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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of August 18, 2014

Title 43Subtitle BChapter IISubchapter B → Part 2200


Title 43: Public Lands: Interior


PART 2200—EXCHANGES: GENERAL PROCEDURES


Contents

Subpart 2200—Exchanges—General

§2200.0-2   Objective.
§2200.0-4   Responsibilities.
§2200.0-5   Definitions.
§2200.0-6   Policy.
§2200.0-7   Scope.
§2200.0-9   Information collection.

Subpart 2201—Exchanges—Specific Requirements

§2201.1   Agreement to initiate an exchange.
§2201.1-1   Assembled land exchanges.
§2201.1-2   Segregative effect.
§2201.1-3   Assumption of costs.
§2201.2   Notice of exchange proposal.
§2201.3   Appraisals.
§2201.3-1   Appraiser qualifications.
§2201.3-2   Market value.
§2201.3-3   Appraisal report standards.
§2201.3-4   Appraisal review.
§2201.4   Bargaining; arbitration.
§2201.5   Exchanges at approximately equal value.
§2201.6   Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.
§2201.7   Approval of exchanges.
§2201.7-1   Notice of decision.
§2201.7-2   Exchange agreement.
§2201.8   Title standards.
§2201.9   Case closing.

Subpart 2203—Exchanges Involving Fee Federal Coal Deposits

§2203.0-6   Policy.
§2203.0-9   Cross references.
§2203.1   Opportunity for public comment and public meeting on exchange proposal.
§2203.2   Submission of information concerning proposed exchange.
§2203.3   Public meeting.
§2203.4   Consultation with the Attorney General.
§2203.5   Action on advice of the Attorney General.

Authority: 43 U.S.C. 1716, 1740.

Source: 46 FR 1638, Jan. 6, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

Subpart 2200—Exchanges—General

Source: 58 FR 60918, Nov. 18, 1993, unless otherwise noted.

§2200.0-2   Objective.

The objective is to encourage and expedite the exchange of Federal lands for non-Federal lands, found to be in the public interest, in accordance with applicable statutory policies, standards and requirements.

§2200.0-4   Responsibilities.

The Director of the Bureau of Land Management has the responsibility of carrying out the functions of the Secretary of the Interior under these regulations.

§2200.0-5   Definitions.

As used in this part:

(a) Adjustment to relative values means compensation for exchange-related costs, or other responsibilities or requirements assumed by one party, which ordinarily would be borne by the other party. These adjustments do not alter the agreed upon value of the lands involved in an exchange.

(b) Agreement to initiate means a written, nonbinding statement of present intent to initiate and pursue an exchange, which is signed by the parties and which may be amended by the written consent of the parties or terminated at any time upon written notice by any party.

(c) Appraisal or Appraisal report means a written statement independently and impartially prepared by a qualified appraiser setting forth an opinion as to the market value of the lands or interests in lands as of a specific date(s), supported by the presentation and analysis of relevant market information.

(d) Approximately equal value determination means a decision that the lands involved in an exchange have readily apparent and substantially similar elements of value, such as location, size, use, physical characteristics, and other amenities.

(e) Arbitration means a process to resolve a disagreement among the parties as to appraised value, performed by an arbitrator appointed by the Secretary from a list recommended by the American Arbitration Association.

(f) Assembled land exchange means the consolidation of multiple parcels of Federal and/or non-Federal lands for purposes of one or more exchange transactions over a period of time.

(g) Authorized officer means any employee of the Bureau of Land Management who has been delegated the authority and responsibility to make decisions and perform the duties described in this part.

(h) Bargaining means a process, other than arbitration, by which parties attempt to resolve a dispute concerning the appraised value of the lands involved in an exchange.

(i) Federal lands means any lands or interests in lands, such as mineral or timber interests, that are owned by the United States and administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Director of the Bureau of Land Management, without regard to how the United States acquired ownership, except: (1) Lands located on the Outer Continental Shelf; and (2) lands held for the benefit of Indians, Aleuts and Eskimos.

(j) Hazardous substances means those substances designated under Environmental Protection Agency regulations at 40 CFR part 302.

(k) Highest and best use means the most probable legal use of a property, based on market evidence as of the date of valuation, expressed in an appraiser's supported opinion.

(l) Lands means any land and/or interests in land.

(m) Ledger account means an accounting mechanism that tracks the differential in dollar value of lands conveyed throughout a series of transactions. A ledger reports each transaction by date, value of Federal land, value of non-Federal land, the difference between these values upon completion of each transaction, and a cumulative balance and differential.

(n) Market value means the most probable price in cash, or terms equivalent to cash, that lands or interests in lands should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, where the buyer and seller each acts prudently and knowledgeably, and the price is not affected by undue influence.

(o) Mineral laws means the mining laws, mineral leasing laws, and the Geothermal Steam Act, but not the Materials Sales Act, administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management.

(p) Outstanding interests means rights or interests in property held by an entity other than a party to an exchange.

(q) Party means the United States or any person, State or local government who enters into an agreement to initiate an exchange.

(r) Person means any individual, corporation, or other legal entity legally capable to hold title to and convey land. An individual must be a citizen of the United States and a corporation must be subject to the laws of the United States or of the State where the land is located or the corporation is incorporated.

(s) Public land laws means that body of general land laws administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the Bureau of Land Management, excepting, however, the mineral laws.

(t) Reserved interest means an interest in real property retained by a party from a conveyance of the title to that property.

(u) Resource values means any of the various commodity values (e.g., timber or minerals) or non-commodity values (e.g., wildlife habitat or scenic vistas), indigenous to particular land areas, surface and subsurface.

(v) Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior or the individual to whom the authority and responsibilities of that official, as to matters considered in this part, have been delegated.

(w) Segregation means the removal for a limited period, subject to valid existing rights, of a specified area of the Federal lands from appropriation under the public land laws and mineral laws, pursuant to the authority of the Secretary of the Interior to allow for the orderly administration of the Federal lands.

(x) Statement of value means a written report prepared by a qualified appraiser that states the appraiser's conclusion(s) of value.

§2200.0-6   Policy.

(a) Discretionary nature of exchanges. The Secretary is not required to exchange any Federal lands. Land exchanges are discretionary, voluntary real estate transactions between the Federal and non-Federal parties. Unless and until the parties enter into a binding exchange agreement, any party may withdraw from and terminate an exchange proposal or an agreement to initiate an exchange at any time during the exchange process, without any obligation to reimburse, or incur any liability to, any party, person or other entity.

(b) Determination of public interest. The authorized officer may complete an exchange only after a determination is made that the public interest will be well served. When considering the public interest, the authorized officer shall give full consideration to the opportunity to achieve better management of Federal lands, to meet the needs of State and local residents and their economies, and to secure important objectives, including but not limited to: Protection of fish and wildlife habitats, cultural resources, watersheds, wilderness and aesthetic values; enhancement of recreation opportunities and public access; consolidation of lands and/or interests in lands, such as mineral and timber interests, for more logical and efficient management and development; consolidation of split estates; expansion of communities; accommodation of land use authorizations; promotion of multiple-use values; and fulfillment of public needs. In making this determination, the authorized officer must find that:

(1) The resource values and the public objectives that the Federal lands or interests to be conveyed may serve if retained in Federal ownership are not more than the resource values of the non-Federal lands or interests and the public objectives they could serve if acquired, and

(2) The intended use of the conveyed Federal lands will not, in the determination of the authorized officer, significantly conflict with established management objectives on adjacent Federal lands and Indian trust lands. Such finding and the supporting rationale shall be made part of the administrative record.

(c) Equal value exchanges. Except as provided in §2201.5 of this part, lands or interests to be exchanged shall be of equal value or equalized in accordance with the methods set forth in §2201.6 of this part. An exchange of lands or interests shall be based on market value as determined by the Secretary through appraisal(s), through bargaining based on appraisal(s), or through arbitration.

(d) Same-State exchanges. The Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange authorized pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended, shall be located within the same State.

(e) O and C land exchanges. Non-Federal lands acquired in exchange for revested Oregon and California Railroad Company Grant lands or reconveyed Coos Bay Wagon Road Grant lands are required to be located within any one of the 18 counties in which the original grants were made, and, upon acquisition by the United States, automatically shall assume the same status as the lands for which they were exchanged.

(f) Congressional designations. Upon acceptance of title by the United States, lands acquired by an exchange that are within the boundaries of any unit of the National Forest System, National Park System, National Wildlife Refuge System, National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, National Trails System, National Wilderness Preservation System, or any other system established by Act of Congress; the California Desert Conservation Area; or any national conservation or national recreation area established by Act of Congress, immediately are reserved for and become part of the unit or area within which they are located, without further action by the Secretary, and thereafter shall be managed in accordance with all laws, rules, regulations, and land use plans applicable to such unit or area.

(g) Land and resource management planning. The authorized officer shall consider only those exchange proposals that are in conformance with land use plans or plan amendments, where applicable. Lands acquired by an exchange within a Bureau of Land Management district shall automatically become public lands as defined in 43 U.S.C. 1702 and shall become part of that district. The acquired lands shall be managed in accordance with existing regulations and provisions of applicable land use plans and plan amendments. Lands acquired by an exchange that are located within the boundaries of areas of critical environmental concern or any other area having an administrative designation established through the land use planning process shall automatically become part of the unit or area within which they are located, without further action by the Bureau of Land Management, and shall be managed in accordance with all laws, rules, regulations, and land use plans applicable to such unit or area.

(h) Environmental analysis. After an agreement to initiate an exchange is signed, an environmental analysis shall be conducted by the authorized officer in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371), the Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), and the environmental policies and procedures of the Department of the Interior and the Bureau of Land Management. In making this analysis, the authorized officer shall consider timely written comments received in response to the published exchange notice, pursuant to §2201.2 of this part.

(i) Reservations or restrictions in the public interest. In any exchange, the authorized officer shall reserve such rights or retain such interests as are needed to protect the public interest or shall otherwise restrict the use of Federal lands to be exchanged, as appropriate. The use or development of lands conveyed out of Federal ownership are subject to any restrictions imposed by the conveyance documents and all laws, regulations, and zoning authorities of State and local governing bodies.

(j) Hazardous substances—(1) Federal lands. The authorized officer shall determine whether hazardous substances may be present on the Federal lands involved in an exchange and shall provide notice of known storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances on the Federal lands to the other parties in accordance with the provisions of 40 CFR part 373. The authorized officer shall provide this notice in the exchange agreement. The authorized officer shall also provide such notice, to the extent information is readily available, in the agreement to initiate an exchange. Unless the non-Federal party is a potentially responsible party under 42 U.S.C. 9607(a), the conveyance document from the United States shall contain a covenant in accordance with 42 U.S.C. 9620(h)(3). Where the non-Federal party is a potentially responsible party with respect to the property, it may be appropriate to enter into an agreement, as referenced in 42 U.S.C. 9607(e), whereby that party would indemnify the United States and hold the United States harmless against any loss or cleanup costs after conveyance.

(2) Non-Federal lands. The non-Federal party shall notify the authorized officer of any known, suspected and/or reasonably ascertainable storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances on the non-Federal land pursuant to §2201.1 of this part. Notwithstanding such notice, the authorized officer shall determine whether hazardous substances are known to be present on the non-Federal land involved in an exchange. If hazardous substances are known or believed to be present on the non-Federal land, the authorized officer shall reach an agreement with the non-Federal party regarding the responsibility for appropriate response action concerning the hazardous substances before completing the exchange. The terms of this agreement and any appropriate “hold harmless” agreement shall be included in an exchange agreement, pursuant to §2201.7-2 of this part.

(k) Legal description of properties. All lands subject to an exchange shall be properly described on the basis of either a survey executed in accordance with the Public Land Survey System laws and standards of the United States or, if those laws and standards cannot be applied, the lands shall be properly described and clearly locatable by other means as may be prescribed or allowed by law.

(l) Unsurveyed school sections. For purposes of exchange only, unsurveyed school sections, which would become State lands upon survey by the Secretary, are considered as “non-Federal” lands and may be used by the State in an exchange with the United States. However, minerals shall not be reserved by the State when unsurveyed sections are used in an exchange. As a condition of the exchange, the State shall have waived, in writing, all rights to unsurveyed sections used in the exchange.

(m) Coordination with State and local governments. At least 60 days prior to the conveyance of and upon issuance of the deed or patent for Federal lands, the authorized officer will notify the Governor of the State within which the Federal lands covered by the notice are located and the head of the governing body of any political subdivision having zoning or other land use regulatory authority in the geographical area within which the Federal lands are located.

(n) Fee coal exchanges. As part of the consideration of whether public interest would be served by the acquisition of fee coal through exchange, the provisions of subpart 3461 of this title shall be applied and shall be evaluated as a factor and basis for the exchange.

§2200.0-7   Scope.

(a) These rules set forth the procedures for conducting exchanges of Federal lands. The procedures in these rules are supplemented by the Bureau of Land Management Manuals and Handbooks 2200 and 9310. The contents of these supplemental materials are not considered to be a part of these rules.

(b) The rules contained in this part apply to all land exchanges, made under the authority of the Secretary, involving Federal lands, as defined in 43 CFR 2200.0-5(i). Apart from the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), as amended, 43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq., there are a variety of statutes, administered by the Secretary, that authorize land trades which may include Federal lands, as for example, certain National Wildlife Refuge System and National Park System exchange acts. The procedures and requirements associated with or imposed by any one of these other statutes may not be entirely consistent with the rules in this part, as the rules in this part are intended primarily to implement the FLPMA land exchange provisions. If there is any such inconsistency, and if Federal lands are involved, the inconsistent procedures or statutory requirements will prevail. Otherwise, the regulations in this part will be followed. The rules in this part also apply to the exchange of interests in either Federal or non-Federal lands including, but not limited to, minerals, water rights, and timber.

(c) The application of these rules to exchanges made under the authority of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, as amended (43 U.S.C. 1621) or the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (16 U.S.C. 3192), shall be limited to those provisions that do not conflict with the provisions of these Acts.

(d) Pending exchanges initiated prior to December 17, 1993 shall proceed in accordance with this rule unless:

(1) In the judgment of the authorized officer, it would be more expeditious to continue following the procedures in effect prior to December 17, 1993; or

(2) A binding agreement to exchange was in effect prior to December 17, 1993; and

(3) To proceed as provided in paragraphs (d) (1) or (2) of this section would not be inconsistent with applicable law.

(e) Exchanges proposed by persons holding fee title to coal deposits that qualify for exchanges under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (30 U.S.C. 1260(b)(5)) and as provided in subpart 3436 of this title shall be processed in accordance with this part, except as otherwise provided in subpart 3436 of this title.

[46 FR 1638, Jan. 6, 1981, as amended at 63 FR 52617, Oct. 1, 1998]

§2200.0-9   Information collection.

(a) The collection of information contained in part 2200 of Group 2200 has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. and assigned clearance number 1004-0056. The information will be used to initiate and complete land exchanges with the Bureau of Land Management. Responses are required to obtain benefits in accordance with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended.

(b) Public reporting burden for this information is estimated to average 4 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing the burden, should be sent to the Division of Information Resources Management (870), Bureau of Land Management, 1849 C Street, NW., Washington, DC 20240; and the Paperwork Reduction Project (1004-0056), Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC 20503.

Subpart 2201—Exchanges—Specific Requirements

§2201.1   Agreement to initiate an exchange.

(a) Exchanges may be proposed by the Bureau of Land Management or by any person, State, or local government. Initial exchange proposals should be directed to the authorized officer responsible for the management of Federal lands involved in an exchange.

(b) To assess the feasibility of an exchange proposal, the prospective parties may agree to obtain a preliminary estimate of the values of the lands involved in the proposal. The preliminary estimate is generally not an appraisal but shall be prepared by a qualified appraiser.

(c) If the authorized officer agrees to proceed with an exchange proposal, a nonbinding agreement to initiate an exchange shall be executed by all prospective parties. At a minimum, the agreement shall include:

(1) The identity of the parties involved in the proposed exchange and the status of their ownership or ability to provide title to the land;

(2) A description of the lands or interest in lands being considered for exchange;

(3) A statement by each party, other than the United States and State and local governments, certifying that the party is a citizen of the United States or a corporation or other legal entity subject to the laws of the United States or a State thereof;

(4) A description of the appurtenant rights proposed to be exchanged or reserved; any authorized uses including grants, permits, easements, or leases; and any known unauthorized uses, outstanding interests, exceptions, adverse claims, covenants, restrictions, title defects or encumbrances;

(5) A time schedule for completing the proposed exchange;

(6) An assignment of responsibility for performance of required functions and for costs associated with processing the exchange;

(7) A statement specifying whether compensation for costs assumed will be allowed pursuant to the provisions of §2201.1-3 of this part;

(8) Notice of any known release, storage, or disposal of hazardous substances on involved Federal or non-Federal lands, and any commitments regarding responsibility for removal or other remedial actions concerning such substances on involved non-Federal lands. All such terms and conditions regarding non-Federal lands shall be included in a land exchange agreement pursuant to §2201.7-2 of this part;

(9) A grant of permission by each party to conduct a physical examination of the lands offered by the other party;

(10) The terms of any assembled land exchange arrangement, pursuant to §2201.1-1 of this part;

(11) A statement as to any arrangements for relocation of any tenants occupying non-Federal land, pursuant to §2201.8 (c)(1)(iv) of this part;

(12) A notice to an owner-occupant of the voluntary basis for the acquisition of the non-Federal lands, pursuant to §2201.8 (c)(1)(iv) of this part; and

(13) A statement as to the manner in which documents of conveyance will be exchanged, should the exchange proposal be successfully completed.

(d) Unless the parties agree to some other schedule, no later than 90 days from the date of the executed agreement to initiate an exchange, the parties shall arrange for appraisals, which are to be completed within timeframes and under such terms as are negotiated. In the absence of current market information reliably supporting value, the parties may agree to use other acceptable and commonly recognized methods to estimate value.

(e) An agreement to initiate an exchange may be amended by written consent of the parties or terminated at any time upon written notice by any party.

(f) Entering into an agreement to initiate an exchange does not legally bind any party to proceed with processing or to consummate a proposed exchange, or to reimburse or pay damages to any party to a proposed exchange that is delayed or is not consummated or to anyone assisting in any way, or doing business with, any such party.

(g) The withdrawal from, and termination of, an exchange proposal, or an agreement to initiate an exchange, by the authorized officer at any time prior to the notice of decision, pursuant to §2201.7-1 of this part, is not protestable or appealable under 43 CFR part 4.

§2201.1-1   Assembled land exchanges.

(a) Whenever the authorized officer determines it to be practicable, an assembled land exchange arrangement may be used to facilitate exchanges and reduce costs.

(b) The parties to an exchange may agree to such an arrangement where multiple parcels of Federal and/or non-Federal lands are consolidated into a package for the purpose of completing one or more exchange transactions over a period of time.

(c) An assembled land exchange arrangement shall be documented in the agreement to initiate an exchange, pursuant to §2201.1 of this part.

(d) Values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an assembled exchange arrangement shall be estimated pursuant to §2201.3 of this part.

(e) If more than one transaction is necessary to complete the exchange package, the parties shall establish a ledger account under which the Federal and non-Federal lands can be exchanged. When a ledger account is used, the authorized officer shall:

(1) Assure that the value difference between the Federal and non-Federal lands does not exceed 25 percent of the total value of the Federal lands conveyed in the assembled land exchange up to and including the current transaction;

(2) Assure that the values of the Federal and non-Federal lands conveyed are balanced with land and/or money at least every 3 years pursuant to §2201.6 of this part; and

(3) If necessary, require from the non-Federal party a deposit of cash, bond or other approved surety in an amount equal to any outstanding value differential.

(4) Assembled land exchanges are subject to the value equalization and cash equalization waiver provisions of §2201.6 of this part. Cash equalization waiver shall only be used in conjunction with the final transaction of the assembled land exchange and the termination of any ledger account used.

(f) The assembled exchange arrangement may be terminated unilaterally at any time upon written notice by any party or upon depletion of the Federal or non-Federal lands assembled. Prior to termination, values shall be equalized pursuant to §2201.6 of this part.

§2201.1-2   Segregative effect.

(a) If a proposal is made to exchange Federal lands, the authorized officer may direct the appropriate State Office of the Bureau of Land Management to segregate the Federal lands by a notation on the public land records. Subject to valid existing rights, the Federal lands shall be segregated from appropriation under the public land laws and mineral laws for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of record notation.

(b) Any interests of the United States in the non-Federal lands that are covered by the exchange proposal may be segregated from appropriation under the mineral laws for a period not to exceed 5 years from the date of notation by noting the public land status records.

(c) The segregative effect shall terminate upon the occurrence of any of the following events, whichever occurs first:

(1) Automatically, upon issuance of a patent or other document of conveyance to the affected lands;

(2) On the date and time specified in an opening order, such order to be promptly issued and published by the appropriate State Office of the Bureau of Land Management in the Federal Register, if a decision is made not to proceed with the exchange or upon removal of any lands from an exchange proposal; or

(3) Automatically, at the end of the segregation period not to exceed 5 years from the date of notation of the public land records.

(d) The provisions of this section apply equally to proposals to exchange National Forest System lands under the authority and provisions of the Act of March 20, 1922, 42 Stat. 465, as amended, 16 U.S.C. 485, and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1701 et seq., except that if a proposal is made to exchange National Forest System lands, which proposal shall be filed in compliance with 36 CFR part 254, the authorized officer may request that the appropriate BLM State Office segregate such lands by a notation on the public land records.

[46 FR 1638, Jan. 6, 1981, as amended at 63 FR 23681, Apr. 30, 1998; 65 FR 70112, Nov. 21, 2000]

§2201.1-3   Assumption of costs.

(a) Generally, parties to an exchange will bear their own costs of the exchange. However, if the authorized officer finds it is in the public interest, subject to the conditions and limitations specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an agreement to initiate an exchange may provide that:

(1) One or more of the parties may assume, without compensation, all or part of the costs or other responsibilities or requirements that the authorized officer determines would ordinarily be borne by the other parties; or

(2) The parties may agree to make adjustments to the relative values involved in an exchange transaction in order to compensate parties for assuming costs or other responsibilities or requirements that the authorized officer determines would ordinarily be borne by the other parties. These costs or services may include but are not limited to: Land surveys, appraisals, mineral examinations, timber cruises, title searches, title curative actions, cultural resource surveys and mitigation, hazardous substance surveys and controls, removal of encumbrances, arbitration including all fees, bargaining, cure of deficiencies preventing highest and best use of the land, conduct of public hearings, assemblage of non-Federal parcels from multiple ownerships, expenses of complying with laws, regulations, and policies applicable to exchange transactions, and expenses that are necessary to bring the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in the exchange to their highest and best use for appraisal and exchange purposes.

(b) The authorized officer may agree to assume without compensation costs ordinarily borne under local custom or practice by the non-Federal party or to compensate the non-Federal party for costs ordinarily borne under local custom or practice by the United States but incurred by the non-Federal party, but only when it is clearly in the public interest and the authorized officer determines and documents that each of the following circumstances exist:

(1) The amount of the cost assumed or compensation is reasonable and accurately reflects the value of the goods and services received;

(2) The proposed exchange is a high priority of the agency;

(3) The land exchange must be expedited to protect important Federal resource values, such as congressionally designated areas or endangered species habitat;

(4) Cash equalization funds are available for compensating the non-Federal party; and

(5) There are no other practicable means available to the authorized officer of meeting Federal exchange processing costs, responsibilities, or requirements.

(c) The total amount of adjustment agreed to as compensation for costs incurred pursuant to this section shall not exceed the limitations set forth in §2201.6 of this part.

§2201.2   Notice of exchange proposal.

(a) Upon entering into an agreement to initiate an exchange, the authorized officer shall publish a notice once a week for 4 consecutive weeks in newspapers of general circulation in the counties in which the Federal and non-Federal lands or interests proposed for exchange are located. The authorized officer shall notify authorized users, jurisdictional State and local governments, and the congressional delegation, and shall make other distribution of the notice as appropriate. At a minimum, the notice shall include:

(1) The identity of the parties involved in the proposed exchange;

(2) A description of the Federal and non-Federal lands being considered for exchange;

(3) A statement as to the effect of segregation from appropriation under the public land laws and mineral laws, if applicable;

(4) An invitation to the public to submit in writing any comments on or concerns about the exchange proposal, including advising the authorized officer as to any liens, encumbrances, or other claims relating to the lands being considered for exchange; and

(5) The deadline by which comments must be received, and the name, title, and address of the official to whom comments must be sent.

(b) To be assured of consideration in the environmental analysis of the proposed exchange, all comments shall be made in writing to the authorized officer and postmarked or delivered within 45 days after the initial date of publication.

(c) The authorized officer is not required to republish descriptions of any lands excluded from the final exchange transaction, provided such lands were identified in the notice of exchange proposal. In addition, minor corrections of land descriptions and other insignificant changes do not require republication.

§2201.3   Appraisals.

The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall comply with the appraisal standards set forth in §§2201.3-1 through 2201.3-4 of this part and, to the extent appropriate, with the Department of Justice “Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisitions” when appraising the values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange.

§2201.3-1   Appraiser qualifications.

(a) A qualified appraiser(s) shall provide to the authorized officer appraisals estimating the market value of Federal and non-Federal properties involved in an exchange. A qualified appraiser may be an employee or a contractor to the Federal or non-Federal exchange parties. At a minimum, a qualified appraiser shall be an individual, approved by the authorized officer, who is competent, reputable, impartial, and has training and experience in appraising property similar to the property involved in the appraisal assignment.

(b) Qualified appraisers shall possess qualifications consistent with State regulatory requirements that meet the intent of title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 (FIRREA) (12 U.S.C. 3331). In the event a State does not have approved policies, practices and procedures regulating the activities of appraisers, the Bureau of Land Management may establish appraisal qualification standards commensurate with those adopted by other States meeting the requirements of FIRREA.

§2201.3-2   Market value.

(a) In estimating market value, the appraiser shall:

(1) Determine the highest and best use of the property to be appraised;

(2) Estimate the value of the lands and interests as if in private ownership and available for sale in the open market;

(3) Include historic, wildlife, recreation, wilderness, scenic, cultural, or other resource values or amenities that are reflected in prices paid for similar properties in the competitive market;

(4) Consider the contributory value of any interest in land such as minerals, water rights, or timber to the extent they are consistent with the highest and best use of the property; and

(5) Estimate separately, if stipulated in the agreement to initiate in accordance with §2201.1 of this part, the value of each property optioned or acquired from multiple ownerships by the non-Federal party for purposes of exchange, pursuant to §2201.1-1 of this part. In this case, the appraiser shall estimate the value of the Federal and non-Federal properties in a similar manner.

(b) In estimating market value, the appraiser may not independently add the separate values of the fractional interests to be conveyed, unless market evidence indicates the following:

(1) The various interests contribute their full value (pro rata) to the value of the whole; and

(2) The valuation is compatible with the highest and best use of the property.

(c) In the absence of current market information reliably supporting value, the authorized officer may use other acceptable and commonly recognized methods to determine market value.

§2201.3-3   Appraisal report standards.

Appraisals prepared for exchange purposes shall contain, at a minimum, the following information:

(a) A summary of facts and conclusions;

(b) The purpose and/or the function of the appraisal, a definition of the estate being appraised, and a statement of the assumptions and limiting conditions affecting the appraisal assignment, if any;

(c) An explanation of the extent of the appraiser's research and actions taken to collect and confirm information relied upon in estimating value;

(d) An adequate description of the physical characteristics of the lands being appraised; a statement of all encumbrances; title information, location, zoning, and present use; an analysis of highest and best use; and at least a 5-year sales history of the property;

(e) A disclosure of any condition that is observed during the inspection of the property or becomes known to the appraiser through normal research that would lead the appraiser to believe that hazardous substances may be present on the property being appraised;

(f) A comparative market analysis and, if more than one method of valuation is used, an analysis and reconciliation of the methods used to support the appraiser's estimate of value;

(g) A description of comparable sales, including a description of all relevant physical, legal, and economic factors such as parties to the transaction, source and method of financing, effect of any favorable financing on sale price, and verification by a party involved in the transaction;

(h) An estimate of market value;

(i) The effective date of valuation, date of appraisal, signature, and certification of the appraiser;

(j) A certification by the appraiser signing the report to the following:

(1) The appraiser personally contacted the property owner or designated representative and offered the owner an opportunity to be present during inspection of the property;

(2) The appraiser personally examined the subject property and all comparable sale properties relied upon in the report;

(3) The appraiser has no present or prospective interest in the appraised property; and

(4) The appraiser has not, and will not, receive compensation that was contingent on the analysis, opinions, or conclusions contained in the appraisal report; and

(k) Copies of relevant written reports, studies, or summary conclusions prepared by others in association with the appraisal assignment that were relied upon by the appraiser to estimate value, which may include but is not limited to current title reports, mineral reports, or timber cruises prepared by qualified specialists.

§2201.3-4   Appraisal review.

(a) Appraisal reports shall be reviewed by a qualified review appraiser meeting the qualifications set forth in §2201.3-1 of this part. Statements of value prepared by agency appraisers are not subject to this review.

(b) The review appraiser shall determine whether the appraisal report:

(1) Is complete, logical, consistent, and supported by a market analysis;

(2) Complies with the standards prescribed in §2201.3-3 of this part; and

(3) Reasonably estimates the probable market value of the lands appraised.

(c) The review appraiser shall prepare a written review report, containing at a minimum:

(1) A description of the review process used;

(2) An explanation of the adequacy, relevance, and reasonableness of the data and methods used by the appraiser to estimate value;

(3) The reviewing appraiser's statement of conclusions regarding the appraiser's estimate of market value; and

(4) A certification by the review appraiser to the following:

(i) The review appraiser has no present or prospective interest in the property that is the subject of the review report; and

(ii) The review appraiser has not, and will not, receive compensation that was contingent on the approval of the appraisal report.

§2201.4   Bargaining; arbitration.

(a) Unless the parties to an exchange agree in writing to suspend or modify the deadlines contained in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section, the parties shall adhere to the following schedule:

(1) Within 180 days from the date of receipt of the appraisal(s) for review and approval by the authorized officer, the parties to an exchange may agree on the appraised values of the lands involved in an exchange. If the parties cannot agree on the appraised values, they may agree to initiate a process of bargaining or some other process to resolve the dispute over values. Bargaining or any other process shall be based on an objective analysis of the valuation in the appraisal report(s) and shall be a means of reconciling differences in such reports. Bargaining or another process to determine values may involve one or more of the following actions:

(i) Submission of the disputed appraisal(s) to another qualified appraiser for review;

(ii) Request for additional appraisals;

(iii) Involvement of an impartial third party to facilitate resolution of the value disputes; or

(iv) Use of some other acceptable and commonly recognized practice for resolving value disputes.

Any agreement based upon bargaining shall be in writing and made part of the administrative record of the exchange. Such agreement shall contain a reference to all relevant appraisal information and state how the parties reconciled or compromised appraisal information to arrive at an agreement based on market value.

(2) If within 180 days from the date of receipt of the appraisal(s) for review and approval by the authorized officer, the parties to an exchange cannot agree on values but wish to continue with the land exchange, the appraisal(s) may, at the option of either party, be submitted to arbitration unless, in lieu of arbitration, the parties have employed a process of bargaining or some other process to determine values. If arbitration occurs, it shall be conducted in accordance with the real estate valuation arbitration rules of the American Arbitration Association. The Secretary or an official to whom such authority has been delegated shall appoint an arbitrator from a list provided by the American Arbitration Association.

(3) Within 30 days after completion of arbitration, the parties involved in the exchange shall determine whether to proceed with the exchange, modify the exchange to reflect the findings of the arbitration or any other factors, or withdraw from the exchange. A decision to withdraw from the exchange may be made upon written notice by either party at this time or at any other time prior to entering into a binding exchange agreement.

(4) If the parties agree to proceed with an exchange after arbitration, the values established by arbitration are binding upon all parties for a period not to exceed 2 years from the date of the arbitration decision.

(b) Arbitration is limited to the disputed valuation of the lands involved in a proposed exchange, and an arbitrator's award decision shall be limited to the value estimate(s) of the contested appraisal(s). An award decision shall not include recommendations regarding the terms of a proposed exchange, nor shall an award decision infringe upon the authority of the Secretary to make all decisions regarding management of Federal lands and to make public interest determinations.

§2201.5   Exchanges at approximately equal value.

(a) The authorized officer may exchange lands that are of approximately equal value when it is determined that:

(1) The exchange is in the public interest and the consummation of the proposed exchange will be expedited;

(2) The value of the lands to be conveyed out of Federal ownership is not more than $150,000 as based upon a statement of value prepared by a qualified appraiser and approved by the authorized officer;

(3) The Federal and non-Federal lands are substantially similar in location, acreage, use, and physical attributes; and

(4) There are no significant elements of value requiring complex analysis.

(b) The authorized officer shall determine that the Federal and non-Federal lands are approximately equal in value and shall document how the determination was made.

§2201.6   Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

(a) To equalize the agreed upon values of the Federal and non-Federal lands involved in an exchange, either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to an exchange may agree:

(1) To modify the exchange proposal by adding or excluding lands; and/or

(2) To use cash equalization after making all reasonable efforts to equalize values by adding or excluding lands.

(b) The combined amount of any cash equalization payment and/or the amount of adjustments agreed to as compensation for costs under §2201.1-3 of this part may not exceed 25 percent of the value of the Federal lands to be conveyed.

(c) The parties may agree to waive a cash equalization payment if the amount to be waived does not exceed 3 percent of the value of the lands being exchanged out of Federal ownership or $15,000, whichever is less. This provision shall not be applied to exchanges where the value differential is in excess of $15,000.

(d) A cash equalization payment may be waived only after the authorized officer determines in writing how the waiver will expedite the exchange and why the public interest will be better served by the waiver.

§2201.7   Approval of exchanges.

§2201.7-1   Notice of decision.

(a) Upon completion of all environmental analyses and appropriate documentation, appraisals, and all other supporting studies and requirements to determine if a proposed exchange is in the public interest and in compliance with applicable law and regulations, the authorized officer shall decide whether to approve an exchange proposal.

(1) When a decision to approve or disapprove an exchange is made, the authorized officer shall publish a notice of the availability of the decision in newspapers of general circulation. A notice also may be published in the Federal Register at the discretion of the authorized officer. At a minimum, the notice shall include:

(i) The date of decision;

(ii) A concise description of the decision;

(iii) The name and title of the deciding official;

(iv) Directions for obtaining a copy of the decision; and

(v) The date of the beginning of the protest period.

(2) The authorized officer shall distribute notices to State and local governmental subdivisions having authority in the geographical area within which the lands covered by the notice are located pursuant to §2200.0-6(m) of this part, the non-Federal exchange parties, authorized users of involved Federal lands, the congressional delegation, individuals who requested notification or filed written objections, and others as appropriate.

(b) For a period of 45 days after the date of publication of a notice of the availability of a decision to approve or disapprove an exchange proposal, such decision shall be subject to protest.

(c) A right of appeal from a protest decision of the authorized officer may be pursued in accordance with the applicable appeal procedures of 43 CFR part 4.

§2201.7-2   Exchange agreement.

(a) The parties to a proposed exchange may enter into an exchange agreement subsequent to a decision by the authorized officer to approve the exchange, pursuant to §2201.7-1 of this part. Such an agreement is required if hazardous substances are present on the non-Federal lands. An exchange agreement shall contain the following:

(1) Identification of the parties, a description of the lands and interests to be exchanged, identification of all reserved and outstanding interests, the amount of any necessary cash equalization, and all other terms and conditions necessary to complete the exchange;

(2) The terms regarding responsibility for removal, indemnification (“hold harmless” agreement), or other remedial actions concerning any hazardous substances on the involved non-Federal lands;

(3) A description of the goods and services and their corresponding costs for which the noncomplying party is liable in the event of failure to perform or to comply with the terms of the exchange agreement; and

(4) The agreed upon values of the involved lands.

(b) An exchange agreement, as described in paragraph (a) of this section, is legally binding on all parties, subject to the terms and conditions thereof, provided:

(1) Acceptable title can be conveyed;

(2) No substantial loss or damage occurs to either property from any cause;

(3) No undisclosed hazardous substances are found on the involved Federal or non-Federal lands prior to conveyance;

(4) In the event of a protest, or of an appeal from a protest decision under 43 CFR part 4, a decision to approve an exchange pursuant to §2201.7-1 is upheld; and

(5) The agreement is not terminated by mutual consent or upon such terms as may be provided in the agreement.

(c) Absent an executed legally binding exchange agreement, any action taken by one or more of the parties, or a failure of one or more of the parties to take any action, prior to consummation of an exchange does not create any legal obligation or right enforceable against or enjoyed by any party.

§2201.8   Title standards.

(a) Title evidence. (1) Unless otherwise specified by the Office of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior, evidence of title for the non-Federal lands being conveyed to the United States shall be in conformance with the Department of Justice regulations and “Standards for the Preparation of Title Evidence in Land Acquisitions by the United States” in effect at the time of conveyance.

(2) The United States is not required to furnish title evidence for the Federal lands being exchanged.

(b) Conveyance documents. (1) Unless otherwise specified by the Office of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior, all conveyances to the United States shall be prepared, executed, and acknowledged in recordable form and in accordance with the Department of Justice regulations and “Standards for the Preparation of Title Evidence in Land Acquisition by the United States” in effect at the time of conveyance.

(2) Conveyances of lands from the United States shall be by patent, quitclaim deed, or deed without express or implied warranties, except as to hazardous substances pursuant to §2200.0-6(j)(1) of this title.

(c) Title encumbrances—(1) Non-Federal lands. (i) Title to the non-Federal lands must be acceptable to the United States. For example, encumbrances such as taxes, judgment liens, mortgages, and other objections or title defects shall be eliminated, released, or waived in accordance with requirements of the preliminary title opinion of the Office of the Solicitor of the Department of the Interior or the Department of Justice, as appropriate.

(ii) The United States shall not accept lands in which there are reserved or outstanding interests that would interfere with the use and management of land by the United States or would otherwise be inconsistent with the authority under which, or the purpose for which, the lands are to be acquired. Reserved interests of the non-Federal landowner are subject to agreed upon covenants or conditions included in the conveyance documents.

(iii) Any personal property owned by the non-Federal party that is not a part of the exchange proposal should be removed by the non-Federal party prior to acceptance of title by the United States, unless the authorized officer and the non-Federal party to the exchange previously agree upon a specified period to remove the personal property. If the personal property is not removed prior to acceptance of title or within the otherwise prescribed time, it shall be deemed abandoned and shall become vested in the United States.

(iv) The exchange parties must reach agreement on the arrangements for the relocation of any tenants. Qualified tenants occupying non-Federal lands affected by a land exchange may be entitled to benefits under 49 CFR 24.2. Unless otherwise provided by law or regulation (49 CFR 24.101(a)(1)), relocation benefits are not applicable to owner-occupants involved in exchanges with the United States provided the owner-occupants are notified in writing that the non-Federal lands are being acquired by the United States on a voluntary basis.

(2) Federal lands. If Federal lands proposed for exchange are occupied under grant, permit, easement, or non-mineral lease by a third party who is not a party to the exchange, the third party holder of such authorization and the non-Federal party to the exchange may reach agreement as to the disposition of the existing use(s) authorized under the terms of the grant, permit, easement, or lease. The non-Federal exchange party shall submit documented proof of such agreement prior to issuance of a decision to approve the land exchange, as instructed by the authorized officer. If an agreement cannot be reached, the authorized officer shall consider other alternatives to accommodate the authorized use or shall determine whether the public interest will be best served by terminating such use in accordance with the terms and provisions of the instrument authorizing the use.

§2201.9   Case closing.

(a) Title transfers. Unless otherwise agreed, and notwithstanding the decision in United States v. Schurz, 102 U.S. 378 (1880), or any other law or ruling to the contrary, title to both the non-Federal and Federal lands simultaneously shall pass and be deemed accepted by the United States and the non-Federal landowner, respectively, when the documents of conveyance are recorded in the county clerk's or other local recorder's office. Before recordation, all instructions, requirements, and conditions set forth by the United States and the non-Federal landowner shall be met. The requirements and conditions necessary for recordation at a minimum will include the following, as appropriate:

(1) The determination by the authorized officer that the United States will receive possession, acceptable to it, of such lands; and

(2) The issuance of title evidence as of the date and time of recordation, which conforms to the instructions and requirements of the Office of the Solicitor's preliminary title opinion.

(b) Automatic segregation of lands. Subject to valid existing rights, non-Federal lands acquired through exchange by the United States automatically shall be segregated from appropriation under the public land laws and mineral laws until midnight of the 90th day after acceptance of title by the United States, and the public land records shall be noted accordingly. Except to the extent otherwise provided by law, the lands shall be open to the operation of the public land laws and mineral laws at midnight 90 days after the day title was accepted unless otherwise segregated pursuant to part 2300 of this title.

(c) Notice to State and local governments. Following the transfer of title to the Federal lands involved in an exchange, notice will be given to State and local officials as prescribed in §2200.0-6(m) of this part.

Subpart 2203—Exchanges Involving Fee Federal Coal Deposits

Source: 51 FR 12612, Apr. 14, 1986, unless otherwise noted.

§2203.0-6   Policy.

When determining whether a fee exchange of the Federal coal deposits is in the public interest, it is the policy of the Department of the Interior to consider whether the exchange will create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the Federal anti-trust laws. The Bureau of Land Management, in making the determination of public interest, shall consider the advice of the Attorney General of the United States concerning whether the exchange will create or maintain a situation inconsistent with the Federal antitrust laws.

§2203.0-9   Cross references.

The authorized officer shall implement a fee exchange of Federal coal deposits in compliance with the requirements of subparts 2200 and 2201 on this title.

§2203.1   Opportunity for public comment and public meeting on exchange proposal.

Upon acceptance of a proposal for a fee exchange of Federal coal deposits, the authorized officer shall publish and distribute a notice of exchange proposal as set forth in §2201.2 of this title.

[51 FR 12612, Apr. 1986, as amended at 58 FR 60926, Nov. 18, 1993]

§2203.2   Submission of information concerning proposed exchange.

(a) Any person submitting a proposal for a fee exchange of Federal coal deposits shall submit information concerning the coal reserves presently held in each geographic area involved in the exchange along with a description of the reserves that would be added or eliminated by the proposed exchange. In addition, the person filing a proposed exchange under this section shall furnish any additional information requested by the authorized officer in connection with the consideration of the antitrust consequences of the proposed exchange.

(b) The authorized officer shall transmit a copy of the information required by paragraph (a) of this section to the Attorney General upon its receipt.

(c) All non-proprietary information submitted under paragraph (a) of this section shall be made a part of the public record on each proposed exchange. With respect to proprietary information submitted under paragraph (a) of this section, only a description of the type of information submitted shall be included in the public record.

(d) Where the entity proposing a fee coal exchange has previously submitted information, a reference to the date of submission and to the serial number of the record in which it is filed, together with a statement of any and all changes in holdings since the date of the previous submission, shall be accepted.

[51 FR 12612, Apr. 14, 1986, as amended 58 FR 60926, Nov. 18, 1993]

§2203.3   Public meeting.

Upon completion of an environmental analysis, but prior to the issuance of a notice of decision, the authorized officer shall publish a notice in the Federal Register setting a time and place where a public meeting will be held to receive public comment on the public interest factors of the proposed exchange. Such notice shall be distributed in accordance with §2201.7-1 of this title. The public meeting shall:

(a) Follow procedures established by the authorized officer, which shall be announced prior to the meeting; and

(b) Be recorded and a transcript prepared, with the transcript and all written submissions being made a part of the public record of the proposed exchange.

[51 FR 12612, Apr. 14, 1986, as amended at 58 FR 60926, Nov. 18, 1993]

§2203.4   Consultation with the Attorney General.

(a) The authorized officer shall, at the conclusion of the comment period and public meeting provided for in §2203.3 of this title, forward to the Attorney General copies of the comments received in response to the request for public comments and the transcript and copies of the written comments received at the public meeting.

(b) The authorized officer shall allow the Attorney General 90 days within which the Attorney General may advise, in writing, on the anti-trust consequences of the proposed exchange.

(c) If the Attorney General requests additional information concerning the proposed exchange, the authorized officer shall request, in writing, such information from the person proposing the exchange, allowing a maximum period of 30 days for the submission of the requested information. The 90-day period provided in paragraph (b) of this section shall be extended for the period required to obtain and submit the requested information, or 30 days, whichever is sooner.

(d) If the Attorney General notifies the authorized officer, in writing, that additional time is needed to review the anti-trust consequences of the proposed exchange, the time provided in paragraph (b) of this section, including any additional time provided under paragraph (c) of this section, shall be extended for the period requested by the Attorney General. If the Attorney General has not responded to the request for anti-trust review within the time granted for such review, including any extensions thereof, the authorized officer may proceed with the exchange without the advice of the Attorney General.

§2203.5   Action on advice of the Attorney General.

(a) The authorized officer shall make any advice received from the Attorney General a part of the public record on the proposed exchange.

(b) Except as provided in §2203.4(d) of this title, the authorized officer shall not make a final decision on the proposed exchange and whether it is in the public interest until the advice of the Attorney General has been considered. The authorized officer shall, in the record of decision on the proposed exchange, discuss the consideration given any advice received from the Attorney General in reaching the final decision on the proposed exchange.

Group 2300—Withdrawals



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