S.C. 7342)

§73.735-507   Acceptance of travel and subsistence.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, employees may accept accommodations, subsistence, and travel in cash or in kind in connection with official travel for attendance at meetings, conferences, training in non-Governmental facilities or for performing advisory services, if approved in accordance with the provisions of the HHS Travel Manual. (5 U.S.C. 4111; 42 U.S.C. 3506)

(b) Employees may not accept accommodations, subsistence, or travel in cash or in kind in connection with official travel from a non-Governmental source with which they have official dealings unless Government or commercial travel and/or accommodations are not available. If travel and/or subsistence is accepted for official travel under these circumstances, such acceptance and the basis for it must be reported in writing to the Head of the Principal Operating Component or Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget for the Office of the Secretary.

§73.735-508   Other prohibitions.

Employees shall avoid any action whether or not specifically prohibited by this part, which might result in or create the appearance of:

(a) Using public office for private gain;

(b) Giving preferential treatment to any person;

(c) Impeding Government efficiency or economy;

(d) Losing complete independence or impartiality in the performance of their Government duties;

(e) Making a Government decision outside official channels; or

(f) Affecting adversely the confidence of the public in the integrity of the Government.

Subpart F—Political Activity

§73.735-601   Applicability.

(a) All employees in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government, including non-career employees, are subject to basic political activity restrictions in subchapter III of chapter 73 of title 5, United States Code (the former Hatch Act) and Civil Service Rule IV. Employees are individually responsible for refraining from prohibited political activity. Ignorance of a prohibition does not excuse a violation. This subpart summarizes provisions of law and regulation concerning political activity of employees. The Federal Personnel Manual and other publications of the Office of Personnel Management contain more detailed information on this subject. These may be reviewed in Department personnel offices, or will be made available by the Ethics Counselor, or the deputy counselor for the employee's organizational component.

(b) The Secretary and Under Secretary are exempt from the prohibitions concerning active participation in political management and political campaigns. Also exempt are other officials of the Department, except the Inspector General and Deputy Inspector General, who are appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and who determine policies to be pursued by the United States in the nationwide administration of Federal laws.

(c) Intermittent employees are subject to the restrictions when in active duty status only and for the entire 24 hours of any day of actual employment.

(d) Employees on leave, on leave without pay, or on furlough even though an employee's resignation has been accepted, are subject to the restrictions. Separated employees who have received a lump-sum payment for annual leave are not subject to the restriction during the period covered by the lump-sum payment or thereafter, provided they do not return to Federal employment during that period. Employees are not permitted to take a leave of absence to work with a political candidate, committee, or organization or to become a candidate for office with the understanding that they will resign their position if nominated or elected.

(e) Employees are accountable for political activity by another person acting as their agent or under the employee's direction or control, if they are thus accomplishing indirectly what they may not lawfully do directly and openly.

(f) Though officers in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps are not subject to the restrictions in Subchapter III of Chapter 73 of Title 5, United States Code, the provisions of this subpart apply to them.

§73.735-602   Permissible activities.

(a) Section 7324 of Title 5, United States Code, provides that employees have the right to vote as they please and to express their opinions on political subjects and candidates. Generally, however, employees are prohibited from taking an active part in political management or political campaigns or using official authority or influence to interfere with an election or affect its results. There are some exemptions from the restrictions of the statute:

(1) Employees may engage in political activity in connection with any question not specifically identified with a national or State political party. They also may engage in political activity in connection with an election, if none of the candidates represents a party any of whose candidates for presidential elector received votes at the last preceding election at which presidential electors were selected.

(2) An exception relates to political campaigns within, or in communities adjacent to, the District of Columbia, or in communities the majority of whose voters are employees of the Federal government. Communities to which the exception applies are specifically designated by the Office of Personnel Management. Information regarding the localities and the conditions under which the exceptions are granted may be obtained from personnel offices or the Department Counselor or deputy counselors.

(b) A covered employee is permitted to:

(1) Register and vote in any election;

(2) Express his or her opinion as an individual citizen privately and publicly on political subjects and candidates;

(3) Display a political picture, sticker, badge or button;

(4) Participate in the nonpartisan activities of a civic, community, social, labor, or professional organization, or of a similar organization;

(5) Be a member of a political party or other political organization and participate in its activities to the extent consistent with law;

(6) Attend a political convention, rally, fund raising function; or other political gathering;

(7) Sign a political petition as an individual citizen;

(8) Make a financial contribution to a political party organization;

(9) Take an active part, as an independent candidate, or support of an independent candidate, in a partisan election in localities identified as permissible for such activities by the Office of Personnel Management;

(10) Take an active part, as a candidate or in support of a candidate, in a nonpartisan election;

(11) Be politically active in connection with a question which is not specifically identified with a political party, such as a constitutional amendment, referendum, approval of a municipal ordinance or any other question or issue of a similar character;

(12) Serve as an election judge or clerk, or in a similar position to perform nonpartisan duties as prescribed by State or local law; and

(13) Otherwise participate fully in public affairs, except as prohibited by law, in a manner which does not materially compromise his or her efficiency or integrity as an employee or the neutrality, efficiency, or integrity of his or her agency.

(c) The head of a principal operating component may prohibit or limit the participation of an employee or class of employees of his or her component in an activity permitted by paragraph (b) of this section, if participation in the activity would interfere with the efficient performance of official duties, or create a conflict or apparent conflict of interest.

§73.735-603   Prohibited activities.

(a) The following are prohibited activities:

(1) Serving as an officer of a political party, a member of a national, State or local committee of a political party, an officer or member of a committee of a partisan political club, or being a candidate for any of these positions;

(2) Organizing or reorganizing a political party organization or political club;

(3) Directly or indirectly soliciting, receiving, collecting, handling, disbursing, or accounting for assessments, contributions, or other funds for a partisan political purpose or in connection with a partisan election;

(4) Organizing, selling tickets to, seeking support for, or actively participating in a fund-raising activity of, a political party or political club;

(5) Taking an active part in managing the political party campaign of a candidate for public office or political office;

(6) Being a candidate for, or campaigning for, an elective public office, except as permitted in §73.735-602(b)(9);

(7) Taking an active part in an organized solicitation of votes in support of or in opposition to a candidate for public office or political party office;

(8) Acting as recorder, watcher, challenger, or similar officer at the polls on behalf of a political party or candidate in a partisan election;

(9) Driving voters to the polls on behalf of a political paty or a candidate in a partisan election;

(10) Endorsing or opposing a candidate in a partisan election in a political advertisement, a broadcast, campaign literature, or similar material;

(11) Serving as a delegate, alternate, or proxy to a political party convention;

(12) Addressing a State or national convention or caucus, or a rally or similar gathering of a political party, in support of or in opposition to a candidate for public or political party office, or on a partisan political question; and

(13) Initiating or circulating a nominating petition for a candidate in a partisan election.

(b) In addition, certain political activities are prohibited by Federal criminal law:

(1) Officers and employees may not directly or indirectly solicit or receive, or be in any way involved in soliciting or receiving, any assessment, subscription or contribution for any political purpose whatever from another officer or employee. This prohibition extends to one who acts as a mere agent or messenger for the purpose of turning the contribution over to a political organization. 18 U.S.C. 602.

(2) All persons, whether employees or not, are prohibited from soliciting in any manner, or receiving a contribution of, money or a thing of value, in any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties by any officer or employee of the United States. 18 U.S.C. 603. This prohibition extends to the sending of a letter soliciting political contributions for delivery in a Government building.

(3) No officer or employee may directly or indirectly give to any other officer, employee or person in the service of the United States, any money or other thing of value to be applied to the promotion of any political objective. 18 U.S.C. 607.

(4) Discrimination for giving or withholding any contribution for any political purpose and discrimination based on political influence or recommendations is prohibited.

(c) Various other laws prohibit certain activities in connection with political campaigns and elections. They include:

(1) Intimidating, threatening, or coercing voters in Federal elections (18 U.S.C. 594).

(2) Using official authority in interfering with a Federal election by a person employed in any administrative position by the United States or by any department, independent establishment, or agency of the United States or by any State, agency, or political subdivision thereof in connection with any activity financed in whole or in part by Federal funds (18 U.S.C. 595).

(3) Promising Federal employment, compensation, or any benefit from Federal funds, in return for political activity or support (18 U.S.C. 600).

(4) Depriving anyone of employment, compensation, or any benefit derived from Federal relief or work relief funds on account of race, creed, color, or political activity (18 U.S.C. 601).

(5) Soliciting, assessing, or receiving subscriptions or contributions for political purpose from anyone on Federal relief or work relief (18 U.S.C. 604).

Subpart G—Outside Activities

§73.735-701   General provisions.

(a) Outside employment may be appropriate when it will not adversely affect performance of an employee's official duties and will not reflect discredit on the Government or the Department. Such work may include civic, charitable, religious, and community undertakings. There are certain types of outside work, however, which give rise to a real or apparent conflict of interest. Some of these are prohibited by law. Others are prohibited by regulation, as discussed in paragraph (b) of this section, or by criteria developed by heads of operating components for application within a particular component. All of these provisions are binding, but they do not necessarily include all possible conflicts of interest. In all instances, good judgment must be used to avoid a conflict between an employee's Federal responsibilities and outside activities.

(b) An employee shall not engage in outside employment or other outside activity not compatible with the full and proper discharge of the duties and responsibilities of his or her Government employment whether or not in violation of any specific provision of law. Incompatible activities include, but are not limited to:

(1) Acceptance of a fee, compensation, gift, payment of expense, or any other thing of monetary value in any circumstances in which acceptance may result in, or create the appearance of, conflicts of interest;

(2) Outside employment which tends to impair the employee's mental or physical capacity to perform Government duties and responsibilities in an acceptable manner;

(3) Work which identifies the Department or any employee in his or her official capacity with any organization commercializing products relating to work conducted by the Department, or with any commercial advertising matter, or work performed under such circumstances as to give the impression that it is an official act of the Department or represents an official point of view;

(4) Outside work or activity that takes the employee's time and attention during his official work hours.

(c) An employee shall not receive any salary or anything of monetary value from a private source as compensation for services to the Government. For example, a Department employee may be called upon, as a part of his or her official duties, to participate in a professional meeting sponsored by a non-Government organization, or to contribute a paper or other writing prepared on official time for publication under non-Government auspices. The employee must not accept an honorarium or fee for such services, even though the organization accepting the service customarily makes such a payment to those who participate. Nor may the employee accept a contribution to some charity, educational institution, or the like, in appreciation of the services furnished by the Department employee who cannot accept the usual payment. All offers to make such a contribution must be refused. Any employee with whom such a question is raised shall explain that the service involved was provided as an official action of the Department and is authorized by law. Under these circumstances, it is inappropriate for any payment to be made, even indirectly and to a third party, for services which are furnished without charge by the Government.

(d) Other than as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, employees may receive compensation or other things of monetary value for any lecture, discussion, writing or appearance the subject matter of which is in part devoted to the responsibility, programs or operations of the Department so long as the activity is undertaken in a personal capacity, is not performed as official duty, is not done while on official time, and does not create a conflict of interest or appearance of conflict of interest. However, such activities are considered outside employment and may be undertaken only as provided in this subpart.

(e) This section does not restrict the acceptance of compensation or other things of monetary value for any lecture, discussion, writing or appearance, the subject matter of which is not devoted to the responsibilities, programs, or operations of the Department and which are undertaken in a private capacity and in accordance with §73.735-704, §73.735-705, or §73.735-706.

(f) Federal law limits the amount of honorarium that may be paid any employee for any one speech, writing or appearance to $2,000.00 (not to include amounts for actual travel and subsistence expenses for the employee and his or her spouse) and an aggregate of $25,000.00 in any calendar year. This limitation applies to such activities whether or not the subject matter is related to the responsibilities, programs or operations of the Department. (2 U.S.C. 441i) The term “honorarium” means payment of money or other thing of value whether made gratuitously or as a fee for an appearance, speech or article but does not include salary or compensation made for services rendered on a continuing basis, such as for teaching, or as proceeds from the sale of a book or similar undertaking.

(g) An employee who is a Presidential appointee covered by section 401(a) of Executive Order 11222 shall not receive compensation or anything of monetary value for any consultation, lecture, discussion, writing or appearance, the subject matter of which is devoted substantially to the responsibilities, programs, or operations of his or her component, or which draws substantially on official data or ideas which have not or will not on request become public information.

(h) Application of these general provisions to some specific activities is discussed below.

§73.735-702   Criminal prohibitions on outside activities.

(a) An employee may not, with or without compensation, represent another before any Government agency, court or commission in connection with any proceeding, application, request for a ruling, contract, claim or other particular matter in which the United States is a party or has a direct and substantial interest. (18 U.S.C. 203 and 205)

(b) An employee may not act as agent or attorney for anyone else in prosecuting any claim against the United States (18 U.S.C. 205).

(c) As an exception to the above, if it is not inconsistent with the performance of his or her duties, an employee may act without compensation as an agent or attorney for another employee, or a person under active consideration for Federal employment, who is the subject of disciplinary, loyalty, or other personnel administration proceedings in connection with those proceedings at the administrative level. For example, an employee may represent another employee who is the subject of disciplinary action, or the complainant in a discrimination proceeding, at all stages within the Department and before the Merit Systems Protection Board or Equal Employment Opportunity Commission but not in Federal Court. It would be inconsistent with the performance of official duties for a supervisor to represent subordinate employees.

(d) The law and these regulations do not prohibit an employee from acting, with or without compensation, as agent or attorney for his or her parents, spouse, child or any person for whom, or estate for which, he or she is acting as fiduciary provided that the head of the principal operating component or his or her designee approve. Such approval, if granted, must be granted in accordance with the procedures for approval of outside activity. However, the employee may not do so if the particular matter is one in which he or she has participated personally and substantially or which is his or her official responsibility. (18 U.S.C. 205).

§73.735-703   Statutory prohibitions related to employment by a foreign government.

Employees, including officers in the Public Health Service (PHS) Commissioned Corps and retired officers of the Regular Commissioned Corps of the PHS, may not, without the consent of Congress, be employed by a foreign government or agency of a foreign government (Art. I, Sec. 9, U.S. Const.). Congress has consented to such employment by Reserve Commissioned Officers of the PHS not on active duty and by Retired Regular Commissioned Officers (37 U.S.C. 801, note) if approved under regulations of the Department of State. 22 CFR part 3a.

§73.735-704   Professional and consultative services.

(a) Employees may engage in outside professional or consultative work only after meeting certain conditions. Except as provided in §§73.735-705 and 73.735-706 for activities discussed in those sections, the conditions which must be met are:

(1) The work is not to be rendered, with or without compensation, to organizations, institutions, or state or local governments with which the official duties of the employee are directly related, or indirectly related if the indirect relationship is significant enough to cause the existence of conflict or apparent conflict of interest; or

(2) The work is not to be rendered for compensation to help a person, institution, or government unit prepare or aid in the preparation of grant applications, contract proposals, program reports, and other material which are designed to become the subject of dealings between the institutions or government units and the Federal Government. All requests to perform consultative services, either compensated or uncompensated, for institutions or government units which have recently negotiated or may in the near future seek a contract or grant from this Department must be carefully appraised to avoid any conflict or apparent conflict of interest.

(b) Advance administrative approval in accordance with §73.735-708 of this subpart must be obtained. Such approval is required whether or not the services are for compensation, and whether or not related to the employee's official duties.

(c) For the purpose of this section, “professional and consultative work” is performance of work requiring knowledge of an advanced type in a field of science or learning customarily acquired by a course of specialized instruction and study in an institution of higher education, or hospital which requires the exercise of judgment and discretion in its performance and is primarily intellectual in nature as opposed to manual, mechanical or physical work.

(d) Membership on a Board of Directors, Board of Regents, Board of Trustees, Planning Commission, Advisory Council or Committee, or on any similar body which provides advice, counsel, or consultation, shall be considered outside consultative services for which advance administrative approval is required.

§73.735-705   Writing and editing.

(a) Employees are encouraged to engage in outside writing and editing whether or not done for compensation, when such activity is not otherwise prohibited. Such writing and editing, though not a part of official duties, may be on a directly related subject or entirely unrelated. Certain conditions must be met in either case, however, and certain clearances or approvals are prescribed according to the content of the material as set forth in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section.

(b) Conditions applying to writing and editing done not as a part of official duties.

(1) The following conditions shall apply to all writing and editing whether related or unrelated to the employee's official duties:

(i) Government-financed time or supplies shall not be used by the author or by other Government employees in connection with the activity; and

(ii) Official support must not be expressed or implied in the material itself or advertising or promotional material, including book jackets and covers, relating to the employee and his or her contribution to the publication.

(2) If the writing or editing activity is unrelated to the employee's official duties or other responsibilities and programs of the Federal government, the employee must:

(i) Make no mention of his or her official title or affiliation with the Department, or

(ii) Use his or her official title or affiliation with the Department in a way that will not suggest or convey official endorsement of the work.

(3) If the writing or editing activity is related to the employee's official duties or other responsibilities and programs of the Federal government, the employee must:

(i) Make no mention of his or her official title or affiliation with the Department, or

(ii) Use his or her official title or affiliation with the Department and a disclaimer as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, or

(iii) Submit the material for clearance within the operating component, under procedures established by the component. When clearance is denied at any lower level, the employee shall have recourse for review up to the head of the principal operating component. This clearance will show there are no official objections to the activity and the employee may then use his or her official title or affiliation with the Department usually without a disclaimer.

(c) Disclaimers. (1) Except where the requirement for disclaimer is waived as a result of official clearance, disclaimers shall be used in all writing and editing related to the employee's official duties or other responsibilities and programs of the Federal government:

(i) In which the employee identifies himself or herself by official title or affiliation with the Department, or

(ii) When the prominence of the employee or the employee's position might lead the public to associate him or her with the Department, even without identification other than name.

(2) Disclaimers shall read as follows unless a different wording is approved by the Assistant General Counsel, Business and Administrative Law Division, Office of the General Counsel: “This (article, book, etc.) was (written, edited) by (employee's name) in (his or her) private capacity. No official suport or endorsement by (name of operating component or of Department) is intended or should be inferred.”

(d) Advance approval. Advance approval is required in accordance with §73.735-708 of this subpart when one or more of the following conditions apply:

(1) Any Government information is used which is not available on request to persons outside the Government;

(2) Material is written or edited which pertains to subject matter directly related to an employee's official duties; (This includes editing for scientific or professional journals which is related to his or her official duties.)

(3) Material is written or edited which pertains to any Government-sponsored research or other studies for which clinical case records or other material of a confidential nature are used or to which access is limited for persons outside the Government. Such use will not be permitted unless made under safeguards established by the operating component to retain the confidentiality of the material, and such use is determined to be in the public interest.

§73.735-706   Teaching, lecturing, and speechmaking.

(a) Employees are encouraged to engage in teaching and lecturing activities which are not part of their official duties when certain conditions are met. These conditions, which apply to outside teaching and lecturing (including giving single addresses such as commencement and Memorial Day speeches) whether or not done for compensation, are:

(1) No Government-financed time, or Government supplies not otherwise available to the public, are used in connection with such activity;

(2) Government travel or per diem funds are not used for the sole purpose of obtaining or performing such teaching or lecturing;

(3) Such teaching or lecturing is not dependent on specific information which would not otherwise be available to the public;

(4) Teaching, lecturing, or writing may not be for the purpose of the special preparation of a person or class of persons for an examination of the Office of Personnel Management or Board of Examiners for the Foreign Service, that depends on information obtained as a result of the employee's Government employment, except when that information has been made available to the general public or will be made available on request;

(5) Such activities do not involve knowingly instructing persons on dealing with particular matters pending before Government organizations with which the employee is associated in an official capacity;

(6) Advance approval is obtained when required by paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Advance approval. Advance approval must be obtained in accordance with §73.735-708 of this subpart before an employee may:

(1) Teach or lecture for an institution which has or is likely to have official dealings with the bureau or comparable organizational unit in which he or she is employed;

(2) Use, for teaching or lecturing purposes, clinical case records or other material of a confidential nature or to which access is limited for persons outside the Government. Such use will not be permitted unless made under safeguards established by the operating component to retain the confidentiality of the material, and such use is determined to be in the public interest.

§73.735-707   Holding office in professional societies.

(a) Employees may be members of professional societies and be elected or appointed to office in such a society. Activity in professional associations is generally desirable from the point of view of both the Department and the employee. Employees shall avoid, however, any real or apparent conflict of interest in connection with such membership. For example, they must not:

(1) Directly or indirectly commit the Department or any portion of it on any matter unless such action is taken in an official capacity;

(2) Permit their names to be attached to documents the distribution of which would be likely to embarrass the Department; or

(3) Serve in capacities involving them as representatives of non-Government organizations in dealing with the Government.

(b) In undertaking any office or function beyond ordinary membership in a professional association, a Department employee must obtain advance approval in accordance with §73.735-708 of this subpart in any situation in which his or her responsibilities as an officer would relate to his or her official duties or would create a real or apparent conflict of interest with responsibilities as a Department employee. For example, advance administrative approval must be obtained:

(1) Before an employee who is responsible for review and approval of grants or contracts, or is in a supervisory position over those who conduct review and approval, may hold office, or be a trustee or member of the governing board, or the chairman or member of a committee, in any organization which has or is seeking a grant or contract with the bureau or comparable organizational unit in which he or she is employed;

(2) Before an employee may hold office in an organization which customarily expresses publicly views on matters of legislative or administrative policy within the specific areas of concern to the Department.

§73.735-708   Administrative approval of certain outside activities.

(a) Scope. As specified in §73.735-704 through 707, an employee is required to obtain advance administrative approval to engage in the following outside activities:

(1) Certain writing or editing activities;

(2) Certain types of teaching and lecturing;

(3) All professional and consultative services;

(4) Any other outside activity for which the head of a principal operating component or the head of a sub-unit of a principal operating component imposes internal requirements for administrative approval; and

(5) Certain office-holding activities in professional societies.

(b) Requests for Administrative Approval. An employee seeking to engage in any of the activities for which advance approval is required shall make a written request for administrative approval a reasonable time before beginning the activity. (See §73.735-202(e)(1)). This request should be directed to the employee's supervisor who will forward it to the official authorized to approve outside work requests for the employee's component. The request should include the following information:

(1) Employee's name, position title, grade or rank;

(2) Nature of the activity, fully describing the specific duties or services for which approval is requested;

(3) Name and business of person or organization for which work will be done, or statement that work will be self-employment. If self-employment, employee must state whether activity will be conducted alone or with partners;

(4) Place where work will be performed;

(5) Estimated total time to be devoted to activity. If on a continuing basis, indicate estimated time per year and the anticipated termination date;

(6) Whether services can be performed entirely outside of usual duty hours. If not, the estimated number of hours absent from work should be indicated;

(7) Method or basis of compensation if any (e.g., fee, per diem, per annum, or other).

(8) Where an employee seeks approval to provide consultative or professional services to organizations including governments which have been awarded or may apply for a Federal grant or contract, the request shall also include full details on any aspect of the professional and consultative services which could relate in any way, either directly or indirectly, to grant applications, contract proposals, program reports, and other material which are designed to become the subject of dealings between the grantee or contractor and the Government. (See §73.735-704(a)(2))

(c) The Department Ethics Counselor will review and approve outside work requests for Executive level officers, non-career executives, deputy ethics counselors, and Schedule C employees in the Office of the Secretary.

(d) Granting Approval of Certain Activities. The approving official shall review each request submitted under paragraph (b) of this section, and appraise each request on the basis of the standards of this part and all other applicable laws, regulations or internal rules of the principal operating component or sub-unit thereof. He or she should consult with a deputy ethics counselor or the Department Ethics Counselor in all cases that raise a difficult or novel question of law or fact. The approving official shall approve or disapprove each request and communicate his or her decision in writing to the employee.

§73.735-709   Annual reporting of outside activities.

By September 10 of each year the approving official shall require a report from each person for whom outside work has been approved during the past year. The report shall show:

(a) For the 12 months just past (ending August 31):

(1) Whether the anticipated work was actually performed for the person or organization named in the request for approval;

(2) Actual amount of time spent on the activity.

(b) For the forthcoming 12 months (ending August 31):

(1) Whether it is anticipated that the outside work will continue;

(2) Whether any change is anticipated with respect to information supplied in accordance with the original request on which approval was based.

§73.735-710   Maintenance of records.

The official responsible for the administrative aspects of these regulations (§73.735-202) shall make provisions for the retention and filing of requests for approval of outside work (or copies of such requests), a copy of the notification of approval or disapproval, and the annual report.

Subpart H—Financial Interest

§73.735-801   Participation in matters affecting a personal financial interest.

(a) An employee shall not participate personally and substantially as a Government employee in a matter in which any of the following individuals or organizations has a financial interest:

(1) The employee;

(2) The employee's spouse;

(3) The employee's minor child;

(4) An organization in which the employee serves as an officer, director, trustee, partner, or employee; or

(5) A person or organization with which the employee is negotiating for prospective employment or has an arrangement for prospective employment. Criminal penalties may be imposed under 18 U.S.C. 208 for violations of the prohibition.

(b) Applying the provision of 18 U.S.C. 208:

(1) A “financial interest” is any interest of monetary value which may be directly and predictably affected by the official action of an employee. There is no minimum amount of value or control that constitutes a financial interest.

Example 1: An employee owns a single share of stock in a widely-held corporation. If the corporation is likely to be affected by a matter in which the employee participates as a Government official, the employee may violate 18 U.S.C. 208.
Example 2: An employee has a paid part-time position with a non-federal organization. If the organization is likely to be affected by a matter in which the employee participates as a Government official, the employee would violate 18 U.S.C. 208.

(2) The prohibition of 18 U.S.C. 208 applies to personal and substantial involvement by an employee in a matter, exercised through decision, approval, disapproval, recommendation, investigation, giving advice, or other significant effort regarding the matter.

Example 1: An employee is a member of a panel that evaluates proposals for contracts and makes recommendations as to their award. If the employee's spouse owns stock in a company which submits a proposal that is reviewed by the panel, the employee would violate 18 U.S.C. 208 even though the panel recommendation may be rejected by the contracting officer.
Example 2: An employee is on a leave of absence from a university. He or she would violate 18 U.S.C. 208 by participating in the drafting of regulations which would have a “direct and predictable effect” upon universities in general and, therefore, upon the employee's university.

(3) An employee must know that the financial interest exists in order to violate 18 U.S.C. 208.

Example: An employee inherited a beneficial interest in a trust. He or she does not, however, have actual knowledge of the specific property held by the trustee. If the trust contains stock in a corporation which may be affected by the employee's official actions, he or she would not violate 18 U.S.C. 208 in taking official action affecting the corporation.

(4) Negotiation for prospective employment includes both an indication of interest on the part of the employee in working for an organization and an affirmative action on the part of the organization to show consideration of the employee.

Example 1: An employee of the Department sends resumes and cover letters to fifty prospective employers, all of whom regularly have dealings with HHS. Forty employers do not respond; however, ten respond with cordial form letters stating that the employee's resume will be retained for future reference. For purposes of the 18 U.S.C. 208 prohibition, the employee is negotiating for prospective employment at the time he or she sends resumes.
Example 2: At a site visit to a grantee institution, an employee who is officially responsible for a grant to that institution informs an officer of the institution that he or she is seeking a new position outside HHS. The grantee subsequently makes a conditional offer of employment to the employee who promptly responds by asking for an opportunity to discuss salary and related matters. Under these circumstances, a negotiation for prospective employment is underway.

(c) An employee may obtain approval to participate in his or her official capacity in a matter in which he or she has a direct or indirect financial interest, if the interest is not so substantial as to affect the integrity of his or her official duties. An employee who believes that such participation is warranted should follow the procedures in §73.735-804.

(d) An employee convicted of violating 18 U.S.C. 208 may be fined up to $10,000, or imprisoned up to two years, or both.

§73.735-802   Executive order prohibitions.

(a) Basic prohibition of Executive Order 11222. (1) An employee shall not have a direct or indirect financial interest that conflicts substantially, or appears to conflict substantially, with his or her duties as a Federal employee.

(2) An employee need not have a financial interest that actually conflicts with his or her duties to violate the prohibition of E.O. 11222. Any financial interest that could reasonably be viewed as an interest which might compromise the employee's integrity, whether or not this is in fact true, is subject to this prohibition.

(3) Except as provided in §73.735-802 (b) and (c), an employee who has an indirect financial interest in a business entity through the ownership of shares in a widely-held mutual fund or other regulated investment company will not violate E.O. 11222. Stocks in business entities held by an intermediary such as a mutual fund are generally too remote or inconsequential to affect the integrity of an employee's services.

(b) Employees in regulatory activities. (1) An employee who is working in a regulatory activity shall not have a financial interest in any company whose business activities are subject to the regulations of the particular activity with which the employee is associated, unless the regulated activities of the company are an insignificant part of its total business operations.

(2) An employee working in a regulatory activity may not hold shares in a mutual fund or other regulated investment company which specializes in holdings in industries that are regulated by the particular activity in which he or she is employed.

Example: An employee working for the Bureau of Laboratories, Centers for Disease Control, may not hold shares in a regulated investment company which specializes in holdings that include medical testing laboratories.

(c) Employees having procurement or contracting responsibilities.

(1) An employee who serves as a procurement or contracting officer shall not have a financial interest in a company or companies with which he or she in the course of his or her official duties would be likely to have procurement or contracting relationships.

(2) A procurement or contracting officer may not hold shares in a mutual fund or other regulated investment company that specializes in holdings in industries with which such officer would be likely to have procurement or contracting relationships.

Example: A contracting officer in the Social Security Administration owns shares in the XYZ Mutual Fund which specializes in stock in firms manufacturing electronic data processing equipment. Ownership of XYZ Mutual Fund shares would be prohibited in this instance. On the other hand, a contracting officer for a Public Health Service hospital, who is not likely to have responsibility for major contracts relating to electronic data processing, could hold such shares.

§73.735-803   Prohibition against involvement in financial transactions based on information obtained through Federal employment.

An employee shall not engage in, directly or indirectly, a financial transaction as a result of, or in primary reliance upon, any information gained through his or her official duties. Information gained through official duties are those facts and other data that relate to the employee's official duties or to the functions of the employing component and would not be available to the employee were he or she not an officer of the Federal government.

Example 1: An employee working part-time for a consulting firm that does no business with the employee's principal operating component, in the area of health care planning advises it, based upon his or her knowledge of a new health care planning program about to be initiated by the Public Health Service. The employee's knowledge of the program was acquired solely through reading policy statements and other PHS literature available to the public under the Freedom of Information Act. In such case, the employee would not violate this regulation if the outside activity was otherwise approvable under Subpart G.
Example 2: A contracting officer with detailed knowledge of a negotiated procurement contract invests in a corporation that is likely to indirectly profit from the award of that contract. The officer's decision to invest is based upon technical details of the successful contract proposal that would not otherwise be available to a private citizen. The officer would violate this regulation in such a situation.

§73.735-804   Waiver of the prohibitions in this subpart.

(a) An employee may request approval to participate in his or her official capacity in a matter in which he or she has a direct or indirect financial interest if the employee believes the interest is so remote and inconsequential that it would not affect the integrity of his or her official duties. Also an employee who has a financial interest that would otherwise be prohibited under these regulations may request an exemption from the prohibition for the reason stated in the preceding sentence.

(b) The request shall be in writing and shall include the following information:

(1) Employee's name, occupational title, grade or rank and Federal salary;

(2) Full description of financial interest: including whether ownership, service as officer, partner, etc.;

(3) Business or activity in which financial interest exists;

(4) Description of official matter in which employee is requesting approval to participate;

(5) Basis for requesting determination that the interest is “not so substantial as to be deemed likely to affect the integrity of the services which the Government may expect.” (If based on a small total value of investment, supply appropriate information on total value, such as total shares held and latest quoted market price. If other basis, explain fully.)

The request should be sent through usual administrative channels to the official responsible for reviewing financial disclosure reports or statements for the employee's organization (Subpart I). That official, after conferring with a deputy ethics counselor or with the Department Ethics Counselor as appropriate, will make a decision about the exemption or exception and inform the employee in writing.

§73.735-805   Advice and guidance on conflicts matters.

(a) Whenever an employee has a question about the appropriate course of conduct to be followed in a matter that may involve an actual or apparent conflict of interest, he or she should immediately consult with his or her supervisor or a deputy ethics counselor, or both. If a supervisor who is consulted determines that the matter warrants further consideration, he or she may, in conjunction with the employee, submit the details of the matter, in writing, to the appropriate deputy ethics counselor. These details should include a description of:

(1) The activity, relationship, or interest giving rise to the question posed by the employee;

(2) The duties or official responsibilities of the employee(s) involved;

(3) The nature of the actual or apparent conflict of interest; and

(4) Any other information that may be helpful in reviewing the problem.

(b) Upon receiving the submission of an employee or a supervisor, the deputy ethics counselor will develop any additional information about the matter as necessary, and will confer with the Department Ethics Counselor as appropriate. The Department Ethics Counselor and the head of the principal operating component or his or her designee will be informed of any serious violation of the standards of this subpart or any other conflict of interest law. Questions of first impression or other unusual matters shall be brought to the attention of the Department Ethics Counselor and the head of the principal operating component or his or her designee.

(c) On the basis of all information gathered including, where appropriate, the advice of the Department Ethics Counselor, the deputy ethics counselor will:

(1) Decide that there is no violation or potential violation of the standards of this subpart or any other law and so notify the employee and his or her supervisor in writing; or

(2) Decide that a violation or potential violation of the standards of this subpart or other law has occurred or may occur, and that the employee involved shall take one or more of the steps set forth in §731.735-904 to resolve the problem and notify the employee and his or her supervisor in writing; or

(3) Decide that, although no violation of this subpart or other law has occurred, the nature of the matter is such that the employee should periodically report any additional information that would require reconsideration of the initial submission.

§73.735-806   Documentation and publication of opinions.

(a) The Department Ethics Counselor, deputy ethics counselors, and any other individuals required to be involved in the review and resolution of violations or potential violations of this subpart shall maintain full and accurate documentation of the formal advice and guidance given.

(b) From time to time, the Department Ethics Counselor shall publish summaries of advisory opinions issued by his or her office, deleting, as necessary, any personal identifiers or other information which may give rise to an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. These summaries shall be distributed to all deputy ethics counselors, heads of principal operating components, and principal regional officials.

(c) From time to time, the Department Ethics Counselor shall publish an index of all summaries issued in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section, and shall distribute these indexes to all deputy ethics counselors and heads of principal operating components who shall in turn make them available for review by supervisors and interested employees.

Subpart I—Reporting Financial Interests

§73.735-901   Reporting requirement of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978.

(a) Applicability. The following employees and special Government employees shall submit public financial disclosure reports in accordance with the provisions of Title II of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95-521, as amended:

(1) Officers and employees (including consultants who will work more than 60 days in a calendar year) whose positions are classified at GS-16 or above of the General Schedule, or whose basic rate of pay (excluding “step” increases) under other pay schedules is equal to, or greater than, the rate for GS-16 (step 1);

(2) Members of the uniformed services whose pay grade is 0-7 or above;

(3) Officers and employees in any other positions determined by the Director of the Office of Government Ethics to be of equal classification to GS-16;

(4) Administrative Law Judges;

(5) Employees in the excepted service in positions which are of a confidential or policy-making character, unless their position has been excluded by the Director of the Office of Government Ethics;

(6) Department Ethics Counselor; and

(7) Deputy Ethics Counselors.

An employee who thinks that his or her position has been improperly included under the reporting requirements of this part may obtain a review of that determination by writing to the Department Ethics Counselor.

(b) Filing Dates. Employees listed in §73.735-901 (a) of this subpart shall file a financial disclosure report:

(1) Within 5 days after the transmittal by the President to the Senate of their nomination to a position requiring Senate confirmation, or

(2) Within 30 days after assuming a covered position not requiring Senate confirmation unless the employee has left another covered position listed in §73.735-901 (a) of this subpart, or

(3) Within 30 days after terminating Federal employment or assuming a position which is not listed in §73.735-901 (a) of this subpart; and

(4) By May 15 of each calendar year, unless the employee has in that calendar year already submitted a financial disclosure report covering the preceding calendar year.

(c) Submission of reports. (1) Executive level officers, non-career executives, deputy ethics counselors and Schedule C employees in the Office of the Secretary who are required to report in accordance with §73.735-901 (a) of this subpart shall submit their reports to the Department Ethics Counselor.

(2) All other employees required to report in accordance with §73.735-901 (a) of this subpart shall submit their reports to the reviewing official for their organizational component under procedures described in the Department's Personnel Manual. Personnel offices will keep a list of reviewing officials and will give each covered employee the name of the official to whom his or her report should be sent.

(d) Review and certification of reports. (1) Each report submitted in accordance with this section shall be reviewed by the appropriate reviewing official within 60 days of its receipt. Upon reviewing a report and finding that the information contained therein reveals no conflict of interest or other violation of any provision of this part or applicable law, the reviewing officer shall certify the report with his or her signature.

(2) The certification of a report filed in accordance with this section shall have the concurrence of the Office of the General Counsel.

(3) Action to be taken by the reviewing official if the individual is not in compliance with applicable laws and regulations is discussed in §73.735-903 and §73.735-904.

§73.735-902   Reporting requirements for certain employees not covered by the Ethics in Government Act of 1978.

(a) Applicability. The following employees and special Government employees shall submit confidential statements of employment and financial interests in accordance with the provisions of this subpart, provided they are not required to submit financial disclosure reports under §73.735-901. A list of the positions in this Department whose incumbents are required to file financial interest statements as prescribed by this subpart is available for review in all of the Departments servicing personnel offices.

(1) Officers and employees in positions classified at GS-13 or above (or comparable pay level) who have decision-making responsibility for the following matters:

(i) Contracting or procurement,

(ii) Administering or monitoring grants or subsidies,

(iii) Regulating or auditing private or other non-Federal enterprises, or

(iv) Other activities where the decision or action would have an economic impact on the interest of any non-Federal enterprise.

(2) Incumbents of any other positions designated by the head of the principal operating component, or by the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget for the Office of the Secretary, to report employment and financial interests in order to protect the integrity of the Government and to avoid possible conflicts of interest. The designation of any such positions below the GS-13 grade must be approved by the Office of Personnel Management.

(3) All experts, consultants, or advisory committee members who are not required to submit a public financial disclosure report in accordance with the Ethics in Government Act except:

(i) Doctors, dentists and allied medical specialists performing services for, or consulted as to the diagnosis or treatment of, individual patients; or

(ii) Veterinarians performing services for or consulted as to care and service to animals.

(b) Filing dates. (1) Experts, consultants, and advisory committee members shall file a confidential Statement of Employment and Financial Interest no later than the date employment commences and shall file supplemental statements as necessary to keep all information submitted current and accurate.

(2) Other individuals covered by §73.735-902 (a) of this subpart shall:

(i) File a confidential statement no later than 30 days after assuming a covered position unless the employee, within 30 days before assuming the position, left another covered position in HHS that is included in §73.735-901(a) or §73.735-902(a) of this subpart; and

(ii) Report changes in or additions to the information in the statement as of June 30 of each calendar year, or a different date set by employee's component with authorization by the Office of Personnel Management.

(c) Submission and review of financial statements. (1) Heads of principal operating components, the Assistant Secretary for Management and Budget, and principal regional officials for employees under their appointing authority shall establish procedures to ensure that financial statements from covered employees are received and updated on a timely basis and are referred to the appropriate reviewing officials for review and certification. (See §73.735-202 (e)(1)).

(2) The reviewing official shall review statements to determine whether conflicts of interest or apparent conflicts might arise from the activities reported thereon. If the review discloses no conflict or apparent conflict, the reviewing official shall certify the statement with his or her signature. Action to take if the individual is not in compliance with applicable laws and regulations is discussed in §73.735-903 and §73.735-904.

§73.735-903   Action if conflicts of interest or possible conflicts are noted.

(a) If after reviewing a financial disclosure report or a financial interest statement, a reviewing official believes that additional information is needed, he or she shall tell the individual submitting such report what additional information is required and the time by which it must be submitted.

(b) If the reviewing official is of the opinion that, on the basis of information submitted, the reporting individual is not in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, he or she shall notify the individual, afford him or her a reasonable opportunity for a written or oral response, and after consideration of such response, determine whether or not the individual is in compliance.

(c) If the reviewing official determines that an individual is not in compliance with applicable laws and regulations, he or she shall notify the individual of that determination in writing and, after an opportunity for personal consultation, determine and notify the individual of the action, including those actions set forth in §73.735-904, that would be appropriate to assure compliance with such laws and regulations, and the date by which such action should be taken. The action required and the date for taking it shall be determined by the nature of the financial interest or other relationship, the particular circumstances of the reporting individual (including his or her ability to resolve the problem), and other factors which the reviewing official deems relevant. In no case, however, should the date be later than 90 days after the reporting individual is notified of the reviewing official's opinion.

(d) If steps for assuring compliance with applicable laws and regulations are not taken by the date set in paragraph (c) of this section, the matter shall be referred to the Department Ethics Counselor.

§73.735-904   Resolution of apparent or actual conflicts of interest.

(a) Disqualification from participating in a particular matter or category of matters is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest when the interest or activity giving rise to the problem:

(1) Bears a direct or indirect relationship to particular, identifiable duties of the employee involved; and

(2) Is not so substantial as to affect or give the appearance of affecting the integrity of the services which the Government may expect of the employee. Whenever disqualification is employed to resolve an apparent or actual conflict of interest, the disqualified employee shall sign a written statement reflecting the scope of the disqualification and the precise nature of the conflicting interest or activity. The reviewing official shall keep a file of all such disqualification statements and shall monitor compliance with these statements on a regular basis.

(b) Change of assignment is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest when the interest giving rise to the problem bears a direct or indirect relationship to particular, identifiable duties of the employee involved, and those duties constitute a significant portion of the employee's position.

(c) Waiver under 18 U.S.C. 208(b) is an appropriate method for resolving apparent or actual conflicts of interest when:

(1) The employee seeking the waiver reported the financial interest that bears some relationship to his or her official duties, and the reviewing official, in consultation with a deputy ethics counselor or the Department Ethics Counselor, determines that the financial interest is not so substantial as to be deemed likely to affect the integrity of the services which the Government may expect from such employee; or

(2) By general rule or regulation published in the Federal Register, the Department has exempted the financial interest from the requirements of 18 U.S.C. 208 and this part as being too remote or too inconsequential to affect the integrity of the Government officers' service.

(d) A trust containing a financial interest which may give rise to an apparent or actual conflict of interest is an appropriate method of resolving such conflicts when:

(1) The trust is qualified under section 202(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-521), as amended, and subject to the regulations of the Office of Government Ethics; or

(2) In the opinion of the Department's Ethics Counselor, it is sufficiently independent of the employee involved so that the integrity of the employee's services to the Government are not compromised.

(e) Divestiture is an appropriate method for resolving actual conflicts of interest when the nature of the financial interest is such that the conflict of interest cannot be adequately resolved by any of the methods set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this section.

(f) Terminating an appointment as a method for resolving an actual conflict of interest should be used only when it is clear that no other remedy can be found which would be acceptable to both the Department and the employee. Generally, this method will be employed only in the most extreme cases. Such a termination would be subject to adverse action.

Subpart J—Provisions Relating to Experts, Consultants and Advisory Committee Members

§73.735-1001   Coverage.

(a) For purposes of this subpart the title “consultant” will be used to include those who are appointed to serve as experts, consultants or members of advisory committees. All persons who serve as an employee of the Government in the capacity of a consultant are covered by the provisions of this subpart irrespective of:

(1) The title by which designated;

(2) The statutory authority under which services are obtained;

(3) The duration of the period for which services are obtained;

(4) Whether services are obtained by appointment or invitation and acceptance;

(5) Whether services are compensated or rendered without compensation;

(6) Whether or not services are obtained pursuant to a statute excepting employees or special Government employees from conflict of interest statutes.

(b) When the service is for less than 130 days in a service year, experts, consultants, and advisory committee members are included in the group of employees designated by law (18 U.S.C. 202) as “Special Government employees.”

§73.735-1002   Ethical standards of conduct.

(a) Like other Federal employees, an individual serving in a consultant capacity must conduct himself or herself according to ethical behavior standards of the highest order. In particular, such an individual must:

(1) Refrain from any use of office which is, or appears to be, motivated by a private gain for himself or herself or other persons, particularly those with whom he or she has family, business, or financial ties. The fact that desired gain, if it materializes, will not take place at the expense of the Government makes his or her actions no less improper.

(2) Conduct himself or herself in a manner devoid of any suggestion that he or she is exploiting Government employment for private advantage. A consultant must not, on the basis of any inside information, enter into any speculation or recommend speculation to members of his or her family or business associates, in commodities, land, or the securities of any private company. This injunction applies even though the consultant's duties have no connection whatever with the Government programs or activities which may affect the value of such commodities, land, or securities. He or she should be careful in all personal financial activities to avoid any appearance of acting on the basis of information obtained in the course of his or her Government work.

(3) Refrain from using information not generally available to those outside the Government for the special benefit of a business or other entity by which the consultant is employed or retained or in which he or she has a financial interest. Information not available to private industry should remain confidential in the consultant's hands and not be divulged to his or her private employer or clients. In cases of doubt whether information is generally available to the public, the consultant should confer with the person for whom he or she provides services, with the office having functional responsibility for a specific type of information, or, as appropriate, with the officials designated in §73.735-202 to give interpretive and advisory service.

(4) Where requested by a private enterprise to act for it in a consultant or advisory capacity and the request appears motivated by the desire for inside information, make a choice between acceptance of the tendered private employment and continuation of his or her Government consultancy. He or she may not engage in both.

(5) Not use his or her position in any way to coerce, or give the appearance of coercing, anyone to provide a financial benefit to him or her or another person, particularly one with whom the consultant has family, business, or financial ties.

(6) Not receive or solicit anything of value as a gift, gratuity, loan, entertainment, or favor for himself or herself or another person, particularly one with whom he or she has family, business, or financial ties if the acceptance would result in loss of complete independence or impartiality in serving the Government. All consultants are subject to the restrictions in §73.735-506 of this part concerning gifts and decorations from foreign governments.

(b) Consultants may engage in other employment so long as there is no real or apparent conflict between the consultant's private employment and his or her official duties. See §73.735 Subpart G. The regular employment of a consultant who is a special Government employee is not considered outside work for purposes of Subpart G. Also, the limitation in §73.735-701(f) regarding the amount of an honorarium that may be received does not apply to special Government employees.

(c) A consultant who has questions about conflicts of interest or the application of the regulations in this part to him or her or to his or her assigned work should make inquiry of the person for whom services are provided. That person may direct the consultant to the Department Ethics Counselor or a deputy ethics counselor for interpretative and advisory services as provided in §73.735-202.

§73.735-1003   Conflicts of interest statutes.

(a) Each consultant should acquaint himself or herself with sections 203, 205, 207 and 208 of title 18, United States Code, all of which carry criminal penalties related to conflicts of interest. The restraints imposed by the four criminal sections are summarized in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) 18 U.S.C. 203 and 205.

(1) These two sections in general operate to preclude a person who works for the Government, except in the discharge of his or her official duties, from representing anyone else before a court or Government agency in a matter in which the United States is a party or has a direct and substantial interest. The prohibition applies whether or not compensation is received for the representation. However, if the individual is a special Government employee, this restriction applies only if:

(i) The representation involves a matter in which the individual has at any time participated personally and substantially in the course of his or her Government employment; or

(ii) The individual has served the Department for more than 60 days in the immediately preceding period of 365 days, and the matter is one which is pending before the Department. This second restraint applies whether or not the matter is one in which the individual participated personally and substantially in his or her Government employment. These two provisions apply to a special Government employee on days when he or she does not serve the Government as well as on the days when services are rendered, and they apply to both paid and unpaid representation.

(2) To a considerable extent the prohibitions of sections 203 and 205 are aimed at the sale of influence to gain special favors for private businesses and other organizations and at the misuse of governmental position or information. In accordance with these aims, a consultant, even when not compelled to do so by sections 203 and 205, should make every effort in his or her private work to avoid any personal contact with respect to negotiations for contracts or grants with the component of the department in which he or she is serving, if the subject matter is related to the subject matter of his or her consultancy or other service. This will not always be possible to achieve where, for example, a consultant has an executive position with his or her regular employer which requires him or her to participate personally in contract negotiations with the department or agency he or she is advising. Whenever this is the case, the consultant should participate in the negotiations for his or her employer only after advising the responsible Government official of his or her involvement in other matters in the Department. In other instances an occasional consultant may have technical knowledge which is indispensable to his or her regular employer in his efforts to formulate a research and development contract or a research grant, and for the same reason, it is in the interest of the Government that the consultant should take part in negotiations for his or her private employer. Again, the individual should participate only after advising the responsible Government official of the relevant facts.

(3) Section 205 permits both the Government and the private employer of a special Government employee to benefit, in certain cases, from his or her performance of work under a grant or contract for which he or she would otherwise be disqualified because of having participated in the matter for the Government or because it is pending in a component in which the consultant had served more than 60 days in the past year. This provision gives the head of a department the authority, notwithstanding any prohibition in either section 203 or 205, to allow a special Government employee to represent before such department or agency either his or her regular employer or another person or organization in the performance of work under a grant or contract. As a basis for this action, the Secretary must first make a certification in writing, published in the Federal Register, that it is required by the national interest.

(4) Section 205 contains two other exemptive provisions, which apply to both special and regular Government employees. See §73.735-702.

(c) 18 U.S.C. 207 applies to individuals who have left Government service. See Subpart N of these regulations.

(d) 18 U.S.C. 208 bears on the activities of Government personnel, including special Government employees, in the course of their official duties. In general, it prevents a Government employee from participating as such in a particular matter in which, to his or her knowledge, he or she, his or her spouse, minor child, partner, or a profit or non-profit enterprise with which he or she is connected has a financial interest. However, the section permits an employee's agency to grant him or her an ad hoc exemption if the interest is not so substantial as to affect the integrity of his or her services. Insignificant interests may also be waived by a general rule or regulation. The matters in which special Government employees are disqualified by section 208 are not limited to those involving a specific party or parties in which the United States is a party or has an interest, as in the case of sections 203, 205 and 207. Section 208 therefore extends to matters in addition to contracts, grants, judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings, and other matters of an adversary nature. Accordingly, a special Government employee, like all government employees, should in general be disqualified from participating as such in a matter of any type the outcome of which will have a direct and predictable effect upon the financial interests covered by the section.

However, the power of exemption may be exercised in this situation if the special Government employee renders advice of a general nature from which no preference or advantage over others might be gained by any particular person or organization. The power of exemption may also be exercised where the financial interests involved are minimal in value.

§73.735-1004   Requesting waivers or exemptions.

(a) A consultant may present in writing to the official for whom he or she provides services requests for the waivers or exemptions specified in §73.735-1003. That official will take, or refer the request for, action as appropriate, and will see that the employee receives advice or decision on his or her request.

(b) A file of all waivers or exemptions granted shall be maintained in such manner that information can be given promptly on individual cases or statistics provided upon request. Generally, these records, together with written advice given in connection with less formal requests concerning questions of ethical standards, are kept with the employee's statement of employment and financial interests or financial disclosure report (§73.735-1006).

(c)(1) Waiver for reviewers from certain multi-campus institutions. Applicability of the prohibitions of 18 U.S.C. 208(a) and this subpart are hereby waived pursuant to a determination that the interest involved is too remote or too inconsequential to affect the integrity of a special Government employee's review of a funding application or contract proposal from one campus of one of the following multi-campus institutions, where the interest consists solely of employment as a faculty member (including Department Chairman) at a separate campus of the same multi-campus institution:

The University of Alabama system consisting of the University of Alabama, the University of Alabama in Birmingham, and the University of Alabama in Huntsville.

The campuses of the University of California.

The system consisting of Colorado State University, the University of Southern Colorado, and Fort Lewis College.

The Indiana University system consisting of eight universities on nine campuses, with the exception of the system-wide schools: the School of Business; the School of Dentistry; the School of Medicine; the School of Nursing; and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs.

The University of Nebraska system consisting of the University of Nebraska—Lincoln, the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

The campuses of the State University of New York.

The Oregon system of higher education consisting of the University of Oregon, Oregon State University, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland State University, Western Oregon State College, Southern Oregon State College, Eastern Oregon State College, and the Oregon Institute of Technology.

The campuses of the University of Tennessee.

The separate universities comprising the University of Texas System.

The separate universities comprising the University of Wisconsin System.

(2) Institutions that are not subject to 18 U.S.C. 208(a) and the subpart, because they are not part of the same organization within the State. The following State institutions and systems of higher education have been determined to be separate from each other to such a degree that no waiver is necessary in order to permit a faculty member (including Department Chairman) employed by one of the State institutions of higher education to review a funding application or contract proposal from another of the named institutions within that State:

The University of Alabama System and other Alabama State owned institutions of higher education.

The California Community Colleges, the California State Universities and Colleges, and the University of California.

The University of Colorado, Colorado State University, and other Colorado State owned institutions of higher education.

The University of Connecticut, Connecticut State University, the Connecticut Technical Colleges, and the Connecticut Community Colleges.

The University of Illinois, Illinois State University, Western Illinois University, Southern Illinois University, and the Illinois Community Colleges.

The Indiana University and the other Indiana State owned institutions of higher education.

The University of Iowa, and Iowa State University.

The University of Kansas, Kansas State University, Wichita State University, Fort Hays State University, Pittsburg State University, and the Kansas Technological Institute.

Louisiana State University, and other Louisiana State owned institutions of higher education.

The University of Massachusetts, and other Massachusetts State owned institutions of higher education.

The University of Michigan, Michigan State University, and Wayne State University.

The University of Minnesota, the Minnesota State University System, and the Minnesota Community College System.

The University of Missouri, and other Missouri State owned institutions of higher education.

The University of Nebraska, and other Nebraska State owned institutions of higher education.

The State University of New York System, and the City University of New York System.

The University of North Carolina, North Carolina State, and other North Carolina State owned institutions of higher education.

Pennsylvania State University, the University of Pittsburgh, Temple University, Lincoln University, and the other State owned colleges and universities in Pennsylvania.

The University of Texas System, the Texas A&M System, the Texas State University System, the University System of South Texas, the Lamar University System, the University of Houston System, East Texas State University, Stephen F. Austin State University, West Texas State University, Midwestern University, North Texas State University, Texas Southern University, Texas Woman's University, Texas Tech University and Pan American University.

The University of Utah and Utah State University.

[46 FR 7369, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 51 FR 15627, Apr. 25, 1986]

§73.735-1005   Salary from two sources.

Special Government employees are not subject to 18 U.S.C. 209 which prohibits other employees from receiving any salary, or supplementation of Government salary, from a private source as a compensation for services to the Government. This Department will not knowingly pay per diem to a consultant who also receives per diem pay for the same day from another Government agency (in or outside the Department). Erroneous payments in contravention of this provision will be subject to collection, and any consultant who willfully collects double payments may be barred from further employment.

§73.735-1006   Reporting financial interests.

(a) Consultants who will work more than 60 days in a calendar year are subject to the provisions of title II of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 when their rate of pay is equal to or greater than the basic rate for GS-16, Step 1. Such consultants are covered by the reporting requirements of §73.735-901 of these regulations.

(b) Consultants not subject to the Ethics in Government Act shall file statements of financial interests as provided by §73.735-902 of these regulations.

§73.735-1007   Political activity.

Consultants who serve intermittently are subject to the political activity restrictions of Subchapter III of Chapter 73 of Title 5 U.S.C. and Civil Service Rule IV only on days on which service is rendered and then for the entire 24 hours of such service day. Other consultants are subject to these restrictions at all times.

Subpart K—Special Government Employees Other Than Consultants

§73.735-1101   General provision.

Individuals who are designated as special Government employees because of the nature of their services but who are not serving as a consultant, expert, or advisory committee member are subject to the provisions of Subparts B through I of these regulations. However, the provisions of 18 U.S.C. 205, 206, 207, and 208 apply to them only as described in Subpart J. Also, the limitation in §73.735-701(f) on the amount of an honorarium that may be received does not apply.

Subpart L—Disciplinary Action

§73.735-1201   General provisions.

(a) Violations of the regulations contained in the part may be cause for disciplinary action which could be in addition to any penalty prescribed by law. (For a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken and “The Code of Ethics for Government Service,” the violation of which may also result in disciplinary action, see appendixes A and B of this part).

(b) The type of disciplinary action to be taken must be determined in relation to the specific violation. Those responsible for recommending and for taking disciplinary action must apply judgment to each case, taking into account the general objectives of meeting any requirements of law, deterring similar offenses by the employee and other employees, and maintaining high standards of employee conduct and public confidence. Some types of disciplinary action which may be considered are:

(1) Admonishment

(2) Written reprimand

(3) Reassignment

(4) Suspension

(5) Demotion

(6) Removal

(c) Suspension, demotion, and removal are adverse actions; and when such actions are taken, applicable laws, regulations, and policies must be followed.

[46 FR 7369, Jan. 23, 1981, as amended at 53 FR 4409, Feb. 16, 1988]

Subpart M—Reporting Violations

§73.735-1301   Responsibility for reporting possible criminal violations.

An employee who has information which he or she reasonably believes indicates a possible offense against the United States by an employee of the Department, or any other individual working on behalf of the Department, shall immediately report such information to his or her supervisor, any management official, or directly to the Office of the Inspector General. Offenses covered by the preceding sentence include, but are not limited to, bribery, fraud, perjury, conflict of interest, misuse of funds, equipment, or facilities, and other conduct by a government officer or employee, grantee, contractor or other person which is prohibited by title 18 of the United States Code. Employees and supervisors should refer to chapter 5-10 of the Department's General Administration Manual for procedures regarding the reporting and handling of such information.

§73.735-1302   Responsibility for reporting allegations of misconduct.

An employee who has information which he or she reasonably believes indicates the existence of an activity constituting (a) a possible violation of a rule or regulation of the Department; or (b) mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, or abuse of authority; or (c) a substantial and specific danger to the public health and safety, shall immediately report such information to his or her supervisor, any management official of the Department, or directly to the Office of the Inspector General. Employees and supervisors should refer to chapter 5-10 of the Department's General Administration Manual for procedures regarding the reporting and handling of such information. This subsection does not cover employee grievances, equal employment opportunity complaints, classification appeals, or other matters for which a formal government-wide review system has been established by the Federal government.

§73.735-1303   Prohibition of reprisals.

(a) Any employee who has authority to take, direct others to take, recommend, or approve any personnel action, shall not, with respect to such authority, take or threaten to take any action against any employee as a reprisal for making a complaint or providing any information pursuant to §§73.735-1301 and 73.735-1302. If the complaint was made or the information was disclosed with the knowledge that it was false, or with willful disregard of its truth or falsity, any personnel action taken against the employee based on those reasons would not constitute a reprisal action.

(b) An employee who believes that he or she has been threatened with a personnel action, any other action, or harassment or has been harmed by any action as a reprisal for having made a complaint or providing information pursuant to §73.735-1301 or §73.735-1302 may request the Office of the Inspector General to review his or her allegations. Whenever the Inspector General has reason to believe that the allegations may be true, he or she will refer the matter to the Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration for appropriate action. The Assistant Secretary for Personnel Administration may order a stay of any personnel action if he or she determines that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the personnel action is being taken as a reprisal for making a complaint or providing information pursuant to §73.735-1301 or §73.735-1302.

§73.735-1304   Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

(a) The Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Inspector General for investigation and/or further action any matter arising under the standards of this part.

(b) The Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Office of Government Ethics, or the Inspector General may refer to the Department of Justice, suspected violations of the criminal laws regarding employee standards of conduct and conflicts of interest.

Subpart N—Conduct and Responsibilities of Former Employees

§73.735-1401   Prohibitions against post-employment conflicts of interest.

(a) The purpose of criminal prohibition in 18 U.S.C. 207 is to prevent the unfair use of inside knowledge or influence that results from Federal service. 18 U.S.C. 207 generally prohibits a former employee from acting as another person's representative to the Government in particular matters involving a specific party or parties in which the employee had been involved while in Federal service. This prohibition does not require a former employee to decline employment with any organization regardless of his or her dealings with that organization while employed by the Government. It applies solely to activities, not the mere existence of an employment arrangement.

(b) The Office of Government Ethics, Office of Personnel Management, has issued Government-wide regulations covering post-employment conflict of interest (5 CFR part 737). Those regulations are incorporated herein by reference, and they are available for review in personnel offices throughout the Department.

Appendix A to Part 73—List of Some Offenses for Which Disciplinary Action May Be Taken

Following is a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken under this Part. When a statute applies specifically to a particular offense, either wholly or in part, the statute is cited. Neither the list of offenses nor the statutory citations are all-inclusive. The “Code of Ethics for Government Service” is not cited because of its general applicability but is published in its entirety in appendix B.

A. Concerning Efficiency of Operations in General. 1. Engaging in wasteful actions or behavior in the performance of assigned duties; conducting non-Government business during official work hours; or participating in a strike (18 U.S.C. 1918), work stoppage, slowdown, sickout, or other similar action.

2. Absence without leave, failure to adhere to the rules and regulations for requesting and obtaining leave, or improper use of sick leave.

3. Deliberate insubordination or refusal to carry out lawful orders or assignments given.

4. Disruptive behavior, such as:

a. Inflicting or threatening or attempting to inflict bodily injury on another (except for necessary defense of self or others) while on the job or on Federal premises.

b. Discourtesy, disreputable conduct, or use of insulting, abusive or obscene language to or about other individuals while on the job.

5. Sexual harassment of employees or members of the public.

6. Failure to observe precautions for safety, such as failure to use safety equipment when it is provided or ignoring signs, posted rules or regulations, or written or verbal safety instructions.

7. Unauthorized use, possession, or distribution of alcoholic beverages (5 U.S.C. 7352) or controlled substances (e.g., hallucinogens, such as LSD; stimulants, such as cocaine and amphetamines; sedatives, such as barbiturates; narcotics and other drugs or substances, such as hashish and other cannabis substances).

8. Unauthorized gambling; or canvassing, soliciting, or peddling on Government premises.

9. Failure to carry or show proper identification or credentials as required by competent authority; misuse of identification cards or investigative or identification credentials or badges.

10. Failure to disclose (i.e., report) information, when such disclosure is not specifically prohibited by law or Executive Order, that involves (a) violation of law, rule, or regulation, (b) mismanagement or gross waste of funds or abuse of authority, or (c) posing a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety; failure to cooperate in an official Department inquiry.

11. Failure to pay just debts, including taxes to and loans from governmental sources.

12. Deceit or interference in a Civil Service examination (18 U.S.C. 1917) or in connection with a Government personnel action.

13. Fraud or false statements in a Government matter. (18 U.S.C. 1001 through 1003.)

14. Supervisory failure to initiate disciplinary or corrective action when the facts are known and disciplinary or corrective action is warranted.

15. Employment of a member of an organization that advocates the overthrow of our constitutional form of government. (5 U.S.C. 7311; 50 U.S.C. 784.)

B. Concerning Government Funds, Property, Documents, and Records. 1. Actual or attempted embezzlement or theft of Government or personal money or property either directly or through use of Government documents, automated equipment, or other means; actual or attempted embezzlement or theft of the money or property of another person in the possession of an employee by reason of his or her employment. (18 U.S.C. 641 and 654.)

2. Failure to account for public money. (18 U.S.C. 643.)

3. Deliberate falsifying of official time and attendance records; improper use of official travel or forging, counterfeiting, or otherwise falsifying official Government travel records or documents. (18 U.S.C. 508.)

4. False record entries or false reports of money or securities. (18 U.S.C. 2073.)

5. Loss or misuse of or damage to Government property or endangering persons or Government property through carelessness or by willful malicious conduct.

6. Mutilating, destroying, or concealing public records. (18 U.S.C. 2071.)

7. Misuse of penalty (postal) privilege. (18 U.S.C. 1719.)

8. Failure to safeguard administratively confidential, financial, and trade secrets information.

9. Unauthorized use of documents presented or used to procure the payment of money from or by the Government. (18 U.S.C. 285.)

10. Unauthorized use of a Government vehicle; serious or repeated violations of traffic regulations while driving a Government vehicle or a vehicle rented or leased for official Government purposes; reckless driving or improper operation of any Government owned, rented, or leased motor vehicle. (31 U.S.C. 1349[b].)

11. Violations of the Privacy Act, including:

a. Willful prohibited disclosure of individually identifiable information in violation of 5 U.S.C. 552a.

b. Willfully maintaining a system of records without meeting the notice requirements of the Privacy Act as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a.

12. Violation of regulations concerning the release of classified information, confidential, or security and investigative information. (18 U.S.C. 798 and 1905; 21 U.S.C. 331j; and 50 U.S.C. 783.)

C. Concerning Conflicts of Interest and Related Unethical Conduct: 1. Violations of 18 U.S.C. Chapter 11: Bribery, Graft, and Conflicts of Interest, including:

a. Having a direct or indirect financial interest (includes employee ownership of stocks, bonds, or partnership interests in an entity or employment of the employee, his or her spouse, or dependent child) that conflicts with one's Government duties because such entity is either regulated by, has or seeks to do business with the agency, or has any other particular matter with or pending before the agency that may give rise to either an actual conflict or the appearance thereof. (18 U.S.C. 208.)

b. Bribery of a public official; soliciting or accepting directly or indirectly anything of monetary value, including gifts, gratuities, favors, entertainment, or loans either as compensation for governmental services or from individuals who are seeking contractual or other business or financial relations with the Department, are conducting operations or activities that are regulated by the Department, or have interests that may be substantially affected by the performance or nonperformance of the employee's official duties; receiving salary or any contribution to or supplementation of salary from a private source as compensation for services for the Government. (18 U.S.C. 201 and 209.)

c. Acting as the agent of a foreign principal registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act. (18 U.S.C. 219.)

2. Engaging, directly or indirectly, in a financial transaction as a result of or primarily relying on information that is obtained through one's official duties and would not be available were the employee not an employee of the Federal Government.

3. Soliciting a contribution from another employee for a gift to an official superior, making a donation as a gift to an official superior, or accepting a gift from an employee receiving less pay than oneself. (5 U.S.C. 7351.)

4. Engaging, without required permission, in outside activities that result in or create the appearance of a conflict of interest.

5. Teaching, lecturing, or writing that depends on specific information obtained as a result of one's Government employment when that information is not otherwise available to the public.

6. Failure to obtain required clearance of an official speech or article.

7. Lobbying with appropriated funds. (18 U.S.C. 1913.)

8. Representation before a Federal agency (other than in the proper discharge of one's official duties) as an agent or attorney in a claim against the United States (or receiving any gratuity or share in any such claim in considertion for assistance given) or as an agent or attorney for anyone before any department, agency, court, or otherwise in connection with any proceeding, application, request for a ruling, or claim on any other particular matter in which the United States is a party or has a direct and substantial interest. (18 U.S.C. 205.) (Note: This section notwithstanding, an employee may, if not inconsistent with the performance of his or her official duties, act without compensation as an agent or attorney for another person who is the subject of any disciplinary or other administrative proceeding or as an agent or attorney for one's parent, spouse, child, or any person or estate for whom or which he or she serves as personal fiduciary except in those matters in which the employee has participated personally and substantially.)

D. Concerning Prohibited Political and Election Activities. 1. Activities prohibited by 5 U.S.C. Chapter 73, Subchapter III, including:

a. Section 7323, “Political contributions; prohibition.”

b. Section 7324, “Influencing elections; taking part in political campaigns; prohibitions; exceptions.”

2. Activities prohibited by 18 U.S.C. Chapter 29, including:

a. Section 594, “Intimidation of voters.”

b. Section 597, “Expenditures to influence voting.”

c. Section 598, “Coercion by means of relief appropriations.”

d. Section 600, “Promise of employment or other benefit for political activity.”

e. Section 601, “Deprivation of employment or other benefit for political contribution.”

f. Section 602, “Solicitation of political contributions.”

g. Section 604, “Solicitation from persons on relief.”

h. Section 606, “Intimidation to secure political contributions.”

E. Concerning Prohibited Personnel Practices. 1. Commission of a prohibited personnel practice (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 2302[b] [1-11]); that is, any employee who has authority to take, direct others to take, recommend, or approve any personnel action, shall not, with respect to such authority, commit any of the following practices:

a. Discriminate for or against any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, handicapping condition, marital status, or political affiliation.

b. Solicit or consider any recommendation or statement, oral or written, with respect to any individual who requests or is under consideration for any personnel action unless such recommendation or statement is based on the personal knowledge or records of the person furnishing it and consists of (1) an evaluation of the work performance ability, aptitude, or general qualifications of such individual or (2) an evaluation of the character, loyalty, or suitability of such individual.

c. Coerce the political activity of any person (including the providing of any political contribution or service) or take any action against any employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the refusal of any person to engage in such political activity.

d. Deceive or willfully obstruct any person with respect to such person's right to compete for employment.

e. Influence any person to withdraw from competition for any position for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any other person for employment.

f. Grant any preference or advantage not authorized by law, rule, or regulation to any employee or applicant for employment (including defining the scope or manner of competition or the requirements for any position) for the purpose of improving or injuring the prospects of any particular person for employment.

g. Appoint, employ, promote, advance, or advocate for appointment, employment, promotion, or advancement, in or to a civilian position any individual who is a relative (as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3110) when the civilian position is in the Department or under his or her jurisdiction or control.

h. Take or fail to take a personnel action with respect to any employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the lawful disclosure of information.

i. Take or fail to take any personnel action against an employee or applicant for employment as a reprisal for the exercise of any appeal right granted by any law, rule, or regulation (including HHS Instructions and issuances).

j. Discriminate for or against any employee or applicant for employment on the basis of conduct that does not adversely affect the performance of the employee or applicant or the performance of others (except criminal conviction in determining suitability or fitness).

k. Take or fail to take any personnel action when the taking of or failure to take such action violates any law, rule, or regulation implementing, or directly concerning the merit system principles (as set forth in 5 U.S.C. 2301).

[53 FR 4410, Feb. 16, 1988]

Appendix B to Part 73—Code of Ethics for Government Service

Any person in Government service should:

I. Put loyalty to the highest moral principles and to country above loyalty to persons, party, or Government department.

II. Uphold the Constitution, laws, and regulations of the United States and all governments therein and never be a party to their evasion.

III. Give a full day's labor for a full day's pay, giving earnest effort and best thought to the performance of duties.

IV. Seek to find and employ more efficient and economical ways of getting tasks accomplished.

V. Never discriminate unfairly by the dispensing of special favors or privileges to anyone, whether for remuneration or not; and never accept, for himself or herself or family members, favors or benefits under circumstances which might be construed by reasonable persons as influencing the performance of governmental duties.

VI. Make no private promises of any kind binding upon the duties of office, since a Government employee has no private word which can be binding on public duty.

VII. Engage in no business with the Government, either directly or indirectly, which is inconsistent with the conscientious performance of governmental duties.

VIII. Never use any information gained confidentially in the performance of governmental duties as a means of making private profit.

IX. Expose corruption wherever discovered.

X. Uphold these principles, ever conscious that public office is a public trust.

[53 FR 4410, Feb. 16, 1988]



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