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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of November 24, 2014

Title 29Subtitle BChapter XVII → Part 1910


Title 29: Labor


PART 1910—OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS


Contents

Subpart A—General

§1910.1   Purpose and scope.
§1910.2   Definitions.
§1910.3   Petitions for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard.
§1910.4   Amendments to this part.
§1910.5   Applicability of standards.
§1910.6   Incorporation by reference.
§1910.7   Definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
§1910.8   OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.
§1910.9   Compliance duties owed to each employee.

Subpart B—Adoption and Extension of Established Federal Standards

§1910.11   Scope and purpose.
§1910.12   Construction work.
§1910.15   Shipyard employment.
§1910.16   Longshoring and marine terminals.
§1910.17   Effective dates.
§1910.18   Changes in established Federal standards.
§1910.19   Special provisions for air contaminants.

Subpart C [Reserved]

Subpart D—Walking-Working Surfaces

§1910.21   Definitions.
§1910.22   General requirements.
§1910.23   Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.
§1910.24   Fixed industrial stairs.
§1910.25   Portable wood ladders.
§1910.26   Portable metal ladders.
§1910.27   Fixed ladders.
§1910.28   Safety requirements for scaffolding.
§1910.29   Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).
§1910.30   Other working surfaces.

Subpart E—Exit Routes and Emergency Planning

§1910.33   Table of contents.
§1910.34   Coverage and definitions.
§1910.35   Compliance with alternate exit-route codes.
§1910.36   Design and construction requirements for exit routes.
§1910.37   Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.
§1910.38   Emergency action plans.
§1910.39   Fire prevention plans.
Appendix to Subpart E of Part 1910—Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans

Subpart F—Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms

§1910.66   Powered platforms for building maintenance.
§1910.67   Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.
§1910.68   Manlifts.

Subpart G—Occupational Health and Environmental Control

§1910.94   Ventilation.
§1910.95   Occupational noise exposure.
§1910.97   Nonionizing radiation.
§1910.98   Effective dates.

Subpart H—Hazardous Materials

§1910.101   Compressed gases (general requirements).
§1910.102   Acetylene.
§1910.103   Hydrogen.
§1910.104   Oxygen.
§1910.105   Nitrous oxide.
§1910.106   Flammable liquids.
§1910.107   Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.
§1910.108   [Reserved]
§1910.109   Explosives and blasting agents.
§1910.110   Storage and handling of liquefied petroleum gases.
§1910.111   Storage and handling of anhydrous ammonia.
§§1910.112-1910.113   [Reserved]
§1910.119   Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.
§1910.120   Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.
§1910.121   [Reserved]

Dipping and Coating Operations

§1910.122   Table of contents.
§1910.123   Dipping and coating operations: Coverage and definitions.
§1910.124   General requirements for dipping and coating operations.
§1910.125   Additional requirements for dipping and coating operations that use flammable liquids or liquids with flashpoints greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C).
§1910.126   Additional requirements for special dipping and coating operations.

Subpart I—Personal Protective Equipment

§1910.132   General requirements.
§1910.133   Eye and face protection.
§1910.134   Respiratory protection.
§1910.135   Head protection.
§1910.136   Foot protection.
§1910.137   Electrical protective equipment.
§1910.138   Hand protection.
Appendix A to Subpart I of Part 1910—References for Further Information (Non-mandatory)
Appendix B to Subpart I of Part 1910—Nonmandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment Selection

Subpart J—General Environmental Controls

§1910.141   Sanitation.
§1910.142   Temporary labor camps.
§1910.143   Nonwater carriage disposal systems. [Reserved]
§1910.144   Safety color code for marking physical hazards.
§1910.145   Specifications for accident prevention signs and tags.
§1910.146   Permit-required confined spaces.
§1910.147   The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout).

Subpart K—Medical and First Aid

§1910.151   Medical services and first aid.
§1910.152   [Reserved]

Subpart L—Fire Protection

§1910.155   Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart.
§1910.156   Fire brigades.

Portable Fire Suppression Equipment

§1910.157   Portable fire extinguishers.
§1910.158   Standpipe and hose systems.

Fixed Fire Suppression Equipment

§1910.159   Automatic sprinkler systems.
§1910.160   Fixed extinguishing systems, general.
§1910.161   Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.
§1910.162   Fixed extinguishing systems, gaseous agent.
§1910.163   Fixed extinguishing systems, water spray and foam.

Other Fire Protection Systems

§1910.164   Fire detection systems.
§1910.165   Employee alarm systems.
Appendices to Subpart L of Part 1910—Note
Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection
Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 1910—National Consensus Standards
Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For Further Information
Appendix D to Subpart L of Part 1910—Availability of Publications Incorporated by Reference in Section 1910.156 Fire Brigades
Appendix E to Subpart L of Part 1910—Test Methods for Protective Clothing

Subpart M—Compressed Gas and Compressed Air Equipment

§§1910.166-1910.168   [Reserved]
§1910.169   Air receivers.

Subpart N—Materials Handling and Storage

§1910.176   Handling materials—general.
§1910.177   Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels.
§1910.178   Powered industrial trucks.
§1910.179   Overhead and gantry cranes.
§1910.180   Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.
§1910.181   Derricks.
§1910.183   Helicopters.
§1910.184   Slings.

Subpart O—Machinery and Machine Guarding

§1910.211   Definitions.
§1910.212   General requirements for all machines.
§1910.213   Woodworking machinery requirements.
§1910.214   Cooperage machinery. [Reserved]
§1910.215   Abrasive wheel machinery.
§1910.216   Mills and calenders in the rubber and plastics industries.
§1910.217   Mechanical power presses.
§1910.218   Forging machines.
§1910.219   Mechanical power-transmission apparatus.

Subpart P—Hand and Portable Powered Tools and Other Hand-Held Equipment

§1910.241   Definitions.
§1910.242   Hand and portable powered tools and equipment, general.
§1910.243   Guarding of portable powered tools.
§1910.244   Other portable tools and equipment.

Subpart Q—Welding, Cutting and Brazing

§1910.251   Definitions.
§1910.252   General requirements.
§1910.253   Oxygen-fuel gas welding and cutting.
§1910.254   Arc welding and cutting.
§1910.255   Resistance welding.

Subpart R—Special Industries

§1910.261   Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
§1910.262   Textiles.
§1910.263   Bakery equipment.
§1910.264   Laundry machinery and operations.
§1910.265   Sawmills.
§1910.266   Logging operations.
§1910.268   Telecommunications.
§1910.269   Electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
§1910.272   Grain handling facilities.

Subpart S—Electrical

General

§1910.301   Introduction.

Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems

§1910.302   Electric utilization systems.
§1910.303   General.
§1910.304   Wiring design and protection.
§1910.305   Wiring methods, components, and equipment for general use.
§1910.306   Specific purpose equipment and installations.
§1910.307   Hazardous (classified) locations.
§1910.308   Special systems.
§§1910.309-1910.330   [Reserved]

Safety-Related Work Practices

§1910.331   Scope.
§1910.332   Training.
§1910.333   Selection and use of work practices.
§1910.334   Use of equipment.
§1910.335   Safeguards for personnel protection.
§§1910.336-1910.360   [Reserved]

Safety-Related Maintenance Requirements

§§1910.361-1910.380   [Reserved]

Safety Requirements for Special Equipment

§§1910.381-1910.398   [Reserved]

Definitions

§1910.399   Definitions applicable to this subpart.
Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 1910— References for Further Information

Subpart T—Commercial Diving Operations

General

§1910.401   Scope and application.
§1910.402   Definitions.

Personnel Requirements

§1910.410   Qualifications of dive team.

General Operations Procedures

§1910.420   Safe practices manual.
§1910.421   Pre-dive procedures.
§1910.422   Procedures during dive.
§1910.423   Post-dive procedures.

Specific Operations Procedures

§1910.424   SCUBA diving.
§1910.425   Surface-supplied air diving.
§1910.426   Mixed-gas diving.
§1910.427   Liveboating.

Equipment Procedures and Requirements

§1910.430   Equipment.

Recordkeeping

§1910.440   Recordkeeping requirements.
Appendix A to Subpart T of Part 1910—Examples of Conditions Which May Restrict or Limit Exposure to Hyperbaric Conditions
Appendix B to Subpart T of Part 1910—Guidelines for Scientific Diving
Appendix C to Subpart T of Part 1910—Alternative Conditions Under §1910.401(a)(3) for Recreational Diving Instructors and Diving Guides (Mandatory)

Subparts U-Y [Reserved]

§§1910.901-1910.999   [Reserved]

Source: 39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, unless otherwise noted.

Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order Numbers 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable.

Sections 1910.6, 1910.7, 1910.8 and 1910.9 also issued under 29 CFR 1911. Section 1910.7(f) also issued under 31 U.S.C. 9701, 29 U.S.C. 9a, 5 U.S.C. 553; Public Law 106-113 (113 Stat. 1501A-222); Pub. L. 11-8 and 111-317; and OMB Circular A-25 (dated July 8, 1993) (58 FR 38142, July 15, 1993).

Subpart A—General

§1910.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) Section 6(a) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1593) provides that “without regard to chapter 5 of title 5, United States Code, or to the other subsections of this section, the Secretary shall, as soon as practicable during the period beginning with the effective date of this Act and ending 2 years after such date, by rule promulgate as an occupational safety or health standard any national concensus standard, and any established Federal standard, unless he determines that the promulgation of such a standard would not result in improved safety or health for specifically designated employees.” The legislative purpose of this provision is to establish, as rapidly as possible and without regard to the rule-making provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act, standards with which industries are generally familiar, and on whose adoption interested and affected persons have already had an opportunity to express their views. Such standards are either (1) national concensus standards on whose adoption affected persons have reached substantial agreement, or (2) Federal standards already established by Federal statutes or regulations.

(b) This part carries out the directive to the Secretary of Labor under section 6(a) of the Act. It contains occupational safety and health standards which have been found to be national consensus standards or established Federal standards.

§1910.2   Definitions.

As used in this part, unless the context clearly requires otherwise:

(a) Act means the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1590).

(b) Assistant Secretary of Labor means the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health;

(c) Employer means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who has employees, but does not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State;

(d) Employee means an employee of an employer who is employed in a business of his employer which affects commerce;

(e) Commerce means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication among the several States, or between a State and any place outside thereof, or within the District of Columbia, or a possession of the United States (other than the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands), or between points in the same State but through a point outside thereof;

(f) Standard means a standard which requires conditions, or the adoption or use of one or more practices, means, methods, operations, or processes, reasonably necessary or appropriate to provide safe or healthful employment and places of employment;

(g) National consensus standard means any standard or modification thereof which (1) has been adopted and promulgated by a nationally recognized standards-producing organization under procedures whereby it can be determined by the Secretary of Labor or by the Assistant Secretary of Labor that persons interested and affected by the scope or provisions of the standard have reached substantial agreement on its adoption, (2) was formulated in a manner which afforded an opportunity for diverse views to be considered, and (3) has been designated as such a standard by the Secretary or the Assistant Secretary, after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies; and

(h) Established Federal standard means any operative standard established by any agency of the United States and in effect on April 28, 1971, or contained in any Act of Congress in force on the date of enactment of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act.

§1910.3   Petitions for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a standard.

(a) Any interested person may petition in writing the Assistant Secretary of Labor to promulgate, modify, or revoke a standard. The petition should set forth the terms or the substance of the rule desired, the effects thereof if promulgated, and the reasons therefor.

(b)(1) The relevant legislative history of the Act indicates congressional recognition of the American National Standards Institute and the National Fire Protection Association as the major sources of national consensus standards. National consensus standards adopted on May 29, 1971, pursuant to section 6(a) of the Act are from those two sources. However, any organization which deems itself a producer of national consensus standards, within the meaning of section 3(9) of the Act, is invited to submit in writing to the Assistant Secretary of Labor at any time prior to February 1, 1973, all relevant information which may enable the Assistant Secretary to determine whether any of its standards satisfy the requirements of the definition of “national consensus standard” in section 3(9) of the Act.

(2) Within a reasonable time after the receipt of a submission pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall publish or cause to be published in the Federal Register a notice of such submission, and shall afford interested persons a reasonable opportunity to present written data, views, or arguments with regard to the question whether any standards of the organization making the submission are national consensus standards.

§1910.4   Amendments to this part.

(a) The Assistant Secretary of Labor shall have all of the authority of the Secretary of Labor under sections 3(9) and 6(a) of the Act.

(b) The Assistant Secretary of Labor may at any time before April 28, 1973, on his own motion or upon the written petition of any person, by rule promulgate as a standard any national consensus standard and any established Federal standard, pursuant to and in accordance with section 6(a) of the Act, and, in addition, may modify or revoke any standard in this part 1910. In the event of conflict among any such standards, the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall take the action necessary to eliminate the conflict, including the revocation or modification of a standard in this part, so as to assure the greatest protection of the safety or health of the affected employees.

§1910.5   Applicability of standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the standards contained in this part shall apply with respect to employments performed in a workplace in a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, Wake Island, Outer Continental Shelf lands defined in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, Johnston Island, and the Canal Zone.

(b) None of the standards in this part shall apply to working conditions of employees with respect to which Federal agencies other than the Department of Labor, or State agencies acting under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2021), exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards or regulations affecting occupational safety or health.

(c)(1) If a particular standard is specifically applicable to a condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process, it shall prevail over any different general standard which might otherwise be applicable to the same condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process. For example, §1915.23(c)(3) of this title prescribes personal protective equipment for certain ship repairmen working in specified areas. Such a standard shall apply, and shall not be deemed modified nor superseded by any different general standard whose provisions might otherwise be applicable, to the ship repairmen working in the areas specified in §1915.23(c)(3).

(2) On the other hand, any standard shall apply according to its terms to any employment and place of employment in any industry, even though particular standards are also prescribed for the industry, as in subpart B or subpart R of this part, to the extent that none of such particular standards applies. To illustrate, the general standard regarding noise exposure in §1910.95 applies to employments and places of employment in pulp, paper, and paperboard mills covered by §1910.261.

(d) In the event a standard protects on its face a class of persons larger than employees, the standard shall be applicable under this part only to employees and their employment and places of employment.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) An employer who is in compliance with any standard in this part shall be deemed to be in compliance with the requirement of section 5(a)(1) of the Act, but only to the extent of the condition, practice, means, method, operation, or process covered by the standard.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993]

§1910.6   Incorporation by reference.

(a)(1) The standards of agencies of the U.S. Government, and organizations which are not agencies of the U.S. Government which are incorporated by reference in this part, have the same force and effect as other standards in this part. Only the mandatory provisions (i.e., provisions containing the word “shall” or other mandatory language) of standards incorporated by reference are adopted as standards under the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

(2) Any changes in the standards incorporated by reference in this part and an official historic file of such changes are available for inspection in the Docket Office at the national office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20910; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627).

(3) The materials listed in paragraphs (b) through (w) of this section are incorporated by reference in the corresponding sections noted as they exist on the date of the approval, and a notice of any change in these materials will be published in the Federal Register. These incorporations by reference were approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.

(4) Copies of standards listed in this section and issued by private standards organizations are available for purchase from the issuing organizations at the addresses or through the other contact information listed below for these private standards organizations. In addition, these standards are available for inspection at any Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room N-2625, Washington, DC 20210; telephone: 202-693-2350 (TTY number: 877-889-5627). They are also available for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of these standards at NARA, telephone: 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) The following material is available for purchase from the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1014 Broadway, Cincinnati OH 45202:

(1) “Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice” (22nd ed., 1995), incorporation by reference (IBR) approved for §1910.124(b)(4)(iii).

(2) Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1986-87 (1986), IBR approved for §1910.120, PEL definition.

(c) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE), 2950 Niles Road, Post Office Box 229, St. Joseph, MI 49085:

(1) ASAE Emblem for Identifying Slow Moving Vehicles, ASAE S276.2 (1968), IBR approved for §1910.145(d)(10).

(2) [Reserved]

(d) The following material is available for purchase from the Agriculture Ammonia Institute-Rubber Manufacturers (AAI-RMA) Association, 1400 K St. NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) AAI-RMA Specifications for Anhydrous Ammonia Hose, IBR approved for §1910.111(b)(8)(i).

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Except as noted, copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph are available for purchase from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 25 West 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4900; fax: 212-398-0023; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.

(1)-(2) [Reserved]

(3) ANSI A11.1-65 (R 70) Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§1910.219(c)(5)(iii); 1910.261 (a)(3)(i), (c)(10), and (k)(21); and 1910.265(c)(2).

(4) ANSI A11.1-65 Practice for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved for §§1910.262(c)(6) and 1910.265(d)(2)(i)(a).

(5) [Reserved]

(6) ANSI A13.1-56 Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems, IBR approved for §§1910.253(d)(4)(ii); 1910.261(a)(3)(iii); 1910.262(c)(7).

(7) ANSI A14.1-68 Safety Code for Portable Wood Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.1a-77, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(iv) and (c)(3)(i).

(8) ANSI A14.2-56 Safety Code for Portable Metal Ladders, Supplemented by ANSI A14.2a-77, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(v) and (c)(3)(i).

(9) ANSI A14.3-56 Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, IBR approved for §§1910.68(b) (4) and (12); 1910.179(c)(2); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(i).

(10) ANSI A17.1-65 Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters and Moving Walks, Including Supplements, A17.1a (1967); A17.1b (1968); A17.1c (1969); A17.1d (1970), IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(vii), (g)(11)(i), and (l)(4).

(11) ANSI A17.2-60 Practice for the Inspection of Elevators, Including Supplements, A17.2a (1965), A17.2b (1967), IBR approved for §1910.261(a)(3)(viii).

(12) ANSI A90.1-69 Safety Standard for Manlifts, IBR approved for §1910.68(b)(3).

(13) ANSI A92.2-69 Standard for Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms, IBR approved for §1910.67 (b)(1), (2), (c)(3), and (4) and 1910.268(s)(1)(v).

(14) ANSI A120.1-70 Safety Code for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, IBR approved for §1910.66 app. D (b) through (d).

(15) ANSI B7.1-70 Safety Code for the Use, Care and Protection of Abrasive Wheels, IBR approved for §§1910.215(b)(12) and 1910.218(j).

(16) ANSI B15.1-53 (R 58) Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, IBR approved for §§1910.68(b)(4) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(ix), (b)(1), (e)(3), (e)(9), (f)(4), (j)(5)(iv), (k)(12), and (l)(3).

(17) ANSI B20.1-57 Safety Code for Conveyors, Cableways, and Related Equipment, IBR approved for §§1910.218(j)(3); 1910.261 (a)(3)(x), (b)(1), (c)(15)(iv), (f)(4), and (j)(2); 1910.265(c)(18)(i).

(18) ANSI B30.2-43 (R 52) Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(xi), (c)(2)(vi), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).

(19) ANSI B30.2.0-67 Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, IBR approved for §§1910.179(b)(2); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xii), (c)(2)(v), and (c)(8) (i) and (iv).

(20) ANSI B30.5-68 Safety Code for Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes, IBR approved for §§1910.180(b)(2) and 1910.261(a)(3)(xiii).

(21) ANSI B30.6-69 Safety Code for Derricks, IBR approved for §§1910.181(b)(2) and 1910.268(j)(4)(iv) (E) and (H).

(22) ANSI B31.1-55 Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for §1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(23) ANSI B31.1-67, IBR approved for §1910.253(d)(1)(i)(A)

(24) ANSI B31.1a-63 Addenda to ANSI B31.1 (1955), IBR approved for §1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(25) ANSI B31.1-67 and Addenda B31.1 (1969) Code for Pressure Piping, IBR approved for §§1910.103(b)(1)(iii)(b); 1910.104(b)(5)(ii); 1910.218 (d)(4) and (e)(1)(iv); and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xiv) and (g)(18)(iii).

(26) ANSI B31.2-68 Fuel Gas Piping, IBR approved for §1910.261(g)(18)(iii).

(27) ANSI B31.3-66 Petroleum Refinery Piping, IBR approved for §1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b).

(28) ANSI B31.5-66 Addenda B31.5a (1968) Refrigeration Piping, IB approved for §§1910.103(b)(3)(v)(b) and 1910.111(b)(7)(iii).

(29) ANSI B56.1-69 Safety Standard for Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for §§1910.178(a) (2) and (3) and 1910.261 (a)(3)(xv), (b)(6), (m)(2), and (m)(5)(iii).

(30) ANSI B57.1-65 Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections, IBR approved for §1910.253(b)(1)(iii).

(31) [Reserved]

(32) ANSI B175.1-1991, Safety Requirements for Gasoline-Powered Chain Saws 1910.266(e)(2)(i).

(33) [Reserved]

(34) ANSI C33.2-56 Safety Standard for Transformer-Type Arc Welding Machines, IBR approved for §1910.254(b)(1).

(35) [Reserved]

(36) ANSI H23.1-70 Seamless Copper Water Tube Specification, IBR approved for §1910.110(b) (8)(ii) and (13)(ii)(b)(1).

(37) ANSI H38.7-69 Specification for Aluminum Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for §1910.110(b)(8)(i).

(38) ANSI J6.4-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Blankets, IBR approved for §1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(v).

(39) ANSI J6.6-71 Standard Specification for Rubber Insulating Gloves, IBR approved for §1910.268 (f)(1) and (n)(11)(iv).

(40) ANSI K13.1-67 Identification of Gas Mask Canisters, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(xvi) and (h)(2)(iii).

(41) ANSI K61.1-60 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for §1910.111(b)(11)(i).

(42) ANSI K61.1-66 Safety Requirements for the Storage and Handling of Anhydrous Ammonia, IBR approved for §1910.111(b)(11)(i).

(43) ANSI O1.1-54 (R 61) Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(xvii), (e)(7), and (i)(2).

(44) ANSI S1.4-71 (R 76) Specification for Sound Level Meters, IBR approved for §1910.95 appendixes D and I.

(45) ANSI S1.11-71 (R 76) Specification for Octave, Half-Octave and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets, IBR approved for §1910.95 appendix D.

(46) ANSI S3.6-69 Specifications for Audiometers, IBR approved for §1910.95(h)(2) and (5)(ii) and appendix D.

(47) ANSI Z4.1-68 Requirements for Sanitation in Places of Employment, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(xviii) and (g)(15)(vi).

(48) [Reserved]

(49) ANSI Z9.1-51 Safety Code for Ventilation and Operation of Open Surface Tanks, IBR approved for 1910.261(a)(3)(xix), (g)(18)(v), and (h)(2)(i).

(50) ANSI Z9.1-71 Practices for Ventilation and Operation of Open-Surface Tanks, IBR approved for §1910.124(b)(4)(iv).

(51) ANSI Z9.2-60 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for §§1910.94(a)(4)(i) introductory text, (a)(6) introductory text, (b)(3)(ix), (b)(4)(i) and (ii), (c)(3)(i) introductory text, (c)(5)(iii)(b), and (c)(7)(iv)(a); 1910.261(a)(3)(xx), (g)(1)(i) and (iii), and (h)(2)(ii).

(52) ANSI Z9.2-79 Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for §1910.124(b)(4)(i).

(53) ANSI Z12.12-68 Standard for the Prevention of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, IBR approved for §1910.261 (a)(3)(xxi), (d)(1)(i), (f)(2)(iv), and (g)(1)(i).

(54) ANSI Z12.20-62 (R 69) Code for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in Woodworking and Wood Flour Manufacturing Plants, IBR approved for §1910.265(c)(20)(i).

(55) ANSI Z21.30-64 Requirements for Gas Appliances and Gas Piping Installations, IBR approved for §1910.265(c)(15).

(56) ANSI Z24.22-57 Method of Measurement of Real-Ear Attenuation of Ear Protectors at Threshold, IBR approved for §1910.261(a)(3)(xxii).

(57) ANSI Z33.1-61 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for §§1910.94(a)(4)(i); 1910.261 (a)(3)(xxiii) and (f)(5); and 1910.265(c)(20)(i).

(58) ANSI Z33.1-66 Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, IBR approved for §1910.94(a)(2)(ii).

(59) ANSI Z35.1-1968, Specifications for Accident Prevention Signs; IBR approved for §1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.

(60) ANSI Z41-1999, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear; IBR approved for §1910.136(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1999 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.

(61) ANSI Z41-1991, American National Standard for Personal Protection—Protective Footwear; IBR approved for §1910.136(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z41-1991 are available for purchase only from the National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558; telephone: 1-800-621-7619; fax: 708-285-0797; Web site: http://www.nsc.org.

(62)-(63) [Reserved]

(64) ANSI Z49.1-67 Safety in Welding and Cutting, IBR approved for §1910.252(c)(1)(iv) (A) and (B).

(65) USAS Z53.1-1967 (also referred to as ANSI Z53.1-1967), Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards, ANSI approved October 9, 1967; IBR approved for §1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 1-877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com.

(66) ANSI Z535.1-2006 (R2011), Safety Colors, reaffirmed July 19, 2011; IBR approved for §§1910.97(a) and 1910.145(d). Copies available for purchase from the:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.

(67) ANSI Z535.2-2011, Environmental and Facility Safety Signs, published September 15, 2011; IBR approved for §1910.261(c). Copies available for purchase from the:

(i) American National Standards Institute's e-Standards Store, 25 W 43rd Street, 4th Floor, New York, NY 10036; telephone: 212-642-4980; Web site: http://webstore.ansi.org/;

(ii) IHS Standards Store, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; telephone: 877-413-5184; Web site: www.global.ihs.com; or

(iii) TechStreet Store, 3916 Ranchero Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48108; telephone: 877-699-9277; Web site: www.techstreet.com.

(68) ANSI Z54.1-63 Safety Standard for Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma Ray Sources, IBR approved for §1910.252(d) (1)(vii) and (2)(ii).

(69) ANSI Z87.1-2003, American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for §§1910.133(b)(1)(i) and 1910.252(b)(2)(ii)(I)(1). Copies of ANSI Z87.1-2003 are available for purchase only from the American Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187; telephone: 847-699-2929; or from the International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA), 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: http://www.safetyequipment.org.

(70) ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998), American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for §1910.133(b) (1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z87.1-1989 (R-1998) are available for purchase only from the American Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187; telephone: 847-699-2929.

(71) ANSI Z87.1-1989, American National Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for §1910.133(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z87.1-1989 are available for purchase only from the American Society of Safety Engineers, 1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines, IL 60018-2187; telephone: 847-699-2929.

(72) ANSI Z88.2-1969, Practices for Respiratory Protection; IBR approved for §§1910.94(c)(6)(iii)(a), 1910.134(c); and 1910.261(a)(3)(xxvi), (b)(2), (f)(5), (g)(15)(v), (h)(2)(iii), (h)(2)(iv), and (i)(4).

(73) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2009, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection, approved January 26, 2009; IBR approved for §1910.135(b)(1)(i). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2009 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(74) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-2003, American National Standard for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for §1910.135(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-2003 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(75) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z89.1-1997, American National Standard for Personnel Protection—Protective Headwear for Industrial Workers—Requirements; IBR approved for §1910.135(b)(1)(iii). Copies of ANSI Z89.1-1997 are available for purchase only from the International Safety Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA 22209-1762; telephone: 703-525-1695; fax: 703-528-2148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.

(76) ANSI Z41.1-1967 Men's Safety Toe Footwear; IBR approved for §1910.261(i)(4).

(77) ANSI Z87.1-1968 Practice of Occupational and Educational Eye and Face Protection; IBR approved for §1910.261(a)(3)(xxv), (d)(1)(ii), (f)(5), (g)(1), (g)(15)(v), (g)(18)(ii), and (i)(4).

(78) ANSI Z89.1-1969 Safety Requirements for Industrial Head Protection; IBR approved for §1910.261(a)(3)(xxvii), (b)(2), (g)(15)(v), and (i)(4).

(79) ANSI Z89.2-1971 Safety Requirements for Industrial Protective Helmets for Electrical Workers, Class B; IBR approved for §1910.268(i)(1).

(f) The following material is available for purchase from the American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L Street NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) API 12B (May 1958) Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, 11th Ed., With Supplement No. 1, Mar. 1962, IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(3) API 12D (Aug. 1957) Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, 7th Ed., IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(4) API 12F (Mar. 1961) Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, 5th Ed., IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(i)(a)(3).

(5) API 620, Fourth Ed. (1970) Including appendix R, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large Welded Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for §§1910.103(c)(1)(i)(a); 1910.106(b)(1)(iv)(b)(1); and 1910.111(d)(1) (ii) and (iii).

(6) API 650 (1966) Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, 3rd Ed., IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(2).

(7) API 1104 (1968) Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, IBR approved for §1910.252(d)(1)(v).

(8) API 2000 (1968) Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure Storage Tanks, IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(2)(iv)(b)(1).

(9) API 2201 (1963) Welding or Hot Tapping on Equipment Containing Flammables, IBR approved for §1910.252(d)(1)(vi).

(g) The following material is available for purchase from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), United Engineering Center, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017:

(1) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1949, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, and 1962 Ed., IBR approved for §§1910.110 (b)(10)(iii) (Table H-26), (d)(2) (Table H-31); (e)(3)(i) (Table H-32), (h)(2) (Table H-34); and 1910.111(b)(2)(vi);

(2) ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, 1968 Ed., IBR approved for §§1910.106(i)(3)(i); 1910.110(g)(2)(iii)(b)(2); and 1910.217(b)(12);

(3) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, 1968, IBR approved for §§1910.103; 1910.104(b)(4)(ii); 1910.106 (b)(1)(iv)(b)(2) and (i)(3)(ii); 1910.107; 1910.110(b)(11) (i)(b) and (iii)(a)(1); 1910.111(b)(2) (i), (ii), and (iv); and 1910.169(a)(2) (i) and (ii);

(4) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Paragraph UG-84, 1968, IBR approved for §1910.104 (b)(4)(ii) and (b)(5)(iii);

(5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels, Including Addenda (1969), IBR approved for §§1910.261; 1910.262; 1910.263(i)(24)(ii);

(6) Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels for Petroleum Liquids and Gases of the API and the ASME, 1951 Ed., IBR approved for §1910.110(b)(3)(iii); and

(7) ASME B56.6-1992 (with addenda), Safety Standard for Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks, IBR approved for §1910.266(f)(4).

(h) Copies of the standards listed below in this paragraph (h) are available for purchase from ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959; Telephone: 610-832-9585; Fax: 610-832-9555; Email: seviceastm.org; Web site: http://www.astm.org. Copies of historical standards or standards that ASTM does not have may be purchased from Information Handling Services, Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179; Email: global@ihs.com; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com.

(1) ASTM A 47-68, Malleable Iron Castings, IBR approved for §1910.111.

(2) ASTM A 53-69, Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe, IBR approved for §§1910.110 and 1910.111.

(3) ASTM A 126-66, Gray Iron Casting for Valves, Flanges and Pipe Fitting, IBR approved for §1910.111.

(4) ASTM A 391-65 (ANSI G61.1-1968), Alloy Steel Chain, IBR approved for §1910.184.

(5) ASTM A 395-68, Ductile Iron for Use at Elevated Temperatures, IBR approved for §1910.111.

(6) ASTM B 88-66A, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for §1910.252.

(7) ASTM B 88-69, Seamless Copper Water Tube, IBR approved for §1910.110.

(8) ASTM B 117-64, Salt Spray (Fog) Test, IBR approved for §1910.268.

(9) ASTM B 210-68, Aluminum-Alloy Drawn Seamless Tubes, IBR approved for §1910.110.

(10) ASTM B 241-69, Standard Specifications for Aluminum-Alloy Seamless Pipe and Seamless Extruded Tube, IBR approved for §1910.110.

(11) ASTM D 5-65, Test for Penetration by Bituminous Materials, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(12) ASTM D 56-70, Test for Flash Point by Tag Closed Tester, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(13) ASTM D 56-05, Standard Test Method for Flash Point by Tag Closed Cup Tester, Approved May 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(14) ASTM D 86-62, Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, IBR approved for §§1910.106 and 1910.119.

(15) ASTM D 86-07a, Standard Test Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products at Atmospheric Pressure, Approved April 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(16) ASTM D 88-56, Test for Saybolt Viscosity, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(17) ASTM D 93-71, Test for Flash Point by Pensky Martens, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(18) ASTM D 93-08, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, Approved Oct. 15, 2008, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(19) ASTM D 240-02 (Reapproved 2007), Standard Test Method for Heat of Combustion of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels by Bomb Calorimeter, Approved May 1, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(20) ASTM D 323-68, Standard Test Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method), IBR approved for §1910.106.

(21) ASTM D 445-65, Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(22) ASTM D 1078-05, Standard Test Method for Distillation Range of Volatile Organic Liquids, Approved May 15, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(23) ASTM D 1692-68, Test for Flammability of Plastic Sheeting and Cellular Plastics, IBR approved for §1910.103.

(24) ASTM D 2161-66, Conversion Tables for SUS, IBR approved for §1910.106.

(25) ASTM D 3278-96 (Reapproved 2004) E1, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point of Liquids by Small Scale Closed-Cup Apparatus, Approved November 1, 2004, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(26) ASTM D 3828-07a, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Small Scale Closed Cup Tester, Approved July 15, 2007, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(27) ASTM F-2412-2005, Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection, IBR approved for §1910.136.

(28) ASTM F-2413-2005, Standard Specification for Performance Requirements for Protective Footwear, IBR approved for §1910.136.

(i) The following material is available for purchase from the American Welding Society (AWS), 550 NW, LeJeune Road, P.O. Box 351040, Miami FL 33135:

(1)-(2) [Reserved]

(3) AWS B3.0-41 Standard Qualification Procedure, IBR approved for §1910.67(c)(5)(i).

(4) AWS D1.0-1966 Code for Welding in Building Construction, IBR approved for §1910.27(b)(6).

(5) AWS D2.0-69 Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, IBR approved for §1910.67(c)(5)(iv).

(6) AWS D8.4-61 Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, IBR approved for §1910.67(c)(5)(ii).

(7) AWS D10.9-69 Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, IBR approved for §1910.67(c)(5)(iii).

(j) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Commerce:

(1) Commercial Standard, CS 202-56 (1961) “Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps,” IBR approved for §1910.30(a)(3).

(2) Publication “Model Performance Criteria for Structural Fire Fighters' Helmets,” IBR approved for §1910.156(e)(5)(i).

(k) The following material is available for purchase from the Compressed Gas Association (CGA), 1235 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, VA 22202:

(1) CGA C-6 (1968) Standards for Visual Inspection of Compressed Gas Cylinders, IBR approved for §1910.101(a).

(2) CGA C-8 (1962) Standard for Requalification of ICC-3HT Cylinders, IBR approved for §1910.101(a).

(3) CGA G-1-2009 Acetylene, Twelfth Edition, IBR approved for §1910.102(a). Copies of CGA Pamphlet G-1-2009 are available for purchase from the: Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 4221 Walney Road, 5th Floor, Chantilly, VA 20151; telephone: (703) 788-2700; fax: (703) 961-1831; email: cga@cganet.com.

(4) CGA G-7.1 (1966) Commodity Specification, IBR approved for §1910.134(d)(1).

(5) CGA G-8.1 (1964) Standard for the Installation of Nitrous Oxide Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for §1910.105.

(6) CGA P-1 (1965) Safe Handling of Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §1910.101(b).

(7) CGA P-3 (1963) Specifications, Properties, and Recommendations for Packaging, Transportation, Storage and Use of Ammonium Nitrate, IBR approved for §1910.109(i)(1)(ii)(b).

(8) CGA S-1.1 (1963) and 1965 Addenda. Safety Release Device Standards—Cylinders for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).

(9) CGA S-1.2 (1963) Safety Release Device Standards, Cargo and Portable Tanks for Compressed Gases, IBR approved for §§1910.101(c); 1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2).

(10) CGA S-1.3 (1959) Safety Release Device Standards-Compressed Gas Storage Containers, IBR approved for §§1910.103(c)(1)(iv)(a)(2); 1910.104(b)(6)(iii); and 1910.111(d)(4)(ii)(b).

(11) CGA 1957 Standard Hose Connection Standard, IBR approved for §1910.253(e) (4)(v) and (5)(iii).

(12) CGA and RMA (Rubber Manufacturer's Association) Specification for Rubber Welding Hose (1958), IBR approved for §1910.253(e)(5)(i).

(13) CGA 1958 Regulator Connection Standard, IBR approved for §1910.253(e) (4)(iv) and (6).

(l) The following material is available for purchase from the Crane Manufacturer's Association of America, Inc. (CMAA), 1 Thomas Circle NW, Washington DC 20005:

(1) CMAA Specification 1B61, Specifications for Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes, IBR approved for §1910.179(b)(6)(i).

(2) [Reserved]

(m) The following material is available for purchase from the General Services Administration:

(1) GSA Pub. GG-B-0067b, Air Compressed for Breathing Purposes, or Interim Federal Specifications, Apr. 1965, IBR approved for §1910.134(d)(4).

(2) [Reserved]

(n) The following material is available for purchase from the Department of Health and Human Services:

(1) Publication No. 76-120 (1975), List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data, IBR approved for §1910.95 App. B.

(2) [Reserved]

(o) The following material is available for purchase from the Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME), 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:

(1) IME Pamphlet No. 17, 1960, Safety in the Handling and Use of Explosives, IBR approved for §§1910.261 (a)(4)(iii) and (c)(14)(ii).

(2) [Reserved]

(p) The following material is available for purchase from the National Electrical Manufacturer's Association (NEMA):

(1) NEMA EW-1 (1962) Requirements for Electric Arc Welding Apparatus, IBR approved for §§1910.254(b)(1).

(2) [Reserved]

(q) The following material is available for purchase from the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269; Telephone: 800-344-3555 or 617-770-3000; Fax: 1-800-593-6372 or 1-508-895-8301; Email: custserv@nfpa.org; Web site: http://www.nfpa.org.

(1) NFPA 30 (1969) Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, IBR approved for §1910.178(f)(1).

(2) NFPA 32-1970 Standard for Dry Cleaning Plants, IBR approved for §1910.106(j)(6)(i).

(3) NFPA 33-1969 Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Material, IBR approved for §1910.94(c)(2).

(4) NFPA 34-1966 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for §1910.124(b)(4)(iv).

(5) NFPA 34-1995 Standard for Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for §1910.124(b)(4)(ii).

(6) NFPA 35-1970 Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, IBR approved for §1910.106(j)(6)(ii).

(7) NFPA 36-1967 Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, IBR approved for §1910.106(j)(6)(iii).

(8) NFPA 37-1970 Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, IBR approved for §§1910.106(j)(6)(iv) and 1910.110 (b)(20)(iv)(c) and (e)(11).

(9) NFPA 51B-1962 Standard for Fire Protection in Use of Cutting and Welding Processes, IBR approved for §1910.252(a)(1) introductory text.

(10) NFPA 54-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping, IBR approved for §1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(a).

(11) NFPA 54A-1969 Standard for the Installation of Gas Piping and Gas Equipment on Industrial Premises and Certain Other Premises, IBR approved for §1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(b).

(12) NFPA 58-1969 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases (ANSI Z106.1-1970), IBR approved for §§1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(3) (i) and (ii); and 1910.178(f)(2).

(13) NFPA 59-1968 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas Plants, IBR approved for §§1910.110 (b)(3)(iv) and (i)(2)(iv).

(14) NFPA 62-1967 Standard for the Prevention of Dust Explosions in the Production, Packaging, and Handling of Pulverized Sugar and Cocoa, IBR approved for §1910.263(k)(2)(i).

(15) NFPA 68-1954 Guide for Explosion Venting, IBR approved for §1910.94(a)(2)(iii).

(16) [Reserved]

(17) NFPA 78-1968 Lightning Protection Code, IBR approved for §1910.109(i)(6)(ii).

(18) NFPA 80-1968 Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for §1910.106(d)(4)(i).

(19) NFPA 80-1970 Standard for the Installation of Fire Doors and Windows, IBR approved for §1910.253(f)(6)(i)(I).

(20) NFPA 86A-1969 Standard for Oven and Furnaces Design, Location and Equipment, IBR approved for §§1910.107 (j)(1) and (l)(3) and 1910.108 (b)(2) and (d)(2).

(21) NFPA 91-1961 Standard for the Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying (ANSI Z33.1-61), IBR approved for §1910.107(d)(1).

(22) NFPA 91-1969 Standards for Blower and Exhaust Systems, IBR approved for §1910.108(b)(1).

(23) NFPA 96-1970 Standard for the Installation of Equipment for the Removal of Smoke and Grease Laden Vapors from Commercial Cooking Equipment, IBR approved for §1910.110(b)(20)(iv)(d).

(24) NFPA 101-1970 Code for Life Safety From Fire in Buildings and Structures, IBR approved for §1910.261(a)(4)(ii).

(25) NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, IBR approved for §§1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.

(26) NFPA 203M-1970 Manual on Roof Coverings, IBR approved for §1910.109(i)(1)(iii)(c).

(27) NFPA 251-1969 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, IBR approved for §§1910.106 (d)(3)(ii) introductory text and (d)(4)(i).

(28) NFPA 302-1968 Fire Protection Standard for Motor-Craft (Pleasure and Commercial), IBR approved for §1910.265(d)(2)(iv) introductory text.

(29) NFPA 385-1966 Recommended Regulatory Standard for Tank Vehicles for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for §1910.106(g)(1)(i)(e)(1).

(30) NFPA 496-1967 Standard for Purged Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations, IBR approved for §1910.103(c)(1)(ix)(e)(1).

(31) NFPA 505-1969 Standard for Type Designations, Areas of Use, Maintenance, and Operation of Powered Industrial Trucks, IBR approved for §1910.110(e)(2)(iv).

(32) NFPA 566-1965 Standard for the Installation of Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites, IBR approved for §§1910.253 (b)(4)(iv) and (c)(2)(v).

(33) NFPA 656-1959 Code for the Prevention of Dust Ignition in Spice Grinding Plants, IBR approved for §1910.263(k)(2)(i).

(34) NFPA 1971-1975 Protective Clothing for Structural Fire Fighting, IBR approved for §1910.156(e)(3)(ii) introductory text.

(35) NFPA 51A (2001) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for §1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2001 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: custserv@nfpa.org.

(36) NFPA 51A (2006) Standard for Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants, IBR approved for §1910.102(b) and (c). Copies of NFPA 51A-2006 are available for purchase from the: National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471; telephone: 1-800-344-35557; e-mail: custserv@nfpa.org.

(37) NFPA 30B, Code for the Manufacture and Storage of Aerosol Products, 2007 Edition, Approved August 17, 2006, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(r) The following material is available for purchase from the National Food Plant Institute, 1700 K St. NW., Washington, DC 20006:

(1) Definition and Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer (Nov. 1964), IBR approved for §1910.109 Table H-22, ftn. 3.

(2) [Reserved]

(s) The following material is available for purchase from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH):

(1) Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1978, IBR approved for §1910.20(c)(13)(i) and appendix B.

(2) Development of Criteria for Fire Fighters Gloves; Vol. II, part II; Test Methods, 1976, IBR approved for §1910.156(e)(4)(i) introductory text.

(3) NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Safety and Health Standards (Sept. 1987), IBR approved for §1910.120 PEL definition.

(t) The following material is available for purchase from the Public Health Service:

(1) U.S. Pharmacopeia, IBR approved for §1910.134(d)(1).

(2) Publication No. 934 (1962), Food Service Sanitation Ordinance and Code, part V of the Food Service Sanitation Manual, IBR approved for §1910.142(i)(1).

(u) The following material is available for purchase from the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 485 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10017:

(1) SAE J185, June 1988, Recommended Practice for Access Systems for Off-Road Machines, IBR approved for §1910.266(f)(5)(i).

(2) SAE J231, January 1981, Minimum Performance Criteria for Falling Object Protective Structure (FOPS), IBR approved for §1910.266(f)(3)(ii).

(3) SAE J386, June 1985, Operator Restraint Systems for Off-Road Work Machines, IBR approved for §1910.266(d)(3)(iv).

(4) SAE J397, April 1988, Deflection Limiting Volume-ROPS/FOPS Laboratory Evaluation, IBR approved for §1910.266(f)(3)(iv).

(5) SAE 765 (1961) SAE Recommended Practice: Crane Loading Stability Test Code, IBR approved for §1910.180 (c)(1)(iii) and (e)(2)(iii)(a).

(6) SAE J1040, April 1988, Performance Criteria for Rollover Protective Structures (ROPS) for Construction, Earthmoving, Forestry and Mining Machines, IBR approved for §1910.266(f)(3)(ii).

(v) The following material is available for purchase from the Fertilizer Institute, 1015 18th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036:

(1) Standard M-1 (1953, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968), Superseded by ANSI K61.1-1972, IBR approved for §1910.111(b)(1) (i) and (iii).

(2) [Reserved]

(w) The following material is available for purchase from Underwriters Laboratories (UL), 207 East Ohio Street, Chicago, IL 60611:

(1) UL 58-61 Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 5th Ed., IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(2) UL 80-63 Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(3) UL 142-68 Steel Above Ground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, IBR approved for §1910.106(b)(1)(iii)(a)(1).

(x) The following material is available for purchase from the: International Code Council, Chicago District Office, 4051 W. Flossmoor Rd., Country Club Hills, IL 60478; telephone: 708-799-2300, x3-3801; facsimile: 001-708-799-4981; e-mail: order@iccsafe.org.

(1) IFC-2009, International Fire Code, copyright 2009, IBR approved for §§1910.34, 1910.35, 1910.36, and 1910.37.

(2) [Reserved]

(y)(1) The following materials are available for purchase from the International Standards Organization (ISO) through ANSI, 25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY 10036-7417; Telephone: 212-642-4980; Fax: 212-302-1286; Email: info@ansi.org; Web site: http://www.ansi.org.

(2) Documents not available in the ANSI store may be purchased from:

(i) Document Center Inc., 111 Industrial Road, Suite 9, Belmont, 94002; Telephone: 650-591-7600; Fax: 650-591-7617; Email: info@document-center.com; Web site: www.document-center.com.

(ii) DECO—Document Engineering Co., Inc., 15210 Stagg Street, Van Nuys, CA 91405; Telephone: 800-645-7732 or 818-782-1010; Fax: 818-782-2374; Email: doceng@doceng.com; Web site: www.doceng.com

(iii) Global Engineering Documents, 15 Inverness Way East, Englewood, CO 80112; Telephone: 1-800-854-7179 or 303-397-7956; Fax: 303-397-2740; Email: global@ihs.com; Web sites: http://global.ihs.com or http://www.store.ihs.com;

(iv) ILI Infodisk, Inc., 610 Winters Avenue, Paramus, NJ 07652; Telephone: 201-986-1131; Fax: 201-986-7886; Email: sales@ili-info.com; Web site: www.ili-info.com.

(v) Techstreet, a business of Thomson Reuters, 3916 Ranchero Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48108; Telephone: 800-699-9277 or 734-780-8000; Fax: 734-780-2046; Email: techstreet.service@thomsonreuters.com; Web site: www.Techstreet.com.

(3) ISO 10156:1996 (E), Gases and Gas Mixtures—Determination of Fire Potential and Oxidizing Ability for the Selection of Cylinder Valve Outlets, Second Edition, Feb. 15, 1996, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(4) ISO 10156-2:2005 (E), Gas cylinders—Gases and Gas Mixtures—Part 2: Determination of Oxidizing Ability of Toxic and Corrosive Gases and Gas Mixtures, First Edition, Aug. 1, 2005, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(5) ISO 13943:2000 (E/F), Fire Safety—Vocabulary, First Edition, April, 15, 2000, IBR approved for Appendix B to §1910.1200.

(z)(1) The following document is available for purchase from United Nations Publications, Customer Service, c/o National Book Network, 15200 NBN Way, PO Box 190, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-888-254-4286; fax: 1-800-338-4550; email: unpublications@nbnbooks.com. Other distributors of United Nations Publications include:

(i) Bernan, 15200 NBN Way, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214; telephone: 1-800-865-3457; fax: 1-800-865-3450; email: customercare@bernan; Web site: http://www.bernan.com; and

(ii) Renouf Publishing Co. Ltd., 812 Proctor Avenue, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-2205; telephone: 1-888-551-7470; Fax: 1-888-551-7471; email: orders@renoufbooks.com; Web site: http://www.renoufbooks.com.

(2) UN ST/SG/AC.10/Rev.4, The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, Manual of Tests and Criteria, Fourth Revised Edition, 2003, IBR approved for appendix B to §1910.1200.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1910.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on GPO Access.

§1910.7   Definition and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(a) Application. This section shall apply only when the term nationally recognized testing laboratory is used in other sections of this part.

(b) Laboratory requirements. The term nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) means an organization which is recognized by OSHA in accordance with appendix A of this section and which tests for safety, and lists or labels or accepts, equipment or materials and which meets all of the following criteria:

(1) For each specified item of equipment or material to be listed, labeled or accepted, the NRTL has the capability (including proper testing equipment and facilities, trained staff, written testing procedures, and calibration and quality control programs) to perform:

(i) Testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards; or

(ii) Experimental testing and examining of equipment and materials for workplace safety purposes to determine conformance with appropriate test standards or performance in a specified manner.

(2) The NRTL shall provide, to the extent needed for the particular equipment or materials listed, labeled, or accepted, the following controls or services:

(i) Implements control procedures for identifying the listed and labeled equipment or materials;

(ii) Inspects the run of production of such items at factories for product evaluation purposes to assure conformance with the test standards; and

(iii) Conducts field inspections to monitor and to assure the proper use of its identifying mark or labels on products;

(3) The NRTL is completely independent of employers subject to the tested equipment requirements, and of any manufacturers or vendors of equipment or materials being tested for these purposes; and,

(4) The NRTL maintains effective procedures for:

(i) Producing creditable findings or reports that are objective and without bias; and

(ii) Handling complaints and disputes under a fair and reasonable system.

(c) Test standards. An appropriate test standard referred to in §1910.7(b)(1) (i) and (ii) is a document which specifies the safety requirements for specific equipment or class of equipment and is:

(1) Recognized in the United States as a safety standard providing an adequate level of safety, and

(2) Compatible with and maintained current with periodic revisions of applicable national codes and installation standards, and

(3) Developed by a standards developing organization under a method providing for input and consideration of views of industry groups, experts, users, consumers, governmental authorities, and others having broad experience in the safety field involved, or

(4) In lieu of paragraphs (c) (1), (2), and (3), the standard is currently designated as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety-designated product standard or an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test standard used for evaluation of products or materials.

(d) Alternative test standard. If a testing laboratory desires to use a test standard other than one allowed under paragraph (c) of this section, then the Assistant Secretary of Labor shall evaluate the proposed standard to determine that it provides an adequate level of safety before it is used.

(e) Implementation. A testing organization desiring recognition by OSHA as an NRTL shall request that OSHA evaluate its testing and control programs against the requirements in this section for any equipment or material it may specify. The recognition procedure shall be conducted in accordance with appendix A to this section.

(f) Fees. (1) Each applicant for NRTL recognition and each NRTL must pay fees for services provided by OSHA in advance of the provision of those services. OSHA will assess fees for the following services:

(i) Processing of applications for initial recognition, expansion of recognition, or renewal of recognition, including on-site reviews; review and evaluation of the applications; and preparation of reports, evaluations and Federal Register notices; and

(ii) Audits of sites.

(2) The fee schedule established by OSHA reflects the full cost of performing the activities for each service listed in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. OSHA calculates the fees based on either the average or actual time required to perform the work necessary; the staff costs per hour (which include wages, fringe benefits, and expenses other than travel for personnel that perform or administer the activities covered by the fees); and the average or actual costs for travel when on-site reviews are involved. The formula for the fee calculation is as follows:

Activity Fee = [Average (or Actual) Hours to Complete the Activity × Staff Costs per Hour] + Average (or Actual) Travel Costs

(3)(i) OSHA will review the full costs periodically and will propose a revised fee schedule, if warranted. In its review, OSHA will apply the formula established in paragraph (f)(2) of this section to the current estimated full costs for the NRTL Program. If a change is warranted, OSHA will follow the implementation shown in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(ii) OSHA will publish all fee schedules in the Federal Register. Once published, a fee schedule remains in effect until it is superseded by a new fee schedule. Any member of the public may request a change to the fees included in the current fee schedule. Such a request must include appropriate documentation in support of the suggested change. OSHA will consider such requests during its annual review of the fee schedule.

(4) OSHA will implement periodic review, and fee assessment, collection, and payment, as follows:

Milestones/DatesAction required
I. Periodic Review of Fee Schedule
When review completedOSHA will publish any proposed new fee schedule in the Federal Register if OSHA determines that costs warrant changes in the fee schedule.
Fifteen days after publicationComments due on the proposed new fee schedule.
When OSHA approves the fee scheduleOSHA will publish the final fee schedule in the Federal Register, making the fee schedule effective on a specific date.
II. Application Processing Fees
Time of applicationApplicant must pay the applicable fees in the fee schedule that are due when submitting an application; OSHA will not begin processing the application until it receives the fees.
Before assessment performedApplicant must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its assessment based on the fees in effect at the time of the assessment. Applicant also must pay the fees for the final report and Federal Register notice, and other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. OSHA may cancel an application if the applicant does not pay these fees, or any balance of these fees, when due.
III. Audit Fees
Before audit performedNRTL must pay the estimated staff time and travel costs for its audit based on the fees in effect at the time of the audit. NRTL also must pay other applicable fees, as specified in the fee schedule. After the audit, OSHA adjusts the audit fees to account for the actual costs for travel and staff time.
On due dateNRTL must pay the estimated audit fees, or any balance due, by the due date established by OSHA; OSHA will assess a late fee if NRTL does not pay audit fees (or any balance of fees due) by the due date. OSHA may still perform the audit when an NRTL does not pay the fees or does not pay them on time.
Thirty days after due date or, if earlier, date NRTL refuses to payOSHA will begin processing a notice for publication in the Federal Register announcing its plan to revoke recognition for NRTLs that do not pay the estimated audit fees and any balance of audit fees due.

Note: For the purposes of 29 CFR 1910.7(f)(4), “days” means “calendar days,” and “applicant” means “the NRTL” or “an applicant for NRTL recognition.”

(5) OSHA will provide details about how to pay the fees through appropriate OSHA Program Directives, which will be available on the OSHA web site.

Appendix A to §1910.7—OSHA Recognition Process for Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories

Introduction

This appendix provides requirements and criteria which OSHA will use to evaluate and recognize a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). This process will include the evaluation of the product evaluation and control programs being operated by the NRTL, as well as the NRTL's testing facilities being used in its program. In the evaluation of the NRTLs, OSHA will use either consensus-based standards currently in use nationally, or other standards or criteria which may be considered appropriate. This appendix implements the definition of NRTL in 29 CFR 1910.7 which sets out the criteria that a laboratory must meet to be recognized by OSHA (initially and on a continuing basis). The appendix is broader in scope, providing procedures for renewal, expansion and revocation of OSHA recognition. Except as otherwise provided, the burden is on the applicant to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that it is entitled to recognition as an NRTL. If further detailing of these requirements and criteria will assist the NRTLs or OSHA in this activity, this detailing will be done through appropriate OSHA Program Directives.

I. Procedures for Initial OSHA Recognition

A. Applications.

1. Eligibility. a. Any testing agency or organization considering itself to meet the definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory as specified in §1910.7 may apply for OSHA recognition as an NRTL.

b. However, in determining eligibility for a foreign-based testing agency or organization, OSHA shall take into consideration the policy of the foreign government regarding both the acceptance in that country of testing data, equipment acceptances, and listings, and labeling, which are provided through nationally recognized testing laboratories recognized by the Assistant Secretary, and the accessibility to government recognition or a similar system in that country by U.S.-based safety-related testing agencies, whether recognized by the Assistant Secretary or not, if such recognition or a similar system is required by that country.

2. Content of application. a. The applicant shall provide sufficient information and detail demonstrating that it meets the requirements set forth in §1910.7, in order for an informed decision concerning recognition to be made by the Assistant Secretary.

b. The applicant also shall identify the scope of the NRTL-related activity for which the applicant wishes to be recognized. This will include identifying the testing methods it will use to test or judge the specific equipment and materials for which recognition is being requested, unless such test methods are already specified in the test standard. If requested to do so by OSHA, the applicant shall provide documentation of the efficacy of these testing methods.

c. The applicant may include whatever enclosures, attachments, or exhibits the applicant deems appropriate. The application need not be submitted on a Federal form.

3. Filing office location. The application shall be filed with: NRTL Recognition Program, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210.

4. Amendments and withdrawals. a. An application may be revised by an applicant at any time prior to the completion of activity under paragraph I.B.4. of this appendix.

b. An application may be withdrawn by an applicant, without prejudice, at any time prior to the final decision by the Assistant Secretary in paragraph I.B.7.c. of this appendix.

B. Review and Decision Process; Issuance or Renewal.

1. Acceptance and on-site review. a. Applications submitted by eligible testing agencies will be accepted by OSHA, and their receipt acknowledged in writing. After receipt of an application, OSHA may request additional information if it believes information relevant to the requirements for recognition has been omitted.

b. OSHA shall, as necessary, conduct an on-site review of the testing facilities of the applicant, as well as the applicant's administrative and technical practices, and, if necessary, review any additional documentation underlying the application.

c. These on-site reviews will be conducted by qualified individuals technically expert in these matters, including, as appropriate, non-Federal consultants/contractors acceptable to OSHA. The protocol for each review will be based on appropriate national consensus standards or international guides, with such additions, changes, or deletions as may be considered necessary and appropriate in each case by OSHA. A written report shall be made of each on-site review and a copy shall be provided to the applicant.

2. Positive finding by staff. If, after review of the application, and additional information, and the on-site review report, the applicant appears to have met the requirements for recognition, a written recommendation shall be submitted by the responsible OSHA personnel to the Assistant Secretary that the application be approved, accompanied by a supporting explanation.

3. Negative finding by staff.—a. Notification to applicant. If, after review of the application, any additional information and the on-site review report, the applicant does not appear to have met the requirements for recognition, the responsible OSHA personnel shall notify the applicant in writing, listing the specific requirements of §1910.7 and this appendix which the applicant has not met, and allow a reasonable period for response.

b. Revision of application. (i) After receipt of a notification of negative finding (i.e., for intended disapproval of the application), and within the response period provided, the applicant may:

(a) Submit a revised application for further review, which could result in a positive finding by the responsible OSHA personnel pursuant to subsection I.B.2. of this appendix; or

(b) Request that the original application be submitted to the Assistant Secretary with an attached statement of reasons, supplied by the applicant of why the application should be approved.

(ii) This procedure for applicant notification and potential revision shall be used only once during each recognition process.

4. Preliminary finding by Assistant Secretary. a. The Assistant Secretary, or a special designee for this purpose, will make a preliminary finding as to whether the applicant has or has not met the requirements for recognition, based on the completed application file, the written staff recommendation, and the statement of reasons supplied by the applicant if there remains a staff recommendation of disapproval.

b. Notification of this preliminary finding will be sent to the applicant and subsequently published in the Federal Register.

c. This preliminary finding shall not be considered an official decision by the Assistant Secretary or OSHA, and does not confer any change in status or any interim or temporary recognition for the applicant.

5. Public review and comment period—a. The Federal Register notice of preliminary finding will provide a period of not less than 30 calendar days for written comments on the applicant's fulfillment of the requirements for recognition. The application, supporting documents, staff recommendation, statement of applicant's reasons, and any comments received, will be available for public inspection in the OSHA Docket Office.

b. Any member of the public, including the applicant, may supply detailed reasons and evidence supporting or challenging the sufficiency of the applicant's having met the requirements of the definition in 29 CFR §1910.7 and this appendix. Submission of pertinent documents and exhibits shall be made in writing by the close of the comment period.

6. Action after public comment—a. Final decision by Assistant Secretary. Where the public review and comment record supports the Assistant Secretary's preliminary finding concerning the application, i.e., absent any serious objections or substantive claims contrary to the preliminary finding having been received in writing from the public during the comment period, the Assistant Secretary will proceed to final written decision on the application. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, and the written comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period.

b. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant. Subsequently, a notification of the final decision shall be published in the Federal Register. The publication date will be the effective date of the recognition.

c. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

7. Action after public objection—a. Review of negative information. At the discretion of the Assistant Secretary or his designee, OSHA may authorize Federal or contract personnel to initiate a special review of any information provided in the public comment record which appears to require resolution, before a final decision can be made.

b. Supplementation of record. The contents and results of special reviews will be made part of this record by the Assistant Secretary by either:

(i) Reopening the written comment period for public comments on these reviews; or

(ii) Convening an informal hearing to accept public comments on these reviews, conducted under applicable OSHA procedures for similar hearings.

c. Final decision by the Assistant Secretary. The Assistant Secretary shall issue a decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of the evidence, that the applicant meets the requirements for recognition. The reasons supporting this decision shall be derived from the evidence available as a result of the full application, the supporting documentation, the staff finding, the comments and evidence presented during the public review and comment period, and written to transcribed evidence received during any subsequent reopening of the written comment period or informal public hearing held.

d. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register subsequently announcing the decision.

e. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

c. Terms and conditions of recognition. The following terms and conditions shall be part of every recognition:

1. Letter of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of any NRTL will be evidenced by a letter of recognition from OSHA. The letter will provide the specific details of the scope of the OSHA recognition, including the specific equipment or materials for which OSHA recognition has been granted, as well as any specific conditions imposed by OSHA.

2. Period of recognition. The recognition by OSHA of each NRTL will be valid for five years, unless terminated before the expiration of the period. The dates of the period of recognition will be stated in the recognition letter.

3. Constancy in operations. The recognized NRTL shall continue to satisfy all the requirements or limitations in the letter of recognition during the period of recognition.

4. Accurate publicity. The OSHA-recognized NRTL shall not engage in or permit others to engage in misrepresentation of the scope or conditions of its recognition.

5. Temporary Recognition of Certain NRTLs. a. Notwithstanding all other requirements and provisions of §1910.7 and this appendix, the following two organizations are recognized temporarily as nationally recognized testing laboratories by the Assistant Secretary for a period of five years beginning June 13, 1988 and ending on July 13, 1993:

(i) Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road, Northbrook, Illinois 60062.

(ii) Factory Mutual Research Corporation, 1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike, Norwood, Massachusetts 02062.

b. At the end of the five-year period, the two temporarily recognized laboratories shall apply for renewal of OSHA recognition utilizing the following procedures established for renewal of OSHA recognition.

II. Supplementary Procedures.

A. Test standard changes.

A recognized NRTL may change a testing standard or elements incorporated in the standard such as testing methods or pass-fail criteria by notifying the Assistant Secretary of the change, certifying that the revised standard will be at least as effective as the prior standard, and providing the supporting data upon which its conclusions are based. The NRTL need not inform the Assistant Secretary of minor deviations from a test standard such as the use of new instrumentation that is more accurate or sensitive than originally called for in the standard. The NRTL also need not inform the Assistant Secretary of its adoption of revisions to third-party testing standards meeting the requirements of §1910.7(c)(4), if such revisions have been developed by the standards developing organization, or of its adoption of revisions to other third-party test standards which the developing organization has submitted to OSHA. If, upon review, the Assistant Secretary or his designee determines that the proposed revised standard is not “substantially equivalent” to the previous version with regard to the level of safety obtained, OSHA will not accept the proposed testing standard by the recognized NRTL, and will initiate discontinuance of that aspect of OSHA-recognized activity by the NRTL by modification of the official letter of recognition. OSHA will publicly announce this action and the NRTL will be required to communicate this OSHA decision directly to affected manufacturers.

B. Expansion of current recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may apply to OSHA for an expansion of its current recognition to cover other categories of NRTL testing in addition to those included in the current recognition.

2. Procedure. a. OSHA will act upon and process the application for expansion in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.

b. In that process, OSHA may decide not to conduct an on-site review, where the substantive scope of the request to expand recognition is closely related to the current area of recognition.

c. The expiration date for each expansion of recognition shall coincide with the expiration date of the current basic recognition period.

C. Renewal of OSHA recognition

1. Eligibility. A recognized NRTL may renew its recognition by filing a renewal request at the address in paragraph I.A.3. of this appendix not less than nine months, nor more than one year, before the expiration date of its current recognition.

2. Procedure. a. OSHA will process the renewal request in accordance with subsection I.B. of this appendix, except that the period for written comments, specified in paragraph 5.a of subsection I.B. of this appendix, will be not less than 15 calendar days.

b. In that process, OSHA may determine not to conduct the on-site reviews in I.B.1.a. where appropriate.

c. When a recognized NRTL has filed a timely and sufficient renewal request, its current recognition will not expire until a final decision has been made by OSHA on the request.

d. After the first renewal has been granted to the NRTL, the NRTL shall apply for a continuation of its recognition status every five years by submitting a renewal request. In lieu of submitting a renewal request after the initial renewal, the NRTL may certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.

3. Alternative procedure. After the initial recognition and before the expiration thereof, OSHA may (for good cause) determine that there is a sufficient basis to dispense with the renewal requirement for a given laboratory and will so notify the laboratory of such a determination in writing. In lieu of submitting a renewal request, any laboratory so notified shall certify its continuing compliance with the terms of its letter of recognition and 29 CFR 1910.7.

D. Voluntary termination of recognition.

At any time, a recognized NRTL may voluntarily terminate its recognition, either in its entirety or with respect to any area covered in its recognition, by giving written notice to OSHA. The written notice shall state the date as of which the termination is to take effect. The Assistant Secretary shall inform the public of any voluntary termination by Federal Register notice.

E. Revocation of recognition by OSHA.

1. Potential causes. If an NRTL either has failed to continue to substantially satisfy the requirements of §1910.7 or this appendix, or has not been reasonably performing the NRTL testing requirements encompassed within its letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or misrepresented the scope or conditions of its recognition, the Assistant Secretary may revoke the recognition of a recognized NRTL, in whole or in part. OSHA may initiate revocation procedures on the basis of information provided by any interested person.

2. Procedure. a. Before proposing to revoke recognition, the Agency will notify the recognized NRTL in writing, giving it the opportunity to rebut or correct the alleged deficiencies which would form the basis of the proposed revocation, within a reasonable period.

b. If the alleged deficiencies are not corrected or reconciled within a reasonable period, OSHA will propose, in writing to the recognized NRTL, to revoke recognition. If deemed appropriate, no other announcement need be made by OSHA.

c. The revocation shall be effective in 60 days unless within that period the recognized NRTL corrects the deficiencies or requests a hearing in writing.

d. If a hearing is requested, it shall be held before an administrative law judge of the Department of Labor pursuant to the rules specified in 29 CFR part 1905, subpart C.

e. The parties shall be OSHA and the recognized NRTL. The Assistant Secretary may allow other interested persons to participate in these hearings if such participation would contribute to the resolution of issues germane to the proceeding and not cause undue delay.

f. The burden of proof shall be on OSHA to demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the recognition should be revoked because the NRTL is not meeting the requirements for recognition, has not been reasonably performing the product testing functions as required by §1910.7, this appendix A, or the letter of recognition, or has materially misrepresented itself in its applications or publicity.

3. Final decision. a. After the hearing, the Administrative Law Judge shall issue a decision stating the reasons based on the record as to whether it has been demonstrated, based on a preponderance of evidence, that the applicant does not continue to meet the requirements for its current recognition.

b. Upon issuance of the decision, any party to the hearing may file exceptions within 20 days pursuant to 29 CFR 1905.28. If no exceptions are filed, this decision is the final decision of the Assistant Secretary. If objections are filed, the Administrative Law Judge shall forward the decision, exceptions and record to the Assistant Secretary for the final decision on the proposed revocation.

c. The Assistant Secretary will review the record, the decision by the Administrative Law Judge, and the exceptions filed. Based on this, the Assistant Secretary shall issue the final decision as to whether it has been demonstrated, by a preponderance of evidence, that the recognized NRTL has not continued to meet the requirements for OSHA recognition. If the Assistant Secretary finds that the NRTL does not meet the NRTL recognition requirements, the recognition will be revoked.

4. Public announcement. A copy of the Assistant Secretary's final decision will be provided to the applicant, and a notification will be published in the Federal Register announcing the decision, and the availability of the complete record of this proceeding at OSHA. The effective date of any revocation will be the date the final decision copy is sent to the NRTL.

5. Review of final decision. There will be no further review activity available within the Department of Labor from the final decision of the Assistant Secretary.

[53 FR 12120, Apr. 12, 1988; 53 FR 16838, May 11, 1988, as amended at 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 65 FR 46818, 46819, July 31, 2000; 76 FR 10515, Feb. 25, 2011]

§1910.8   OMB control numbers under the Paperwork Reduction Act.

The following sections or paragraphs each contain a collection of information requirement which has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under the control number listed.

29 CFR citationOMB control No.
1910.71218-0147
1910.231218-0199
1910.661218-0121
1910.67(b)1218-0230
1910.681218-0226
1910.951218-0048
1910.1111218-0208
1910.1191218-0200
1910.1201218-0202
1910.1321218-0205
1910.1341218-0099
1910.1371218-0190
1910.1421218-0096
1910.1451218-0132
1910.1461218-0203
1910.1471218-0150
1910.1561218-0075
1910.157(e)(3)1218-0210
1910.157(f)(16)1218-0218
1910.177(d)(3)(iv)1218-0219
1910.179(j)(2)(iii) and (iv)1218-0224
1910.179(m)(1) and (m)(2)1218-0224
1910.180(d)(6)1218-0221
1910.180(g)(1) and (g)(2)(ii)1218-0221
1910.181(g)(1) and (g)(3)1218-0222
1910.184(e)(4), (f)(4) and (i)(8)(ii)1218-0223
1910.217(e)(1)(i) and (ii)1218-0229
1910.217(g)1218-0070
1910.217(h)1218-0143
1910.218(a)(2)(i) and (ii)1218-0228
1910.252(a)(2)(xiii)(c)1218-0207
1910.255(e)1218-0207
1910.2661218-0198
1910.2681218-0225
1910.2691218-0190
1910.2721218-0206
1910.3021218-0256
1910.3031218-0256
1910.3041218-0256
1910.3051218-0256
1910.3061218-0256
1910.3071218-0256
1910.3081218-0256
1910.4201218-0069
1910.4211218-0069
1910.4231218-0069
1910.4301218-0069
1910.4401218-0069
1910.10011218-0133
1910.10031218-0085
1910.10041218-0084
1910.10061218-0086
1910.10071218-0083
1910.10081218-0087
1910.10091218-0089
1910.10101218-0082
1910.10111218-0090
1910.10121218-0080
1910.10131218-0079
1910.10141218-0088
1910.10151218-0044
1910.10161218-0081
1910.10171218-0010
1910.10181218-0104
1910.10201218-0065
1910.10251218-0092
1910.10261218-0252
1910.10271218-0185
1910.10281218-0129
1910.10291218-0128
1910.10301218-0180
1910.10431218-0061
1910.10441218-0101
1910.10451218-0126
1910.10471218-0108
1910.10481218-0145
1910.10501218-0184
1910.10511218-0170
1910.10521218-0179
1910.10961218-0103
1910.12001218-0072
1910.14501218-0131

[61 FR 5508, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 62 FR 29668, June 2, 1997; 62 FR 42666, Aug. 8, 1997; 62 FR 43581, Aug. 14, 1997; 62 FR 65203, Dec. 11, 1997; 63 FR 13340, Mar. 19, 1998; 63 FR 17093, Apr. 8, 1998; 71 FR 38086, July 5, 2006; 72 FR 40075, July 23, 2007]

§1910.9   Compliance duties owed to each employee.

(a) Personal protective equipment. Standards in this part requiring the employer to provide personal protective equipment (PPE), including respirators and other types of PPE, because of hazards to employees impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must provide PPE to each employee required to use the PPE, and each failure to provide PPE to an employee may be considered a separate violation.

(b) Training. Standards in this part requiring training on hazards and related matters, such as standards requiring that employees receive training or that the employer train employees, provide training to employees, or institute or implement a training program, impose a separate compliance duty with respect to each employee covered by the requirement. The employer must train each affected employee in the manner required by the standard, and each failure to train an employee may be considered a separate violation.

[73 FR 75583, Dec. 12, 2008]

Subpart B—Adoption and Extension of Established Federal Standards

Authority: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Walsh-Healey Act, 41 U.S.C. 35 et seq.; Service Contract Act of 1965, 41 U.S.C. 351 et seq.; Sec.107, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (Construction Safety Act), 40 U.S.C. 333; Sec. 41, Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, 33 U.S.C. 941; National Foundation of Arts and Humanities Act, 20 U.S.C. 951 et seq.; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 1911), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), or 6-96 (62 FR 111), as applicable.

§1910.11   Scope and purpose.

(a) The provisions of this subpart B adopt and extend the applicability of, established Federal standards in effect on April 28, 1971, with respect to every employer, employee, and employment covered by the Act.

(b) It bears emphasis that only standards (i.e., substantive rules) relating to safety or health are adopted by any incorporations by reference of standards prescribed elsewhere in this chapter or this title. Other materials contained in the referenced parties are not adopted. Illustrations of the types of materials which are not adopted are these. The incorporations by reference of parts 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918 in §§1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16 are not intended to include the discussion in those parts of the coverage of the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act or the penalty provisions of the Act. Similarly, the incorporation by reference of part 1926 in §1910.12 is not intended to include references to interpretative rules having relevance to the application of the Construction Safety Act, but having no relevance to the application to the Occupational Safety and Health Act.

§1910.12   Construction work.

(a) Standards. The standards prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter are adopted as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in construction work. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in construction work by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed in this paragraph.

(b) Definition. For purposes of this section, Construction work means work for construction, alteration, and/or repair, including painting and decorating. See discussion of these terms in §1926.13 of this title.

(c) Construction Safety Act distinguished. This section adopts as occupational safety and health standards under section 6 of the Act the standards which are prescribed in part 1926 of this chapter. Thus, the standards (substantive rules) published in subpart C and the following subparts of part 1926 of this chapter are applied. This section does not incorporate subparts A and B of part 1926 of this chapter. Subparts A and B have pertinence only to the application of section 107 of the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (the Construction Safety Act). For example, the interpretation of the term “subcontractor” in paragraph (c) of §1926.13 of this chapter is significant in discerning the coverage of the Construction Safety Act and duties thereunder. However, the term “subcontractor” has no significance in the application of the Act, which was enacted under the Commerce Clause and which establishes duties for “employers” which are not dependent for their application upon any contractual relationship with the Federal Government or upon any form of Federal financial assistance.

(d) For the purposes of this part, to the extent that it may not already be included in paragraph (b) of this section, “construction work” includes the erection of new electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration, conversion, and improvement of the existing transmission and distribution lines and equipment.

§1910.15   Shipyard employment.

(a) Adoption and extension of established safety and health standards for shipyard employment. The standards prescribed by part 1915 (formerly parts 1501-1503) of this title and in effect on April 28, 1971 (as revised), are adopted as occupational safety or health standards under section 6(a) of the Act and shall apply, according to the provisions thereof, to every employment and place of employment of every employee engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment. Each employer shall protect the employment and places of employment of each of his employees engaged in ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding, or a related employment, by complying with the appropriate standards prescribed by this paragraph.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Ship repair means any repair of a vessel, including, but not restricted to, alterations, conversions, installations, cleaning, painting, and maintenance work;

(2) Shipbreaking means any breaking down of a vessel's structure for the purpose of scrapping the vessel, including the removal of gear, equipment, or any component of a vessel;

(3) Shipbuilding means the construction of a vessel, including the installation of machinery and equipment;

(4) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to, or in conjunction with, ship repair, shipbreaking, and shipbuilding work, including, but not restricted to, inspection, testing, and employment as a watchman; and

(5) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.

[58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993]

§1910.16   Longshoring and marine terminals.

(a) Safety and health standards for longshoring. (1) Part 1918 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to all employment of every employee engaged in longshoring operations or related employment aboard any vessel. All cargo transfer accomplished with the use of shore-based material handling devices shall be governed by part 1917 of this chapter.

(2) Part 1910 does not apply to longshoring operations except for the following provisions:

(i) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, §1910.1020;

(ii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;

(iii) Electrical. Subpart S when shore-based electrical installations provide power for use aboard vessels;

(iv) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, §1910.1200;

(v) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, §1910.1096;

(vi) Noise. Subpart G, §1910.95;

(vii) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, §1910.97;

Note to paragraph (a)(2)(vii): Exposures to nonionizing radiation emissions from commercial vessel transmitters are considered hazardous under the following conditions: (1) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is stationary, and the exposure distance is 18.7 feet (6 m.) or less; or (2) where the radar is transmitting, the scanner is rotating, and the exposure distance is 5.2 feet (1.8 m.) or less.

(viii) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, §1910.134;

(ix) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:

(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;1

1The International Maritime Organization publishes the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code to aid compliance with the international legal requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960.

(B) Bloodborne pathogens, §1910.1030;

(C) Carbon monoxide, §1910.1000 (See §1918.94 (a)); and

(D) Hydrogen sulfide, §1910.1000 (See §1918.94 (f)).

(x) Powered industrial truck operator training, Subpart N, §1910.178(l).

(b) Safety and health standards for marine terminals. Part 1917 of this chapter shall apply exclusively, according to the provisions thereof, to employment within a marine terminal, except as follows:

(1) The provisions of part 1917 of this chapter do not apply to the following:

(i) Facilities used solely for the bulk storage, handling, and transfer of flammable and combustible liquids and gases.

(ii) Facilities subject to the regulations of the Office of Pipeline Safety of the Research and Special Programs Administration, Department of Transportation (49 CFR chapter I, subchapter D), to the extent such regulations apply to specific working conditions.

(iii) Fully automated bulk coal handling facilities contiguous to electrical power generating plants.

(2) Part 1910 does not apply to marine terminals except for the following:

(i) Abrasive blasting. Subpart G, §1910.94(a);

(ii) Access to employee exposure and medical records. Subpart Z, §1910.1020;

(iii) Commercial diving operations. Subpart T;

(iv) Electrical. Subpart S;

(v) Grain handling facilities. Subpart R, §1910.272;

(vi) Hazard communication. Subpart Z, §1910.1200;

(vii) Ionizing radiation. Subpart Z, §1910.1096;

(viii) Noise. Subpart G, §1910.95;

(ix) Nonionizing radiation. Subpart G, §1910.97.

(x) Respiratory protection. Subpart I, §1910.134.

(xi) Safety requirements for scaffolding. Subpart D, §1910.28;

(xii) Servicing multi-piece and single piece rim wheels. Subpart N, §1910.177;

(xiii) Toxic and hazardous substances. Subpart Z applies to marine cargo handling activities except for the following:

(A) When a substance or cargo is contained within a sealed, intact means of packaging or containment complying with Department of Transportation or International Maritime Organization requirements;2

2The International Maritime Organization publishes the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code to aid compliance with the international legal requirements of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960.

(B) Bloodborne pathogens, §1910.1030;

(C) Carbon monoxide, §1910.1000 (See §1917.24(a)); and

(D) Hydrogen sulfide, §1910.1000 (See §1917.73(a)(2)); and

(xiv) Powered industrial truck operator training, subpart N, §1910.178(l).

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Longshoring operation means the loading, unloading, moving, or handling of, cargo, ship's stores, gear, etc., into, in, on, or out of any vessel;

(2) Related employment means any employment performed as an incident to or in conjunction with, longshoring operations including, but not restricted to, securing cargo, rigging, and employment as a porter, checker, or watchman; and

(3) Vessel includes every description of watercraft or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water, including special purpose floating structures not primarily designed for, or used as a means of, transportation on water.

(4) Marine terminal means wharves, bulkheads, quays, piers, docks and other berthing locations and adjacent storage or adjacent areas and structures associated with the primary movement of cargo or materials from vessel to shore or shore to vessel including structures which are devoted to receiving, handling, holding, consolidation and loading or delivery of waterborne shipments or passengers, including areas devoted to the maintenance of the terminal or equipment. The term does not include production or manufacturing areas having their own docking facilities and located at a marine terminal nor does the term include storage facilities directly associated with those production or manufacturing areas.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 48 FR 30908, July 5, 1983; 52 FR 36026, Sept. 25, 1987; 62 FR 40195, July 25, 1997; 63 FR 66270, Dec. 1, 1998]

§1910.17   Effective dates.

(a)-(b) [Reserved]

(c) Except whenever any employment or place of employment is, or becomes, subject to any safety and health standard prescribed in part 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, or 1926 of this title on a date before August 27, 1971, by virtue of the Construction Safety Act or the Longshoremen's and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act, that occupational safety and health standard as incorporated by reference in this subpart shall also become effective under the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 on that date.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]

§1910.18   Changes in established Federal standards.

Whenever an occupational safety and health standard adopted and incorporated by reference in this subpart B is changed pursuant to section 6(b) of the Act and the statute under which the standard was originally promulgated, and in accordance with part 1911 of this chapter, the standard shall be deemed changed for purposes of that statute and this subpart B, and shall apply under this subpart B. For the purposes of this section, a change in a standard includes any amendment, addition, or repeal, in whole or in part, of any standard.

§1910.19   Special provisions for air contaminants.

(a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust. Section 1910.1001 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and actinolite dust which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(b) Vinyl chloride. Section 1910.1017 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to vinyl chloride in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to vinyl chloride which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(c) Acrylonitrile. Section 1910.1045 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to acrylonitrile in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to acrylonitrile which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Inorganic arsenic. Section 1910.1018 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to inorganic arsenic in every employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to inorganic arsenic which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of any of those sections.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) Lead. Section 1910.1025 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to lead in every employment and place of employment covered by §§1910.13, 1910.14, 1910.15, and 1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to lead which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(h) Ethylene oxide. Section 1910.1047 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to ethylene oxide in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to ethylene oxide which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(i) 4,4′-Methylenedianiline (MDA). Section 1910.1050 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MDA in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MDA which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(j) Formaldehyde. Section 1910.1048 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to formaldehyde in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15 or §1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to formaldehyde which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(k) Cadmium. Section 1910.1027 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to cadmium in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposures to cadmium that would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(l) 1,3-Butadiene (BD). Section 1910.1051 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to BD in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.12, §1910.13, §1910.14, §1910.15, or §1910.16, in lieu of any different standard on exposure to BD which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of those sections.

(m) Methylene chloride (MC). Section 1910.1052 shall apply to the exposure of every employee to MC in every employment and place of employment covered by §1910.16 in lieu of any different standard on exposure to MC which would otherwise be applicable by virtue of that section when it is not present in sealed, intact containers.

[43 FR 28473, June 30, 1978, as amended at 43 FR 45809, Oct. 3, 1978; 43 FR 53007, Nov. 14, 1978; 44 FR 5447, Jan. 26, 1979; 46 FR 32022, June 19, 1981; 49 FR 25796, June 22, 1984; 50 FR 51173, Dec. 13, 1985; 52 FR 46291, Dec. 4, 1987; 57 FR 35666, Aug. 10, 1992; 57 FR 42388, Sept. 14, 1992; 59 FR 41057, Aug. 10, 1994; 61 FR 56831, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1600, Jan. 10, 1997]

Subpart C [Reserved]

Subpart D—Walking-Working Surfaces

Authority: Secs. 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), or 1-90 (55 FR 9033), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§1910.21   Definitions.

(a) As used in §1910.23, unless the context requires otherwise, floor and wall opening, railing and toe board terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Floor hole. An opening measuring less than 12 inches but more than 1 inch in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard, through which materials but not persons may fall; such as a belt hole, pipe opening, or slot opening.

(2) Floor opening. An opening measuring 12 inches or more in its least dimension, in any floor, platform, pavement, or yard through which persons may fall; such as a hatchway, stair or ladder opening, pit, or large manhole. Floor openings occupied by elevators, dumb waiters, conveyors, machinery, or containers are excluded from this subpart.

(3) Handrail. A single bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition, as on a stairway or ramp, to furnish persons with a handhold in case of tripping.

(4) Platform. A working space for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground; such as a balcony or platform for the operation of machinery and equipment.

(5) Runway. A passageway for persons, elevated above the surrounding floor or ground level, such as a footwalk along shafting or a walkway between buildings.

(6) Standard railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, ramp, platform, or runway to prevent falls of persons.

(7) Standard strength and construction. Any construction of railings, covers, or other guards that meets the requirements of §1910.23.

(8) Stair railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of a stairway to prevent falls of persons.

(9) Toeboard. A vertical barrier at floor level erected along exposed edges of a floor opening, wall opening, platform, runway, or ramp to prevent falls of materials.

(10) Wall hole. An opening less than 30 inches but more than 1 inch high, of unrestricted width, in any wall or partition; such as a ventilation hole or drainage scupper.

(11) Wall opening. An opening at least 30 inches high and 18 inches wide, in any wall or partition, through which persons may fall; such as a yard-arm doorway or chute opening.

(b) As used in §1910.24, unless the context requires otherwise, fixed industrial stair terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Handrail. A single bar or pipe supported on brackets from a wall or partition to provide a continuous handhold for persons using a stair.

(2) Nose, nosing. That portion of a tread projecting beyond the face of the riser immediately below.

(3) Open riser. The air space between the treads of stairways without upright members (risers).

(4) Platform. An extended step or landing breaking a continuous run of stairs.

(5) Railing. A vertical barrier erected along exposed sides of stairways and platforms to prevent falls of persons. The top member of railing usually serves as a handrail.

(6) Rise. The vertical distance from the top of a tread to the top of the next higher tread.

(7) Riser. The upright member of a step situated at the back of a lower tread and near the leading edge of the next higher tread.

(8) Stairs, stairway. A series of steps leading from one level or floor to another, or leading to platforms, pits, boiler rooms, crossovers, or around machinery, tanks, and other equipment that are used more or less continuously or routinely by employees, or only occasionally by specific individuals. A series of steps and landings having three or more risers constitutes stairs or stairway.

(9) Tread. The horizontal member of a step.

(10) Tread run. The horizontal distance from the leading edge of a tread to the leading edge of an adjacent tread.

(11) Tread width. The horizontal distance from front to back of tread including nosing when used.

(c) As used in §1910.25, unless the context requires otherwise, portable wood ladders terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Ladders. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(2) Stepladder. A stepladder is a selfsupporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.

(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of but one section. Its size is designated by the overall length of the side rail.

(4) Extension ladder. An extension ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.

(5) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections of ladder so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.

(6) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of two sections hinged at the top to form equal angles with the base. The size is designated by the length of the side rails measured along the front edge.

(7) Extension trestle ladder. An extension trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length, consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable single ladder, with suitable means for locking the ladders together. The size is designated by the length of the trestle ladder base.

(8) Special-purpose ladder. A special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder which represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.

(9) Trolley ladder. A trolley ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in length, supported by attachments to an overhead track, the plane of the ladder being at right angles to the plane of motion.

(10) Side-rolling ladder. A side-rolling ladder is a semifixed ladder, nonadjustable in length, supported by attachments to a guide rail, which is generally fastened to shelving, the plane of the ladder being also its plane of motion.

(11) Wood characteristics. Wood characteristics are distinguishing features which by their extent and number determine the quality of a piece of wood.

(12) Wood irregularities. Wood irregularities are natural characteristics in or on wood that may lower its durability, strength, or utility.

(13) Cross grain. Cross grain (slope of grain) is a deviation of the fiber direction from a line parallel to the sides of the piece.

(14) Knot. A knot is a branch or limb, imbedded in the tree and cut through in the process of lumber manufacture, classified according to size, quality, and occurrence. The size of the knot is determined as the average diameter on the surface of the piece.

(15) Pitch and bark pockets. A pitch pocket is an opening extending parallel to the annual growth rings containing, or that has contained, pitch, either solid or liquid. A bark pocket is an opening between annual growth rings that contains bark.

(16) Shake. A shake is a separation along the grain, most of which occurs between the rings of annual growth.

(17) Check. A check is a lengthwise separation of the wood, most of which occurs across the rings of annual growth.

(18) Wane. Wane is bark, or the lack of wood from any cause, on the corner of a piece.

(19) Decay. Decay is disintegration of wood substance due to action of wood-destroying fungi. It is also known as dote and rot.

(20) Compression failure. A compression failure is a deformation (buckling) of the fibers due to excessive compression along the grain.

(21) Compression wood. Compression wood is an aberrant (abnormal) and highly variable type of wood structure occurring in softwood species. The wood commonly has density somewhat higher than does normal wood, but somewhat lower stiffness and tensile strength for its weight in addition to high longitudinal shrinkage.

(22) Low density. Low-density wood is that which is exceptionally light in weight and usually deficient in strength properties for the species.

(d) As used in §1910.26, unless the context requires otherwise, portable metal ladder terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(2) Step ladder. A step ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front edge of the side rails.

(3) Single ladder. A single ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of but one section. Its size is designated by the overall length of the side rail.

(4) Extension ladder. An extension ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.

(5) Platform ladder. A self-supporting ladder of fixed size with a platform provided at the working level. The size is determined by the distance along the front rail from the platform to the base of the ladder.

(6) Sectional ladder. A sectional ladder is a non-self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two or more sections so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.

(7) Trestle ladder. A trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, non-adjustable in length, consisting of two sections, hinged at the top to form equal angles with the base. The size is designated by the length of the side rails measured along the front edge.

(8) Extension trestle ladder. An extension trestle ladder is a self-supporting portable ladder, adjustable in length, consisting of a trestle ladder base and a vertically adjustable single ladder, with suitable means for locking the ladders together. The size is designated by the length of the trestle ladder base.

(9) Special-purpose ladder. A special-purpose ladder is a portable ladder which represents either a modification or a combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.

(e) As used in §1910.27, unless the context requires otherwise, fixed ladder terms shall have the meanings ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Ladder. A ladder is an appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by cross- pieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(2) Fixed ladder. A fixed ladder is a ladder permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment.

(3) Individual-rung ladder. An individual-rung ladder is a fixed ladder each rung of which is individually attached to a structure, building, or equipment.

(4) Rail ladder. A rail ladder is a fixed ladder consisting of side rails joined at regular intervals by rungs or cleats and fastened in full length or in sections to a building, structure, or equipment.

(5) Railings. A railing is any one or a combination of those railings constructed in accordance with §1910.23. A standard railing is a vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of floor openings, wall openings, ramps, platforms, and runways to prevent falls of persons.

(6) Pitch. Pitch is the included angle between the horizontal and the ladder, measured on the opposite side of the ladder from the climbing side.

(7) Fastenings. A fastening is a device to attach a ladder to a structure, building, or equipment.

(8) Rungs. Rungs are ladder cross- pieces of circular or oval cross-section on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(9) Cleats. Cleats are ladder cross- pieces of rectangular cross-section placed on edge on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(10) Steps. Steps are the flat cross- pieces of a ladder on which a person may step in ascending or descending.

(11) Cage. A cage is a guard that may be referred to as a cage or basket guard which is an enclosure that is fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structure to encircle the climbing space of the ladder for the safety of the person who must climb the ladder.

(12) Well. A well is a permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of the well. Proper clearances for a well will give the person who must climb the ladder the same protection as a cage.

(13) Ladder safety device. A ladder safety device is any device, other than a cage or well, designed to eliminate or reduce the possibility of accidental falls and which may incorporate such features as life belts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments.

(14) Grab bars. Grab bars are individual handholds placed adjacent to or as an extension above ladders for the purpose of providing access beyond the limits of the ladder.

(15) Through ladder. A through ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step through the ladder in order to reach the landing.

(16) Side-step ladder. A side-step ladder is one from which a man getting off at the top must step sideways from the ladder in order to reach the landing.

(f) As used in §1910.28, unless the context requires otherwise, scaffolding terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.

(2) Boatswain's chair. A seat supported by slings attached to a suspended rope, designed to accommodate one workman in a sitting position.

(3) Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.

(4) Bricklayers' square scaffold. A scaffold composed of framed wood squares which support a platform limited to light and medium duty.

(5) Carpenters' bracket scaffold. A scaffold consisting of wood or metal brackets supporting a platform.

(6) Coupler. A device for locking together the component parts of a tubular metal scaffold. The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as a drop-forged steel, malleable iron, or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.

(7) Crawling board or chicken ladder. A plank with cleats spaced and secured at equal intervals, for use by a worker on roofs, not designed to carry any material.

(8) Double pole or independent pole scaffold. A scaffold supported from the base by a double row of uprights, independent of support from the walls and constructed of uprights, ledgers, horizontal platform bearers, and diagonal bracing.

(9) Float or ship scaffold. A scaffold hung from overhead supports by means of ropes and consisting of a substantial platform having diagonal bracing underneath, resting upon and securely fastened to two parallel plank bearers at right angles to the span.

(10) Guardrail. A rail secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

(11) Heavy duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.

(12) Horse scaffold. A scaffold for light or medium duty, composed of horses supporting a work platform.

(13) Interior hung scaffold. A scaffold suspended from the ceiling or roof structure.

(14) Ladder jack scaffold. A light duty scaffold supported by brackets attached to ladders.

(15) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the putlogs or bearer forming a tie between the posts.

(16) Light duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.

(17) Manually propelled mobile scaffold. A portable rolling scaffold supported by casters.

(18) Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold. A scaffold having a continuous platform supported by bearers suspended by wire rope from overhead supports, so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.

(19) Maximum intended load. The total of all loads including the working load, the weight of the scaffold, and such other loads as may be reasonably anticipated.

(20) Medium duty scaffold. A scaffold designed and constructed to carry a working load not to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.

(21) Mid-rail. A rail approximately midway between the guardrail and platform, used when required, and secured to the uprights erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms.

(22) Needle beam scaffold. A light duty scaffold consisting of needle beams supporting a platform.

(23) Outrigger scaffold. A scaffold supported by outriggers or thrustouts projecting beyond the wall or face of the building or structure, the inboard ends of which are secured inside of such a building or structure.

(24) Putlog. A scaffold member upon which the platform rests.

(25) Roofing bracket. A bracket used in sloped roof construction, having provisions for fastening to the roof or supported by ropes fastened over the ridge and secured to some suitable object.

(26) Runner. The lengthwise horizontal bracing or bearing members or both.

(27) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen or materials or both.

(28) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffold. A manually or power-operated unit designed for light duty use, supported by a single wire rope from an overhead support so arranged and operated as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to desired working positions.

(29) Single pole scaffold. Platforms resting on putlogs or crossbeams, the outside ends of which are supported on ledgers secured to a single row of posts or uprights and the inner ends of which are supported on or in a wall.

(30) Stone setters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffold. A swinging-type scaffold having a platform supported by hangers suspended at four points so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by the use of hoisting machines.

(31) Toeboard. A barrier secured along the sides and ends of a platform, to guard against the falling of material.

(32) Tube and coupler scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and special couplers which serve to connect the uprights and to join the various members.

(33) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A sectional, panel, or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections which consist of posts and horizontal bearer with intermediate members. Panels or frames shall be braced with diagonal or cross braces.

(34) Two-point suspension scaffold (swinging scaffold). A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by hangers (stirrups) at two points, suspended from overhead supports so as to permit the raising or lowering of the platform to the desired working position by tackle or hoisting machines.

(35) Window jack scaffold. A scaffold, the platform of which is supported by a bracket or jack which projects through a window opening.

(36) Working load. Load imposed by men, materials, and equipment.

(g) As used in §1910.29, unless the context requires otherwise, manually propelled mobile ladder stand and scaffold (tower) terms shall have the meaning ascribed in this paragraph.

(1) Bearer. A horizontal member of a scaffold upon which the platform rests and which may be supported by ledgers.

(2) Brace. A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.

(3) Climbing ladder. A separate ladder with equally spaced rungs usually attached to the scaffold structure for climbing and descending.

(4) Coupler. A device for locking together the components of a tubular metal scaffold which shall be designed and used to safely support the maximum intended loads.

(5) Design working load. The maximum intended load, being the total of all loads including the weight of the men, materials, equipment, and platform.

(6) Equivalent. Alternative design or features, which will provide an equal degree or factor of safety.

(7) Guardrail. A barrier secured to uprights and erected along the exposed sides and ends of platforms to prevent falls of persons.

(8) Handrail. A rail connected to a ladder stand running parallel to the slope and/or top step.

(9) Ladder stand. A mobile fixed size self-supporting ladder consisting of a wide flat tread ladder in the form of stairs. The assembly may include handrails.

(10) Ledger (stringer). A horizontal scaffold member which extends from post to post and which supports the bearer forming a tie between the posts.

(11) Mobile scaffold (tower). A light, medium, or heavy duty scaffold mounted on casters or wheels.

(12) Mobile. “Manually propelled.”

(13) Mobile work platform. Generally a fixed work level one frame high on casters or wheels, with bracing diagonally from platform to vertical frame.

(14) Runner. The lengthwise horizontal bracing and/or bearing members.

(15) Scaffold. Any temporary elevated platform and its necessary vertical, diagonal, and horizontal members used for supporting workmen and materials. (Also known as a scaffold tower.)

(16) Toeboard. A barrier at platform level erected along the exposed sides and ends of a scaffold platform to prevent falls of materials.

(17) Tube and coupler scaffold. An assembly consisting of tubing which serves as posts, bearers, braces, ties, and runners, a base supporting the posts, and uprights, and serves to join the various members, usually used in fixed locations.

(18) Tubular welded frame scaffold. A sectional, panel, or frame metal scaffold substantially built up of prefabricated welded sections, which consist of posts and bearers with intermediate connecting members and braced with diagonal or cross braces.

(19) Tubular welded sectional folding scaffold. A sectional, folding metal scaffold either of ladder frame or inside stairway design, substantially built of prefabricated welded sections, which consist of end frames, platform frame, inside inclined stairway frame and braces, or hinged connected diagonal and horizontal braces, capable of being folded into a flat package when the scaffold is not in use.

(20) Work level. The elevated platform, used for supporting workmen and their materials, comprising the necessary vertical, horizontal, and diagonal braces, guardrails, and ladder for access to the work platform.

§1910.22   General requirements.

This section applies to all permanent places of employment, except where domestic, mining, or agricultural work only is performed. Measures for the control of toxic materials are considered to be outside the scope of this section.

(a) Housekeeping. (1) All places of employment, passageways, storerooms, and service rooms shall be kept clean and orderly and in a sanitary condition.

(2) The floor of every workroom shall be maintained in a clean and, so far as possible, a dry condition. Where wet processes are used, drainage shall be maintained, and false floors, platforms, mats, or other dry standing places should be provided where practicable.

(3) To facilitate cleaning, every floor, working place, and passageway shall be kept free from protruding nails, splinters, holes, or loose boards.

(b) Aisles and passageways. (1) Where mechanical handling equipment is used, sufficient safe clearances shall be allowed for aisles, at loading docks, through doorways and wherever turns or passage must be made. Aisles and passageways shall be kept clear and in good repairs, with no obstruction across or in aisles that could create a hazard.

(2) Permanent aisles and passageways shall be appropriately marked.

(c) Covers and guardrails. Covers and/or guardrails shall be provided to protect personnel from the hazards of open pits, tanks, vats, ditches, etc.

(d) Floor loading protection. (1) In every building or other structure, or part thereof, used for mercantile, business, industrial, or storage purposes, the loads approved by the building official shall be marked on plates of approved design which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the owner of the building, or his duly authorized agent, in a conspicuous place in each space to which they relate. Such plates shall not be removed or defaced but, if lost, removed, or defaced, shall be replaced by the owner or his agent.

(2) It shall be unlawful to place, or cause, or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building or other structure a load greater than that for which such floor or roof is approved by the building official.

§1910.23   Guarding floor and wall openings and holes.

(a) Protection for floor openings. (1) Every stairway floor opening shall be guarded by a standard railing constructed in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section. The railing shall be provided on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway). For infrequently used stairways where traffic across the opening prevents the use of fixed standard railing (as when located in aisle spaces, etc.), the guard shall consist of a hinged floor opening cover of standard strength and construction and removable standard railings on all exposed sides (except at entrance to stairway).

(2) Every ladderway floor opening or platform shall be guarded by a standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides (except at entrance to opening), with the passage through the railing either provided with a swinging gate or so offset that a person cannot walk directly into the opening.

(3) Every hatchway and chute floor opening shall be guarded by one of the following:

(i) Hinged floor opening cover of standard strength and construction equipped with standard railings or permanently attached thereto so as to leave only one exposed side. When the opening is not in use, the cover shall be closed or the exposed side shall be guarded at both top and intermediate positions by removable standard railings.

(ii) A removable railing with toeboard on not more than two sides of the opening and fixed standard railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides. The removable railings shall be kept in place when the opening is not in use.

Where operating conditions necessitate the feeding of material into any hatchway or chute opening, protection shall be provided to prevent a person from falling through the opening.

(4) Every skylight floor opening and hole shall be guarded by a standard skylight screen or a fixed standard railing on all exposed sides.

(5) Every pit and trapdoor floor opening, infrequently used, shall be guarded by a floor opening cover of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the pit or trap opening shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected on all exposed sides by removable standard railings.

(6) Every manhole floor opening shall be guarded by a standard manhole cover which need not be hinged in place. While the cover is not in place, the manhole opening shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by removable standard railings.

(7) Every temporary floor opening shall have standard railings, or shall be constantly attended by someone.

(8) Every floor hole into which persons can accidentally walk shall be guarded by either:

(i) A standard railing with standard toeboard on all exposed sides, or

(ii) A floor hole cover of standard strength and construction. While the cover is not in place, the floor hole shall be constantly attended by someone or shall be protected by a removable standard railing.

(9) Every floor hole into which persons cannot accidentally walk (on account of fixed machinery, equipment, or walls) shall be protected by a cover that leaves no openings more than 1 inch wide. The cover shall be securely held in place to prevent tools or materials from falling through.

(10) Where doors or gates open directly on a stairway, a platform shall be provided, and the swing of the door shall not reduce the effective width to less than 20 inches.

(b) Protection for wall openings and holes. (1) Every wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by one of the following:

(i) Rail, roller, picket fence, half door, or equivalent barrier. Where there is exposure below to falling materials, a removable toe board or the equivalent shall also be provided. When the opening is not in use for handling materials, the guard shall be kept in position regardless of a door on the opening. In addition, a grab handle shall be provided on each side of the opening with its center approximately 4 feet above floor level and of standard strength and mounting.

(ii) Extension platform onto which materials can be hoisted for handling, and which shall have side rails or equivalent guards of standard specifications.

(2) Every chute wall opening from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet shall be guarded by one or more of the barriers specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section or as required by the conditions.

(3) Every window wall opening at a stairway landing, floor, platform, or balcony, from which there is a drop of more than 4 feet, and where the bottom of the opening is less than 3 feet above the platform or landing, shall be guarded by standard slats, standard grill work (as specified in paragraph (e)(11) of this section), or standard railing.

Where the window opening is below the landing, or platform, a standard toe board shall be provided.

(4) Every temporary wall opening shall have adequate guards but these need not be of standard construction.

(5) Where there is a hazard of materials falling through a wall hole, and the lower edge of the near side of the hole is less than 4 inches above the floor, and the far side of the hole more than 5 feet above the next lower level, the hole shall be protected by a standard toeboard, or an enclosing screen either of solid construction, or as specified in paragraph (e)(11) of this section.

(c) Protection of open-sided floors, platforms, and runways. (1) Every open-sided floor or platform 4 feet or more above adjacent floor or ground level shall be guarded by a standard railing (or the equivalent as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section) on all open sides except where there is entrance to a ramp, stairway, or fixed ladder. The railing shall be provided with a toeboard wherever, beneath the open sides,

(i) Persons can pass,

(ii) There is moving machinery, or

(iii) There is equipment with which falling materials could create a hazard.

(2) Every runway shall be guarded by a standard railing (or the equivalent as specified in paragraph (e)(3) of this section) on all open sides 4 feet or more above floor or ground level. Wherever tools, machine parts, or materials are likely to be used on the runway, a toeboard shall also be provided on each exposed side.

Runways used exclusively for special purposes (such as oiling, shafting, or filling tank cars) may have the railing on one side omitted where operating conditions necessitate such omission, providing the falling hazard is minimized by using a runway of not less than 18 inches wide. Where persons entering upon runways become thereby exposed to machinery, electrical equipment, or other danger not a falling hazard, additional guarding than is here specified may be essential for protection.

(3) Regardless of height, open-sided floors, walkways, platforms, or runways above or adjacent to dangerous equipment, pickling or galvanizing tanks, degreasing units, and similar hazards shall be guarded with a standard railing and toe board.

(d) Stairway railings and guards. (1) Every flight of stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with standard stair railings or standard handrails as specified in paragraphs (d)(1) (i) through (v) of this section, the width of the stair to be measured clear of all obstructions except handrails:

(i) On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides enclosed, at least one handrail, preferably on the right side descending.

(ii) On stairways less than 44 inches wide having one side open, at least one stair railing on open side.

(iii) On stairways less than 44 inches wide having both sides open, one stair railing on each side.

(iv) On stairways more than 44 inches wide but less than 88 inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side and one stair railing on each open side.

(v) On stairways 88 or more inches wide, one handrail on each enclosed side, one stair railing on each open side, and one intermediate stair railing located approximately midway of the width.

(2) Winding stairs shall be equipped with a handrail offset to prevent walking on all portions of the treads having width less than 6 inches.

(e) Railing, toe boards, and cover specifications. (1) A standard railing shall consist of top rail, intermediate rail, and posts, and shall have a vertical height of 42 inches nominal from upper surface of top rail to floor, platform, runway, or ramp level. The top rail shall be smooth-surfaced throughout the length of the railing. The intermediate rail shall be approximately halfway between the top rail and the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. The ends of the rails shall not overhang the terminal posts except where such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.

(2) A stair railing shall be of construction similar to a standard railing but the vertical height shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of top rail to surface of tread in line with face of riser at forward edge of tread.

(3) [Reserved]

(i) For wood railings, the posts shall be of at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock spaced not to exceed 6 feet; the top and intermediate rails shall be of at least 2-inch by 4-inch stock. If top rail is made of two right-angle pieces of 1-inch by 4-inch stock, posts may be spaced on 8-foot centers, with 2-inch by 4-inch intermediate rail.

(ii) For pipe railings, posts and top and intermediate railings shall be at least 112 inches nominal diameter with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

(iii) For structural steel railings, posts and top and intermediate rails shall be of 2-inch by 2-inch by 38 -inch angles or other metal shapes of equivalent bending strength with posts spaced not more than 8 feet on centers.

(iv) The anchoring of posts and framing of members for railings of all types shall be of such construction that the completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the top rail.

(v) Other types, sizes, and arrangements of railing construction are acceptable provided they meet the following conditions:

(a) A smooth-surfaced top rail at a height above floor, platform, runway, or ramp level of 42 inches nominal;

(b) A strength to withstand at least the minimum requirement of 200 pounds top rail pressure;

(c) Protection between top rail and floor, platform, runway, ramp, or stair treads, equivalent at least to that afforded by a standard intermediate rail;

(4) A standard toeboard shall be 4 inches nominal in vertical height from its top edge to the level of the floor, platform, runway, or ramp. It shall be securely fastened in place and with not more than 14 -inch clearance above floor level. It may be made of any substantial material either solid or with openings not over 1 inch in greatest dimension.

Where material is piled to such height that a standard toeboard does not provide protection, paneling from floor to intermediate rail, or to top rail shall be provided.

(5)(i) A handrail shall consist of a lengthwise member mounted directly on a wall or partition by means of brackets attached to the lower side of the handrail so as to offer no obstruction to a smooth surface along the top and both sides of the handrail. The handrail shall be of rounded or other section that will furnish an adequate handhold for anyone grasping it to avoid falling. The ends of the handrail should be turned in to the supporting wall or otherwise arranged so as not to constitute a projection hazard.

(ii) The height of handrails shall be not more than 34 inches nor less than 30 inches from upper surface of handrail to surface of tread in line with face of riser or to surface of ramp.

(iii) The size of handrails shall be: When of hardwood, at least 2 inches in diameter; when of metal pipe, at least 112 inches in diameter. The length of brackets shall be such as will give a clearance between handrail and wall or any projection thereon of at least 3 inches. The spacing of brackets shall not exceed 8 feet.

(iv) The mounting of handrails shall be such that the completed structure is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the rail.

(6) All handrails and railings shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 3 inches between the handrail or railing and any other object.

(7) Floor opening covers may be of any material that meets the following strength requirements:

(i) Trench or conduit covers and their supports, when located in plant roadways, shall be designed to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds.

(ii) Manhole covers and their supports, when located in plant roadways, shall comply with local standard highway requirements if any; otherwise, they shall be designed to carry a truck rear-axle load of at least 20,000 pounds.

(iii) The construction of floor opening covers may be of any material that meets the strength requirements. Covers projecting not more than 1 inch above the floor level may be used providing all edges are chamfered to an angle with the horizontal of not over 30 degrees. All hinges, handles, bolts, or other parts shall set flush with the floor or cover surface.

(8) Skylight screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied perpendicularly at any one area on the screen. They shall also be of such construction and mounting that under ordinary loads or impacts, they will not deflect downward sufficiently to break the glass below them. The construction shall be of grillwork with openings not more than 4 inches long or of slatwork with openings not more than 2 inches wide with length unrestricted.

(9) Wall opening barriers (rails, rollers, picket fences, and half doors) shall be of such construction and mounting that, when in place at the opening, the barrier is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction (except upward) at any point on the top rail or corresponding member.

(10) Wall opening grab handles shall be not less than 12 inches in length and shall be so mounted as to give 3 inches clearance from the side framing of the wall opening. The size, material, and anchoring of the grab handle shall be such that the completed structure is capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point of the handle.

(11) Wall opening screens shall be of such construction and mounting that they are capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied horizontally at any point on the near side of the screen. They may be of solid construction, of grillwork with openings not more than 8 inches long, or of slatwork with openings not more than 4 inches wide with length unrestricted.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984]

§1910.24   Fixed industrial stairs.

(a) Application of requirements. This section contains specifications for the safe design and construction of fixed general industrial stairs. This classification includes interior and exterior stairs around machinery, tanks, and other equipment, and stairs leading to or from floors, platforms, or pits. This section does not apply to stairs used for fire exit purposes, to construction operations to private residences, or to articulated stairs, such as may be installed on floating roof tanks or on dock facilities, the angle of which changes with the rise and fall of the base support.

(b) Where fixed stairs are required. Fixed stairs shall be provided for access from one structure level to another where operations necessitate regular travel between levels, and for access to operating platforms at any equipment which requires attention routinely during operations. Fixed stairs shall also be provided where access to elevations is daily or at each shift for such purposes as gauging, inspection, regular maintenance, etc., where such work may expose employees to acids, caustics, gases, or other harmful substances, or for which purposes the carrying of tools or equipment by hand is normally required. (It is not the intent of this section to preclude the use of fixed ladders for access to elevated tanks, towers, and similar structures, overhead traveling cranes, etc., where the use of fixed ladders is common practice.) Spiral stairways shall not be permitted except for special limited usage and secondary access situations where it is not practical to provide a conventional stairway. Winding stairways may be installed on tanks and similar round structures where the diameter of the structure is not less than five (5) feet.

(c) Stair strength. Fixed stairways shall be designed and constructed to carry a load of five times the normal live load anticipated but never of less strength than to carry safely a moving concentrated load of 1,000 pounds.

(d) Stair width. Fixed stairways shall have a minimum width of 22 inches.

(e) Angle of stairway rise. Fixed stairs shall be installed at angles to the horizontal of between 30° and 50°. Any uniform combination of rise/tread dimensions may be used that will result in a stairway at an angle to the horizontal within the permissible range. Table D-1 gives rise/tread dimensions which will produce a stairway within the permissible range, stating the angle to the horizontal produced by each combination. However, the rise/tread combinations are not limited to those given in Table D-1.

Table D-1

Angle to horizontalRise (in inches)Tread run (in inches)
30°3561/211
32°0863/4103/4
33°417101/2
35°1671/4101/4
36°5271/210
38°2973/493/4
40°08891/2
41°4481/491/4
43°2281/29
45°0083/483/4
46°38981/2
48°1691/481/4
49°5491/28

(f) Stair treads. All treads shall be reasonably slip-resistant and the nosings shall be of nonslip finish. Welded bar grating treads without nosings are acceptable providing the leading edge can be readily identified by personnel descending the stairway and provided the tread is serrated or is of definite nonslip design. Rise height and tread width shall be uniform throughout any flight of stairs including any foundation structure used as one or more treads of the stairs.

(g) Stairway platforms. Stairway platforms shall be no less than the width of a stairway and a minimum of 30 inches in length measured in the direction of travel.

(h) Railings and handrails. Standard railings shall be provided on the open sides of all exposed stairways and stair platforms. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of closed stairways preferably on the right side descending. Stair railings and handrails shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of §1910.23.

(i) Vertical clearance. Vertical clearance above any stair tread to an overhead obstruction shall be at least 7 feet measured from the leading edge of the tread.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984]

§1910.25   Portable wood ladders.

(a) Application of requirements. This section is intended to prescribe rules and establish minimum requirements for the construction, care, and use of the common types of portable wood ladders, in order to insure safety under normal conditions of usage. Other types of special ladders, fruitpicker's ladders, combination step and extension ladders, stockroom step ladders, aisle-way step ladders, shelf ladders, and library ladders are not specifically covered by this section.

(b) Materials—(1) Requirements applicable to all wood parts. (i) All wood parts shall be free from sharp edges and splinters; sound and free from accepted visual inspection from shake, wane, compression failures, decay, or other irregularities. Low density wood shall not be used.

(ii) [Reserved]

(2) [Reserved]

(c) Construction requirements. (1) [Reserved]

(2) Portable stepladders. Stepladders longer than 20 feet shall not be supplied. Stepladders as hereinafter specified shall be of three types:

Type I—Industrial stepladder, 3 to 20 feet for heavy duty, such as utilities, contractors, and industrial use.

Type II—Commercial stepladder, 3 to 12 feet for medium duty, such as painters, offices, and light industrial use.

Type III—Household stepladder, 3 to 6 feet for light duty, such as light household use.

(i) General requirements.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) A uniform step spacing shall be employed which shall be not more than 12 inches. Steps shall be parallel and level when the ladder is in position for use.

(c) The minimum width between side rails at the top, inside to inside, shall be not less than 1112 inches. From top to bottom, the side rails shall spread at least 1 inch for each foot of length of stepladder.

(d)-(e) [Reserved]

(f) A metal spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in open positions shall be a component of each stepladder. The spreader shall have all sharp points covered or removed to protect the user. For Type III ladder, the pail shelf and spreader may be combined in one unit (the so-called shelf-lock ladder).

(3) Portable rung ladders.

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Single ladder. (a) Single ladders longer than 30 feet shall not be supplied.

(b) [Reserved]

(iii) Two-section ladder. (a) Two-section extension ladders longer than 60 feet shall not be supplied. All ladders of this type shall consist of two sections, one to fit within the side rails of the other, and arranged in such a manner that the upper section can be raised and lowered.

(b) [Reserved]

(iv) Sectional ladder. (a) Assembled combinations of sectional ladders longer than lengths specified in this subdivision shall not be used.

(b) [Reserved]

(v) Trestle and extension trestle ladder. (a) Trestle ladders, or extension sections or base sections of extension trestle ladders longer than 20 feet shall not be supplied.

(b) [Reserved]

(4) Special-purpose ladders.

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Painter's stepladder. (a) Painter's stepladders longer than 12 feet shall not be supplied.

(b) [Reserved]

(iii) Mason's ladder. A mason's ladder is a special type of single ladder intended for use in heavy construction work.

(a) Mason's ladders longer than 40 feet shall not be supplied.

(b) [Reserved]

(5) Trolley and side-rolling ladders—(i) Length. Trolley ladders and side-rolling ladders longer than 20 feet should not be supplied.

(ii) [Reserved]

(d) Care and use of ladders—(1) Care. To insure safety and serviceability the following precautions on the care of ladders shall be observed:

(i) Ladders shall be maintained in good condition at all times, the joint between the steps and side rails shall be tight, all hardware and fittings securely attached, and the movable parts shall operate freely without binding or undue play.

(ii) Metal bearings of locks, wheels, pulleys, etc., shall be frequently lubricated.

(iii) Frayed or badly worn rope shall be replaced.

(iv) Safety feet and other auxiliary equipment shall be kept in good condition to insure proper performance.

(v)-(ix) [Reserved]

(x) Ladders shall be inspected frequently and those which have developed defects shall be withdrawn from service for repair or destruction and tagged or marked as “Dangerous, Do Not Use.”

(xi) Rungs should be kept free of grease and oil.

(2) Use. The following safety precautions shall be observed in connection with the use of ladders:

(i) Portable rung and cleat ladders shall, where possible, be used at such a pitch that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is one-quarter of the working length of the ladder (the length along the ladder between the foot and the top support). The ladder shall be so placed as to prevent slipping, or it shall be lashed, or held in position. Ladders shall not be used in a horizontal position as platforms, runways, or scaffolds;

(ii) Ladders for which dimensions are specified should not be used by more than one man at a time nor with ladder jacks and scaffold planks where use by more than one man is anticipated. In such cases, specially designed ladders with larger dimensions of the parts should be procured;

(iii) Portable ladders shall be so placed that the side rails have a secure footing. The top rest for portable rung and cleat ladders shall be reasonably rigid and shall have ample strength to support the applied load;

(iv) Ladders shall not be placed in front of doors opening toward the ladder unless the door is blocked upon, locked, or guarded;

(v) Ladders shall not be placed on boxes, barrels, or other unstable bases to obtain additional height;

(vi)-(vii) [Reserved]

(viii) Ladders with broken or missing steps, rungs, or cleats, broken side rails, or other faulty equipment shall not be used; improvised repairs shall not be made;

(ix) Short ladders shall not be spliced together to provide long sections;

(x) Ladders made by fastening cleats across a single rail shall not be used;

(xi) Ladders shall not be used as guys, braces, or skids, or for other than their intended purposes;

(xii) Tops of the ordinary types of stepladders shall not be used as steps;

(xiii) On two-section extension ladders the minimum overlap for the two sections in use shall be as follows:

Size of ladder (feet)Overlap (feet)
Up to and including 363
Over 36 up to and including 484
Over 48 up to and including 605

(xiv) Portable rung ladders with reinforced rails (see paragraphs (c)(3) (ii)(c) and (iii)(d) this section) shall be used only with the metal reinforcement on the under side;

(xv) No ladder should be used to gain access to a roof unless the top of the ladder shall extend at least 3 feet above the point of support, at eave, gutter, or roofline;

(xvi) [Reserved]

(xvii) Middle and top sections of sectional or window cleaner's ladders should not be used for bottom section unless the user equips them with safety shoes;

(xviii) [Reserved]

(xix) The user should equip all portable rung ladders with nonslip bases when there is a hazard of slipping. Nonslip bases are not intended as a substitute for care in safely placing, lashing, or holding a ladder that is being used upon oily, metal, concrete, or slippery surfaces;

(xx) The bracing on the back legs of step ladders is designed solely for increasing stability and not for climbing.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49744, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984]

§1910.26   Portable metal ladders.

(a) Requirements—(1) General. Specific design and construction requirements are not part of this section because of the wide variety of metals and design possibilities. However, the design shall be such as to produce a ladder without structural defects or accident hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. The metal selected shall be of sufficient strength to meet the test requirements, and shall be protected against corrosion unless inherently corrosion-resistant.

(i)-(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) The spacing of rungs or steps shall be on 12-inch centers.

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) Rungs and steps shall be corrugated, knurled, dimpled, coated with skid-resistant material, or otherwise treated to minimize the possibility of slipping.

(2) General specifications—straight and extension ladders. (i) The minimum width between side rails of a straight ladder or any section of an extension ladder shall be 12 inches.

(ii) The length of single ladders or individual sections of ladders shall not exceed 30 feet. Two-section ladders shall not exceed 48 feet in length and over two-section ladders shall not exceed 60 feet in length.

(iii) Based on the nominal length of the ladder, each section of a multisection ladder shall overlap the adjacent section by at least the number of feet stated in the following:

Normal length of ladder (feet)Overlap (feet)
Up to and including 363
Over 36, up to and including 484
Over 48, up to 605

(iv) Extension ladders shall be equipped with positive stops which will insure the overlap specified in the table above.

(3) General specifications—step ladders.

(i)-(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) The length of a stepladder is measured by the length of the front rail. To be classified as a standard length ladder, the measured length shall be within plus or minus one-half inch of the specified length. Stepladders shall not exceed 20 feet in length.

(iv)-(vi) [Reserved]

(vii) The bottoms of the four rails are to be supplied with insulating nonslip material for the safety of the user.

(viii) A metal spreader or locking device of sufficient size and strength to securely hold the front and back sections in the open position shall be a component of each stepladder. The spreader shall have all sharp points or edges covered or removed to protect the user.

(4) General specifications—trestles and extension trestle ladders. (i) Trestle ladders or extension sections or base sections of extension trestle ladders shall be not more than 20 feet in length.

(ii) [Reserved]

(5) General specifications—platform ladders. (i) The length of a platform ladder shall not exceed 20 feet. The length of a platform ladder shall be measured along the front rail from the floor to the platform.

(ii) [Reserved]

(b) [Reserved]

(c) Care and maintenance of ladders—(1) General. To get maximum serviceability, safety, and to eliminate unnecessary damage of equipment, good safe practices in the use and care of ladder equipment must be employed by the users.

The following rules and regulations are essential to the life of the equipment and the safety of the user.

(2) Care of ladders.

(i)-(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Ladders must be maintained in good usable condition at all times.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) If a ladder is involved in any of the following, immediate inspection is necessary:

(a) If ladders tip over, inspect ladder for side rails dents or bends, or excessively dented rungs; check all rung-to- side-rail connections; check hardware connections; check rivets for shear.

(b)-(c) [Reserved]

(d) If ladders are exposed to oil and grease, equipment should be cleaned of oil, grease, or slippery materials. This can easily be done with a solvent or steam cleaning.

(vii) Ladders having defects are to be marked and taken out of service until repaired by either maintenance department or the manufacturer.

(3) Use of ladders. (i). A simple rule for setting up a ladder at the proper angle is to place the base a distance from the vertical wall equal to one-fourth the working length of the ladder.

(ii) Portable ladders are designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load.

(iii) The ladder base section must be placed with a secure footing.

(iv) The top of the ladder must be placed with the two rails supported, unless equipped with a single support attachment.

(v) When ascending or descending, the climber must face the ladder.

(vi) Ladders must not be tied or fastened together to provide longer sections. They must be equipped with the hardware fittings necessary if the manufacturer endorses extended uses.

(vii) Ladders should not be used as a brace, skid, guy or gin pole, gangway, or for other uses than that for which they were intended, unless specifically recommended for use by the manufacturer.

(viii) See §1910.333(c) for work practices to be used when work is performed on or near electric circuits.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49745, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990]

§1910.27   Fixed ladders.

(a) Design requirements—(1) Design considerations. All ladders, appurtenances, and fastenings shall be designed to meet the following load requirements:

(i) The minimum design live load shall be a single concentrated load of 200 pounds.

(ii) The number and position of additional concentrated live-load units of 200 pounds each as determined from anticipated usage of the ladder shall be considered in the design.

(iii) The live loads imposed by persons occupying the ladder shall be considered to be concentrated at such points as will cause the maximum stress in the structural member being considered.

(iv) The weight of the ladder and attached appurtenances together with the live load shall be considered in the design of rails and fastenings.

(2) Design stresses. Design stresses for wood components of ladders shall not exceed those specified in §1910.25. All wood parts of fixed ladders shall meet the requirements of §1910.25(b).

For fixed ladders consisting of wood side rails and wood rungs or cleats, used at a pitch in the range 75 degrees to 90 degrees, and intended for use by no more than one person per section, single ladders as described in §1910.25(c)(3)(ii) are acceptable.

(b) Specific features—(1) Rungs and cleats. (i) All rungs shall have a minimum diameter of three-fourths inch for metal ladders, except as covered in paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section and a minimum diameter of 118 inches for wood ladders.

(ii) The distance between rungs, cleats, and steps shall not exceed 12 inches and shall be uniform throughout the length of the ladder.

(iii) The minimum clear length of rungs or cleats shall be 16 inches.

(iv) Rungs, cleats, and steps shall be free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or projections which may be a hazard.

(v) The rungs of an individual-rung ladder shall be so designed that the foot cannot slide off the end. A suggested design is shown in figure D-1.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.001.gif

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Figure D-1—Suggested Design for Rungs on Individual-rung Ladders.

(2) Side rails. Side rails which might be used as a climbing aid shall be of such cross sections as to afford adequate gripping surface without sharp edges, splinters, or burrs.

(3) Fastenings. Fastenings shall be an integral part of fixed ladder design.

(4) Splices. All splices made by whatever means shall meet design requirements as noted in paragraph (a) of this section. All splices and connections shall have smooth transition with original members and with no sharp or extensive projections.

(5) Electrolytic action. Adequate means shall be employed to protect dissimilar metals from electrolytic action when such metals are joined.

(6) Welding. All welding shall be in accordance with the “Code for Welding in Building Construction” (AWSD1.0-1966).

(7) Protection from deterioration. (i) Metal ladders and appurtenances shall be painted or otherwise treated to resist corrosion and rusting when location demands. Ladders formed by individual metal rungs imbedded in concrete, which serve as access to pits and to other areas under floors, are frequently located in an atmosphere that causes corrosion and rusting. To increase rung life in such atmosphere, individual metal rungs shall have a minimum diameter of 1 inch or shall be painted or otherwise treated to resist corrosion and rusting.

(ii) Wood ladders, when used under conditions where decay may occur, shall be treated with a nonirritating preservative, and the details shall be such as to prevent or minimize the accumulation of water on wood parts.

(iii) When different types of materials are used in the construction of a ladder, the materials used shall be so treated as to have no deleterious effect one upon the other.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.002.gif

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Figure D-2—Rail Ladder With Bar Steel Rails and Round Steel Rungs

(c) Clearance—(1) Climbing side. On fixed ladders, the perpendicular distance from the centerline of the rungs to the nearest permanent object on the climbing side of the ladder shall be 36 inches for a pitch of 76 degrees, and 30 inches for a pitch of 90 degrees (fig. D-2 of this section), with minimum clearances for intermediate pitches varying between these two limits in proportion to the slope, except as provided in subparagraphs (3) and (5) of this paragraph.

(2) Ladders without cages or wells. A clear width of at least 15 inches shall be provided each way from the centerline of the ladder in the climbing space, except when cages or wells are necessary.

(3) Ladders with cages or baskets. Ladders equipped with cage or basket are excepted from the provisions of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (d)(1)(v) of this section. Fixed ladders in smooth-walled wells are excepted from the provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, but shall conform to the provisions of paragraph (d)(1)(vi) of this section.

(4) Clearance in back of ladder. The distance from the centerline of rungs, cleats, or steps to the nearest permanent object in back of the ladder shall be not less than 7 inches, except that when unavoidable obstructions are encountered, minimum clearances as shown in figure D-3 shall be provided.

Minimum Ladder Clearances

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.003.gif

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Figure D-3—Clearance for Unavoidable Obstruction at Rear of Fixed Ladder

(5) Clearance in back of grab bar. The distance from the centerline of the grab bar to the nearest permanent object in back of the grab bars shall be not less than 4 inches. Grab bars shall not protrude on the climbing side beyond the rungs of the ladder which they serve.

(6) Step-across distance. The step-across distance from the nearest edge of ladder to the nearest edge of equipment or structure shall be not more than 12 inches, or less than 212 inches (fig. D-4).

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.004.gif

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Figure D-4—Ladder Far from Wall

(7) Hatch cover. Counterweighted hatch covers shall open a minimum of 60 degrees from the horizontal. The distance from the centerline of rungs or cleats to the edge of the hatch opening on the climbing side shall be not less than 24 inches for offset wells or 30 inches for straight wells. There shall be not protruding potential hazards within 24 inches of the centerline of rungs or cleats; any such hazards within 30 inches of the centerline of the rungs or cleats shall be fitted with deflector plates placed at an angle of 60 degrees from the horizontal as indicated in figure D-5. The relationship of a fixed ladder to an acceptable counterweighted hatch cover is illustrated in figure D-6.

(d) Special requirements—(1) Cages or wells. (i) Cages or wells (except on chimney ladders) shall be built, as shown on the applicable drawings, covered in detail in figures D-7, D-8, and D-9, or of equivalent construction.

(ii) Cages or wells (except as provided in subparagraph (5) of this paragraph) conforming to the dimensions shown in figures D-7, D-8, and D-9 shall be provided on ladders of more than 20 feet to a maximum unbroken length of 30 feet.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.005.gif

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Figure D-5—Deflector Plates for Head Hazards

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.006.gif

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Figure D-6—Relationship of Fixed Ladder to a Safe Access Hatch

(iii) Cages shall extend a minimum of 42 inches above the top of landing, unless other acceptable protection is provided.

(iv) Cages shall extend down the ladder to a point not less than 7 feet nor more than 8 feet above the base of the ladder, with bottom flared not less than 4 inches, or portion of cage opposite ladder shall be carried to the base.

(v) Cages shall not extend less than 27 nor more than 28 inches from the centerline of the rungs of the ladder. Cage shall not be less than 27 inches in width. The inside shall be clear of projections. Vertical bars shall be located at a maximum spacing of 40 degrees around the circumference of the cage; this will give a maximum spacing of approximately 912 inches, center to center.

(vi) Ladder wells shall have a clear width of at least 15 inches measured each way from the centerline of the ladder. Smooth-walled wells shall be a minimum of 27 inches from the centerline of rungs to the well wall on the climbing side of the ladder. Where other obstructions on the climbing side of the ladder exist, there shall be a minimum of 30 inches from the centerline of the rungs.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.007.gif

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Figure D-7—Cages for Ladders More Than 20 Feet High

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.008.gif

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Figure D-8—Clearance Diagram for Fixed Ladder in Well

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.009.gif

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Figure D-9—Cages—Special applications.

(2) Landing platforms. When ladders are used to ascend to heights exceeding 20 feet (except on chimneys), landing platforms shall be provided for each 30 feet of height or fraction thereof, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms shall be provided for each 20 feet of height or fraction thereof. Each ladder section shall be offset from adjacent sections. Where installation conditions (even for a short, unbroken length) require that adjacent sections be offset, landing platforms shall be provided at each offset.

(i) Where a man has to step a distance greater than 12 inches from the centerline of the rung of a ladder to the nearest edge of structure or equipment, a landing platform shall be provided. The minimum step-across distance shall be 212 inches.

(ii) All landing platforms shall be equipped with standard railings and toeboards, so arranged as to give safe access to the ladder. Platforms shall be not less than 24 inches in width and 30 inches in length.

(iii) One rung of any section of ladder shall be located at the level of the landing laterally served by the ladder. Where access to the landing is through the ladder, the same rung spacing as used on the ladder shall be used from the landing platform to the first rung below the landing.

(3) Ladder extensions. The side rails of through or side-step ladder extensions shall extend 312 feet above parapets and landings. For through ladder extensions, the rungs shall be omitted from the extension and shall have not less than 18 nor more than 24 inches clearance between rails. For side-step or offset fixed ladder sections, at landings, the side rails and rungs shall be carried to the next regular rung beyond or above the 312 feet minimum (fig. D-10).

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.010.gif

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Figure D-10—Offset Fixed Ladder Sections

(4) Grab bars. Grab bars shall be spaced by a continuation of the rung spacing when they are located in the horizontal position. Vertical grab bars shall have the same spacing as the ladder side rails. Grab-bar diameters shall be the equivalent of the round-rung diameters.

(5) Ladder safety devices. Ladder safety devices may be used on tower, water tank, and chimney ladders over 20 feet in unbroken length in lieu of cage protection. No landing platform is required in these cases. All ladder safety devices such as those that incorporate lifebelts, friction brakes, and sliding attachments shall meet the design requirements of the ladders which they serve.

(e) Pitch—(1) Preferred pitch. The preferred pitch of fixed ladders shall be considered to come in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal (fig. D-11).

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.011.gif

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Figure D-11—Pitch of Fixed Ladders

(2) Substandard pitch. Fixed ladders shall be considered as substandard if they are installed within the substandard pitch range of 60 and 75 degrees with the horizontal. Substandard fixed ladders are permitted only where it is found necessary to meet conditions of installation. This substandard pitch range shall be considered as a critical range to be avoided, if possible.

(3) Scope of coverage in this section. This section covers only fixed ladders within the pitch range of 60 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal.

(4) Pitch greater than 90 degrees. Ladders having a pitch in excess of 90 degrees with the horizontal are prohibited.

(f) Maintenance. All ladders shall be maintained in a safe condition. All ladders shall be inspected regularly, with the intervals between inspections being determined by use and exposure.

§1910.28   Safety requirements for scaffolding.

(a) General requirements for all scaffolds. (1) Scaffolds shall be furnished and erected in accordance with this standard for persons engaged in work that cannot be done safely from the ground or from solid construction, except that ladders used for such work shall conform to §§1910.25 and 1910.26.

(2) The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels, boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) Scaffolds and their components shall be capable of supporting without failure at least four times the maximum intended load.

(5) Scaffolds and other devices mentioned or described in this section shall be maintained in safe condition. Scaffolds shall not be altered or moved horizontally while they are in use or occupied.

(6) Any scaffold damaged or weakened from any cause shall be immediately repaired and shall not be used until repairs have been completed.

(7) Scaffolds shall not be loaded in excess of the working load for which they are intended.

(8) All load-carrying timber members of scaffold framing shall be a minimum of 1,500 f. (Stress Grade) construction grade lumber. All dimensions are nominal sizes as provided in the American Lumber Standards, except that where rough sizes are noted, only rough or undressed lumber of the size specified will satisfy minimum requirements. (Note: Where nominal sizes of lumber are used in place of rough sizes, the nominal size lumber shall be such as to provide equivalent strength to that specified in tables D-7 through D-12 and D-16.)

(9) All planking shall be Scaffold Grade as recognized by grading rules for the species of wood used. The maximum permissible spans for 2- × 9-inch or wider planks are shown in the following table:

  Material
Full thickness undressed lumberNominal thickness lumber
               
Working load (p.s.f.)2550752550
Permissible span (ft.)108689

The maximum permissible span for 114 ×9-inch or wider plank of full thickness is 4 feet with medium loading of 50 p.s.f.

(10) Nails or bolts used in the construction of scaffolds shall be of adequate size and in sufficient numbers at each connection to develop the designed strength of the scaffold. Nails shall not be subjected to a straight pull and shall be driven full length.

(11) All planking or platforms shall be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or secured from movement.

(12) An access ladder or equivalent safe access shall be provided.

(13) Scaffold planks shall extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 18 inches.

(14) The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds shall be plumb, and securely and rigidly braced to prevent swaying and displacement.

(15) Materials being hoisted onto a scaffold shall have a tag line.

(16) Overhead protection shall be provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards.

(17) Scaffolds shall be provided with a screen between the toeboard and the guardrail, extending along the entire opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard Wire one-half-inch mesh or the equivalent, where persons are required to work or pass under the scaffolds.

(18) Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds.

(19) Employees shall not work on scaffolds which are covered with ice or snow, unless all ice or snow is removed and planking sanded to prevent slipping.

(20) Tools, materials, and debris shall not be allowed to accumulate in quantities to cause a hazard.

(21) Only treated or protected fiber rope shall be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances or chemicals.

(22) Wire or fiber rope used for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at least six times the intended load.

(23) When acid solutions are used for cleaning buildings over 50 feet in height, wire rope supported scaffolds shall be used.

(24) The use of shore scaffolds or lean-to scaffolds is prohibited.

(25) Lumber sizes, when used in this section, refer to nominal sizes except where otherwise stated.

(26) Scaffolds shall be secured to permanent structures, through use of anchor bolts, reveal bolts, or other equivalent means. Window cleaners' anchor bolts shall not be used.

(27) Special precautions shall be taken to protect scaffold members, including any wire or fiber ropes, when using a heat-producing process.

(b) General requirements for wood pole scaffolds. (1) Scaffold poles shall bear on a foundation of sufficient size and strength to spread the load from the poles over a sufficient area to prevent settlement. All poles shall be set plumb.

(2) Where wood poles are spliced, the ends shall be squared and the upper section shall rest squarely on the lower section. Wood splice plates shall be provided on at least two adjacent sides and shall not be less than 4 feet 0 inches in length, overlapping the abutted ends equally, and have the same width and not less than the cross-sectional area of the pole. Splice plates of other materials of equivalent strength may be used.

(3) Independent pole scaffolds shall be set as near to the wall of the building as practicable.

(4) All pole scaffolds shall be securely guyed or tied to the building or structure. Where the height or length exceeds 25 feet, the scaffold shall be secured at intervals not greater than 25 feet vertically and horizontally.

(5) Putlogs or bearers shall be set with their greater dimensions vertical, long enough to project over the ledgers of the inner and outer rows of poles at least 3 inches for proper support.

(6) Every wooden putlog on single pole scaffolds shall be reinforced with a 316 ×2-inch steel strip or equivalent secured to its lower edge throughout its entire length.

(7) Ledgers shall be long enough to extend over two pole spaces. Ledgers shall not be spliced between the poles. Ledgers shall be reinforced by bearing blocks securely nailed to the side of the pole to form a support for the ledger.

(8) Diagonal bracing shall be provided to prevent the poles from moving in a direction parallel with the wall of the building, or from buckling.

(9) Cross bracing shall be provided between the inner and outer sets of poles in independent pole scaffolds. The free ends of pole scaffolds shall be cross braced.

(10) Full diagonal face bracing shall be erected across the entire face of pole scaffolds in both directions. The braces shall be spliced at the poles.

(11) Platform planks shall be laid with their edges close together so the platform will be tight with no spaces through which tools or fragments of material can fall.

(12) Where planking is lapped, each plank shall lap its end supports at least 12 inches. Where the ends of planks abut each other to form a flush floor, the butt joint shall be at the centerline of a pole. The abutted ends shall rest on separate bearers. Intermediate beams shall be provided where necessary to prevent dislodgment of planks due to deflection, and the ends shall be nailed or cleated to prevent their dislodgment.

(13) When a scaffold turns a corner, the platform planks shall be laid to prevent tipping. The planks that meet the corner putlog at an angle shall be laid first, extending over the diagonally placed putlog far enough to have a good safe bearing, but not far enough to involve any danger from tipping. The planking running in the opposite direction at right angles shall be laid so as to extend over and rest on the first layer of planking.

(14) When moving platforms to the next level, the old platform shall be left undisturbed until the new putlogs or bearers have been set in place, ready to receive the platform planks.

(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(16) All wood pole scaffolds 60 feet or less in height shall be constructed and erected in accordance with tables D-7 through D-12 of this section. If they are over 60 feet in height they shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and constructed and erected in accordance with such design. A copy of the typical drawings and specifications shall be made available to the employer and for inspection purposes.

(17) Wood-pole scaffolds shall not be erected beyond the reach of effective firefighting apparatus.

Table D-7—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds—Light Duty

  Maximum height of scaffold
20 feet60 feet
Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.
Poles or uprights2 by 4 in4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)6 ft. 0 in10 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold5 ft. 0 in5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 3 ft. 0 in. width2 by 4 in2 by 4 in.
Bearers or putlogs to 5 ft. 0 in. width2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in. (rough).
Ledgers1 by 4 in11/4 by 9 in.
Planking11/4 by 9 in. (rough)2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members7 ft. 0 in7 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal1 by 4 in1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in1 by 4 in.
Toeboards4 in. high (minimum)4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-8—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds—Medium Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold60 ft.
Poles or uprights4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)8 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs2 by 9 in. or 3 by 4 in.
Spacing of bearers or putlogs8 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members9 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal1 by 6 in. or 11/4 by 4 in.
Bracing, diagonal1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in.
Planking2 by 9 in.
Toeboards4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-9—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Single Pole Scaffolds—Heavy Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold60 ft.
Poles or uprights4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)6 ft. 0 in.
Maximum width of scaffold5 ft. 0 in.
Bearers or putlogs2 by 9 in. or 3 by 5 in. (rough).
Spacing of bearers or putlogs6 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members6 ft. 6 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in.
Planking2 by 9 in.
Toeboards4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-10—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds—Light Duty

  Maximum height of scaffold
20 feet60 feet
Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 25 pounds per square foot.
Poles or uprights2 by 4 in4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)6 ft. 0 in10 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse)6 ft. 0 in10 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers11/4 by 4 in11/4 by 9 in.
Bearers to 3 ft. 0 in. span2 by 4 in2 by 4 in.
Bearers to 10 ft. 0 in. span2 by 6 in. or 3 by 4 in2 by 9 (rough) or 3 by 8 in.
Planking11/4 by 9 in2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members7 ft. 0 in7 ft. 0 in.
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal1 by 4 in1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in1 by 4 in.
Toeboards4 in. high4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-11—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds—Medium Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 50 pounds per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold60 ft.
Poles or uprights4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)8 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse)8 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members6 ft. 0 in.
Spacing of bearers8 ft. 0 in.
Bearers2 by 9 in. (rough) or 2 by 10 in.
Bracing, horizontal1 by 6 in. or 11/4 by 4 in.
Bracing, diagonal1 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in.
Planking2 by 9 in.
Toeboards4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-12—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Independent Pole Scaffolds—Heavy Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 75 pounds per square foot.
Maximum height of scaffold60 ft.
Poles or uprights4 by 4 in.
Pole spacing (longitudinal)6 ft. 0 in.
Pole spacing (transverse)8 ft. 0 in.
Ledgers2 by 9 in.
Vertical spacing of horizontal members4 ft. 6 in.
Bearers2 by 9 in. (rough).
Bracing, horizontal and diagonal2 by 4 in.
Tie-ins1 by 4 in.
Planking2 by 9 in.
Toeboards4 in. high (minimum).
Guardrail2 by 4 in.

All members except planking are used on edge.

Table D-13—Tube and Coupler Scaffolds—Light Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 25 p.s.f.
post spacing (longitudinal)10 ft. 0 in.
Post spacing (transverse)6 ft. 0 in.
Working levelsAdditional planked levelsMaximum height
18125 ft.
24125 ft.
3091 ft. 0 in.

Table D-14—Tube and Coupler Scaffolds—Medium Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 50 p.s.f.
Post spacing (longitudinal)8 ft. 0 in.
Post spacing (transverse)6 ft. 0 in.
Working levelsAdditional planked levelsMaximum height
16125 ft.
2078 ft. 0 in.

Table D-15—Tube and Coupler Scaffolds—Heavy Duty

Uniformly distributed loadNot to exceed 75 p.s.f.
Post spacing (longitudinal)6 ft. 6 in.
Post spacing (transverse)6 ft. 0 in.
Working levelsAdditional planked levelsMaximum height
16125 ft.

(c) Tube and coupler scaffolds. (1) A light-duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, bearers, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. The posts shall be spaced no more than 6 feet apart by 10 feet along the length of the scaffold. Other structural metals when used must be designed to carry an equivalent load.

(2) A medium-duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than 6 feet apart by 8 feet along the length of the scaffold shall have bearers of nominal 212 -inch O.D. steel tubing. Posts spaced not more than 5 feet apart by 8 feet along the length of the scaffold shall have bearers of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing. Other structural metals when used must be designed to carry an equivalent load.

(3) A heavy-duty tube and coupler scaffold shall have all posts, runners, and bracing of nominal 2-inch O.D. steel tubing, with the posts spaced not more than 6 feet apart by 6 feet 6 inches along the length of the scaffold. Other structural metals when used must be designed to carry an equivalent load.

(4) Tube and coupler scaffolds shall be limited in heights and working levels to those permitted in tables D-13, 14, and 15, of this section. Drawings and specifications of all tube and coupler scaffolds above the limitations in tables D-13, 14, and 15 of this section shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and copies made available to the employer and for inspection purposes.

(5) All tube and coupler scaffolds shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads as set forth in tables D-13, 14, and 15 of this section, or as set forth in the specifications by a registered professional engineer, copies which shall be made available to the employer and for inspection purposes.

(6) All tube and coupler scaffolds shall be erected by competent and experienced personnel.

(7) Posts shall be accurately spaced, erected on suitable bases, and maintained plumb.

(8) Runners shall be erected along the length of the scaffold located on both the inside and the outside posts at even height. Runners shall be interlocked to form continuous lengths and coupled to each post. The bottom runners shall be located as close to the base as possible. Runners shall be placed not more than 6 feet 6 inches on centers.

(9) Bearers shall be installed transversely between posts and shall be securely coupled to the posts bearing on the runner coupler. When coupled directly to the runners, the coupler must be kept as close to the posts as possible.

(10) Bearers shall be at least 4 inches but not more than 12 inches longer than the post spacing or runner spacing. Bearers may be cantilevered for use as brackets to carry not more than two planks.

(11) Cross bracing shall be installed across the width of the scaffold at least every third set of posts horizontally and every fourth runner vertically. Such bracing shall extend diagonally from the inner and outer runners upward to the next outer and inner runners.

(12) Longitudinal diagonal bracing shall be installed at approximately a 45-degree angle from near the base of the first outer post upward to the extreme top of the scaffold. Where the longitudinal length of the scaffold permits, such bracing shall be duplicated beginning at every fifth post. In a similar manner, longitudinal diagonal bracing shall also be installed from the last post extending back and upward toward the first post. Where conditions preclude the attachment of this bracing to the posts, it may be attached to the runners.

(13) The entire scaffold shall be tied to and securely braced against the building at intervals not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.

(14) Guardrails not less than 2×4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1×4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(d) Tubular welded frame scaffolds. (1) Metal tubular frame scaffolds, including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders, etc., shall be designed and proved to safely support four times the maximum intended load.

(2) Spacing of panels or frames shall be consistent with the loads imposed.

(3) Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonal braces, or both, for securing vertical members together laterally, and the cross braces shall be of such length as will automatically square and aline vertical members so that the erected scaffold is always plumb, square, and rigid. All brace connections shall be made secure.

(4) Scaffold legs shall be set on adjustable bases or plain bases placed on mud sills or other foundations adequate to support the maximum intended load.

(5) The frames shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alinement of the legs.

(6) Where uplift may occur, panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent suitable means.

(7) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(8) All tubular metal scaffolds shall be constructed and erected to support four times the maximum intended loads.

(9) To prevent movement, the scaffold shall be secured to the building or structure at intervals not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.

(10) Maximum permissible spans of planking shall be in conformity with paragraph (a)(9) of this section.

(11) Drawings and specifications for all frame scaffolds over 125 feet in height above the base plates shall be designed by a registered professional engineer and copies made available to the employer and for inspection purposes.

(12) All tubular welded frame scaffolds shall be erected by competent and experienced personnel.

(13) Frames and accessories for scaffolds shall be maintained in good repair and every defect, unsafe condition, or noncompliance with this section shall be immediately corrected before further use of the scaffold. Any broken, bent, excessively rusted, altered, or otherwise structurally damaged frames or accessories shall not be used.

(14) Periodic inspections shall be made of all welded frames and accessories, and any maintenance, including painting, or minor corrections authorized by the manufacturer, shall be made before further use.

(e) Outrigger scaffolds. (1) Outrigger beams shall extend not more than 6 feet beyond the face of the building. The inboard end of outrigger beams, measured from the fulcrum point to the extreme point of support, shall be not less than one and one-half times the outboard end in length. The beams shall rest on edge, the sides shall be plumb, and the edges shall be horizontal. The fulcrum point of the beam shall rest on a secure bearing at least 6 inches in each horizontal dimension. The beam shall be secured in place against movement and shall be securely braced at the fulcrum point against tipping.

(2) The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be securely supported either by means of struts bearing against sills in contact with the overhead beams or ceiling, or by means of tension members secured to the floor joists underfoot, or by both if necessary. The inboard ends of outrigger beams shall be secured against tipping and the entire supporting structure shall be securely braced in both directions to prevent any horizontal movement.

(3) Unless outrigger scaffolds are designed by a licensed professional engineer, they shall be constructed and erected in accordance with table D-16. Outrigger scaffolds designed by a registered professional engineer shall be constructed and erected in accordance with such design. A copy of the detailed drawings and specifications showing the sizes and spacing of members shall be kept on the job.

(4) Planking shall be laid tight and shall extend to within 3 inches of the building wall. Planking shall be nailed or bolted to outriggers.

(5) Where there is danger of material falling from the scaffold, a wire mesh or other enclosure shall be provided between the guardrail and the toeboard.

(6) Where additional working levels are required to be supported by the outrigger method, the plans and specifications of the outrigger and scaffolding structure shall be designed by a registered professional engineer.

(f) Masons' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 50 pounds per square foot and shall not be loaded in excess of that figure.

(2) The scaffold shall be provided with hoisting machines that meet the requirements of a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

Table D-16—Minimum Nominal Size and Maximum Spacing of Members of Outrigger Scaffolds

  Light dutyMedium duty
Maximum scaffold load25 p.s.f.50 p.s.f.
Outrigger size2×10 in3×10 in.
Maximum outrigger spacing10 ft 0 in6 ft 0 in.
Planking2×9 in2×9 in.
Guardrail2×4 in2×4 in.
Guardrail uprights2×4 in2×4 in.
Toeboards (minimum)4 in4 in.

(3) The platform shall be supported by wire ropes in conformity with paragraph (a)(22) of this section, suspended from overhead outrigger beams.

(4) The scaffold outrigger beams shall consist of structural metal securely fastened or anchored to the frame or floor system of the building or structure.

(5) Each outrigger beam shall be equivalent in strength to at least a standard 7-inch, 15.3-pound steel I-beam, be at least 15 feet long, and shall not project more than 6 feet 6 inches beyond the bearing point.

(6) Where the overhang exceeds 6 feet 6 inches, outrigger beams shall be composed of stronger beams or multiple beams and be installed in accordance with approved designs and instructions.

(7) If channel iron outrigger beams are used in place of I-beams, they shall be securely fastened together with the flanges turned out.

(8) All outrigger beams shall be set and maintained with their webs into vertical position.

(9) A stop bolt shall be placed at each end of every outrigger beam.

(10) The outrigger beam shall rest on suitable wood-bearing blocks.

(11) All parts of the scaffold such as bolts, nuts, fittings, clamps, wire rope, and outrigger beams and their fastenings, shall be maintained in sound and good working condition and shall be inspected before each installation and periodically thereafter.

(12) The free end of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles and be secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum and at least four turns of rope shall at all times remain on the drum.

(13) Where a single outrigger beam is used, the steel shackles or clevises with which the wire ropes are attached to the outrigger beams shall be placed directly over the hoisting drums.

(14) The scaffold platform shall be equivalent in strength to at least 2-inch planking. (For maximum planking spans see paragraph (a)(9) of this section.)

(15) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1 × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(16) Overhead protection shall be provided on the scaffold, not more than 9 feet above the platform, consisting of 2-inch planking or material of equivalent strength laid tight, when men are at work on the scaffold and an overhead hazard exists.

(17) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated in accordance with designs and instructions, of a registered professional engineer, and supervised by a competent, designated person.

(g) Two-point suspension scaffolds (swinging scaffolds). (1) Two-point suspension scaffold platforms shall be not less than 20 inches no more than 36 inches wide overall. The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or by other equivalent means.

(2) The hangers of two-point suspension scaffolds shall be made of wrought iron, mild steel, or other equivalent material having a cross-sectional area capable of sustaining four times the maximum intended load, and shall be designed with a support for guardrail, intermediate rail, and toeboard.

(3) When hoisting machines are used on two-point suspension scaffolds, such machines shall be of a design tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(4) The roof irons or hooks shall be of wrought iron, mild steel, or other equivalent material of proper size and design, securely installed and anchored. Tie-backs of three-fourth inch manila rope or the equivalent shall serve as a secondary means of anchorage, installed at right angles to the face of the building whenever possible and secured to a structurally sound portion of the building.

(5) Guardrails not less than 2 × 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- × 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(6) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be suspended by wire or fiber ropes. Wire and fiber ropes shall conform to paragraph (a)(22) of this section.

(7) The blocks for fiber ropes shall be of standard 6-inch size, consisting of at least one double and one single block. The sheaves of all blocks shall fit the size of rope used.

(8) All wire ropes, fiber ropes, slings, hangers, platforms, and other supporting parts shall be inspected before every installation. Periodic inspections shall be made while the scaffold is in use.

(9) On suspension scaffolds designed for a working load of 500 pounds no more than two men shall be permitted to work at one time. On suspension scaffolds with a working load of 750 pounds, no more than three men shall be permitted to work at one time. Each workman shall be protected by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline shall be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not scaffold), or to securely rigged lines, which will safely suspend the workman in case of a fall.

(10) Where acid solutions are used, fiber ropes are not permitted unless acid-proof.

(11) Two-point suspension scaffolds shall be securely lashed to the building or structure to prevent them from swaying. Window cleaners' anchors shall not be used for this purpose.

(12) The platform of every two-point suspension scaffold shall be one of the following types:

(i) The side stringer of ladder-type platforms shall be clear straight-grained spruce or materials of equivalent strength and durability. The rungs shall be of straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, at least 118 inch in diameter, with seven-eighth inch tenons mortised into the side stringers at least seven-eighth inch. The stringers shall be tied together with the tie rods not less than one-quarter inch in diameter, passing through the stringers and riveted up tight against washers on both ends. The flooring strips shall be spaced not more than five-eighth inch apart except at the side rails where the space may be 1 inch. Ladder-type platforms shall be constructed in accordance with table D-17.

(ii) Plank-type platforms shall be composed of not less than nominal 2×8-inch unspliced planks, properly cleated together on the underside starting 6 inches from each end; intervals in between shall not exceed 4 feet. The plank-type platform shall not extend beyond the hangers more than 18 inches. A bar or other effective means shall be securely fastened to the platform at each end to prevent its slipping off the hanger. The span between hangers for plank-type platforms shall not exceed 10 feet.

(iii) Beam platforms shall have side stringers of lumber not less than 2×6 inches set on edge. The span between hangers shall not exceed 12 feet when beam platforms are used. The flooring shall be supported on 2- and 6-inch crossbeams, laid flat and set into the upper edge of the stringers with a snug fit, at intervals of not more than 4 feet, securely nailed in place. The flooring shall be of 1×6inch material properly nailed. Floorboards shall not be spaced more than one-half inch apart.

Table D-17—Schedule for Ladder-Type Platforms

  Length of platform (feet)
1214 & 1618 & 2022 & 2428 & 30
Side stringers, minimum cross section (finished sizes):
At ends (in.)13/4×23/413/4×23/413/4×313/4×313/4×31/2
At middle (in.)13/4×33/413/4×33/413/4×413/4×41/413/4×5
Reinforcing strip (minimum)1
Rungs2
Tie rods:
Number (minimum)34456
Diameter (minimum)1/4 in1/4 in1/4 in1/4 in1/4 in.
Flooring, minimum finished size (in.)1/2×23/41/2×23/41/2×23/41/2×3/41/2×23/4

1A 1/8x7/8-in. steel reinforcing strip or its equivalent shall be attached to the side or underside full length.

2Rungs shall be 11/8-in. minimum, diameter with at least 7/8-in. diameter tenons, and the maximum spacing shall be 12 in. center to center.

(h) Stone setters' adjustable multiple-point suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaffold shall be capable of sustaining a working load of 25 pounds per square foot and shall not be overloaded. Scaffolds shall not be used for storage of stone or other heavy materials.

(2) The hoisting machine and its supports shall be of a type tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.399(a)(77) for definition of listed, and §1910.7 for nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(3) The platform shall be securely fastened to the hangers by U-bolts or other equivalent means.

(4) The scaffold unit shall be suspended from metal outriggers, iron brackets, wire rope slings, or iron hooks which will safely support the maximum intended load.

(5) Outriggers when used shall be set with their webs in a vertical position, securely anchored to the building or structure and provided with stop bolts at each end.

(6) The scaffold shall be supported by wire rope conforming with paragraph (a)(22) of this section, suspended from overhead supports.

(7) The free ends of the suspension wire ropes shall be equipped with proper size thimbles, secured by splicing or other equivalent means. The running ends shall be securely attached to the hoisting drum and at least four turns of rope shall remain on the drum at all times.

(8) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(9) When two or more scaffolds are used on a building or structure they shall not be bridged one to the other but shall be maintained at even height with platforms butting closely.

(10) Each scaffold shall be installed or relocated in accordance with designs and instructions of a registered professional engineer, and such installation or relocation shall be supervised by a competent designated person.

(i) Single-point adjustable suspension scaffolds. (1) The scaffolding, including power units or manually operated winches, shall be a type tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.399(a)(77) for definition of listed, and §1910.7 for nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) All power-operated gears and brakes shall be enclosed.

(4) In addition to the normal operating brake, all-power driven units must have an emergency brake which engages automatically when the normal speed of descent is exceeded.

(5) Guards, mid-rails, and toeboards shall completely enclose the cage or basket. Guardrails shall be no less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent installed no less than 36 inches nor more than 42 inches above the platform. Mid-rails shall be 1 by 6 inches or the equivalent, installed equidistant between the guardrail and the platform. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height.

(6) The hoisting machines, cables, and equipment shall be regularly serviced and inspected after each installation and every 30 days thereafter.

(7) The units may be combined to form a two-point suspension scaffold. Such scaffold shall comply with paragraph (g) of this section.

(8) The supporting cable shall be straight for its entire length, and the operator shall not sway the basket and fix the cable to any intermediate points to change his original path of travel.

(9) Equipment shall be maintained and used in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions.

(10) Suspension methods shall conform to applicable provisions of paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section.

(j) Boatswain's chairs. (1) The chair seat shall be not less than 12 by 24 inches, and of 1-inch thickness. The seat shall be reinforced on the underside to prevent the board from splitting.

(2) The two fiber rope seat slings shall be of 58 -inch diameter, reeved through the four seat holes so as to cross each other on the underside of the seat.

(3) Seat slings shall be of at least 38 -inch wire rope when a workman is conducting a heat producing process such as gas or arc welding.

(4) The workman shall be protected by a safety life belt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline shall be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not scaffold), or to securely rigged lines, which will safely suspend the worker in case of a fall.

(5) The tackle shall consist of correct size ball bearing or bushed blocks and properly spliced 58 -inch diameter first-grade manila rope.

(6) The roof irons, hooks, or the object to which the tackle is anchored shall be securely installed. Tiebacks when used shall be installed at right angles to the face of the building and securely fastened to a chimney.

(k) Carpenters' bracket scaffolds. (1) The brackets shall consist of a triangular wood frame not less than 2 by 3 inches in cross section, or of metal of equivalent strength. Each member shall be properly fitted and securely joined.

(2) Each bracket shall be attached to the structure by means of one of the following:

(i) A bolt no less than five-eighths inch in diameter which shall extend through the inside of the building wall.

(ii) A metal stud attachment device.

(iii) Welding to steel tanks.

(iv) Hooking over a well-secured and adequately strong supporting member.

The brackets shall be spaced no more than 10 feet apart.

(3) No more than two persons shall occupy any given 10 feet of a bracket scaffold at any one time. Tools and materials shall not exceed 75 pounds in addition to the occupancy.

(4) The platform shall consist of not less than two 2- by 9-inch nominal size planks extending not more than 18 inches or less than 6 inches beyond each end support.

(5) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(l) Bricklayers' square scaffolds. (1) The squares shall not exceed 5 feet in width and 5 feet in height.

(2) Members shall be not less than those specified in Table D-18.

(3) The squares shall be reinforced on both sides of each corner with 1- by 6-inch gusset pieces. They shall also have braces 1 by 8 inches on both sides running from center to center of each member, or other means to secure equivalent strength and rigidity.

(4) The squares shall be set not more than 5 feet apart for medium duty scaffolds, and not more than 8 feet apart for light duty scaffolds. Bracing 1×8 inches, extending from the bottom of each square to the top of the next square, shall be provided on both front and rear sides of the scaffold.

Table D-18—Minimum Dimensions for Bricklayers' Square Scaffold Members

MembersDimensions (inches)
Bearers or horizontal members2 by 6.
Legs2 by 6.
Braces at corners1 by 6.
Braces diagonally from center frame1 by 8.

(5) Platform planks shall be at least 2- by 9-inch nominal size. The ends of the planks shall overlap the bearers of the squares and each plank shall be supported by not less than three squares.

(6) Bricklayers' square scaffolds shall not exceed three tiers in height and shall be so constructed and arranged that one square shall rest directly above the other. The upper tiers shall stand on a continuous row of planks laid across the next lower tier and be nailed down or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.

(7) Scaffolds shall be level and set upon a firm foundation.

(m) Horse scaffolds. (1) Horse scaffolds shall not be constructed or arranged more than two tiers or 10 feet in height.

(2) The members of the horses shall be not less than those specified in Table D-19.

(3) Horses shall be spaced not more than 5 feet for medium duty and not more than 8 feet for light duty.

(4) When arranged in tiers, each horse shall be placed directly over the horse in the tier below.

(5) On all scaffolds arranged in tiers, the legs shall be nailed down to the planks to prevent displacement or thrust and each tier shall be substantially cross braced.

Table D-19—Minimum Dimensions for Horse Scaffold Members

MembersDimensions (inches)
Horizontal members or bearers3 by 4.
Legs11/4 by 41/2.
Longitudinal brace between legs1 by 6.
Gusset brace at top of legs1 by 8.
Half diagonal braces11/4 by 41/2.

(6) Horses or parts which have become weak or defective shall not be used.

(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(n) Needle beam scaffold. (1) Wood needle beams shall be in accordance with paragraph (a) (5) and (9) of this section, and shall be not less than 4 by 6 inches in size, with the greater dimension placed in a vertical direction. Metal beams or the equivalent conforming to paragraph (a) (4) and (8) of this section may be used.

(2) Ropes or hangers shall be provided for supports. The span between supports on the needle beam shall not exceed 10 feet for 4- by 6-inch timbers. Rope supports shall be equivalent in strength to 1-inch diameter first-grade manila rope.

(3) The ropes shall be attached to the needle beams by a scaffold hitch or a properly made eye splice. The loose end of the rope shall be tied by a bowline knot or by a round turn and one-half hitch.

(4) The platform span between the needle beams shall not exceed 8 feet when using 2-inch scaffold plank. For spans greater than 8 feet, platforms shall be designed based on design requirements for the special span. The overhang of each end of the platform planks shall be not less than 1 foot and not more than 18 inches.

(5) When one needle beam is higher than the other or when the platform is not level the platform shall be secured against slipping.

(6) All unattached tools, bolts, and nuts used on needle beam scaffolds shall be kept in suitable containers.

(7) One end of a needle beam scaffold may be supported by a permanent structural member conforming to paragraphs (a) (4) and (8) of this section.

(8) Each man working on a needle beam scaffold 20 feet or more above the ground or floor and working with both hands, shall be protected by a safety life belt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline shall be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not scaffold), or to securely rigged lines, which will safely suspend the workman in case of a fall.

(o) Plasterers', decorators', and large area scaffolds. (1) Plasterers', decorators', lathers', and ceiling workers' inside scaffolds shall be constructed in accordance with the general requirements set forth for independent wood pole scaffolds.

(2) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(3) All platform planks shall be laid with the edges close together.

(4) When independent pole scaffold platforms are erected in sections, such sections shall be provided with connecting runways equipped with substantial guardrails.

(p) Interior hung scaffolds. (1) [Reserved]

(2) The suspended steel wire rope shall conform to paragraph (a)(22) of this section. Wire may be used providing the strength requirements of paragraph (a)(22) of this section are met.

(3) For hanging wood scaffolds, the following minimum nominal size material is recommended:

(i) Supporting bearers 2 by 9 inches on edge.

(ii) Planking 2 by 9 inches or 2 by 10 inches, with maximum span 7 feet for heavy duty and 10 feet for light duty or medium duty.

(4) Steel tube and coupler members may be used for hanging scaffolds with both types of scaffold designed to sustain a uniform distributed working load up to heavy duty scaffold loads with a safety factor of four.

(5) When a hanging scaffold is supported by means of wire rope, such wire rope shall be wrapped at least twice around the supporting members and twice around the bearers of the scaffold, with each end of the wire rope secured by at least three standard wire-rope clips.

(6) All overhead supporting members shall be inspected and checked for strength before the scaffold is erected.

(7) Guardrails not less than 2 by 4 inches or the equivalent and not less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch lumber or equivalent, and toeboards, shall be installed at all open sides on all scaffolds more than 10 feet above the ground or floor. Toeboards shall be a minimum of 4 inches in height. Wire mesh shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (a)(17) of this section.

(q) Ladder-jack scaffolds. (1) All ladder-jack scaffolds shall be limited to light duty and shall not exceed a height of 20 feet above the floor or ground.

(2) All ladders used in connection with ladder-jack scaffolds shall be heavy-duty ladders and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with §1910.25 and §1910.26.

(3) The ladder jack shall be so designed and constructed that it will bear on the side rails in addition to the ladder rungs, or if bearing on rungs only, the bearing area shall be at least 10 inches on each rung.

(4) Ladders used in conjunction with ladder jacks shall be so placed, fastened, held, or equipped with devices so as to prevent slipping.

(5) The wood platform planks shall be not less than 2 inches nominal in thickness. Both metal and wood platform planks shall overlap the bearing surface not less than 12 inches. The span between supports for wood shall not exceed 8 feet. Platform width shall be not less than 18 inches.

(6) Not more than two persons shall occupy any given 8 feet of any ladder-jack scaffold at any one time.

(r) Window-jack scaffolds. (1) Window-jack scaffolds shall be used only for the purpose of working at the window opening through which the jack is placed.

(2) Window jacks shall not be used to support planks placed between one window jack and another or for other elements of scaffolding.

(3) Window-jack scaffolds shall be provided with suitable guardrails unless safety belts with lifelines are attached and provided for the workman. Window-jack scaffolds shall be used by one man only.

(s) Roofing brackets. (1) Roofing brackets shall be constructed to fit the pitch of the roof.

(2) Brackets shall be secured in place by nailing in addition to the pointed metal projections. The nails shall be driven full length into the roof. When rope supports are used, they shall consist of first-grade manila of at least three-quarter-inch diameter, or equivalent.

(3) A substantial catch platform shall be installed below the working area of roofs more than 20 feet from the ground to eaves with a slope greater than 3 inches in 12 inches without a parapet. In width the platform shall extend 2 feet beyond the projection of the eaves and shall be provided with a safety rail, mid-rail, and toeboard. This provision shall not apply where employees engaged in work upon such roofs are protected by a safety belt attached to a lifeline.

(t) Crawling boards or chicken ladders. (1) Crawling boards shall be not less than 10 inches wide and 1 inch thick, having cleats 1×112 inches. The cleats shall be equal in length to the width of the board and spaced at equal intervals not to exceed 24 inches. Nails shall be driven through and clinched on the underside. The crawling board shall extend from the ridge pole to the eaves when used in connection with roof construction, repair, or maintenance.

(2) A firmly fastened lifeline of at least three-quarter-inch rope shall be strung beside each crawling board for a handhold.

(3) Crawling boards shall be secured to the roof by means of adequate ridge hooks or equivalent effective means.

(u) Float or ship scaffolds. (1) Float or ship scaffolds shall support not more than three men and a few light tools, such as those needed for riveting, bolting, and welding. They shall be constructed in accordance with paragraphs (u) (2) through (6) of this section, unless substitute designs and materials provide equivalent strength, stability, and safety.

(2) The platform shall be not less than 3 feet wide and 6 feet long, made of three-quarter-inch plywood, equivalent to American Plywood Association Grade B-B, Group I, Exterior.

(3) Under the platform, there shall be two supporting bearers made from 2×4-inch, or 1×10-inch rough, selected lumber, or better. They shall be free of knots or other flaws and project 6 inches beyond the platform on both sides. The ends of the platform shall extend about 6 inches beyond the outer edges of the bearers. Each bearer shall be securely fastened to the platform.

(4) An edging of wood not less than 34 ×112 inches, or equivalent, shall be placed around all sides of the platform to prevent tools from rolling off.

(5) Supporting ropes shall be 1-inch diameter manila rope or equivalent, free from deterioration, chemical damage, flaws, or other imperfections. Rope connections shall be such that the platform cannot shift or slip. If two ropes are used with each float, each of the two supporting ropes shall be hitched around one end of a bearer and pass under the platforms to the other end of the bearer where it is hitched again, leaving sufficient rope at each end for the supporting ties.

(6) Each workman shall be protected by a safety lifebelt attached to a lifeline. The lifeline shall be securely attached to substantial members of the structure (not scaffold), or to securely rigged lines, which will safely suspend the workman in case of a fall.

(v) Scope. This section establishes safety requirements for the construction, operation, maintenance, and use of scaffolds used in the maintenance of buildings and structures.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5321, Feb. 10, 1984; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988]

§1910.29   Manually propelled mobile ladder stands and scaffolds (towers).

(a) General requirements—(1) Application. This section is intended to prescribe rules and requirements for the design, construction, and use of mobile work platforms (including ladder stands but not including aerial ladders) and rolling (mobile) scaffolds (towers). This standard is promulgated to aid in providing for the safety of life, limb, and property, by establishing minimum standards for structural design requirements and for the use of mobile work platforms and towers.

(2) Working loads. (i) Work platforms and scaffolds shall be capable of carrying the design load under varying circumstances depending upon the conditions of use. Therefore, all parts and appurtenances necessary for their safe and efficient utilization must be integral parts of the design.

(ii) Specific design and construction requirements are not a part of this section because of the wide variety of materials and design possibilities. However, the design shall be such as to produce a mobile ladder stand or scaffold that will safely sustain the specified loads. The material selected shall be of sufficient strength to meet the test requirements and shall be protected against corrosion or deterioration.

(a) The design working load of ladder stands shall be calculated on the basis of one or more 200-pound persons together with 50 pounds of equipment each.

(b) The design load of all scaffolds shall be calculated on the basis of:

Light—Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 25 pounds per square foot.

Medium—Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 50 pounds per square foot.

Heavy—Designed and constructed to carry a working load of 75 pounds per square foot.

All ladder stands and scaffolds shall be capable of supporting at least four times the design working load.

(iii) The materials used in mobile ladder stands and scaffolds shall be of standard manufacture and conform to standard specifications of strength, dimensions, and weights, and shall be selected to safely support the design working load.

(iv) Nails, bolts, or other fasteners used in the construction of ladders, scaffolds, and towers shall be of adequate size and in sufficient numbers at each connection to develop the designed strength of the unit. Nails shall be driven full length. (All nails should be immediately withdrawn from dismantled lumber.)

(v) All exposed surfaces shall be free from sharp edges, burrs or other safety hazards.

(3) Work levels. (i) The maximum work level height shall not exceed four (4) times the minimum or least base dimensions of any mobile ladder stand or scaffold. Where the basic mobile unit does not meet this requirement, suitable outrigger frames shall be employed to achieve this least base dimension, or provisions shall be made to guy or brace the unit against tipping.

(ii) The minimum platform width for any work level shall not be less than 20 inches for mobile scaffolds (towers). Ladder stands shall have a minimum step width of 16 inches.

(iii) The supporting structure for the work level shall be rigidly braced, using adequate cross bracing or diagonal bracing with rigid platforms at each work level.

(iv) The steps of ladder stands shall be fabricated from slip resistant treads.

(v) The work level platform of scaffolds (towers) shall be of wood, aluminum, or plywood planking, steel or expanded metal, for the full width of the scaffold, except for necessary openings. Work platforms shall be secured in place. All planking shall be 2-inch (nominal) scaffold grade minimum 1,500 f. (stress grade) construction grade lumber or equivalent.

(vi) All scaffold work levels 10 feet or higher above the ground or floor shall have a standard (4-inch nominal) toeboard.

(vii) All work levels 10 feet or higher above the ground or floor shall have a guardrail of 2- by 4-inch nominal or the equivalent installed no less than 36 inches or more than 42 inches high, with a mid-rail, when required, of 1- by 4-inch nominal lumber or equivalent.

(viii) A climbing ladder or stairway shall be provided for proper access and egress, and shall be affixed or built into the scaffold and so located that its use will not have a tendency to tip the scaffold. A landing platform shall be provided at intervals not to exceed 30 feet.

(4) Wheels or casters. (i) Wheels or casters shall be properly designed for strength and dimensions to support four (4) times the design working load.

(ii) All scaffold casters shall be provided with a positive wheel and/or swivel lock to prevent movement. Ladder stands shall have at least two (2) of the four (4) casters and shall be of the swivel type.

(iii) Where leveling of the elevated work platform is required, screw jacks or other suitable means for adjusting the height shall be provided in the base section of each mobile unit.

(b) Mobile tubular welded frame scaffolds—(1) General. Units shall be designed to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Bracing. Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross braces and/or diagonal braces for securing vertical members together laterally. The cross braces shall be of a length that will automatically square and align vertical members so the erected scaffold is always plumb, square, and rigid.

(3) Spacing. Spacing of panels or frames shall be consistent with the loads imposed. The frames shall be placed one on top of the other with coupling or stacking pins to provide proper vertical alignment of the legs.

(4) Locking. Where uplift may occur, panels shall be locked together vertically by pins or other equivalent means.

(5) Erection. Only the manufacturer of a scaffold or his qualified designated agent shall be permitted to erect or supervise the erection of scaffolds exceeding 50 feet in height above the base, unless such structure is approved in writing by a registered professional engineer, or erected in accordance with instructions furnished by the manufacturer.

(c) Mobile tubular welded sectional folding scaffolds—(1) General. Units including sectional stairway and sectional ladder scaffolds shall be designed to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Stairway. An integral stairway and work platform shall be incorporated into the structure of each sectional folding stairway scaffold.

(3) Bracing. An integral set of pivoting and hinged folding diagonal and horizontal braces and a detachable work platform shall be incorporated into the structure of each sectional folding ladder scaffold.

(4) Sectional folding stairway scaffolds. Sectional folding stairway scaffolds shall be designed as medium duty scaffolds except for high clearance. These special base sections shall be designed as light duty scaffolds. When upper sectional folding stairway scaffolds are used with a special high clearance base, the load capacity of the entire scaffold shall be reduced accordingly. The width of a sectional folding stairway scaffold shall not exceed 412 feet. The maximum length of a sectional folding stairway scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet.

(5) Sectional folding ladder scaffolds. Sectional folding ladder scaffolds shall be designed as light duty scaffolds including special base (open end) sections which are designed for high clearance. For certain special applications the six-foot (6) folding ladder scaffolds, except for special high clearance base sections, shall be designed for use as medium duty scaffolds. The width of a sectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 412 feet. The maximum length of a sectional folding ladder scaffold shall not exceed 6 feet 6 inches for a six-foot (6) long unit, 8 feet 6 inches for an eight-foot (8) unit or 10 feet 6 inches for a ten-foot (10) long unit.

(6) End frames. The end frames of sectional ladder and stairway scaffolds shall be designed so that the horizontal bearers provide supports for multiple planking levels.

(7) Erection. Only the manufacturer of the scaffold or his qualified designated agent shall be permitted to erect or supervise the erection of scaffolds exceeding 50 feet in height above the base, unless such structure is approved in writing by a licensed professional engineer, or erected in accordance with instructions furnished by the manufacturer.

(d) Mobile tube and coupler scaffolds—(1) Design. Units shall be designed to comply with the applicable requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Material. The material used for the couplers shall be of a structural type, such as a drop-forged steel, malleable iron or structural grade aluminum. The use of gray cast iron is prohibited.

(3) Erection. Only the manufacturer of the scaffold or his qualified designated agent shall be permitted to erect or supervise the erection of scaffolds exceeding 50 feet in height above the base, unless such structure is approved in writing by a licensed professional engineer, or erected in accordance with instructions furnished by the manufacturer.

(e) Mobile work platforms—(1) Design. Units shall be designed for the use intended and shall comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Base width. The minimum width of the base of mobile work platforms shall not be less than 20 inches.

(3) Bracing. Adequate rigid diagonal bracing to vertical members shall be provided.

(f) Mobile ladder stands—(1) Design. Units shall comply with applicable requirements of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Base width. The minimum base width shall conform to paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section. The maximum length of the base section shall be the total length of combined steps and top assembly, measured horizontally, plus five-eighths inch per step of rise.

(3) Steps. Steps shall be uniformly spaced, and sloped, with a rise of not less than nine (9) inches, nor more than ten (10) inches, and a depth of not less seven (7) inches. The slope of the steps section shall be a minimum of fifty-five (55) degrees and a maximum of sixty (60) degrees measured from the horizontal.

(4) Handrails. (i) Units having more than five (5) steps or 60 inches vertical height to the top step shall be equipped with handrails.

(ii) Handrails shall be a minimum of 29 inches high. Measurements shall be taken vertically from the center of the step.

(5) Loading. The load (see paragraph (a)(2)(ii)(a) of this section) shall be applied uniformly to a 312 inches wide area front to back at the center of the width span with a safety factor of four (4).

§1910.30   Other working surfaces.

(a) Dockboards (bridge plates). (1) Portable and powered dockboards shall be strong enough to carry the load imposed on them.

(2) Portable dockboards shall be secured in position, either by being anchored or equipped with devices which will prevent their slipping.

(3) Powered dockboards shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Commercial Standard CS202-56 (1961) “Industrial Lifts and Hinged Loading Ramps published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(4) Handholds, or other effective means, shall be provided on portable dockboards to permit safe handling.

(5) Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from being moved while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.

(b) Forging machine area. (1) Machines shall be so located as to give (i) enough clearance between machines so that the movement of one operator will not interfere with the work of another, (ii) ample room for cleaning machines and handling the work, including material and scrap. The arrangement of machines shall be such that operators will not stand in aisles.

(2) Aisles shall be provided of sufficient width to permit the free movement of employees bringing and removing material. This aisle space is to be independent of working and storage space.

(3) Wood platforms used on the floor in front of machines shall be substantially constructed.

(c) Veneer machinery. (1) Sides of steam vats shall extend to a height of not less than 36 inches above the floor, working platform, or ground.

(2) Large steam vats divided into sections shall be provided with substantial walkways between sections. Each walkway shall be provided with a standard handrail on each exposed side. These handrails may be removable, if necessary.

(3) Covers shall be removed only from that portion of steaming vats on which men are working and a portable railing shall be placed at this point to protect the operators.

(4) Workmen shall not ride or step on logs in steam vats.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996]

Subpart E—Exit Routes and Emergency Planning

Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 65008), 5-2007 (72 FR 31160), or 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), as applicable; and 29 CFR 1911.

§1910.33   Table of contents.

This section lists the sections and paragraph headings contained in §§1910.34 through 1910.39.

§1910.34   Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered.

(b) Exit routes are covered.

(c) Definitions.

§1910.35   Compliance with Alternate Exit Route Codes.

§1910.36   Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements.

(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate.

(c) Exit discharge.

(d) An exit door must be unlocked.

(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used.

(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate.

(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements.

(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted.

§1910.37   Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized.

(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate.

(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained.

(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations.

(e) An employee alarm system must be operable.

§1910.38   Emergency action plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans.

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan.

(d) Employee alarm system.

(e) Training.

(f) Review of emergency action plan.

§1910.39   Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans.

(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan.

(d) Employee information.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§1910.34   Coverage and definitions.

(a) Every employer is covered. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 apply to workplaces in general industry except mobile workplaces such as vehicles or vessels.

(b) Exits routes are covered. The rules in §§1910.34 through 1910.39 cover the minimum requirements for exit routes that employers must provide in their workplace so that employees may evacuate the workplace safely during an emergency. Sections 1910.34 through 1910.39 also cover the minimum requirements for emergency action plans and fire prevention plans.

(c) Definitions.

Electroluminescent means a light-emitting capacitor. Alternating current excites phosphor atoms when placed between the electrically conductive surfaces to produce light. This light source is typically contained inside the device.

Exit means that portion of an exit route that is generally separated from other areas to provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. An example of an exit is a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that leads from the fifth floor of an office building to the outside of the building.

Exit access means that portion of an exit route that leads to an exit. An example of an exit access is a corridor on the fifth floor of an office building that leads to a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway (the Exit).

Exit discharge means the part of the exit route that leads directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside. An example of an exit discharge is a door at the bottom of a two-hour fire resistance-rated enclosed stairway that discharges to a place of safety outside the building.

Exit route means a continuous and unobstructed path of exit travel from any point within a workplace to a place of safety (including refuge areas). An exit route consists of three parts: The exit access; the exit; and, the exit discharge. (An exit route includes all vertical and horizontal areas along the route.)

High hazard area means an area inside a workplace in which operations include high hazard materials, processes, or contents.

Occupant load means the total number of persons that may occupy a workplace or portion of a workplace at any one time. The occupant load of a workplace is calculated by dividing the gross floor area of the workplace or portion of the workplace by the occupant load factor for that particular type of workplace occupancy. Information regarding the “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2009, Life Safety Code, and in IFC-2009, International Fire Code (incorporated by reference, see §1910.6).

Refuge area means either:

(1) A space along an exit route that is protected from the effects of fire by separation from other spaces within the building by a barrier with at least a one-hour fire resistance-rating; or

(2) A floor with at least two spaces, separated from each other by smoke-resistant partitions, in a building protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system that complies with §1910.159 of this part.

Self-luminous means a light source that is illuminated by a self-contained power source (e.g., tritium) and that operates independently from external power sources. Batteries are not acceptable self-contained power sources. The light source is typically contained inside the device.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§1910.35   Compliance with alternate exit-route codes.

OSHA will deem an employer demonstrating compliance with the exit-route provisions of NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2009 edition, or the exit-route provisions of the International Fire Code, 2009 edition, to be in compliance with the corresponding requirements in §§1910.34, 1910.36, and 1910.37 (incorporated by reference, see section §1910.6).

[76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§1910.36   Design and construction requirements for exit routes.

(a) Basic requirements. Exit routes must meet the following design and construction requirements:

(1) An exit route must be permanent. Each exit route must be a permanent part of the workplace.

(2) An exit must be separated by fire resistant materials. Construction materials used to separate an exit from other parts of the workplace must have a one-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects three or fewer stories and a two-hour fire resistance-rating if the exit connects four or more stories.

(3) Openings into an exit must be limited. An exit is permitted to have only those openings necessary to allow access to the exit from occupied areas of the workplace, or to the exit discharge. An opening into an exit must be protected by a self-closing fire door that remains closed or automatically closes in an emergency upon the sounding of a fire alarm or employee alarm system. Each fire door, including its frame and hardware, must be listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Section 1910.155(c)(3)(iv)(A) of this part defines “listed” and §1910.7 of this part defines a “nationally recognized testing laboratory.”

(b) The number of exit routes must be adequate—(1) Two exit routes. At least two exit routes must be available in a workplace to permit prompt evacuation of employees and other building occupants during an emergency, except as allowed in paragraph (b)(3) of this section. The exit routes must be located as far away as practical from each other so that if one exit route is blocked by fire or smoke, employees can evacuate using the second exit route.

(2) More than two exit routes. More than two exit routes must be available in a workplace if the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would not be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

(3) A single exit route. A single exit route is permitted where the number of employees, the size of the building, its occupancy, or the arrangement of the workplace is such that all employees would be able to evacuate safely during an emergency.

Note to paragraph 1910.36(b): For assistance in determining the number of exit routes necessary for your workplace, consult NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

(c) Exit discharge. (1) Each exit discharge must lead directly outside or to a street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space with access to the outside.

(2) The street, walkway, refuge area, public way, or open space to which an exit discharge leads must be large enough to accommodate the building occupants likely to use the exit route.

(3) Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge.

(d) An exit door must be unlocked. (1) Employees must be able to open an exit route door from the inside at all times without keys, tools, or special knowledge. A device such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside is permitted on exit discharge doors.

(2) Exit route doors must be free of any device or alarm that could restrict emergency use of the exit route if the device or alarm fails.

(3) An exit route door may be locked from the inside only in mental, penal, or correctional facilities and then only if supervisory personnel are continuously on duty and the employer has a plan to remove occupants from the facility during an emergency.

(e) A side-hinged exit door must be used. (1) A side-hinged door must be used to connect any room to an exit route.

(2) The door that connects any room to an exit route must swing out in the direction of exit travel if the room is designed to be occupied by more than 50 people or if the room is a high hazard area (i.e., contains contents that are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or explode).

(f) The capacity of an exit route must be adequate. (1) Exit routes must support the maximum permitted occupant load for each floor served.

(2) The capacity of an exit route may not decrease in the direction of exit route travel to the exit discharge.

Note to paragraph 1910.36(f): Information regarding “Occupant load” is located in NFPA 101-2000, Life Safety Code.

(g) An exit route must meet minimum height and width requirements. (1) The ceiling of an exit route must be at least seven feet six inches (2.3 m) high. Any projection from the ceiling must not reach a point less than six feet eight inches (2.0 m) from the floor.

(2) An exit access must be at least 28 inches (71.1 cm) wide at all points. Where there is only one exit access leading to an exit or exit discharge, the width of the exit and exit discharge must be at least equal to the width of the exit access.

(3) The width of an exit route must be sufficient to accommodate the maximum permitted occupant load of each floor served by the exit route.

(4) Objects that project into the exit route must not reduce the width of the exit route to less than the minimum width requirements for exit routes.

(h) An outdoor exit route is permitted. Each outdoor exit route must meet the minimum height and width requirements for indoor exit routes and must also meet the following requirements:

(1) The outdoor exit route must have guardrails to protect unenclosed sides if a fall hazard exists;

(2) The outdoor exit route must be covered if snow or ice is likely to accumulate along the route, unless the employer can demonstrate that any snow or ice accumulation will be removed before it presents a slipping hazard;

(3) The outdoor exit route must be reasonably straight and have smooth, solid, substantially level walkways; and

(4) The outdoor exit route must not have a dead-end that is longer than 20 feet (6.2 m).

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002, as amended at 76 FR 33606, June 8, 2011]

§1910.37   Maintenance, safeguards, and operational features for exit routes.

(a) The danger to employees must be minimized. (1) Exit routes must be kept free of explosive or highly flammable furnishings or other decorations.

(2) Exit routes must be arranged so that employees will not have to travel toward a high hazard area, unless the path of travel is effectively shielded from the high hazard area by suitable partitions or other physical barriers.

(3) Exit routes must be free and unobstructed. No materials or equipment may be placed, either permanently or temporarily, within the exit route. The exit access must not go through a room that can be locked, such as a bathroom, to reach an exit or exit discharge, nor may it lead into a dead-end corridor. Stairs or a ramp must be provided where the exit route is not substantially level.

(4) Safeguards designed to protect employees during an emergency (e.g., sprinkler systems, alarm systems, fire doors, exit lighting) must be in proper working order at all times.

(b) Lighting and marking must be adequate and appropriate. (1) Each exit route must be adequately lighted so that an employee with normal vision can see along the exit route.

(2) Each exit must be clearly visible and marked by a sign reading “Exit.”

(3) Each exit route door must be free of decorations or signs that obscure the visibility of the exit route door.

(4) If the direction of travel to the exit or exit discharge is not immediately apparent, signs must be posted along the exit access indicating the direction of travel to the nearest exit and exit discharge. Additionally, the line-of-sight to an exit sign must clearly be visible at all times.

(5) Each doorway or passage along an exit access that could be mistaken for an exit must be marked “Not an Exit” or similar designation, or be identified by a sign indicating its actual use (e.g., closet).

(6) Each exit sign must be illuminated to a surface value of at least five foot-candles (54 lux) by a reliable light source and be distinctive in color. Self-luminous or electroluminescent signs that have a minimum luminance surface value of at least .06 footlamberts (0.21 cd/m2) are permitted.

(7) Each exit sign must have the word “Exit” in plainly legible letters not less than six inches (15.2 cm) high, with the principal strokes of the letters in the word “Exit” not less than three-fourths of an inch (1.9 cm) wide.

(c) The fire retardant properties of paints or solutions must be maintained. Fire retardant paints or solutions must be renewed as often as necessary to maintain their fire retardant properties.

(d) Exit routes must be maintained during construction, repairs, or alterations. (1) During new construction, employees must not occupy a workplace until the exit routes required by this subpart are completed and ready for employee use for the portion of the workplace they occupy.

(2) During repairs or alterations, employees must not occupy a workplace unless the exit routes required by this subpart are available and existing fire protections are maintained, or until alternate fire protection is furnished that provides an equivalent level of safety.

(3) Employees must not be exposed to hazards of flammable or explosive substances or equipment used during construction, repairs, or alterations, that are beyond the normal permissible conditions in the workplace, or that would impede exiting the workplace.

(e) An employee alarm system must be operable. Employers must install and maintain an operable employee alarm system that has a distinctive signal to warn employees of fire or other emergencies, unless employees can promptly see or smell a fire or other hazard in time to provide adequate warning to them. The employee alarm system must comply with §1910.165.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

§1910.38   Emergency action plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have an emergency action plan whenever an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such emergency action plan.

(b) Written and oral emergency action plans. An emergency action plan must be in writing, kept in the workplace, and available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

(c) Minimum elements of an emergency action plan. An emergency action plan must include at a minimum:

(1) Procedures for reporting a fire or other emergency;

(2) Procedures for emergency evacuation, including type of evacuation and exit route assignments;

(3) Procedures to be followed by employees who remain to operate critical plant operations before they evacuate;

(4) Procedures to account for all employees after evacuation;

(5) Procedures to be followed by employees performing rescue or medical duties; and

(6) The name or job title of every employee who may be contacted by employees who need more information about the plan or an explanation of their duties under the plan.

(d) Employee alarm system. An employer must have and maintain an employee alarm system. The employee alarm system must use a distinctive signal for each purpose and comply with the requirements in §1910.165.

(e) Training. An employer must designate and train employees to assist in a safe and orderly evacuation of other employees.

(f) Review of emergency action plan. An employer must review the emergency action plan with each employee covered by the plan:

(1) When the plan is developed or the employee is assigned initially to a job;

(2) When the employee's responsibilities under the plan change; and

(3) When the plan is changed.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

§1910.39   Fire prevention plans.

(a) Application. An employer must have a fire prevention plan when an OSHA standard in this part requires one. The requirements in this section apply to each such fire prevention plan.

(b) Written and oral fire prevention plans. A fire prevention plan must be in writing, be kept in the workplace, and be made available to employees for review. However, an employer with 10 or fewer employees may communicate the plan orally to employees.

(c) Minimum elements of a fire prevention plan. A fire prevention plan must include:

(1) A list of all major fire hazards, proper handling and storage procedures for hazardous materials, potential ignition sources and their control, and the type of fire protection equipment necessary to control each major hazard;

(2) Procedures to control accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials;

(3) Procedures for regular maintenance of safeguards installed on heat-producing equipment to prevent the accidental ignition of combustible materials;

(4) The name or job title of employees responsible for maintaining equipment to prevent or control sources of ignition or fires; and

(5) The name or job title of employees responsible for the control of fuel source hazards.

(d) Employee information. An employer must inform employees upon initial assignment to a job of the fire hazards to which they are exposed. An employer must also review with each employee those parts of the fire prevention plan necessary for self-protection.

[67 FR 67961, Nov. 7, 2002]

Appendix to Subpart E of Part 1910—Exit Routes, Emergency Action Plans, and Fire Prevention Plans

This appendix serves as a nonmandatory guideline to assist employers in complying with the appropriate requirements of subpart E.

§1910.38   Employee emergency plans.

1. Emergency action plan elements. The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace. Examples are: fire; toxic chemical releases; hurricanes; tornadoes; blizzards; floods; and others. The elements of the emergency action plan presented in paragraph 1910.38(c) can be supplemented by the following to more effectively achieve employee safety and health in an emergency. The employer should list in detail the procedures to be taken by those employees who have been selected to remain behind to care for essential plant operations until their evacuation becomes absolutely necessary. Essential plant operations may include the monitoring of plant power supplies, water supplies, and other essential services which cannot be shut down for every emergency alarm. Essential plant operations may also include chemical or manufacturing processes which must be shut down in stages or steps where certain employees must be present to assure that safe shut down procedures are completed.

The use of floor plans or workplace maps which clearly show the emergency escape routes should be included in the emergency action plan. Color coding will aid employees in determining their route assignments.

The employer should also develop and explain in detail what rescue and medical first aid duties are to be performed and by whom. All employees are to be told what actions they are to take in these emergency situations that the employer anticipates may occur in the workplace.

2. Emergency evacuation. At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan. In some cases where the emergency is very grave, total and immediate evacuation of all employees is necessary. In other emergencies, a partial evacuation of nonessential employees with a delayed evacuation of others may be necessary for continued plant operation. In some cases, only those employees in the immediate area of the fire may be expected to evacuate or move to a safe area such as when a local application fire suppression system discharge employee alarm is sounded. Employees must be sure that they know what is expected of them in all such emergency possibilities which have been planned in order to provide assurance of their safety from fire or other emergency.

The designation of refuge or safe areas for evacuation should be determined and identified in the plan. In a building divided into fire zones by fire walls, the refuge area may still be within the same building but in a different zone from where the emergency occurs.

Exterior refuge or safe areas may include parking lots, open fields or streets which are located away from the site of the emergency and which provide sufficient space to accommodate the employees. Employees should be instructed to move away from the exit discharge doors of the building, and to avoid congregating close to the building where they may hamper emergency operations.

3. Emergency action plan training. The employer should assure that an adequate number of employees are available at all times during working hours to act as evacuation wardens so that employees can be swiftly moved from the danger location to the safe areas. Generally, one warden for each twenty employees in the workplace should be able to provide adequate guidance and instruction at the time of a fire emergency. The employees selected or who volunteer to serve as wardens should be trained in the complete workplace layout and the various alternative escape routes from the workplace. All wardens and fellow employees should be made aware of handicapped employees who may need extra assistance, such as using the buddy system, and of hazardous areas to be avoided during emergencies. Before leaving, wardens should check rooms and other enclosed spaces in the workplace for employees who may be trapped or otherwise unable to evacuate the area.

After the desired degree of evacuation is completed, the wardens should be able to account for or otherwise verify that all employees are in the safe areas.

In buildings with several places of employment, employers are encouraged to coordinate their plans with the other employers in the building. A building-wide or standardized plan for the whole building is acceptable provided that the employers inform their respective employees of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. The standardized plan need not be kept by each employer in the multi-employer building, provided there is an accessible location within the building where the plan can be reviewed by affected employees. When multi-employer building-wide plans are not feasible, employers should coordinate their plans with the other employers within the building to assure that conflicts and confusion are avoided during times of emergencies. In multi-story buildings where more than one employer is on a single floor, it is essential that these employers coordinate their plans with each other to avoid conflicts and confusion.

4. Fire prevention housekeeping. The standard calls for the control of accumulations of flammable and combustible waste materials.

It is the intent of this standard to assure that hazardous accumulations of combustible waste materials are controlled so that a fast developing fire, rapid spread of toxic smoke, or an explosion will not occur. This does not necessarily mean that each room has to be swept each day. Employers and employees should be aware of the hazardous properties of materials in their workplaces, and the degree of hazard each poses. Certainly oil soaked rags have to be treated differently than general paper trash in office areas. However, large accumulations of waste paper or corrugated boxes, etc., can pose a significant fire hazard. Accumulations of materials which can cause large fires or generate dense smoke that are easily ignited or may start from spontaneous combustion, are the types of materials with which this standard is concerned. Such combustible materials may be easily ignited by matches, welder's sparks, cigarettes and similar low level energy ignition sources.

5. Maintenance of equipment under the fire prevention plan. Certain equipment is often installed in workplaces to control heat sources or to detect fuel leaks. An example is a temperature limit switch often found on deep-fat food fryers found in restaurants. There may be similar switches for high temperature dip tanks, or flame failure and flashback arrester devices on furnaces and similar heat producing equipment. If these devices are not properly maintained or if they become inoperative, a definite fire hazard exists. Again employees and supervisors should be aware of the specific type of control devices on equipment involved with combustible materials in the workplace and should make sure, through periodic inspection or testing, that these controls are operable. Manufacturers' recommendations should be followed to assure proper maintenance procedures.

[45 FR 60714, Sept. 12, 1980]

Subpart F—Powered Platforms, Manlifts, and Vehicle-Mounted Work Platforms

Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§1910.66   Powered platforms for building maintenance.

(a) Scope. This section covers powered platform installations permanently dedicated to interior or exterior building maintenance of a specific structure or group of structures. This section does not apply to suspended scaffolds (swinging scaffolds) used to service buildings on a temporary basis and covered under subpart D of this part, nor to suspended scaffolds used for construction work and covered under subpart L of 29 CFR part 1926. Building maintenance includes, but is not limited to, such tasks as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing and reglazing.

(b) Application—(1) New installations. This section applies to all permanent installations completed after July 23, 1990. Major modifications to existing installations completed after that date are also considered new installations under this section.

(2) Existing installations. (i) Permanent installations in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990 shall comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C of this section.

(ii) In addition, permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and in existence and/or completed before July 23, 1990, shall comply with appendix D of this section.

(c) Assurance. (1) Building owners of new installations shall inform the employer before each use in writing that the installation meets the requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and (f)(1) of this section and the additional design criteria contained in other provisions of paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section relating to: required load sustaining capabilities of platforms, building components, hoisting and supporting equipment; stability factors for carriages, platforms and supporting equipment; maximum horizontal force for movement of carriages and davits; design of carriages, hoisting machines, wire rope and stabilization systems; and design criteria for electrical wiring and equipment.

(2) Building owners shall base the information required in paragraph (c)(1) of this section on the results of a field test of the installation before being placed into service and following any major alteration to an existing installation, as required in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. The assurance shall also be based on all other relevant available information, including, but not limited to, test data, equipment specifications and verification by a registered professional engineer.

(3) Building owners of all installations, new and existing, shall inform the employer in writing that the installation has been inspected, tested and maintained in compliance with the requirements of paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section and that all protection anchorages meet the requirements of paragraph (I)(c)(10) of appendix C.

(4) The employer shall not permit employees to use the installation prior to receiving assurance from the building owner that the installation meets the requirements contained in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) of this section.

(d) Definitions.

Anemometer means an instrument for measuring wind velocity.

Angulated roping means a suspension method where the upper point of suspension is inboard from the attachments on the suspended unit, thus causing the suspended unit to bear against the face of the building.

Building face roller means a rotating cylindrical member designed to ride on the face of the building wall to prevent the platform from abrading the face of the building and to assist in stabilizing the platform.

Building maintenance means operations such as window cleaning, caulking, metal polishing, reglazing, and general maintenance on building surfaces.

Cable means a conductor, or group of conductors, enclosed in a weatherproof sheath, that may be used to supply electrical power and/or control current for equipment or to provide voice communication circuits.

Carriage means a wheeled vehicle used for the horizontal movement and support of other equipment.

Certification means a written, signed and dated statement confirming the performance of a requirement of this section.

Combination cable means a cable having both steel structural members capable of supporting the platform, and copper or other electrical conductors insulated from each other and the structural members by nonconductive barriers.

Competent person means a person who, because of training and experience, is capable of identifying hazardous or dangerous conditions in powered platform installations and of training employees to identify such conditions.

Continuous pressure means the need for constant manual actuation for a control to function.

Control means a mechanism used to regulate or guide the operation of the equipment.

Davit means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a powered platform from work, storage and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike outriggers, a davit reacts its operating load into a single roof socket or carriage attachment.

Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Ground rigging means a method of suspending a working platform starting from a safe surface to a point of suspension above the safe surface.

Ground rigged davit means a davit which cannot be used to raise a suspended working platform above the building face being serviced.

Guide button means a building face anchor designed to engage a guide track mounted on a platform.

Guide roller means a rotating cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide assembly, designed to provide continuous engagement between the platform and the building guides or guideways.

Guide shoe means a device attached to the platform designed to provide a sliding contact between the platform and the building guides.

Hoisting machine means a device intended to raise and lower a suspended or supported unit.

Hoist rated load means the hoist manufacturer's maximum allowable operating load.

Installation means all the equipment and all affected parts of a building which are associated with the performance of building maintenance using powered platforms.

Interlock means a device designed to ensure that operations or motions occur in proper sequence.

Intermittent stabilization means a method of platform stabilization in which the angulated suspension wire rope(s) are secured to regularly spaced building anchors.

Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline or anchorage.

Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Live load means the total static weight of workers, tools, parts, and supplies that the equipment is designed to support.

Obstruction detector means a control that will stop the suspended or supported unit in the direction of travel if an obstruction is encountered, and will allow the unit to move only in a direction away from the obstruction.

Operating control means a mechanism regulating or guiding the operation of equipment that ensures a specific operating mode.

Operating device means a device actuated manually to activate a control.

Outrigger means a device, used singly or in pairs, for suspending a working platform from work, storage, and rigging locations on the building being serviced. Unlike davits, an outrigger reacts its operating moment load as at least two opposing vertical components acting into two or more distinct roof points and/or attachments.

Platform rated load means the combined weight of workers, tools, equipment and other material which is permitted to be carried by the working platform at the installation, as stated on the load rating plate.

Poured socket means the method of providing wire rope terminations in which the ends of the rope are held in a tapered socket by means of poured spelter or resins.

Primary brake means a brake designed to be applied automatically whenever power to the prime mover is interrupted or discontinued.

Prime mover means the source of mechanical power for a machine.

Rated load means the manufacturer's recommended maximum load.

Rated strength means the strength of wire rope, as designated by its manufacturer or vendor, based on standard testing procedures or acceptable engineering design practices.

Rated working load means the combined static weight of men, materials, and suspended or supported equipment.

Registered professional engineer means a person who has been duly and currently registered and licensed by an authority within the United States or its territories to practice the profession of engineering.

Roof powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is located on the roof.

Roof rigged davit means a davit used to raise the suspended working platform above the building face being serviced. This type of davit can also be used to raise a suspended working platform which has been ground-rigged.

Rope means the equipment used to suspend a component of an equipment installation, i.e., wire rope.

Safe surface means a horizontal surface intended to be occupied by personnel, which is so protected by a fall protection system that it can be reasonably assured that said occupants will be protected against falls.

Secondary brake means a brake designed to arrest the descent of the suspended or supported equipment in the event of an overspeed condition.

Self powered platform means a working platform where the hoist(s) used to raise or lower the platform is mounted on the platform.

Speed reducer means a positive type speed reducing machine.

Stability factor means the ratio of the stabilizing moment to the overturning moment.

Stabilizer tie means a flexible line connecting the building anchor and the suspension wire rope supporting the platform.

Supported equipment means building maintenance equipment that is held or moved to its working position by means of attachment directly to the building or extensions of the building being maintained.

Suspended equipment means building maintenance equipment that is suspended and raised or lowered to its working position by means of ropes or combination cables attached to some anchorage above the equipment.

Suspended scaffold (swinging scaffold) means a scaffold supported on wire or other ropes, used for work on, or for providing access to, vertical sides of structures on a temporary basis. Such scaffold is not designed for use on a specific structure or group of structures.

Tail line means the nonsupporting end of the wire rope used to suspend the platform.

Tie-in guides means the portion of a building that provides continuous positive engagement between the building and a suspended or supported unit during its vertical travel on the face of the building.

Traction hoist means a type of hoisting machine that does not accumulate the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum or sheave, and is designed to raise and lower a suspended load by the application of friction forces between the suspension wire rope and the drum or sheave.

Transportable outriggers means outriggers designed to be moved from one work location to another.

Trolley carriage means a carriage suspended from an overhead track structure.

Verified means accepted by design, evaluation, or inspection by a registered professional engineer.

Weatherproof means so constructed that exposure to adverse weather conditions will not affect or interfere with the proper use or functions of the equipment or component.

Winding drum hoist means a type of hoisting machine that accumulates the suspension wire rope on the hoisting drum.

Working platform means suspended or supported equipment intended to provide access to the face of a building and manned by persons engaged in building maintenance.

Wrap means one complete turn of the suspension wire rope around the surface of a hoist drum.

(e) Powered platform installations—Affected parts of buildings—(1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to affected parts of buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.

(i) Structural supports, tie-downs, tie-in guides, anchoring devices and any affected parts of the building included in the installation shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;

(ii) Exterior installations shall be capable of withstanding prevailing climatic conditions;

(iii) The building installation shall provide safe access to, and egress from, the equipment and sufficient space to conduct necessary maintenance of the equipment;

(iv) The affected parts of the building shall have the capability of sustaining all the loads imposed by the equipment; and,

(v) The affected parts of the building shall be designed so as to allow the equipment to be used without exposing employees to a hazardous condition.

(2) Tie-in guides. (i) The exterior of each building shall be provided with tie-in guides unless the conditions in paragraph (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this section are met.

Note: See figure 1 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical continuous stabilization system utilizing tie-in guides.

(ii) If angulated roping is employed, tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated for not more than 75 feet (22.9 m) of the uppermost elevation of the building, if infeasible due to exterior building design, provided an angulation force of at least 10 pounds (44.4 n) is maintained under all conditions of loading.

(iii) Tie-in guides required in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section may be eliminated if one of the guide systems in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A), (e)(2)(iii)(B) or (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section is provided, or an equivalent.

(A) Intermittent stabilization system. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. The system may be used together with continuous positive building guide systems using tie-in guides on the same building, provided the requirements for each system are met.

(1) The maximum vertical interval between building anchors shall be three floors or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less.

(2) Building anchors shall be located vertically so that attachment of the stabilizer ties will not cause the platform suspension ropes to angulate the platform horizontally across the face of the building. The anchors shall be positioned horizontally on the building face so as to be symmetrical about the platform suspension ropes.

(3) Building anchors shall be easily visible to employees and shall allow a stabilizer tie attachment for each of the platform suspension ropes at each vertical interval. If more than two suspension ropes are used on a platform, only the two building-side suspension ropes at the platform ends shall require a stabilizer attachment.

(4) Building anchors which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, suspension wire ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, external building anchors shall not interfere with their handling or operation.

(5) The intermittent stabilization system building anchors and components shall be capable of sustaining without failure at least four times the maximum anticipated load applied or transmitted to the components and anchors. The minimum design wind load for each anchor shall be 300 (1334 n) pounds, if two anchors share the wind load.

(6) The building anchors and stabilizer ties shall be capable of sustaining anticipated horizontal and vertical loads from winds specified for roof storage design which may act on the platform and wire ropes if the platform is stranded on a building face. If the building anchors have different spacing than the suspension wire rope or if the building requires different suspension spacings on one platform, one building anchor and stabilizer tie shall be capable of sustaining the wind loads.

Note: See figure 2 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.

(B) Button guide stabilization system.

(1) Guide buttons shall be coordinated with platform mounted equipment of paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section.

(2) Guide buttons shall be located horizontally on the building face so as to allow engagement of each of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.

(3) Guide buttons shall be located in vertical rows on the building face for proper engagement of the guide tracks mounted on the platform.

(4) Two guide buttons shall engage each guide track at all times except for the initial engagement.

(5) Guide buttons which extend beyond the face of the building shall be free of sharp edges or points. Where cables, ropes and lifelines may be in contact with the building face, guide buttons shall not interfere with their handling or operation.

(6) Guide buttons, connections and seals shall be capable of sustaining without damage at least the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide tracks or guide track connectors to prevent the platform and its attachments from transmitting the weight of the platform to the guide buttons, connections and seals. In either case, the minimum design load shall be 300 pounds (1334 n) per building anchor.

Note: See paragraph (f)(5)(vi) of this section for relevant equipment provisions.

Note: See figure 3 in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.

(C) System utilizing angulated roping and building face rollers. The system shall keep the equipment in continuous contact with the building facade, and shall prevent sudden horizontal movement of the platform. This system is acceptable only where the suspended portion of the equipment in use does not exceed 130 feet (39.6 m) above a safe surface or ground level, and where the platform maintains no less than 10 pounds (44.4 n) angulation force on the building facade.

(iv) Tie-in guides for building interiors (atriums) may be eliminated when a registered professional engineer determines that an alternative stabilization system, including systems in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii) (A), (B) and (C), or a platform tie-off at each work station will provide equivalent safety.

(3) Roof guarding. (i) Employees working on roofs while performing building maintenance shall be protected by a perimeter guarding system which meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(1) of §1910.23 of this part.

(ii) The perimeter guard shall not be more than six inches (152 mm) inboard of the inside face of a barrier, i.e. the parapet wall, or roof edge curb of the building being serviced; however, the perimeter guard location shall not exceed an 18 inch (457 mm) setback from the exterior building face.

(4) Equipment stops. Operational areas for trackless type equipment shall be provided with structural stops, such as curbs, to prevent equipment from traveling outside its intended travel areas and to prevent a crushing or shearing hazard.

(5) Maintenance access. Means shall be provided to traverse all carriages and their suspended equipment to a safe area for maintenance and storage.

(6) Elevated track. (i) An elevated track system which is located four feet (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface, and traversed by carriage supported equipment, shall be provided with a walkway and guardrail system; or

(ii) The working platform shall be capable of being lowered, as part of its normal operation, to the lower safe surface for access and egress of the personnel and shall be provided with a safe means of access and egress to the lower safe surface.

(7) Tie-down anchors. Imbedded tie-down anchors, fasteners, and affected structures shall be resistant to corrosion.

(8) Cable stabilization. (i) Hanging lifelines and all cables not in tension shall be stabilized at each 200 foot (61 m) interval of vertical travel of the working platform beyond an initial 200 foot (61 m) distance.

(ii) Hanging cables, other than suspended wire ropes, which are in constant tension shall be stabilized when the vertical travel exceeds an initial 600 foot (183 m) distance, and at further intervals of 600 feet (183 m) or less.

(9) Emergency planning. A written emergency action plan shall be developed and implemented for each kind of working platform operation. This plan shall explain the emergency procedures which are to be followed in the event of a power failure, equipment failure or other emergencies which may be encountered. The plan shall also explain that employees inform themselves about the building emergency escape routes, procedures and alarm systems before operating a platform. Upon initial assignment and whenever the plan is changed the employer shall review with each employee those parts of the plan which the employee must know to protect himself or herself in the event of an emergency.

(10) Building maintenance. Repairs or major maintenance of those building portions that provide primary support for the suspended equipment shall not affect the capability of the building to meet the requirements of this standard.

(11) Electrical requirements. The following electrical requirements apply to buildings which utilize working platforms for building maintenance.

(i) General building electrical installations shall comply with §§1910.302 through 1910.308 of this part, unless otherwise specified in this section;

(ii) Building electrical wiring shall be of such capacity that when full load is applied to the equipment power circuit not more than a five percent drop from building service-vault voltage shall occur at any power circuit outlet used by equipment regulated by this section;

(iii) The equipment power circuit shall be an independent electrical circuit that shall remain separate from all other equipment within or on the building, other than power circuits used for hand tools that will be used in conjunction with the equipment. If the building is provided with an emergency power system, the equipment power circuit may also be connected to this system;

(iv) The power circuit shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can be locked in the “OFF” and “ON” positions. The switch shall be conveniently located with respect to the primary operating area of the equipment to allow the operators of the equipment access to the switch;

(v) The disconnect switch for the power circuit shall be locked in the “ON” position when the equipment is in use; and

(vi) An effective two-way voice communication system shall be provided between the equipment operators and persons stationed within the building being serviced. The communications facility shall be operable and shall be manned at all times by persons stationed within the building whenever the platform is being used.

(f) Powered platform installations—Equipment—(1) General requirements. The following requirements apply to equipment which are part of a powered platform installation, such as platforms, stabilizing components, carriages, outriggers, davits, hoisting machines, wire ropes and electrical components.

(i) Equipment installations shall be designed by or under the direction of a registered professional engineer experienced in such design;

(ii) The design shall provide for a minimum live load of 250 pounds (113.6 kg) for each occupant of a suspended or supported platform;

(iii) Equipment that is exposed to wind when not in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 100 miles per hour (44.7 m/s) at 30 feet (9.2 m) above grade; and

(iv) Equipment that is exposed to wind when in service shall be designed to withstand forces generated by winds of at least 50 miles per hour (22.4 m/s) for all elevations.

(2) Construction requirements. Bolted connections shall be self-locking or shall otherwise be secured to prevent loss of the connections by vibration.

(3) Suspension methods. Elevated building maintenance equipment shall be suspended by a carriage, outriggers, davits or an equivalent method.

(i) Carriages. Carriages used for suspension of elevated building maintenance equipment shall comply with the following:

(A) The horizontal movement of a carriage shall be controlled so as to ensure its safe movement and allow accurate positioning of the platform for vertical travel or storage;

(B) Powered carriages shall not exceed a traversing speed of 50 feet per minute (0.3 m/s);

(C) The initiation of a traversing movement for a manually propelled carriage on a smooth level surface shall not require a person to exert a horizontal force greater than 40 pounds (444.8 n);

(D) Structural stops and curbs shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the carriage beyond its designed limits of travel;

(E) Traversing controls for a powered carriage shall be of a continuous pressure weatherproof type. Multiple controls when provided shall be arranged to permit operation from only one control station at a time. An emergency stop device shall be provided on each end of a powered carriage for interrupting power to the carriage drive motors;

(F) The operating controls(s) shall be so connected that in the case of suspended equipment, traversing of a carriage is not possible until the suspended portion of the equipment is located at its uppermost designed position for traversing; and is free of contact with the face of the building or building guides. In addition, all protective devices and interlocks are to be in the proper position to allow traversing of the carriage;

(G) Stability for underfoot supported carriages shall be obtained by gravity, by an attachment to a structural support, or by a combination of gravity and a structural support. The use of flowing counterweights to achieve stability is prohibited.

(1) The stability factor against overturning shall not be less than two for horizontal traversing of the carriage, including the effects of impact and wind.

(2) The carriages and their anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform, and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the stall capacity of the hoist motor. All parts of the installation shall be capable of withstanding without damage to any part of the installation the forces resulting from the stall load of the hoist and one half the wind load.

(3) Roof carriages which rely on having tie-down devices secured to the building to develop the required stability against overturning shall be provided with an interlock which will prevent vertical platform movement unless the tie-down is engaged;

(H) An automatically applied braking or locking system, or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of power traversed or power assisted carriages;

(I) A manual or automatic braking or locking system or equivalent, shall be provided that will prevent unintentional traversing of manually propelled carriages;

(J) A means to lock out the power supply for the carriage shall be provided;

(K) Safe access to and egress from the carriage shall be provided from a safe surface. If the carriage traverses an elevated area, any operating area on the carriage shall be protected by a guardrail system in compliance with the provisions of paragraph (f)(5)(i)(F) of this section. Any access gate shall be self-closing and self-latching, or provided with an interlock;

(L) Each carriage work station position shall be identified by location markings and/or position indicators; and

(M) The motors shall stall if the load on the hoist motors is at any time in excess of three times that necessary for lifting the working platform with its rated load.

(ii) Transportable outriggers. (A) Transportable outriggers may be used as a method of suspension for ground rigged working platforms where the point of suspension does not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Tie-in guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(B) Transportable outriggers shall be used only with self-powered, ground rigged working platforms.

(C) Each transportable outrigger shall be secured with a tie-down to a verified anchorage on the building during the entire period of its use. The anchorage shall be designed to have a stability factor of not less than four against overturning or upsetting of the outrigger.

(D) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from and to a safe surface below the point of suspension.

(E) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed for lateral stability to prevent roll-over in the event an accidental lateral load is applied to the outrigger. The accidental lateral load to be considered in this design shall be not less than 70 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

(F) Each transportable outrigger shall be designed to support an ultimate load of not less than four times the rated load of the hoist.

(G) Each transportable outrigger shall be so located that the suspension wire ropes for two point suspended working platforms are hung parallel.

(H) A transportable outrigger shall be tied-back to a verified anchorage on the building with a rope equivalent in strength to the suspension rope.

(I) The tie-back rope shall be installed parallel to the centerline of the outrigger.

(iii) Davits. (A) Every davit installation, fixed or transportable, rotatable or non-rotatable shall be designed and installed to insure that it has a stability factor against overturning of not less than four.

(B) The following requirements apply to roof rigged davit systems:

(1) Access to and egress from the working platform shall be from a safe surface. Access or egress shall not require persons to climb over a building's parapet or guard railing; and

(2) The working platform shall be provided with wheels, casters or a carriage for traversing horizontally.

(C) The following requirements apply to ground rigged davit systems:

(1) The point of suspension shall not exceed 300 feet (91.5 m) above a safe surface. Guide system(s) shall be provided which meet the requirements of paragraph (e)(2) of this section;

(2) Access and egress to and from the working platform shall only be from a safe surface below the point of suspension.

(D) A rotating davit shall not require a horizontal force in excess of 40 pounds (177.9 n) per person to initiate a rotating movement.

(E) The following requirements shall apply to transportable davits:

(1) A davit or part of a davit weighing more than 80 pounds (36 kg) shall be provided with a means for its transport, which shall keep the center of gravity of the davit at or below 36 inches (914 mm) above the safe surface during transport;

(2) A davit shall be provided with a pivoting socket or with a base that will allow the insertion or removal of a davit at a position of not more than 35 degrees above the horizontal, with the complete davit inboard of the building face being serviced; and

(3) Means shall be provided to lock the davit to its socket or base before it is used to suspend the platform.

(4) Hoisting machines. (i) Raising and lowering of suspended or supported equipment shall be performed only by a hoisting machine.

(ii) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of arresting any overspeed descent of the load.

(iii) Each hoisting machine shall be powered only by air, electric or hydraulic sources.

(iv) Flammable liquids shall not be carried on the working platform.

(v) Each hoisting machine shall be capable of raising or lowering 125 percent of the rated load of the hoist.

(vi) Moving parts of a hoisting machine shall be enclosed or guarded in compliance with paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of §1910.212 of this part.

(vii) Winding drums, traction drums and sheaves and directional sheaves used in conjunction with hoisting machines shall be compatible with, and sized for, the wire rope used.

(viii) Each winding drum shall be provided with a positive means of attaching the wire rope to the drum. The attachment shall be capable of developing at least four times the rated load of the hoist.

(ix) Each hoisting machine shall be provided with a primary brake and at least one independent secondary brake, each capable of stopping and holding not less than 125 percent of the lifting capacity of the hoist.

(A) The primary brake shall be directly connected to the drive train of the hoisting machine, and shall not be connected through belts, chains, clutches, or set screw type devices. The brake shall automatically set when power to the prime mover is interrupted.

(B)(1) The secondary brake shall be an automatic emergency type of brake that, if actuated during each stopping cycle, shall not engage before the hoist is stopped by the primary brake.

(2) When a secondary brake is actuated, it shall stop and hold the platform within a vertical distance of 24 inches (609.6 mm).

(x) Any component of a hoisting machine which requires lubrication for its protection and proper functioning shall be provided with a means for that lubrication to be applied.

(5) Suspended equipment—(i) General requirements. (A) Each suspended unit component, except suspension ropes and guardrail systems, shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended live load applied or transmitted to that component.

(B) Each suspended unit component shall be constructed of materials that will withstand anticipated weather conditions.

(C) Each suspended unit shall be provided with a load rating plate, conspicuously located, stating the unit weight and rated load of the suspended unit.

(D) When the suspension points on a suspended unit are not at the unit ends, the unit shall be capable of remaining continuously stable under all conditions of use and position of the live load, and shall maintain at least a 1.5 to 1 stability factor against unit upset.

(E) Guide rollers, guide shoes or building face rollers shall be provided, and shall compensate for variations in building dimensions and for minor horizontal out-of-level variations of each suspended unit.

(F) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be secured to the building facade by one or more of the following methods, or by an equivalent method:

(1) Continuous engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section;

(2) Intermittent engagement to building anchors as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(A) of this section;

(3) Button guide engagement as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(B) of this section; or

(4) Angulated roping and building face rollers as provided in paragraph (e)(2)(iii)(C) of this section.

(G) Each working platform of a suspended unit shall be provided with a guardrail system on all sides which shall meet the following requirements:

(1) The system shall consist of a top guardrail, midrail, and a toeboard;

(2) The top guardrail shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall be able to withstand at least a 100-pound (444 n) force in any downward or outward direction;

(3) The midrail shall be able to withstand at least a 75-pound (333 n) force in any downward or outward direction; and

(4) The areas between the guardrail and toeboard on the ends and outboard side, and the area between the midrail and toeboard on the inboard side, shall be closed with a material that is capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds (45.4 KG.) applied horizontally over any area of one square foot (.09 m2). The material shall have all openings small enough to reject passage of life lines and potential falling objects which may be hazardous to persons below.

(5) Toeboards shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 50 pounds (222 n) applied in any downward or horizontal direction at any point along the toeboard.

(6) Toeboards shall be three and one-half inches (9 cm) minimum in length from their top edge to the level of the platform floor.

(7) Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place at the outermost edge of the platform and have no more than one-half inch (1.3 cm) clearance above the platform floor.

(8) Toeboards shall be solid or with an opening not over one inch (2.5 cm) in the greatest dimension.

(ii) Two and four-point suspended working platforms. (A) The working platform shall be not less than 24 inches (610 mm) wide and shall be provided with a minimum of a 12 inch (305 mm) wide passage at or past any obstruction on the platform.

(B) The flooring shall be of a slip-resistant type and shall contain no opening that would allow the passage of life lines, cables and other potential falling objects. If a larger opening is provided, it shall be protected by placing a material under the opening which shall prevent the passage of life lines, cables and potential falling objects.

(C) The working platfrom shall be provided with a means of suspension that will restrict the platform's inboard to outboard roll about its longitudinal axis to a maximum of 15 degrees from a horizontal plane when moving the live load from the inboard to the outboard side of the platform.

(D) Any cable suspended from above the platform shall be provided with a means for storage to prevent accumulation of the cable on the floor of the platform.

(E) All operating controls for the vertical travel of the platform shall be of the continuous-pressure type, and shall be located on the platform.

(F) Each operating station of every working platform shall be provided with a means of interrupting the power supply to all hoist motors to stop any further powered ascent or descent of the platform.

(G) The maximum rated speed of the platform shall not exceed 50 feet per minute (0.3 ms) with single speed hoists, nor 75 feet per minute (0.4 ms) with multi-speed hoists.

(H) Provisions shall be made for securing all tools, water tanks, and other accessories to prevent their movement or accumulation on the floor of the platform.

(I) Portable fire extinguishers conforming to the provisions of §1910.155 and §1910.157 of this part shall be provided and securely attached on all working platforms.

(J) Access to and egress from a working platfrom, except for those that land directly on a safe surface, shall be provided by stairs, ladders, platforms and runways conforming to the provisions of subpart D of this part. Access gates shall be self-closing and self-latching.

(K) Means of access to or egress from a working platform which is 48 inches (1.2 m) or more above a safe surface shall be provided with a guardrail system or ladder handrails that conform to the provisions of subpart D of this part.

(L) The platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the emergency egress of employees. A horizontal lifeline or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of appendix C, for each employee on such a platform.

(M) A vertical lifeline shall be provided as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of appendix C, for each employee on a working platform suspended by two or more wire ropes, if the failure of one wire rope or suspension attachment will cause the platform to upset. If a secondary wire rope suspension is used, vertical lifelines are not required for the fall arrest system, provided that each employee is attached to a horizontal lifeline anchored to the platform.

(N) An emergency electric operating device shall be provided on roof powered platforms near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device located on the working platform, or failure of the cable connected to the platform. The emergency electric operating device shall be mounted in a secured compartment, and the compartment shall be labeled with instructions for use. A means for opening the compartment shall be mounted in a break-glass receptable located near the emergency electric operating device or in an equivalent secure and accessible location.

(iii) Single point suspended working platforms. (A) The requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (K) of this section shall also apply to a single point working platform.

(B) Each single point suspended working platform shall be provided with a secondary wire rope suspension system, which will prevent the working platform from falling should there be a failure of the primary means of support, or if the platform contains overhead structures which restrict the egress of the employees. A horizontal life line or a direct connection anchorage shall be provided, as part of a fall arrest system which meets the requirements of appendix C, for each employee on the platform.

(iv) Ground-rigged working platforms. (A) Groundrigged working platforms shall comply with all the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.

(B) After each day's use, the power supply within the building shall be disconnected from a ground-rigged working platform, and the platform shall be either disengaged from its suspension points or secured and stored at grade.

(v) Intermittently stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (F)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.

(B) Each stabilizer tie shall be equipped with a “quick connect-quick disconnect” device which cannot be accidently disengaged, for attachment to the building anchor, and shall be resistant to adverse environmental conditions.

(C) The platform shall be provided with a stopping device that will interrupt the hoist power supply in the event the platform contacts a stabilizer tie during its ascent.

(D) Building face rollers shall not be placed at the anchor setting if exterior anchors are used on the building face.

(E) Stabilizer ties used on intermittently stabilized platforms shall allow for the specific attachment length needed to effect the predetermined angulation of the suspended wire rope. The specific attachment length shall be maintained at all building anchor locations.

(F) The platform shall be in continuous contact with the face of the building during ascent and descent.

(G) The attachment and removal of stabilizer ties shall not require the horizontal movement of the platform.

(H) The platform-mounted equipment and its suspension wire ropes shall not be physically damaged by the loads from the stabilizer tie or its building anchor. The platform, platform mounted equipment and wire ropes shall be able to withstand a load that is at least twice the ultimate strength of the stabilizer tie.

Note: See figure II in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical intermittent stabilization system.

(vi) Button-guide stabilized platforms. (A) The platform shall comply with paragraphs (f)(5)(ii) (A) through (M) of this section.

(B) Each guide track on the platform shall engage a minimum of two guide buttons during any vertical travel of the platform following the initial button engagement.

(C) Each guide track on a platform that is part of a roof rigged system shall be provided with a storage position on the platform.

(D) Each guide track on the platform shall be sufficiently maneuverable by platform occupants to permit easy engagement of the guide buttons, and easy movement into and out of its storage position on the platform.

(E) Two guide tracks shall be mounted on the platform and shall provide continuous contact with the building face.

(F) The load carrying components of the button guide stabilization system which transmit the load into the platform shall be capable of supporting the weight of the platform, or provision shall be made in the guide track connectors or platform attachments to prevent the weight of the platform from being transmitted to the platform attachments.

Note: See figure III in appendix B of this section for a description of a typical button guide stabilization system.

(6) Supported equipment. (i) Supported equipment shall maintain a vertical position in respect to the face of the building by means other than friction.

(ii) Cog wheels or equivalent means shall be incorporated to provide climbing traction between the supported equipment and the building guides. Additional guide wheels or shoes shall be incorporated as may be necessary to ensure that the drive wheels are continuously held in positive engagement with the building guides.

(iii) Launch guide mullions indexed to the building guides and retained in alignment with the building guides shall be used to align drive wheels entering the building guides.

(iv) Manned platforms used on supported equipment shall comply with the requirements of paragraphs (f)(5)(ii)(A), (f)(5)(ii)(B), and (f)(5)(ii) (D) through (K) of this section covering suspended equipment.

(7) Suspension wire ropes and rope connections. (i) Each specific installation shall use suspension wire ropes or combination cable and connections meeting the specification recommended by the manufacturer of the hoisting machine used. Connections shall be capable of developing at least 80 percent of the rated breaking strength of the wire rope.

(ii) Each suspension rope shall have a “Design Factor” of at least 10. The “Design Factor” is the ratio of the rated strength of the suspension wire rope to the rated working load, and shall be calculated using the following formula:

eCFR graphic er25se06.005.gif

View or download PDF

Where:

F = Design factor

S = Manufacturer's rated strength of one suspension rope

N = Number of suspension ropes under load

W = Rated working load on all ropes at any point of travel

(iii) Suspension wire rope grade shall be at least improved plow steel or equivalent.

(iv) Suspension wire ropes shall be sized to conform with the required design factor, but shall not be less than 516 inch (7.94 mm) in diameter.

(v) No more than one reverse bend in six wire rope lays shall be permitted.

(vi) A corrosion-resistant tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings when a suspension wire rope is to be used at a specific location and will remain in that location. This tag shall bear the following wire rope data:

(A) The diameter (inches and/or mm);

(B) Construction classification;

(C) Whether non-preformed or preformed;

(D) The grade of material;

(E) The manufacturer's rated strength;

(F) The manufacturer's name;

(G) The month and year the ropes were installed; and

(H) The name of the person or company which installed the ropes.

(vii) A new tag shall be installed at each rope renewal.

(viii) The original tag shall be stamped with the date of the resocketing, or the original tag shall be retained and a supplemental tag shall be provided when ropes are resocketed. The supplemental tag shall show the date of resocketing and the name of the person or company that resocketed the rope.

(ix) Winding drum type hoists shall contain at least three wraps of the suspension wire rope on the drum when the suspended unit has reached the lowest possible point of its vertical travel.

(x) Traction drum and sheave type hoists shall be provided with a wire rope of sufficient length to reach the lowest possible point of vertical travel of the suspended unit, and an additional length of the wire rope of at least four feet (1.2 m).

(xi) The lengthening or repairing of suspension wire ropes is prohibited.

(xii) Babbitted fastenings for suspension wire rope are prohibited.

(8) Control circuits, power circuits and their components. (i) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with subpart S of this part, except as otherwise required by this section.

(ii) Electrical runway conductor systems shall be of a type designed for use in exterior locations, and shall be located so that they do not come into contact with accumulated snow or water.

(iii) Cables shall be protected against damage resulting from overtensioning or from other causes.

(iv) Devices shall be included in the control system for the equipment which will provide protection against electrical overloads, three phase reversal and phase failure. The control system shall have a separate method, independent of the direction control circuit, for breaking the power circuit in case of an emergency or malfunction.

(v) Suspended or supported equipment shall have a control system which will require the operator of the equipment to follow predetermined procedures.

(vi) The following requirements shall apply to electrical protection devices:

(A) On installations where the carriage does not have a stability factor of at least four against overturning, electrical contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the suspended or supported equipment shall be operative only when the carriage is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(B) Overload protection shall be provided in the hoisting or suspension system to protect against the equipment operating in the “up” direction with a load in excess of 125 percent of the rated load of the platform; and

(C) An automatic detector shall be provided for each suspension point that will interrupt power to all hoisting motors for travel in the “down” direction, and apply the primary brakes if any suspension wire rope becomes slack. A continuous-pressure rigging-bypass switch designed for use during rigging is permitted. This switch shall only be used during rigging.

(vii) Upper and lower directional switches designed to prevent the travel of suspended units beyond safe upward and downward levels shall be provided.

(viii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided on remote controlled, roof-powered manned platforms adjacent to each control station on the platform.

(ix) Cables which are in constant tension shall have overload devices which will prevent the tension in the cable from interfering with the load limiting device required in paragraph (f)(8)(vi)(B) of this section, or with the platform roll limiting device required in paragraph (f)(5)(ii)(C) of this section. The setting of these devices shall be coordinated with other overload settings at the time of design of the system, and shall be clearly indicated on or near the device. The device shall interrupt the equipment travel in the “down” direction.

(g) Inspection and tests—(1) Installations and alterations. All completed building maintenance equipment installations shall be inspected and tested in the field before being placed in initial service to determine that all parts of the installation conform to applicable requirements of this standard, and that all safety and operating equipment is functioning as required. A similar inspection and test shall be made following any major alteration to an existing installation. No hoist in an installation shall be subjected to a load in excess of 125 percent of its rated load.

(2) Periodic inspections and tests. (i) Related building supporting structures shall undergo periodic inspection by a competent person at intervals not exceeding 12 months.

(ii) All parts of the equipment including control systems shall be inspected, and, where necessary, tested by a competent person at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier, but not to exceed 12 months, to determine that they are in safe operating condition. Parts subject to wear, such as wire ropes, bearings, gears, and governors shall be inspected and/or tested to determine that they have not worn to such an extent as to affect the safe operation of the installation.

(iii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test required under paragraphs (g)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and the number, or other identifier, of the building support structure and equipment which was inspected. This certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(iv) Working platforms and their components shall be inspected by the employer for visible defects before every use and after each occurrence which could affect the platform's structural integrity.

(3) Maintenance inspections and tests. (i) A maintenance inspection and, where necessary, a test shall be made of each platform installation every 30 days, or where the work cycle is less than 30 days such inspection and/or test shall be made prior to each work cycle. This inspection and test shall follow procedures recommended by the manufacturer, and shall be made by a competent person.

(ii) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each inspection and test performed under paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section. The certification record shall include the date of the inspection and test, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and/or test, and an identifier for the platform installation which was inspected. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(4) Special inspection of governors and secondary brakes. (i) Governors and secondary brakes shall be inspected and tested at intervals specified by the manufacturer/supplier but not to exceed every 12 months.

(ii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the initiating device for the secondary braking system operates at the proper overspeed.

(iii) The results of the inspection and test shall confirm that the secondary brake is functioning properly.

(iv) If any hoisting machine or initiating device for the secondary brake system is removed from the equipment for testing, all reinstalled and directly related components shall be reinspected prior to returning the equipment installation to service.

(v) Inspection of governors and secondary brakes shall be performed by a competent person.

(vi) The secondary brake governor and actuation device shall be tested before each day's use. Where testing is not feasible, a visual inspection of the brake shall be made instead to ensure that it is free to operate.

(5) Suspension wire rope maintenance, inspection and replacement. (i) Suspension wire rope shall be maintained and used in accordance with procedures recommended by the wire rope manufacturer.

(ii) Suspension wire rope shall be inspected by a competent person for visible defects and gross damage to the rope before every use and after each occurrence which might affect the wire rope's integrity.

(iii) A thorough inspection of suspension wire ropes in service shall be made once a month. Suspension wire ropes that have been inactive for 30 days or longer shall have a thorough inspection before they are placed into service. These thorough inspections of suspension wire ropes shall be performed by a competent person.

(iv) The need for replacement of a suspension wire rope shall be determined by inspection and shall be based on the condition of the wire rope. Any of the following conditions or combination of conditions will be cause for removal of the wire rope:

(A) Broken wires exceeding three wires in one strand or six wires in one rope lay;

(B) Distortion of rope structure such as would result from crushing or kinking;

(C) Evidence of heat damage;

(D) Evidence of rope deterioration from corrosion;

(E) A broken wire within 18 inches (460.8 mm) of the end attachments;

(F) Noticeable rusting and pitting;

(G) Evidence of core failure (a lengthening of rope lay, protrusion of the rope core and a reduction in rope diameter suggests core failure); or

(H) More than one valley break (broken wire).

(I) Outer wire wear exceeds one-third of the original outer wire diameter.

(J) Any other condition which the competent person determines has significantly affected the integrity of the rope.

(v) The building owner shall keep a certification record of each monthly inspection of a suspension wire rope as required in paragraph (g)(5)(iii) of this section. The record shall include the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection, and a number, or other identifier, of the wire rope which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative and by the employer.

(6) Hoist inspection. Before lowering personnel below the top elevation of the building, the hoist shall be tested each day in the lifting direction with the intended load to make certain it has sufficient capacity to raise the personnel back to the boarding level.

(h) Maintenance—(1) General maintenance. All parts of the equipment affecting safe operation shall be maintained in proper working order so that they may perform the functions for which they were intended. The equipment shall be taken out of service when it is not in proper working order.

(2) Cleaning. (i) Control or power contactors and relays shall be kept clean.

(ii) All other parts shall be kept clean if their proper functioning would be affected by the presence of dirt or other contaminants.

(3) Periodic resocketing of wire rope fastenings. (i) Hoisting ropes utilizing poured socket fastenings shall be resocketed at the non-drum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. In resocketing the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.

(ii) Resocketed ropes shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (f)(7) of this section.

(iii) Limit switches affected by the resocketed ropes shall be reset, if necessary.

(4) Periodic reshackling of suspension wire ropes. The hoisting ropes shall be reshackled at the nondrum ends at intervals not exceeding 24 months. When reshackling the ropes, a sufficient length shall be cut from the end of the rope to remove damaged or fatigued portions.

(5) Roof systems. Roof track systems, tie-downs, or similar equipment shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the function for which they were intended.

(6) Building face guiding members. T-rails, indented mullions, or equivalent guides located in the face of a building shall be maintained in proper working order so that they perform the functions for which they were intended. Brackets for cable stabilizers shall similarly be maintained in proper working order.

(7) Inoperative safety devices. No person shall render a required safety device or electrical protective device inoperative, except as necessary for tests, inspections, and maintenance. Immediately upon completion of such tests, inspections and maintenance, the device shall be restored to its normal operating condition.

(i) Operations—(1) Training. (i) Working platforms shall be operated only by persons who are proficient in the operation, safe use and inspection of the particular working platform to be operated.

(ii) All employees who operate working platforms shall be trained in the following:

(A) Recognition of, and preventive measures for, the safety hazards associated with their individual work tasks.

(B) General recognition and prevention of safety hazards associated with the use of working platforms, including the provisions in the section relating to the particular working platform to be operated.

(C) Emergency action plan procedures required in paragraph (e)(9) of this section.

(D) Work procedures required in paragraph (i)(1)(iv) of this section.

(E) Personal fall arrest system inspection, care, use and system performance.

(iii) Training of employees in the operation and inspection of working platforms shall be done by a competent person.

(iv) Written work procedures for the operation, safe use and inspection of working platforms shall be provided for employee training. Pictorial methods of instruction, may be used, in lieu of written work procedures, if employee communication is improved using this method. The operating manuals supplied by manufacturers for platform system components can serve as the basis for these procedures.

(v) The employer shall certify that employees have been trained in operating and inspecting a working platform by preparing a certification record which includes the identity of the person trained, the signature of the employer or the person who conducted the training and the date that training was completed. The certification record shall be prepared at the completion of the training required in paragraph (i)(1)(ii) of this section, and shall be maintained in a file for the duration of the employee's employment. The certification record shall be kept readily available for review by the Assistant Secretary of Labor or the Assistant Secretary's representative.

(2) Use. (i) Working platforms shall not be loaded in excess of the rated load, as stated on the platform load rating plate.

(ii) Employees shall be prohibited from working on snow, ice, or other slippery material covering platforms, except for the removal of such materials.

(iii) Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect the platform, wire ropes and life lines from damage due to acids or other corrosive substances, in accordance with the recommendations of the corrosive substance producer, supplier, platform manufacturer or other equivalent information sources. Platform members which have been exposed to acids or other corrosive substances shall be washed down with a neutralizing solution, at a frequency recommended by the corrosive substance producer or supplier.

(iv) Platform members, wire ropes and life lines shall be protected when using a heat producing process. Wire ropes and life lines which have been contacted by the heat producing process shall be considered to be permanently damaged and shall not be used.

(v) The platform shall not be operated in winds in excess of 25 miles per hour (40.2 km/hr) except to move it from an operating to a storage position. Wind speed shall be determined based on the best available information, which includes on-site anemometer readings and local weather forecasts which predict wind velocities for the area.

(vi) On exterior installations, an anemometer shall be mounted on the platform to provide information of on-site wind velocities prior to and during the use of the platform. The anemometer may be a portable (hand held) unit which is temporarily mounted during platform use.

(vii) Tools, materials and debris not related to the work in progress shall not be allowed to accumulate on platforms. Stabilizer ties shall be located so as to allow unencumbered passage along the full length of the platform and shall be of such length so as not to become entangled in rollers, hoists or other machinery.

(j) Personal fall protection. Employees on working platforms shall be protected by a personal fall arrest system meeting the requirements of appendix C, section I, of this standard, and as otherwise provided by this standard.

Appendix A to §1910.66, Guidelines (Advisory)

1. Use of the Appendix. Appendix A provides examples of equipment and methods to assist the employer in meeting the requirements of the indicated provision of the standard. Employers may use other equipment or procedures which conform to the requirements of the standard. This appendix neither adds to nor detracts from the mandatory requirements set forth in §1910.66.

2. Assurance. Paragraph (c) of the standard requires the building owner to inform the employer in writing that the powered platform installation complies with certain requirements of the standard, since the employer may not have the necessary information to make these determinations. The employer, however, remains responsible for meeting these requirements which have not been set off in paragraph (c)(1).

3. Design Requirements. The design requirements for each installation should be based on the limitations (stresses, deflections, etc.), established by nationally recognized standards as promulgated by the following organizations, or to equivalent standards:

AA—The Aluminum Association, 818 Connecticut Avenue, NW., Washington, DC, 20006

Aluminum Construction Manual

Specifications For Aluminum Structures

Aluminum Standards and Data

AGMA—American Gear Manufacturers Association, 101 North Fort Meyer Dr., Suite 1000, Arlington, VA 22209

AISC—American Institute of Steel Construction, 400 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611

ANSI—American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018

ASCE—American Society of Civil Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASME—American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017

ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103

AWS—American Welding Society, Inc., Box 351040, 550 NW. LeJeunne Road, Miami, FL 33126

JIC—Joint Industrial Council, 2139 Wisconsin Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20007

NEMA—National Electric Manufacturers Association, 2101 L Street, NW., Washington, DC 20037

4. Tie-in-guides. Indented mullions, T-rails or other equivalent guides are acceptable as tie-in guides in a building face for a continuous stabilization system. Internal guides are embedded in other building members with only the opening exposed (see Figure 1 of appendix B). External guides, however, are installed external to the other building members and so are fully exposed. The minimum opening for tie-in guides is three-quarters of an inch (19 mm), and the minimum inside dimensions are one-inch (25 mm) deep and two inches (50 mm) wide.

Employers should be aware of the hazards associated with tie-in guides in a continuous stabilization system which was not designed properly. For example, joints in these track systems may become extended or discontinuous due to installation or building settlement. If this alignment problem is not corrected, the system could jam when a guide roller or guide shoe strikes a joint and this would cause a hazardous situation for employees. In another instance, faulty design will result in guide rollers being mounted in a line so they will jam in the track at the slightest misalignment.

5. Building anchors (intermittent stabilization system). In the selection of the vertical distance between building anchors, certain factors should be given consideration. These factors include building height and architectural design, platform length and weight, wire rope angulation, and the wind velocities in the building area. Another factor to consider is the material of the building face, since this material may be adversely affected by the building rollers.

External or indented type building anchors are acceptable. Receptacles in the building facade used for the indented type should be kept clear of extraneous materials which will hinder their use. During the inspection of the platform installation, evidence of a failure or abuse of the anchors should be brought to the attention of the employer.

6. Stabilizer tie length. A stabilizer tie should be long enough to provide for the planned angulation of the suspension cables. However, the length of the tie should not be excessive and become a problem by possibly becoming entangled in the building face rollers or parts of the platform machinery.

The attachment length may vary due to material elongation and this should be considered when selecting the material to be used. Consideration should also be given to the use of ties which are easily installed by employees, since this will encourage their use.

7. Intermittent stabilization system. Intermittent stabilization systems may use different equipment, tie-in devices and methods to restrict the horizontal movement of a powered platform with respect to the face of the building. One acceptable method employs corrosion-resistant building anchors secured in the face of the building in vertical rows every third floor or 50 feet (15.3 m), whichever is less. The anchors are spaced horizontally to allow a stabilization attachment (stabilizer tie) for each of the two platform suspension wire ropes. The stabilizer tie consists of two parts. One part is a quick connect-quick disconnect device which utilizes a corrosion-resistant yoke and retainer spring that is designed to fit over the building anchors. The second part of the stabilizer tie is a lanyard which is used to maintain a fixed distance between the suspension wire rope and the face of the building.

In this method, as the suspended powered platform descends past the elevation of each anchor, the descent is halted and each of the platform occupants secures a stabilizer tie between a suspension wire rope and a building anchor. The procedure is repeated as each elevation of a building anchor is reached during the descent of the powered platform.

As the platform ascends, the procedure is reversed; that is, the stabilizer ties are removed as each elevation of a building anchor is reached. The removal of each stabilizer tie is assured since the platform is provided with stopping devices which will interrupt power to its hoist(s) in the event either stopping device contacts a stabilizer during the ascent of the platform.

Figure 2 of appendix B illustrates another type of acceptable intermittent stabilization system which utilizes retaining pins as the quick connect-quick disconnect device in the stabilizer tie.

8. Wire Rope Inspection. The inspection of the suspension wire rope is important since the rope gradually loses strength during its useful life. The purpose of the inspection is to determine whether the wire rope has sufficient integrity to support a platform with the required design factor.

If there is any doubt concerning the condition of a wire rope or its ability to perform the required work, the rope should be replaced. The cost of wire rope replacement is quite small if compared to the cost in terms of human injuries, equipment down time and replacement.

No listing of critical inspection factors, which serve as a basis for wire rope replacement in the standard, can be a substitute for an experienced inspector of wire rope. The listing serves as a user's guide to the accepted standards by which ropes must be judged.

Rope life can be prolonged if preventive maintenance is performed regularly. Cutting off an appropriate length of rope at the end termination before the core degrades and valley breaks appear minimizes degradation at these sections.

9. General Maintenance. In meeting the general maintenance requirement in paragraph (h)(1) of the standard, the employer should undertake the prompt replacement of broken, worn and damaged parts, switch contacts, brushes, and short flexible conductors of electrical devices. The components of the electrical service system and traveling cables should be replaced when damaged or significantly abraded. In addition, gears, shafts, bearings, brakes and hoisting drums should be kept in proper alignment.

10. Training. In meeting the training requirement of paragraph (i)(1) of the standard, employers should use both on the job training and formal classroom training. The written work procedures used for this training should be obtained from the manufacturer, if possible, or prepared as necessary for the employee's information and use.

Employees who will operate powered platforms with intermittent stabilization systems should receive instruction in the specific ascent and descent procedures involving the assembly and disassembly of the stabilizer ties.

An acceptable training program should also include employee instruction in basic inspection procedures for the purpose of determining the need for repair and replacement of platform equipment. In addition, the program should cover the inspection, care and use of the personal fall protection equipment required in paragraph (j)(1) of the standard.

In addition, the training program should also include emergency action plan elements. OSHA brochure #1B3088 (Rev.) 1985, “How to Prepare for Workplace Emergencies,” details the basic steps needed to prepare to handle emergencies in the workplace.

Following the completion of a training program, the employee should be required to demonstrate competency in operating the equipment safely. Supplemental training of the employee should be provided by the employer, as necessary, if the equipment used or other working conditions should change.

An employee who is required to work with chemical products on a platform should receive training in proper cleaning procedures, and in the hazards, care and handling of these products. In addition, the employee should be supplied with the appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and eye and face protection.

11. Suspension and Securing of Powered Platforms (Equivalency). One acceptable method of demonstrating the equivalency of a method of suspending or securing a powered platform, as required in paragraphs (e)(2)(iii), (f)(3) and (f)(5)(i)(F), is to provide an engineering analysis by a registered professional engineer. The analysis should demonstrate that the proposed method will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than any one of the methods specified in the standard.

Appendix B to §1910.66—Exhibits (Advisory)

The three drawings in appendix B illustrate typical platform stabilization systems which are addressed in the standard. The drawings are to be used for reference purposes only, and do not illustrate all the mandatory requirements for each system.

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Appendix C to §1910.66—Personal Fall Arrest System (Section I—Mandatory; Sections II and III—Non-Mandatory)

Use of the Appendix

Section I of appendix C sets out the mandatory criteria for personal fall arrest systems used by all employees using powered platforms, as required by paragraph (j)(1) of this standard. Section II sets out nonmandatory test procedures which may be used to determine compliance with applicable requirements contained in section I of this appendix. Section III provides nonmandatory guidelines which are intended to assist employers in complying with these provisions.

I. Personal fall arrest systems—(a) Scope and application. This section establishes the application of and performance criteria for personal fall arrest systems which are required for use by all employees using powered platforms under paragraph 1910.66(j).

(b) Definitions. Anchorage means a secure point of attachment for lifelines, lanyards or deceleration devices, and which is independent of the means of supporting or suspending the employee.

Body belt means a strap with means both for securing it about the waist and for attaching it to a lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.

Body harness means a design of straps which may be secured about the employee in a manner to distribute the fall arrest forces over at least the thighs, pelvis, waist, chest and shoulders with means for attaching it to other components of a personal fall arrest system.

Buckle means any device for holding the body belt or body harness closed around the employee's body.

Competent person means a person who is capable of identifying hazardous or dangerous conditions in the personal fall arrest system or any component thereof, as well as in their application and use with related equipment.

Connector means a device which is used to couple (connect) parts of the system together. It may be an independent component of the system (such as a carabiner), or an integral component of part of the system (such as a buckle or dee-ring sewn into a body belt or body harness, or a snap-hook spliced or sewn to a lanyard or self-retracting lanyard).

Deceleration device means any mechanism, such as a rope grab, ripstitch lanyard, specially woven lanyard, tearing or deforming lanyard, or automatic self retracting-lifeline/lanyard, which serves to dissipate a substantial amount of energy during a fall arrest, or otherwise limits the energy imposed on an employee during fall arrest.

Deceleration distance means the additional vertical distance a falling employee travels, excluding lifeline elongation and free fall distance, before stopping, from the point at which the deceleration device begins to operate. It is measured as the distance between the location of an employee's body belt or body harness attachment point at the moment of activation (at the onset of fall arrest forces) of the deceleration device during a fall, and the location of that attachment point after the employee comes to a full stop.

Equivalent means alternative designs, materials or methods which the employer can demonstrate will provide an equal or greater degree of safety for employees than the methods, materials or designs specified in the standard.

Free fall means the act of falling before the personal fall arrest system begins to apply force to arrest the fall.

Free fall distance means the vertical displacement of the fall arrest attachment point on the employee's body belt or body harness between onset of the fall and just before the system begins to apply force to arrest the fall. This distance excludes deceleration distance, lifeline and lanyard elongation but includes any deceleration device slide distance or self-retracting lifeline/lanyard extension before they operate and fall arrest forces occur.

Lanyard means a flexible line of rope, wire rope, or strap which is used to secure the body belt or body harness to a deceleration device, lifeline, or anchorage.

Lifeline means a component consisting of a flexible line for connection to an anchorage at one end to hang vertically (vertical lifeline), or for connection to anchorages at both ends to stretch horizontally (horizontal lifeline), and which serves as a means for connecting other components of a personal fall arrest system to the anchorage.

Personal fall arrest system means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists of an anchorage, connectors, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these.

Qualified person means one with a recognized degree or professional certificate and extensive knowledge and experience in the subject field who is capable of design, analysis, evaluation and specifications in the subject work, project, or product.

Rope grab means a deceleration device which travels on a lifeline and automatically frictionally engages the lifeline and locks so as to arrest the fall of an employee. A rope grab usually employs the principle of inertial locking, cam/lever locking, or both.

Self-retracting lifeline/lanyard means a deceleration device which contains a drum-wound line which may be slowly extracted from, or retracted onto, the drum under slight tension during normal employee movement, and which, after onset of a fall, automatically locks the drum and arrests the fall.

Snap-hook means a connector comprised of a hookshaped member with a normally closed keeper, or similar arrangement, which may be opened to permit the hook to receive an object and, when released, automatically closes to retain the object. Snap-hooks are generally one of two types:

1. The locking type with a self-closing, self-locking keeper which remains closed and locked until unlocked and pressed open for connection or disconnection, or

2. The non-locking type with a self-closing keeper which remains closed until pressed open for connection or disconnection.

Tie-off means the act of an employee, wearing personal fall protection equipment, connecting directly or indirectly to an anchorage. It also means the condition of an employee being connected to an anchorage.

(c) Design for system components. (1) Connectors shall be drop forged, pressed or formed steel, or made of equivalent materials.

(2) Connectors shall have a corrosion-resistant finish, and all surfaces and edges shall be smooth to prevent damage to interfacing parts of the system.

(3) Lanyards and vertical lifelines which tie-off one employee shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).

(4) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less shall have components capable of sustaining a minimum static tensile load of 3,000 pounds (13.3 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.

(5) Self-retracting lifelines and lanyards which do not limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less, ripstitch lanyards, and tearing and deforming lanyards shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) applied to the device with the lifeline or lanyard in the fully extended position.

(6) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be capable of sustaining a minimum tensile load of 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN).

(7) Dee-rings and snap-hooks shall be 100 percent proof-tested to a minimum tensile load of 3,600 pounds (16 kN) without cracking, breaking, or taking permanent deformation.

(8) Snap-hooks shall be sized to be compatible with the member to which they are connected so as to prevent unintentional disengagement of the snap-hook by depression of the snap-hook keeper by the connected member, or shall be a locking type snap-hook designed and used to prevent disengagement of the snap-hook by the contact of the snaphook keeper by the connected member.

(9) Horizontal lifelines, where used, shall be designed, and installed as part of a complete personal fall arrest system, which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.

(10) Anchorages to which personal fall arrest equipment is attached shall be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds (22.2 kN) per employee attached, or shall be designed, installed, and used as part of a complete personal fall arrest system which maintains a safety factor of at least two, under the supervision of a qualified person.

(11) Ropes and straps (webbing) used in lanyards, lifelines, and strength components of body belts and body harnesses, shall be made from synthetic fibers or wire rope.

(d) System performance criteria. (1) Personal fall arrest systems shall, when stopping a fall:

(i) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4 kN) when used with a body belt;

(ii) Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8 kN) when used with a body harness;

(iii) Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 m); and

(iv) Shall have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact energy of an employee free falling a distance of six feet (1.8 m), or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.

(2)(i) When used by employees having a combined person and tool weight of less than 310 pounds (140 kg), personal fall arrest systems which meet the criteria and protocols contained in paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) in section II of this appendix shall be considered as complying with the provisions of paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) above.

(ii) When used by employees having a combined tool and body weight of 310 pounds (140 kg) or more, personal fall arrest systems which meet the criteria and protocols contained in paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) in section II may be considered as complying with the provisions of paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) provided that the criteria and protocols are modified appropriately to provide proper protection for such heavier weights.

(e) Care and use. (1) Snap-hooks, unless of a locking type designed and used to prevent disengagement from the following connections, shall not be engaged:

(i) Directly to webbing, rope or wire rope;

(ii) To each other;

(iii) To a dee-ring to which another snap-hook or other connector is attached;

(iv) To a horizontal lifeline; or

(v) To any object which is incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snap-hook such that the connected object could depress the snap-hook keeper a sufficient amount to release itself.

(2) Devices used to connect to a horizontal lifeline which may become a vertical lifeline shall be capable of locking in either direction on the lifeline.

(3) Personal fall arrest systems shall be rigged such that an employee can neither free fall more than six feet (1.8 m), nor contact any lower level.

(4) The attachment point of the body belt shall be located in the center of the wearer's back. The attachment point of the body harness shall be located in the center of the wearer's back near shoulder level, or above the wearer's head.

(5) When vertical lifelines are used, each employee shall be provided with a separate lifeline.

(6) Personal fall arrest systems or components shall be used only for employee fall protection.

(7) Personal fall arrest systems or components subjected to impact loading shall be immediately removed from service and shall not be used again for employee protection unless inspected and determined by a competent person to be undamaged and suitable for reuse.

(8) The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure the self-rescue capability of employees.

(9) Before using a personal fall arrest system, and after any component or system is changed, employees shall be trained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 1910.66(i)(1), in the safe use of the system.

(f) Inspections. Personal fall arrest systems shall be inspected prior to each use for mildew, wear, damage and other deterioration, and defective components shall be removed from service if their strength or function may be adversely affected.

II. Test methods for personal fall arrest systems (non-mandatory)—(a) General. Paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e), of this section II set forth test procedures which may be used to determine compliance with the requirements in paragraph (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iv) of section I of this appendix.

(b) General conditions for all tests in section II. (1) Lifelines, lanyards and deceleration devices should be attached to an anchorage and connected to the body-belt or body harness in the same manner as they would be when used to protect employees.

(2) The anchorage should be rigid, and should not have a deflection greater than .04 inches (1 mm) when a force of 2,250 pounds (10 kN) is applied.

(3) The frequency response of the load measuring instrumentation should be 120 Hz.

(4) The test weight used in the strength and force tests should be a rigid, metal, cylindrical or torso-shaped object with a girth of 38 inches plus or minus four inches (96 cm plus or minus 10 cm).

(5) The lanyard or lifeline used to create the free fall distance should be supplied with the system, or in its absence, the least elastic lanyard or lifeline available to be used with the system.

(6) The test weight for each test should be hoisted to the required level and should be quickly released without having any appreciable motion imparted to it.

(7) The system's performance should be evaluated taking into account the range of environmental conditions for which it is designed to be used.

(8) Following the test, the system need not be capable of further operation.

(c) Strength test. (1) During the testing of all systems, a test weight of 300 pounds plus or minus five pounds (135 kg plus or minus 2.5 kg) should be used. (See paragraph (b)(4), above.)

(2) The test consists of dropping the test weight once. A new unused system should be used for each test.

(3) For lanyard systems, the lanyard length should be six feet plus or minus two inches (1.83 m plus or minus 5 cm) as measured from the fixed anchorage to the attachment on the body belt or body harness.

(4) For rope-grab-type deceleration systems, the length of the lifeline above the centerline of the grabbing mechanism to the lifeline's anchorage point should not exceed two feet (0.61 m).

(5) For lanyard systems, for systems with deceleration devices which do not automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less, and for systems with deceleration devices which have a connection distance in excess of one foot (0.3 m) (measured between the centerline of the lifeline and the attachment point to the body belt or harness), the test weight should be rigged to free fall a distance of 7.5 feet (2.3 m) from a point that is 1.5 feet (46 cm) above the anchorage point, to its hanging location (six feet below the anchorage). The test weight should fall without interference, obstruction, or hitting the floor or ground during the test. In some cases a non-elastic wire lanyard of sufficient length may need to be added to the system (for test purposes) to create the necessary free fall distance.

(6) For deceleration device systems with integral lifelines or lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less, the test weight should be rigged to free fall a distance of four feet (1.22 m).

(7) Any weight which detaches from the belt or harness should constitute failure for the strength test.

(d) Force test—(1) General. The test consists of dropping the respective test weight specified in (d)(2)(i) or (d)(3)(i) once. A new, unused system should be used for each test.

(2) For lanyard systems. (i) A test weight of 220 pounds plus or minus three pounds (100 kg plus or minus 1.6 kg) should be used. (See paragraph (b)(4), above.)

(ii) Lanyard length should be six feet plus or minus two inches (1.83 m plus or minus 5 cm) as measured from the fixed anchorage to the attachment on the body belt or body harness.

(iii) The test weight should fall free from the anchorage level to its hanging location (a total of six feet (1.83 m) free fall distance) without interference, obstruction, or hitting the floor or ground during the test.

(3) For all other systems. (i) A test weight of 220 pounds plus or minus three pounds (100 kg plus or minus 1.6 kg) should be used. (See paragraph (b)(4), above.)

(ii) The free fall distance to be used in the test should be the maximum fall distance physically permitted by the system during normal use conditions, up to a maximum free fall distance for the test weight of six feet (1.83 m), except as follows:

(A) For deceleration systems which have a connection link or lanyard, the test weight should free fall a distance equal to the connection distance (measured between the centerline of the lifeline and the attachment point to the body belt or harness).

(B) For deceleration device systems with integral lifelines or lanyards which automatically limit free fall distance to two feet (0.61 m) or less, the test weight should free fall a distance equal to that permitted by the system in normal use. (For example, to test a system with a self-retracting lifeline or lanyard, the test weight should be supported and the system allowed to retract the lifeline or lanyard as it would in normal use. The test weight would then be released and the force and deceleration distance measured).

(4) A system fails the force test if the recorded maximum arresting force exceeds 1,260 pounds (15.6 kN) when using a body belt, and/or exceeds 2,520 pounds (11.2 kN) when using a body harness.

(5) The maximum elongation and deceleration distance should be recorded during the force test.

(e) Deceleration device tests—(1) General. The device should be evaluated or tested under the environmental conditions, (such as rain, ice, grease, dirt, type of lifeline, etc.), for which the device is designed.

(2) Rope-grab-type deceleration devices. (i) Devices should be moved on a lifeline 1,000 times over the same length of line a distance of not less than one foot (30.5 cm), and the mechanism should lock each time.

(ii) Unless the device is permanently marked to indicate the type(s) of lifeline which must be used, several types (different diameters and different materials), of lifelines should be used to test the device.

(3) Other self-activatinq-type deceleration devices. The locking mechanisms of other self-activating-type deceleration devices designed for more than one arrest should lock each of 1,000 times as they would in normal service.

III. Additional non-mandatory guidelines for personal fall arrest systems. The following information constitutes additional guidelines for use in complying with requirements for a personal fall arrest system.

(a) Selection and use considerations. The kind of personal fall arrest system selected should match the particular work situation, and any possible free fall distance should be kept to a minimum. Consideration should be given to the particular work environment. For example, the presence of acids, dirt, moisture, oil, grease, etc., and their effect on the system, should be evaluated. Hot or cold environments may also have an adverse affect on the system. Wire rope should not be used where an electrical hazard is anticipated. As required by the standard, the employer must plan to have means available to promptly rescue an employee should a fall occur, since the suspended employee may not be able to reach a work level independently.

Where lanyards, connectors, and lifelines are subject to damage by work operations such as welding, chemical cleaning, and sandblasting, the component should be protected, or other securing systems should be used. The employer should fully evaluate the work conditions and environment (including seasonal weather changes) before selecting the appropriate personal fall protection system. Once in use, the system's effectiveness should be monitored. In some cases, a program for cleaning and maintenance of the system may be necessary.

(b) Testing considerations. Before purchasing or putting into use a personal fall arrest system, an employer should obtain from the supplier information about the system based on its performance during testing so that the employer can know if the system meets this standard. Testing should be done using recognized test methods. Section II of this appendix C contains test methods recognized for evaluating the performance of fall arrest systems. Not all systems may need to be individually tested; the performance of some systems may be based on data and calculations derived from testing of similar systems, provided that enough information is available to demonstrate similarity of function and design.

(c) Component compatibility considerations. Ideally, a personal fall arrest system is designed, tested, and supplied as a complete system. However, it is common practice for lanyards, connectors, lifelines, deceleration devices, body belts and body harnesses to be interchanged since some components wear out before others. The employer and employee should realize that not all components are interchangeable. For instance, a lanyard should not be connected between a body belt (or harness) and a deceleration device of the self-retracting type since this can result in additional free fall for which the system was not designed. Any substitution or change to a personal fall arrest system should be fully evaluated or tested by a competent person to determine that it meets the standard, before the modified system is put in use.

(d) Employee training considerations. Thorough employee training in the selection and use of personal fall arrest systems is imperative. As stated in the standard, before the equipment is used, employees must be trained in the safe use of the system. This should include the following: Application limits; proper anchoring and tie-off techniques; estimation of free fall distance, including determination of deceleration distance, and total fall distance to prevent striking a lower level; methods of use; and inspection and storage of the system. Careless or improper use of the equipment can result in serious injury or death. Employers and employees should become familiar with the material in this appendix, as well as manufacturer's recommendations, before a system is used. Of uppermost importance is the reduction in strength caused by certain tie-offs (such as using knots, tying around sharp edges, etc.) and maximum permitted free fall distance. Also, to be stressed are the importance of inspections prior to use, the limitations of the equipment, and unique conditions at the worksite which may be important in determining the type of system to use.

(e) Instruction considerations. Employers should obtain comprehensive instructions from the supplier as to the system's proper use and application, including, where applicable:

(1) The force measured during the sample force test;

(2) The maximum elongation measured for lanyards during the force test;

(3) The deceleration distance measured for deceleration devices during the force test;

(4) Caution statements on critical use limitations;

(5) Application limits;

(6) Proper hook-up, anchoring and tie-off techniques, including the proper dee-ring or other attachment point to use on the body belt and harness for fall arrest;

(7) Proper climbing techniques;

(8) Methods of inspection, use, cleaning, and storage; and

(9) Specific lifelines which may be used. This information should be provided to employees during training.

(f) Inspection considerations. As stated in the standard (section I, Paragraph (f)), personal fall arrest systems must be regularly inspected. Any component with any significant defect, such as cuts, tears, abrasions, mold, or undue stretching; alterations or additions which might affect its efficiency; damage due to deterioration; contact with fire, acids, or other corrosives; distorted hooks or faulty hook springs; tongues unfitted to the shoulder of buckles; loose or damaged mountings; non-functioning parts; or wearing or internal deterioration in the ropes must be withdrawn from service immediately, and should be tagged or marked as unusable, or destroyed.

(g) Rescue considerations. As required by the standard (section I, Paragraph (e)(8)), when personal fall arrest systems are used, the employer must assure that employees can be promptly rescued or can rescue themselves should a fall occur. The availability of rescue personnel, ladders or other rescue equipment should be evaluated. In some situations, equipment which allows employees to rescue themselves after the fall has been arrested may be desirable, such as devices which have descent capability.

(h) Tie-off considerations. (1) One of the most important aspects of personal fall protection systems is fully planning the system before it is put into use. Probably the most overlooked component is planning for suitable anchorage points. Such planning should ideally be done before the structure or building is constructed so that anchorage points can be incorporated during construction for use later for window cleaning or other building maintenance. If properly planned, these anchorage points may be used during construction, as well as afterwards.

(2) Employers and employees should at all times be aware that the strength of a personal fall arrest system is based on its being attached to an anchoring system which does not significantly reduce the strength of the system (such as a properly dimensioned eye-bolt/snap-hook anchorage). Therefore, if a means of attachment is used that will reduce the strength of the system, that component should be replaced by a stronger one, but one that will also maintain the appropriate maximum arrest force characteristics.

(3) Tie-off using a knot in a rope lanyard or lifeline (at any location) can reduce the lifeline or lanyard strength by 50 percent or more. Therefore, a stronger lanyard or lifeline should be used to compensate for the weakening effect of the knot, or the lanyard length should be reduced (or the tie-off location raised) to minimize free fall distance, or the lanyard or lifeline should be replaced by one which has an appropriately incorporated connector to eliminate the need for a knot.

(4) Tie-off of a rope lanyard or lifeline around an “H” or “I” beam or similar support can reduce its strength as much as 70 percent due to the cutting action of the beam edges. Therefore, use should be made of a webbing lanyard or wire core lifeline around the beam; or the lanyard or lifeline should be protected from the edge; or free fall distance should be greatly minimized.

(5) Tie-off where the line passes over or around rough or sharp surfaces reduces strength drastically. Such a tie-off should be avoided or an alternative tie-off rigging should be used. Such alternatives may include use of a snap-hook/dee ring connection, wire rope tie-off, an effective padding of the surfaces, or an abrasion-resistance strap around or over the problem surface.

(6) Horizontal lifelines may, depending on their geometry and angle of sag, be subjected to greater loads than the impact load imposed by an attached component. When the angle of horizontal lifeline sag is less than 30 degrees, the impact force imparted to the lifeline by an attached lanyard is greatly amplified. For example, with a sag angle of 15 degrees, the force amplification is about 2:1 and at 5 degrees sag, it is about 6:1. Depending on the angle of sag, and the line's elasticity, the strength of the horizontal lifeline and the anchorages to which it is attached should be increased a number of times over that of the lanyard. Extreme care should be taken in considering a horizontal lifeline for multiple tie-offs. The reason for this is that in multiple tie-offs to a horizontal lifeline, if one employee falls, the movement of the falling employee and the horizontal lifeline during arrest of the fall may cause other employees to also fall. Horizontal lifeline and anchorage strength should be increased for each additional employee to be tied-off. For these and other reasons, the design of systems using horizontal lifelines must only be done by qualified persons. Testing of installed lifelines and anchors prior to use is recommended.

(7) The strength of an eye-bolt is rated along the axis of the bolt and its strength is greatly reduced if the force is applied at an angle to this axis (in the direction of shear). Also, care should be exercised in selecting the proper diameter of the eye to avoid accidental disengagement of snap-hooks not designed to be compatible for the connection.

(8) Due to the significant reduction in the strength of the lifeline/lanyard (in some cases, as much as a 70 percent reduction), the sliding hitch knot should not be used for lifeline/lanyard connections except in emergency situations where no other available system is practical. The “one-and-one” sliding hitch knot should never be used because it is unreliable in stopping a fall. The “two-and-two,” or “three-and-three” knot (preferable), may be used in emergency situa-tions; however, care should be taken to limit free fall distance to a minimum because of reduced lifeline/lanyard strength.

(i) Vertical lifeline considerations. As required by the standard, each employee must have a separate lifeline when the lifeline is vertical. The reason for this is that in multiple tie-offs to a single lifeline, if one employee falls, the movement of the lifeline during the arrest of the fall may pull other employees' lanyards, causing them to fall as well.

(j) Snap-hook considerations. Although not required by this standard for all connections, locking snap-hooks designed for connection to suitable objects (of sufficient strength) are highly recommended in lieu of the non-locking type. Locking snap-hooks incorporate a positive locking mechanism in addition to the spring loaded keeper, which will not allow the keeper to open under moderate pressure without someone first releasing the mechanism. Such a feature, properly designed, effectively prevents roll-out from occurring.

As required by the standard (section I, paragraph (e)(1)) the following connections must be avoided (unless properly designed locking snap-hooks are used) because they are conditions which can result in roll-out when a nonlocking snap-hook is used:

  Direct connection of a snap-hook to a horizontal lifeline.

  Two (or more) snap-hooks connected to one dee-ring.

  Two snap-hooks connected to each other.

  A snap-hook connected back on its integral lanyard.

  A snap-hook connected to a webbing loop or webbing lanyard.

  Improper dimensions of the dee-ring, rebar, or other connection point in relation to the snap-hook dimensions which would allow the snap-hook keeper to be depressed by a turning motion of the snap-hook.

(k) Free fall considerations. The employer and employee should at all times be aware that a system's maximum arresting force is evaluated under normal use conditions established by the manufacturer, and in no case using a free fall distance in excess of six feet (1.8 m). A few extra feet of free fall can significantly increase the arresting force on the employee, possibly to the point of causing injury. Because of this, the free fall distance should be kept at a minimum, and, as required by the standard, in no case greater than six feet (1.8 m). To help assure this, the tie-off attachment point to the lifeline or anchor should be located at or above the connection point of the fall arrest equipment to belt or harness. (Since otherwise additional free fall distance is added to the length of the connecting means (i.e. lanyard)). Attaching to the working surface will often result in a free fall greater than six feet (1.8 m). For instance, if a six foot (1.8 m) lanyard is used, the total free fall distance will be the distance from the working level to the body belt (or harness) attachment point plus the six feet (1.8 m) of lanyard length. Another important consideration is that the arresting force which the fall system must withstand also goes up with greater distances of free fall, possibly exceeding the strength of the system.

(l) Elongation and deceleration distance considerations. Other factors involved in a proper tie-off are elongation and deceleration distance. During the arresting of a fall, a lanyard will experience a length of stretching or elongation, whereas activation of a deceleration device will result in a certain stopping distance. These distances should be available with the lanyard or device's instructions and must be added to the free fall distance to arrive at the total fall distance before an employee is fully stopped. The additional stopping distance may be very significant if the lanyard or deceleration device is attached near or at the end of a long lifeline, which may itself add considerable distance due to its own elongation. As required by the standard, sufficient distance to allow for all of these factors must also be maintained between the employee and obstructions below, to prevent an injury due to impact before the system fully arrests the fall. In addition, a minimum of 12 feet (3.7 m) of lifeline should be allowed below the securing point of a rope grab type deceleration device, and the end terminated to prevent the device from sliding off the lifeline. Alternatively, the lifeline should extend to the ground or the next working level below. These measures are suggested to prevent the worker from inadvertently moving past the end of the lifeline and having the rope grab become disengaged from the lifeline.

(m) Obstruction considerations. The location of the tie-off should also consider the hazard of obstructions in the potential fall path of the employee. Tie-offs which minimize the possibilities of exaggerated swinging should be considered. In addition, when a body belt is used, the employee's body will go through a horizontal position to a jack-knifed position during the arrest of all falls. Thus, obstructions which might interfere with this motion should be avoided or a severe injury could occur.

(n) Other considerations. Because of the design of some personal fall arrest systems, additional considerations may be required for proper tie-off. For example, heavy deceleration devices of the self-retracting type should be secured overhead in order to avoid the weight of the device having to be supported by the employee. Also, if selfretracting equipment is connected to a horizontal lifeline, the sag in the lifeline should be minimized to prevent the device from sliding down the lifeline to a position which creates a swing hazard during fall arrest. In all cases, manufacturer's instructions should be followed.

Appendix D to §1910.66—Existing Installations (Mandatory)

Use of the Appendix

Appendix D sets out the mandatory building and equipment requirements for applicable permanent installations completed after August 27, 1971, and no later than July 23, 1990 which are exempt from the paragraphs (a), (b)(1), (b)(2), (c), (d), (e), and (f) of this standard. The requirements in appendix D are essentially the same as unrevised building and equipment provisions which previously were designated as 29 CFR 1910.66 (a), (b), (c) and (d) and which were effective on August 27, 1971.

Note: All existing installations subject to this appendix shall also comply with paragraphs (g), (h), (i), (j) and appendix C of the standard 29 CFR 1910.66.

(a) Definitions applicable to this appendix—(1) Angulated roping. A system of platform suspension in which the upper wire rope sheaves or suspension points are closer to the plane of the building face than the corresponding attachment points on the platform, thus causing the platform to press against the face of the building during its vertical travel.

(2) ANSI. American National Standards Institute.

(3) Babbitted fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the ends of the wire strands are bent back and are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten babbitt metal.

(4) Brake—disc type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by frictional resistance between one or more faces of discs keyed to the rotating member to be held and fixed discs keyed to the stationary or housing member (pressure between the discs being applied axially).

(5) Brake—self-energizing band type. An essentially undirectional brake in which the holding effect is obtained by the snubbing action of a flexible band wrapped about a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held, the connections and linkages being so arranged that the motion of the brake wheel or drum will act to increase the tension or holding force of the band.

(6) Brake—shoe type. A brake in which the holding effect is obtained by applying the direct pressure of two or more segmental friction elements held to a stationary member against a cylindrical wheel or drum affixed to the rotating member to be held.

(7) Building face rollers. A specialized form of guide roller designed to contact a portion of the outer face or wall structure of the building, and to assist in stabilizing the operators' platform during vertical travel.

(8) Continuous pressure. Operation by means of buttons or switches, any one of which may be used to control the movement of the working platform or roof car, only as long as the button or switch is manually maintained in the actuating position.

(9) Control. A system governing starting, stopping, direction, acceleration, speed, and retardation of moving members.

(10) Controller. A device or group of devices, usually contained in a single enclosure, which serves to control in some predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.

(11) Electrical ground. A conducting connection between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth, or some conducting body which serves in place of the earth.

(12) Guide roller. A rotating, bearing-mounted, generally cylindrical member, operating separately or as part of a guide shoe assembly, attached to the platform, and providing rolling contact with building guideways, or other building contact members.

(13) Guide shoe. An assembly of rollers, slide members, or the equivalent, attached as a unit to the operators' platform, and designed to engage with the building members provided for the vertical guidance of the operators' platform.

(14) Interlock. A device actuated by the operation of some other device with which it is directly associated, to govern succeeding operations of the same or allied devices.

(15) Operating device. A pushbutton, lever, or other manual device used to actuate a control.

(16) Powered platform. Equipment to provide access to the exterior of a building for maintenance, consisting of a suspended power-operated working platform, a roof car, or other suspension means, and the requisite operating and control devices.

(17) Rated load. The combined weight of employees, tools, equipment, and other material which the working platform is designed and installed to lift.

(18) Relay, direction. An electrically energized contactor responsive to an initiating control circuit, which in turn causes a moving member to travel in a particular direction.

(19) Relay, potential for vertical travel. An electrically energized contactor responsive to initiating control circuit, which in turn controls the operation of a moving member in both directions. This relay usually operates in conjunction with direction relays, as covered under the definition, “relay, direction.”

(20) Roof car. A structure for the suspension of a working platform, providing for its horizontal movement to working positions.

(21) Roof-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on a roof car.

(22) Self-powered platform. A powered platform having the raising and lowering mechanism located on the working platform.

(23) Traveling cable. A cable made up of electrical or communication conductors or both, and providing electrical connection between the working platform and the roof car or other fixed point.

(24) Weatherproof. Equipment so constructed or protected that exposure to the weather will not interfere with its proper operation.

(25) Working platform. The suspended structure arranged for vertical travel which provides access to the exterior of the building or structure.

(26) Yield point. The stress at which the material exhibits a permanent set of 0.2 percent.

(27) Zinced fastenings. The method of providing wire rope attachments in which the splayed or fanned wire ends are held in a tapered socket by means of poured molten zinc.

(b) General requirements. (1) Design requirements. All powered platform installations for exterior building maintenance completed as of August 27, 1971, but no later than [insert date, 180 days after the effective date], shall meet all of the design, construction and installation requirements of part II and III of the “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance ANSI A120.1-1970” and of this appendix. References shall be made to appropriate parts of ANSI A120.1-1970 for detail specifications for equipment and special installations.

(2) Limitation. The requirements of this appendix apply only to electric powered platforms. It is not the intent of this appendix to prohibit the use of other types of power. Installation of powered platforms using other types of power is permitted, provided such platforms have adequate protective devices for the type of power used, and otherwise provide for reasonable safety of life and limb to users of equipment and to others who may be exposed.

(3) Types of powered platforms. (i) For the purpose of applying this appendix, powered platforms are divided into two basic types, Type F and Type T.

(ii) Powered platforms designated as Type F shall meet all the requirements in part II of ANSI A 120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance. A basic requirement of Type F equipment is that the work platform is suspended by at least four wire ropes and designed so that failure of any one wire rope will not substantially alter the normal position of the working platform. Another basic requirement of Type F equipment is that only one layer of hoisting rope is permitted on winding drums. Type F powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.

(iii) Powered platforms designated as Type T shall meet all the requirements in part III of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance, except for section 28, Safety Belts and Life Lines. A basic requirement of Type T equipment is that the working platform is suspended by at least two wire ropes. Failure of one wire rope would not permit the working platform to fall to the ground, but would upset its normal position. Type T powered platforms may be either roof-powered or self-powered.

(iv) The requirements of this section apply to powered platforms with winding drum type hoisting machines. It is not the intent of this section to prohibit powered platforms using other types of hoisting machines such as, but not limited to, traction drum hoisting machines, air powered machines, hydraulic powered machines, and internal combustion machines. Installation of powered platforms with other types of hoisting machines is permitted, provided adequate protective devices are used, and provided reasonable safety of life and limb to users of the equipment and to others who may be exposed is assured.

(v) Both Type F and Type T powered platforms shall comply with the requirements of appendix C of this standard.

(c) Type F powered platforms—(1) Roof car, general. (i) A roof car shall be provided whenever it is necessary to move the working platform horizontally to working or storage positions.

(ii) The maximum rated speed at which a power traversed roof car may be moved in a horizontal direction shall be 50 feet per minute.

(2) Movement and positioning of roof car. (i) Provision shall be made to protect against having the roof car leave the roof or enter roof areas not designed for travel.

(ii) The horizontal motion of the roof cars shall be positively controlled so as to insure proper movement and positioning of the roof car.

(iii) Roof car positioning devices shall be provided to insure that the working platform is placed and retained in proper position for vertical travel and during storage.

(iv) Mechanical stops shall be provided to prevent the traversing of the roof car beyond its normal limits of travel. Such stops shall be capable of withstanding a force equal to 100 percent of the inertial effect of the roof car in motion with traversing power applied.

(v)(a) The operating device of a power-operated roof car for traversing shall be located on the roof car, the working platform, or both, and shall be of the continuous pressure weather-proof electric type. If more than one operating device is provided, they shall be so arranged that traversing is possible only from one operating device at a time.

(b) The operating device shall be so connected that it is not operable until:

(1) The working platform is located at its uppermost position of travel and is not in contact with the building face or fixed vertical guides in the face of the building; and

(2) All protective devices and interlocks are in a position for traversing.

(3) Roof car stability. Roof car stability shall be determined by either paragraph (c)(3) (i) or (ii) of this appendix, whichever is greater.

(i) The roof car shall be continuously stable, considering overturning moment as determined by 125 percent rated load, plus maximum dead load and the prescribed wind loading.

(ii) The roof car and its anchorages shall be capable of resisting accidental over-tensioning of the wire ropes suspending the working platform and this calculated value shall include the effect of one and one-half times the value. For this calculation, the simultaneous effect of one-half wind load shall be included, and the design stresses shall not exceed those referred to in paragraph (b)(1) of this appendix.

(iii) If the load on the motors is at any time in excess of three times that required for lifting the working platform with its rated load the motor shall stall.

(4) Access to the roof car. Safe access to the roof car and from the roof car to the working platform shall be provided. If the access to the roof car at any point of its travel is not over the roof area or where otherwise necessary for safety, self-closing, self-locking gates shall be provided. Applicable provisions of the American National Standard Safety Requirements for Floor and Wall Openings, Railings and Toeboard, A12.1-1967, shall apply.

(5) Means for maintenance, repair, and storage. Means shall be provided to run the roof car away from the roof perimeter, where necessary, and to provide a safe area for maintenance, repairs, and storage. Provisions shall be made to secure the machine in the stored position. For stored machines subject to wind forces, see special design and anchorage requirements for “wind forces” in part II, section 10.5.1.1 of ANSI A120.1-1970 American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.

(6) General requirements for working platforms. The working platform shall be of girder or truss construction and shall be adequate to support its rated load under any position of loading, and comply with the provisions set forth in section 10 of ANSI A120.1-1970, American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance.

(7) Load rating plate. Each working platform shall bear a manufacturer's load rating plate, conspicuously posted; stating the maximum permissible rated load. Load rating plates shall be made of noncorrosive material and shall have letters and figures stamped, etched, or cast on the surface. The minimum height of the letters and figures shall be one-fourth inch.

(8) Minimum size. The working platform shall have a minimum net width of 24 inches.

(9) Guardrails. Working platforms shall be furnished with permanent guard rails not less than 36 inches high, and not more than 42 inches high at the front (building side). At the rear, and on the sides, the rail shall not be less than 42 inches high. An intermediate guardrail shall be provided around the entire platform between the top guardrail and the toeboard.

(10) Toeboards. A four-inch toeboard shall be provided along all sides of the working platform.

(11) Open spaces between guardrails and toeboards. The spaces between the intermediate guardrail and platform toeboard on the building side of the working platform, and between the top guardrail and the toeboard on other sides of the platform, shall be filled with metalic mesh or similar material that will reject a ball one inch in diameter. The installed mesh shall be capable of withstanding a load of 100 pounds applied horizontally over any area of 144 square inches. If the space between the platform and the building face does not exceed eight inches, and the platform is restrained by guides, the mesh may be omitted on the front side.

(12) Flooring. The platform flooring shall be of the nonskid type, and if of open construction, shall reject a 916 -inch diameter ball, or be provided with a screen below the floor to reject a 916 -inch diameter ball.

(13) Access gates. Where access gates are provided, they shall be self-closing and self-locking.

(14) Operating device for vertical movement of the working platform. (i) The normal operating device for the working platform shall be located on the working platform and shall be of the continuous pressure weatherproof electric type.

(ii) The operating device shall be operable only when all electrical protective devices and interlocks on the working platform are in position for normal service and, the roof car, if provided, is at an established operating point.

(15) Emergency electric operative device. (i) In addition, on roof-powered platforms, an emergency electric operating device shall be provided near the hoisting machine for use in the event of failure of the normal operating device for the working platform, or failure of the traveling cable system. The emergency operating device shall be mounted in a locked compartment and shall have a legend mounted thereon reading: “For Emergency Operation Only. Establish Communication With Personnel on Working Platform Before Use.”

(ii) A key for unlocking the compartment housing the emergency operating device shall be mounted in a break-glass receptacle located near the emergency operating device.

(16) Manual cranking for emergency operation. Emergency operation of the main drive machine may be provided to allow manual cranking. This provision for manual operation shall be designed so that not more than two persons will be required to perform this operation. The access to this provision shall include a means to automatically make the machine inoperative electrically while under the emergency manual operation. The design shall be such that the emergency brake is operative at or below governor tripping speed during manual operation.

(17) Arrangement and guarding of hoisting equipment. (i) Hoisting equipment shall consist of a power-driven drum or drum contained in the roof car (roof-powered platforms) or contained on the working platform (self-powered platform).

(ii) The hoisting equipment shall be power-operated in both up and down directions.

(iii) Guard or other protective devices shall be installed wherever rotating shafts or other mechanisms or gears may expose personnel to a hazard.

(iv) Friction devices or clutches shall not be used for connecting the main driving mechanism to the drum or drums. Belt or chain-driven machines are prohibited.

(18) Hoisting motors. (i) Hoisting motors shall be electric and of weather-proof construction.

(ii) Hoisting motors shall be in conformance with applicable provisions of paragraph (c)(22) of this appendix, Electric Wiring and Equipment.

(iii) Hoisting motors shall be directly connected to the hoisting machinery. Motor couplings, if used, shall be of steel construction.

(19) Brakes. The hoisting machine(s) shall have two independent braking means, each designed to stop and hold the working platform with 125 percent of rated load.

(20) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Working platforms shall be suspended by wire ropes of either 6×19 or 6×37 classification, preformed or nonpreformed.

(ii) [Reserved]

(iii) The minimum factor of safety shall be 10, and shall be calculated by the following formula:

F = S×N/W

Where

S = Manufacturer's rated breaking strength of one rope.

N = Number of ropes under load.

W = Maximum static load on all ropes with the platform and its rated load at any point of its travel.

(iv) Hoisting ropes shall be sized to conform with the required factor of safety, but in no case shall the size be less than 516 inch diameter.

(v) Winding drums shall have at least three turns of rope remaining when the platform has landed at the lowest possible point of its travel.

(vi) The lengthening or repairing of wire rope by the joining of two or more lengths is prohibited.

(vii) The nondrum ends of the hoisting ropes shall be provided with individual shackle rods which will permit individual adjustment of rope lengths, if required.

(viii) More than two reverse bends in each rope is prohibited.

(21) Rope tag data. (i) A metal data tag shall be securely attached to one of the wire rope fastenings. This data tag shall bear the following wire rope data:

(a) The diameter in inches.

(b) Construction classification.

(c) Whether nonpreformed or preformed.

(d) The grade of material used.

(e) The manufacturer's rated breaking strength.

(f) Name of the manufacturer of the rope.

(g) The month and year the ropes were installed.

(22) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) All electrical equipment and wiring shall conform to the requirements of subpart S of this Part, except as modified by ANSI A120.1—1970 “American National Standard Safety Requirements for Powered Platforms for Exterior Building Maintenance” (see §1910.6). For detail design specifications for electrical equipment, see part 2, ANSI A120.1-1970.

(ii) All motors and operation and control equipment shall be supplied from a single power source.

(iii) The power supply for the powered platform shall be an independent circuit supplied through a fused disconnect switch.

(iv) Electrical conductor parts of the power supply system shall be protected against accidental contact.

(v) Electrical grounding shall be provided.

(a) Provisions for electrical grounding shall be included with the power-supply system.

(b) Controller cabinets, motor frames, hoisting machines, the working platform, roof car and roof car track system, and noncurrent carrying parts of electrical equipment, where provided, shall be grounded.

(c) The controller, where used, shall be so designed and installed that a single ground or short circuit will not prevent both the normal and final stopping device from stopping the working platform.

(d) Means shall be provided on the roof car and working platform for grounding portable electric tools.

(e) The working platform shall be grounded through a grounding connection in a traveling cable. Electrically powered tools utilized on the working platform shall be grounded.

(vi) Electrical receptacles located on the roof or other exterior location shall be of a weatherproof type and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The receptacles shall be grounded and the electric cable shall include a grounding conductor. The receptacle and plug shall be a type designed to avoid hazard to persons inserting or withdrawing the plug. Provision shall be made to prevent application of cable strain directly to the plug and receptacle.

(vii) Electric runway conductor systems shall be of the type designed for use in exterior locations and shall be located so as not to be subject to contact with water or accumulated snow. The conductors, collectors, and disconnecting means shall conform to the same requirements as those for cranes and hoists in subpart S of this Part. A grounded conductor shall parallel the power conductors and be so connected that it cannot be opened by the disconnecting means. The system shall be designed to avoid hazard to persons in the area.

(viii) Electrical protective devices and interlocks of the weatherproof type shall be provided.

(ix) Where the installation includes a roof car, electric contact(s) shall be provided and so connected that the operating devices for the working platform shall be operative only when the roof car is located and mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(x) Where the powered platform includes a powered-operated roof car, the operating device for the roof car shall be inoperative when the roof car is mechanically retained at an established operating point.

(xi) An electric contact shall be provided and so connected that it will cause the down direction relay for vertical travel to open if the tension in the traveling cable exceeds safe limits.

(xii) An automatic overload device shall be provided to cut off the electrical power to the circuit in all hoisting motors for travel in the up direction, should the load applied to the hoisting ropes at either end of the working platform exceed 125 percent of its normal tension with rated load, as shown on the manufacturer's data plate on the working platform.

(xiii) An automatic device shall be provided for each hoisting rope which will cut off the electrical power to the hoisting motor or motors in the down direction and apply the brakes if any hoisting rope becomes slack.

(xiv) Upper and lower directional limit devices shall be provided to prevent the travel of the working platform beyond the normal upper and lower limits of travel.

(xv) Operation of a directional limit device shall prevent further motion in the appropriate direction, if the normal limit of travel has been reached.

(xvi) Directional limit devices, if driven from the hoisting machine by chains, tapes, or cables, shall incorporate a device to disconnect the electric power from the hoisting machine and apply both the primary and secondary brakes in the event of failure of the driving means.

(xvii) Final terminal stopping devices of the working platform:

(a) Final terminal stopping devices for the working platform shall be provided as a secondary means of preventing the working platform from over-traveling at the terminals.

(b) The device shall be set to function as close to each terminal landing as practical, but in such a way that under normal operating conditions it will not function when the working platform is stopped by the normal terminal stopping device.

(c) Operation of the final terminal stopping device shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine, and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.

(d) The final terminal stopping device for the upper limit of travel shall be mounted so that it is operated directly by the motion of the working platform itself.

(xviii) Emergency stop switches shall be provided in or adjacent to each operating device.

(xix) Emergency stop switches shall:

(a) Have red operating buttons or handles.

(b) Be conspicuously and permanently marked “Stop.”

(c) Be the manually opened and manually closed type.

(d) Be positively opened with the opening not solely dependent on springs.

(xx) The manual operation of an emergency stop switch associated with an operating device for the working platform shall open the potential relay for vertical travel, thereby disconnecting the electric power from the hoisting machine and applying both the primary and secondary brakes.

(xxi) The manual operation of the emergency stop switch associated with the operating device for a power-driven roof car shall cause the electrical power to the traverse machine to be interrupted, and the traverse machine brake to apply.

(23) Requirements for emergency communications. (i) Communication equipment shall be provided for each powered platform for use in an emergency.

(ii) Two-way communication shall be established between personnel on the roof and personnel on the stalled working platform before any emergency operation of the working platform is undertaken by personnel on the roof.

(iii) The equipment shall permit two-way voice communication between the working platform and

(a) Designated personnel continuously available while the powered platform is in use; and

(b) Designated personnel on roof-powered platforms, undertaking emergency operation of the working platform by means of the emergency operating device located near the hoisting machine.

(iv) The emergency communication equipment shall be one of the following types:

(a) Telephone connected to the central telephone exchange system; or

(b) Telephones on a limited system or an approved two-way radio system, provided designated personnel are available to receive a message during the time the powered platform is in use.

(d) Type T powered platforms—(1) Roof car. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) through (c)(5) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(2) Working platform. The requirements of paragraphs (c)(6) through (c)(16) of this appendix apply to Type T powered platforms.

(i) The working platform shall be suspended by at least two wire ropes.

(ii) The maximum rated speed at which the working platform of self-powered platforms may be moved in a vertical direction shall not exceed 35 feet per minute.

(3) Hoisting equipment. The requirements of paragraphs (c) (17) and (18) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(4) Brakes. Brakes requirements of paragraph (c)(19) of this appendix shall apply.

(5) Hoisting ropes and rope connections. (i) Paragraphs (c)(20) (i) through (vi) and (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

(ii) Adjustable shackle rods in subparagraph (c)(20)(vii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms, if the working platform is suspended by more than two wire ropes.

(6) Electrical wiring and equipment. (i) The requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (vi) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. “Circuit protection limitation,” “powered platform electrical service system,” all operating services and control equipment shall comply with the specifications contained in part 2, section 26, ANSI A120.1-1970.

(ii) For electrical protective devices the requirements of paragraphs (c)(22) (i) through (viii) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms. Requirements for the “circuit potential limitation” shall be in accordance with specifications contained in part 2, section 26, of ANSI A120.1-1970.

(7) Emergency communications. All the requirements of paragraph (c)(23) of this appendix shall apply to Type T powered platforms.

[54 FR 31456, July 28, 1989, as amended at 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 7190, Feb. 14, 2007]

§1910.67   Vehicle-mounted elevating and rotating work platforms.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerial device. Any vehicle—mounted device, telescoping or articulating, or both, which is used to position personnel.

(2) Aerial ladder. An aerial device consisting of a single- or multiple-section extensible ladder.

(3) Articulating boom platform. An aerial device with two or more hinged boom sections.

(4) Extensible boom platform. An aerial device (except ladders) with a telescopic or extensible boom. Telescopic derricks with personnel platform attachments shall be considered to be extensible boom platforms when used with a personnel platform.

(5) Insulated aerial device. An aerial device designed for work on energized lines and apparatus.

(6) Mobile unit. A combination of an aerial device, its vehicle, and related equipment.

(7) Platform. Any personnel-carrying device (basket or bucket) which is a component of an aerial device.

(8) Vehicle. Any carrier that is not manually propelled.

(9) Vertical tower. An aerial device designed to elevate a platform in a substantially vertical axis.

(b) General requirements. (1) Unless otherwise provided in this section, aerial devices (aerial lifts) acquired on or after July 1, 1975, shall be designed and constructed in conformance with the applicable requirements of the American National Standard for “Vehicle Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms,” ANSI A92.2—1969, including appendix, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6. Aerial lifts acquired for use before July 1, 1975 which do not meet the requirements of ANSI A92.2—1969, may not be used after July 1, 1976, unless they shall have been modified so as to conform with the applicable design and construction requirements of ANSI A92.2—1969. Aerial devices include the following types of vehicle-mounted aerial devices used to elevate personnel to jobsites above ground: (i) Extensible boom platforms, (ii) aerial ladders, (iii) articulating boom platforms, (iv) vertical towers, and (v) a combination of any of the above. Aerial equipment may be made of metal, wood, fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP), or other material; may be powered or manually operated; and are deemed to be aerial lifts whether or not they are capable of rotating about a substantially vertical axis.

(2) Aerial lifts may be “field modified” for uses other than those intended by the manufacturer, provided the modification has been certified in writing by the manufacturer or by any other equivalent entity, such as a nationally recognized testing laboratory, to be in conformity with all applicable provisions of ANSI A92.2—1969 and this section, and to be at least as safe as the equipment was before modification.

(3) The requirements of this section do not apply to firefighting equipment or to the vehicles upon which aerial devices are mounted, except with respect to the requirement that a vehicle be a stable support for the aerial device.

(4) For operations near overhead electric lines, see §1910.333(c)(3).

(c) Specific requirements—(1) Ladder trucks and tower trucks. Before the truck is moved for highway travel, aerial ladders shall be secured in the lower traveling position by the locking device above the truck cab, and the manually operated device at the base of the ladder, or by other equally effective means (e.g., cradles which prevent rotation of the ladder in combination with positive acting linear actuators).

(2) Extensible and articulating boom platforms. (i) Lift controls shall be tested each day prior to use to determine that such controls are in safe working condition.

(ii) Only trained persons shall operate an aerial lift.

(iii) Belting off to an adjacent pole, structure, or equipment while working from an aerial lift shall not be permitted.

(iv) Employees shall always stand firmly on the floor of the basket, and shall not sit or climb on the edge of the basket or use planks, ladders, or other devices for a work position.

(v) A body belt shall be worn and a lanyard attached to the boom or basket when working from an aerial lift.

(vi) Boom and basket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.

(vii) The brakes shall be set and outriggers, when used, shall be positioned on pads or a solid surface. Wheel chocks shall be installed before using an aerial lift on an incline.

(viii) An aerial lift truck may not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with men in the basket, except for equipment which is specifically designed for this type of operation in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section.

(ix) Articulating boom and extensible boom platforms, primarily designed as personnel carriers, shall have both platform (upper) and lower controls. Upper controls shall be in or beside the platform within easy reach of the operator. Lower controls shall provide for overriding the upper controls. Controls shall be plainly marked as to their function. Lower level controls shall not be operated unless permission has been obtained from the employee in the lift, except in case of emergency.

(x) Climbers shall not be worn while performing work from an aerial lift.

(xi) The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce its insulating value.

(xii) Before moving an aerial lift for travel, the boom(s) shall be inspected to see that it is properly cradled and outriggers are in stowed position, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(viii) of this section.

(3) Electrical tests. Electrical tests shall be made in conformance with the requirements of ANSI A92.2—1969, Section 5. However, equivalent DC voltage tests may be used in lieu of the AC voltage test specified in A92.2—1969. DC voltage tests which are approved by the equipment manufacturer or equivalent entity shall be considered an equivalent test for the purpose of this paragraph (c)(3).

(4) Bursting safety factor. All critical hydraulic and pneumatic components shall comply with the provisions of the American National Standards Institute standard, ANSI A92.2—1969, Section 4.9 Bursting Safety Factor. Critical components are those in which a failure would result in a free fall or free rotation of the boom. All noncritical components shall have a bursting safety factor of at least two to one.

(5) “Welding standards.” All welding shall conform to the following American Welding Society (AWS) Standards which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, as applicable:

(i) Standard Qualification Procedure, AWS B3.0—41.

(ii) Recommended Practices for Automotive Welding Design, AWS D8.4-61.

(iii) Standard Qualification of Welding Procedures and Welders for Piping and Tubing, AWS D10.9-69.

(iv) Specifications for Welding Highway and Railway Bridges, AWS D2.0-69.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 13439, Mar. 26, 1975; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 79 FR 37190, July 1, 2014]

§1910.68   Manlifts.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Handhold (Handgrip). A handhold is a device attached to the belt which can be grasped by the passenger to provide a means of maintaining balance.

(2) Open type. One which has a handgrip surface fully exposed and capable of being encircled by the passenger's fingers.

(3) Closed type. A cup-shaped device, open at the top in the direction of travel of the step for which it is to be used, and closed at the bottom, into which the passenger may place his fingers.

(4) Limit switch. A device, the purpose of which is to cut off the power to the motor and apply the brake to stop the carrier in the event that a loaded step passes the terminal landing.

(5) Manlift. A device consisting of a power-driven endless belt moving in one direction only, and provided with steps or platforms and handholds attached to it for the transportation of personnel from floor to floor.

(6) Rated speed. Rated speed is the speed for which the device is designed and installed.

(7) Split-rail switch. An electric limit switch operated mechanically by the rollers on the manlift steps. It consists of an additional hinged or “split” rail, mounted on the regular guide rail, over which the step rollers pass. It is springloaded in the “split” position. If the step supports no load, the rollers will “bump” over the switch; if a loaded step should pass over the section, the split rail will be forced straight, tripping the switch and opening the electrical circuit.

(8) Step (platform). A step is a passenger carrying unit.

(9) Travel. The travel is the distance between the centers of the top and bottom pulleys.

(b) General requirements—(1) Application. This section applies to the construction, maintenance, inspection, and operation of manlifts in relation to accident hazards. Manlifts covered by this section consist of platforms or brackets and accompanying handholds mounted on, or attached to an endless belt, operating vertically in one direction only and being supported by, and driven through pulleys, at the top and bottom. These manlifts are intended for conveyance of persons only. It is not intended that this section cover moving stairways, elevators with enclosed platforms (“Paternoster” elevators), gravity lifts, nor conveyors used only for conveying material. This section applies to manlifts used to carry only personnel trained and authorized by the employer in their use.

(2) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to provide reasonable safety for life and limb.

(3) Design requirements. All new manlift installations and equipment installed after the effective date of these regulations shall meet the design requirements of the “American National Safety Standard for Manlifts ANSI A90.1-1969”, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, and the requirements of this section.

(4) Reference to other codes and subparts. The following codes and subparts of this part are applicable to this section: Safety Code for Mechanical Power Transmission Apparatus, ANSI B15.1-1953 (R 1958); Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956; and subparts D, O, and S. The preceding ANSI standards are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(5) Floor openings—(i) Allowable size. Floor openings for both the “up” and “down” runs shall be not less than 28 inches nor more than 36 inches in width for a 12-inch belt; not less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches for a 14-inch belt; and not less than 36 inches nor more than 40 inches for a 16-inch belt and shall extend not less than 24 inches, nor more than 28 inches from the face of the belt.

(ii) Uniformity. All floor openings for a given manlift shall be uniform in size and shall be approximately circular, and each shall be located vertically above the opening below it.

(6) Landing—(i) Vertical clearance. The clearanace between the floor or mounting platform and the lower edge for the conical guard above it required by subparagraph (7) of this paragraph shall not be less than 7 feet 6 inches. Where this clearance cannot be obtained no access to the manlift shall be provided and the manlift runway shall be enclosed where it passes through such floor.

(ii) Clear landing space. The landing space adjacent to the floor openings shall be free from obstruction and kept clear at all times. This landing space shall be at least 2 feet in width from the edge of the floor opening used for mounting and dismounting.

(iii) Lighting and landing. Adequate lighting, not less than 5-foot candles, shall be provided at each floor landing at all times when the lift is in operation.

(iv) Landing surface. The landing surfaces at the entrances and exits to the manlift shall be constructed and maintained as to provide safe footing at all times.

(v) Emergency landings. Where there is a travel of 50 feet or more between floor landings, one or more emergency landings shall be provided so that there will be a landing (either floor or emergency) for every 25 feet or less of manlift travel.

(a) Emergency landings shall be accessible from both the “up” and “down” rungs of the manlift and shall give access to the ladder required in subparagraph (12) of this paragraph.

(b) Emergency landings shall be completely enclosed with a standard railing and toeboard.

(c) Platforms constructed to give access to bucket elevators or other equipment for the purpose of inspection, lubrication, and repair may also serve as emergency landings under this rule. All such platforms will then be considered part of the emergency landing and shall be provided with standard railings and toeboards.

(7) Guards on underside of floor openings—(i) Fixed type. On the ascending side of the manlift floor openings shall be provided with a bevel guard or cone meeting the following requirements:

(a) The cone shall make an angle of not less than 45° with the horizontal. An angle of 60° or greater shall be used where ceiling heights permit.

(b) The lower edge of this guard shall extend at least 42 inches outward from any handhold on the belt. It shall not extend beyond the upper surface of the floor above.

(c) The cone shall be made of not less than No. 18 U.S. gauge sheet steel or material of equivalent strength or stiffness. The lower edge shall be rolled to a minimum diameter of one-half inch and the interior shall be smooth with no rivets, bolts or screws protruding.

(ii) Floating type. In lieu of the fixed guards specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph a floating type safety cone may be used, such floating cones to be mounted on hinges at least 6 inches below the underside of the floor and so constructed as to actuate a limit switch should a force of 2 pounds be applied on the edge of the cone closest to the hinge. The depth of this floating cone need not exceed 12 inches.

(8) Protection of entrances and exits—(i) Guard rail requirement. The entrances and exits at all floor landings affording access to the manlift shall be guarded by a maze (staggered railing) or a handrail equipped with self-closing gates.

(ii) Construction. The rails shall be standard guardrails with toeboards meeting the provisions of §1910.23.

(iii) Gates. Gates, if used, shall open outward and shall be self-closing. Corners of gates shall be rounded.

(iv) Maze. Maze or staggered openings shall offer no direct passage between enclosure and outer floor space.

(v) Except where building layout prevents, entrances at all landings shall be in the same relative position.

(9) Guards for openings—(i) Construction. The floor opening at each landing shall be guarded on sides not used for entrance or exit by a wall, a railing and toeboard or by panels of wire mesh of suitable strength.

(ii) Height and location. Such rails or guards shall be at least 42 inches in height on the up-running side and 66 inches on the down-running side.

(10) Bottom arrangement—(i) Bottom landing. At the bottom landing the clear area shall be not smaller than the area enclosed by the guardrails on the floors above, and any wall in front of the down-running side of the belt shall be not less than 48 inches from the face of the belt. This space shall not be encroached upon by stairs or ladders.

(ii) Location of lower pulley. The lower (boot) pulley shall be installed so that it is supported by the lowest landing served. The sides of the pulley support shall be guarded to prevent contact with the pulley or the steps.

(iii) Mounting platform. A mounting platform shall be provided in front or to one side of the uprun at the lowest landing, unless the floor level is such that the following requirement can be met: The floor or platform shall be at or above the point at which the upper surface of the ascending step completes its turn and assumes a horizontal position.

(iv) Guardrails. To guard against persons walking under a descending step, the area on the downside of the manlift shall be guarded in accordance with subparagraph (8) of this paragraph. To guard against a person getting between the mounting platform and an ascending step, the area between the belt and the platform shall be protected by a guardrail.

(11) Top arrangements—(i) Clearance from floor. A top clearance shall be provided of at least 11 feet above the top terminal landing. This clearance shall be maintained from a plane through each face of the belt to a vertical cylindrical plane having a diameter 2 feet greater than the diameter of the floor opening, extending upward from the top floor to the ceiling on the up-running side of the belt. No encroachment of structural or machine supporting members within this space will be permitted.

(ii) Pulley clearance. (a) There shall be a clearance of at least 5 feet between the center of the head pulley shaft and any ceiling obstruction.

(b) The center of the head pulley shaft shall be not less than 6 feet above the top terminal landing.

(iii) Emergency grab rail. An emergency grab bar or rail and platform shall be provided at the head pulley when the distance to the head pulley is over 6 feet above the top landing, otherwise only a grab bar or rail is to be provided to permit the rider to swing free should the emergency stops become inoperative.

(12) Emergency exit ladder. A fixed metal ladder accessible from both the “up” and “down” run of the manlift shall be provided for the entire travel of the manlift. Such ladder shall be in accordance with the existing ANSI A14.3-1956 Safety Code for Fixed Ladders and §1910.27.

(13) Superstructure bracing. Manlift rails shall be secured in such a manner as to avoid spreading, vibration, and misalinement.

(14) Illumination—(i) General. Both runs of the manlift shall be illuminated at all times when the lift is in operation. An intensity of not less than 1-foot candle shall be maintained at all points. (However, see subparagraph (6)(iii) of this paragraph for illumination requirements at landings.)

(ii) Control of illumination. Lighting of manlift runways shall be by means of circuits permanently tied in to the building circuits (no switches), or shall be controlled by switches at each landing. Where separate switches are provided at each landing, any switch shall turn on all lights necessary to illuminate the entire runway.

(15) Weather protection. The entire manlift and its driving mechanism shall be protected from the weather at all times.

(c) Mechanical requirements—(1) Machines, general—(i) Brakes. Brakes provided for stopping and holding a manlift shall be inherently self-engaging, by requiring power or force from an external source to cause disengagement. The brake shall be electrically released, and shall be applied to the motor shaft for direct-connected units or to the input shaft for belt-driven units. The brake shall be capable of stopping and holding the manlift when the descending side is loaded with 250 lb on each step.

(ii) Belt. (a) The belts shall be of hard-woven canvas, rubber-coated canvas, leather, or other material meeting the strength requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and having a coefficient of friction such that when used in conjunction with an adequate tension device it will meet the brake test specified in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.

(b) The width of the belt shall be not less than 12 inches for a travel not exceeding 100 feet, not less than 14 inches for a travel greater than 100 feet but not exceeding 150 feet and 16 inches for a travel exceeding 150 feet.

(c) A belt that has become torn while in use on a manlift shall not be spliced and put back in service.

(2) Speed—(i) Maximum speed. No manlift designed for a speed in excess of 80 feet per minute shall be installed.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Platforms or steps—(i) Minimum depth. Steps or platforms shall be not less than 12 inches nor more than 14 inches deep, measured from the belt to the edge of the step or platform.

(ii) Width. The width of the step or platform shall be not less than the width of the belt to which it is attached.

(iii) Distance between steps. The distance between steps shall be equally spaced and not less than 16 feet measured from the upper surface of one step to the upper surface of the next step above it.

(iv) Angle of step. The surface of the step shall make approximately a right angle with the “up” and “down” run of the belt, and shall travel in the approximate horizontal position with the “up” and “down” run of the belt.

(v) Surfaces. The upper or working surfaces of the step shall be of a material having inherent nonslip characteristics (coefficient of friction not less than 0.5) or shall be covered completely by a nonslip tread securely fastened to it.

(vi) Strength of step supports. When subjected to a load of 400 pounds applied at the approximate center of the step, step frames, or supports and their guides shall be of adequate strength to:

(a) Prevent the disengagement of any step roller.

(b) Prevent any appreciable misalinement.

(c) Prevent any visible deformation of the steps or its support.

(vii) Prohibition of steps without handholds. No steps shall be provided unless there is a corresponding handhold above or below it meeting the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section. If a step is removed for repairs or permanently, the handholds immediately above and below it shall be removed before the lift is again placed in service.

(4) Handholds—(i) Location. Handholds attached to the belt shall be provided and installed so that they are not less than 4 feet nor more than 4 feet 8 inches above the step tread. These shall be so located as to be available on the both “up” and “down” run of the belt.

(ii) Size. The grab surface of the handhold shall be not less than 412 inches in width, not less than 3 inches in depth, and shall provide 2 inches of clearance from the belt. Fastenings for handholds shall be located not less than 1 inch from the edge of the belt.

(iii) Strength. The handhold shall be capable of withstanding, without damage, a load of 300 pounds applied parallel to the run of the belt.

(iv) Prohibition of handhold without steps. No handhold shall be provided without a corresponding step. If a handhold is removed permanently or temporarily, the corresponding step and handhold for the opposite direction of travel shall also be removed before the lift is again placed in service.

(v) Type. All handholds shall be of the closed type.

(5) Up limit stops—(i) Requirements. Two separate automatic stop devices shall be provided to cut off the power and apply the brake when a loaded step passes the upper terminal landing. One of these shall consist of a split-rail switch mechanically operated by the step roller and located not more than 6 inches above the top terminal landing. The second automatic stop device may consist of any of the following:

(a) Any split-rail switch placed 6 inches above and on the side opposite the first limit switch.

(b) An electronic device.

(c) A switch actuated by a lever, rod, or plate, the latter to be placed on the “up” side of the head pulley so as to just clear a passing step.

(ii) Manual reset location. After the manlift has been stopped by a stop device it shall be necessary to reset the automatic stop manually. The device shall be so located that a person resetting it shall have a clear view of both the “up” and “down” runs of the manlift. It shall not be possible to reset the device from any step or platform.

(iii) Cut-off point. The initial limit stop device shall function so that the manlift will be stopped before the loaded step has reached a point 24 inches above the top terminal landing.

(iv) Electrical requirements. (a) Where such switches open the main motor circuit directly they shall be of the multipole type.

(b) Where electronic devices are used they shall be so designed and installed that failure will result in shutting off the power to the driving motor.

(c) Where flammable vapors or combustible dusts may be present, electrical installations shall be in accordance with the requirements of subpart S of this part for such locations.

(d) Unless of the oil-immersed type controller contacts carrying the main motor current shall be copper to carbon or equal, except where the circuit is broken at two or more points simultaneously.

(6) Emergency stop—(i) General. An emergency stop means shall be provided.

(ii) Location. This stop means shall be within easy reach of the ascending and descending runs of the belt.

(iii) Operation. This stop means shall be so connected with the control lever or operating mechanism that it will cut off the power and apply the brake when pulled in the direction of travel.

(iv) Rope. If rope is used, it shall be not less than three-eights inch in diameter. Wire rope, unless marlin-covered, shall not be used.

(7) Instruction and warning signs—(i) Instruction signs at landings or belts. Signs of conspicuous and easily read style giving instructions for the use of the manlift shall be posted at each landing or stenciled on the belt.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) The instructions shall read approximately as follows:

Face the Belt.

Use the Handholds.

To Stop—Pull Rope.

(ii) Top floor warning sign and light. (a) At the top floor an illuminated sign shall be displayed bearing the following wording:

“TOP FLOOR—GET OFF”

Signs shall be in block letters not less than 2 inches in height. This sign shall be located within easy view of an ascending passenger and not more than 2 feet above the top terminal landing.

(b) In addition to the sign required by paragraph (c)(7)(ii)(a) of this section, a red warning light of not less than 40- watt rating shall be provided immediately below the upper landing terminal and so located as to shine in the passenger's face.

(iii) Visitor warning. A conspicuous sign having the following legend—AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY—shall be displayed at each landing.

(d) Operating rules—(1) Proper use of manlifts. No freight, packaged goods, pipe, lumber, or construction materials of any kind shall be handled on any manlift.

(2) [Reserved]

(e) Periodic inspection—(1) Frequency. All manlifts shall be inspected by a competent designated person at intervals of not more than 30 days. Limit switches shall be checked weekly. Manlifts found to be unsafe shall not be operated until properly repaired.

(2) Items covered. This periodic inspection shall cover but is not limited to the following items:

Steps.

Step Fastenings.

Rails.

Rail Supports and Fastenings.

Rollers and Slides.

Belt and Belt Tension.

Handholds and Fastenings.

Floor Landings.

Guardrails.

Lubrication.

Limit Switches.

Warning Signs and Lights.

Illumination.

Drive Pulley.

Bottom (boot) Pulley and Clearance.

Pulley Supports.

Motor.

Driving Mechanism.

Brake.

Electrical Switches.

Vibration and Misalignment.

“Skip” on up or down run when mounting step (indicating worn gears).

(3) Inspection record. A certification record shall be kept of each inspection which includes the date of the inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the manlift which was inspected. This record of inspection shall be made available to the Assistant Secretary of Labor or a duly authorized representative.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 55 FR 32014, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9235, Mar. 7, 1996; 72 FR 71068, Dec. 14, 2007]

Subpart G—Occupational Health and Environmental Control

Authority: 29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657; Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), 5-2002 (67 FR 50017), 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355), or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

§1910.94   Ventilation.

(a) Abrasive blasting—(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph—(i) Abrasive. A solid substance used in an abrasive blasting operation.

(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A respirator constructed so that it covers the wearer's head, neck, and shoulders to protect the wearer from rebounding abrasive.

(iii) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete enclosure which rotates on an axis, or which has an internal moving tread to tumble the parts, in order to expose various surfaces of the parts to the action of an automatic blast spray.

(iv) Blast cleaning room. A complete enclosure in which blasting operations are performed and where the operator works inside of the room to operate the blasting nozzle and direct the flow of the abrasive material.

(v) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure where the operator stands outside and operates the blasting nozzle through an opening or openings in the enclosure.

(vi) Clean air. Air of such purity that it will not cause harm or discomfort to an individual if it is inhaled for extended periods of time.

(vii) Dust collector. A device or combination of devices for separating dust from the air handled by an exhaust ventilation system.

(viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A system for removing contaminated air from a space, comprising two or more of the following elements (a) enclosure or hood, (b) duct work, (c) dust collecting equipment, (d) exhauster, and (e) discharge stack.

(ix) Particulate-filter respirator. An air purifying respirator, commonly referred to as a dust or a fume respirator, which removes most of the dust or fume from the air passing through the device.

(x) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in sizes capable of passing through the upper respiratory system to reach the lower lung passages.

(xi) Rotary blast cleaning table. An enclosure where the pieces to be cleaned are positioned on a rotating table and are passed automatically through a series of blast sprays.

(xii) Abrasive blasting. The forcible application of an abrasive to a surface by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centrifugal force.

(2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting. (i) Abrasives and the surface coatings on the materials blasted are shattered and pulverized during blasting operations and the dust formed will contain particles of respirable size. The composition and toxicity of the dust from these sources shall be considered in making an evaluation of the potential health hazards.

(ii) The concentration of respirable dust or fume in the breathing zone of the abrasive-blasting operator or any other worker shall be kept below the levels specified in §1910.1000.

(iii) Organic abrasives which are combustible shall be used only in automatic systems. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the construction of the equipment, including the exhaust system and all electric wiring, shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard Installation of Blower and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1-1961 (NFPA 91-1961), which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, and subpart S of this part. The blast nozzle shall be bonded and grounded to prevent the build up of static charges. Where flammable or explosive dust mixtures may be present, the abrasive blasting enclosure, the ducts, and the dust collector shall be constructed with loose panels or explosion venting areas, located on sides away from any occupied area, to provide for pressure relief in case of explosion, following the principles set forth in the National Fire Protection Association Explosion Venting Guide, NFPA 68-1954, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(3) Blast-cleaning enclosures. (i) Blast-cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust ventilated in such a way that a continuous inward flow of air will be maintained at all openings in the enclosure during the blasting operation.

(a) All air inlets and access openings shall be baffled or so arranged that by the combination of inward air flow and baffling the escape of abrasive or dust particules into an adjacent work area will be minimized and visible spurts of dust will not be observed.

(b) The rate of exhaust shall be sufficient to provide prompt clearance of the dust-laden air within the enclosure after the cessation of blasting.

(c) Before the enclosure is opened, the blast shall be turned off and the exhaust system shall be run for a sufficient period of time to remove the dusty air within the enclosure.

(d) Safety glass protected by screening shall be used in observation windows, where hard deep-cutting abrasives are used.

(e) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles shall be installed in multiple sets at all small access openings where dust might escape, and shall be inspected regularly and replaced when needed.

(1) Doors shall be flanged and tight when closed.

(2) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms shall be operable from both inside and outside, except that where there is a small operator access door, the large work access door may be closed or opened from the outside only.

(ii) [Reserved]

(4) Exhaust ventilation systems. (i) The construction, installation, inspection, and maintenance of exhaust systems shall conform to the principles and requirements set forth in American National Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960, and ANSI Z33.1-1961, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(a) When dust leaks are noted, repairs shall be made as soon as possible.

(b) The static pressure drop at the exhaust ducts leading from the equipment shall be checked when the installation is completed and periodically thereafter to assure continued satisfactory operation. Whenever an appreciable change in the pressure drop indicates a partial blockage, the system shall be cleaned and returned to normal operating condition.

(ii) In installations where the abrasive is recirculated, the exhaust ventilation system for the blasting enclosure shall not be relied upon for the removal of fines from the spent abrasive instead of an abrasive separator. An abrasive separator shall be provided for the purpose.

(iii) The air exhausted from blast-cleaning equipment shall be discharged through dust collecting equipment. Dust collectors shall be set up so that the accumulated dust can be emptied and removed without contaminating other working areas.

(5) Personal protective equipment. (i) Employers must use only respirators approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) under 42 CFR part 84 to protect employees from dusts produced during abrasive-blasting operations.

(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting operators:

(a) When working inside of blast-cleaning rooms, or

(b) When using silica sand in manual blasting operations where the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust ventilated enclosure, or

(c) Where concentrations of toxic dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting may exceed the limits set in §1910.1000 and the nozzle and blast are not physically separated from the operator in an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.

(iii) Properly fitted particulate-filter respirators, commonly referred to as dust-filter respirators, may be used for short, intermittent, or occasional dust exposures such as cleanup, dumping of dust collectors, or unloading shipments of sand at a receiving point when it is not feasible to control the dust by enclosure, exhaust ventilation, or other means. The respirators used must be approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for protection against the specific type of dust encountered.

(a) Dust-filter respirators may be used to protect the operator of outside abrasive-blasting operations where nonsilica abrasives are used on materials having low toxicities.

(b) Dust-filter respirators shall not be used for continuous protection where silica sand is used as the blasting abrasive, or toxic materials are blasted.

(iv) For employees who use respirators required by this section, the employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.

(v) Operators shall be equipped with heavy canvas or leather gloves and aprons or equivalent protection to protect them from the impact of abrasives. Safety shoes shall be worn to protect against foot injury where heavy pieces of work are handled.

(a) Protective footwear must comply with the requirements specified by 29 CFR 1910.136(b)(1).

(b) Equipment for protection of the eyes and face shall be supplied to the operator when the respirator design does not provide such protection and to any other personnel working in the vicinity of abrasive blasting operations. This equipment shall conform to the requirements of §1910.133.

(6) Air supply and air compressors. Air for abrasive-blasting respirators must be free of harmful quantities of dusts, mists, or noxious gases, and must meet the requirements for supplied-air quality and use specified in 29 CFR 1910.134(i).

(7) Operational procedures and general safety. Dust shall not be permitted to accumulate on the floor or on ledges outside of an abrasive-blasting enclosure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be kept clear of steel shot or similar abrasive which may create a slipping hazard.

(8) Scope. This paragraph (a) applies to all operations where an abrasive is forcibly applied to a surface by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or by centrifugal force. It does not apply to steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or hydraulic cleaning methods where work is done without the aid of abrasives.

(b) Grinding, polishing, and buffing operations—(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph—(i) Abrasive cutting-off wheels. Organic-bonded wheels, the thickness of which is not more than one forty-eighth of their diameter for those up to, and including, 20 inches in diameter, and not more than one-sixtieth of their diameter for those larger than 20 inches in diameter, used for a multitude of operations variously known as cutting, cutting off, grooving, slotting, coping, and jointing, and the like. The wheels may be “solid” consisting of organic-bonded abrasive material throughout, “steel centered” consisting of a steel disc with a rim of organic-bonded material moulded around the periphery, or of the “inserted tooth” type consisting of a steel disc with organic-bonded abrasive teeth or inserts mechanically secured around the periphery.

(ii) Belts. All power-driven, flexible, coated bands used for grinding, polishing, or buffing purposes.

(iii) Branch pipe. The part of an exhaust system piping that is connected directly to the hood or enclosure.

(iv) Cradle. A movable fixture, upon which the part to be ground or polished is placed.

(v) Disc wheels. All power-driven rotatable discs faced with abrasive materials, artificial or natural, and used for grinding or polishing on the side of the assembled disc.

(vi) Entry loss. The loss in static pressure caused by air flowing into a duct or hood. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(vii) Exhaust system. A system consisting of branch pipes connected to hoods or enclosures, one or more header pipes, an exhaust fan, means for separating solid contaminants from the air flowing in the system, and a discharge stack to outside.

(viii) Grinding wheels. All power-driven rotatable grinding or abrasive wheels, except disc wheels as defined in this standard, consisting of abrasive particles held together by artificial or natural bonds and used for peripheral grinding.

(ix) Header pipe (main pipe). A pipe into which one or more branch pipes enter and which connects such branch pipes to the remainder of the exhaust system.

(x) Hoods and enclosures. The partial or complete enclosure around the wheel or disc through which air enters an exhaust system during operation.

(xi) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial, horizontal spindles upon the inside ends of which are mounted abrasive disc wheels used for grinding two surfaces simultaneously.

(xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine carrying an abrasive disc wheel upon one or both ends of a power-driven, rotatable single horizontal spindle.

(xiii) Polishing and buffing wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels composed all or in part of textile fabrics, wood, felt, leather, paper, and may be coated with abrasives on the periphery of the wheel for purposes of polishing, buffing, and light grinding.

(xiv) Portable grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such manner that it may be manually manipulated.

(xv) Scratch brush wheels. All power-driven rotatable wheels made from wire or bristles, and used for scratch cleaning and brushing purposes.

(xvi) Swing-frame grinder. Any power-driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or buffing wheel mounted in such a manner that the wheel with its supporting framework can be manipulated over stationary objects.

(xvii) Velocity pressure (vp). The kinetic pressure in the direction of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. It is usually expressed in inches of water gauge.

(xviii) Vertical spindle disc grinder. A grinding machine having a vertical, rotatable power-driven spindle carrying a horizontal abrasive disc wheel.

(2) Application. Wherever dry grinding, dry polishing or buffing is performed, and employee exposure, without regard to the use of respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limits prescribed in §1910.1000 or other sections of this part, a local exhaust ventilation system shall be provided and used to maintain employee exposures within the prescribed limits.

(3) Hood and branch pipe requirements. (i) Hoods connected to exhaust systems shall be used, and such hoods shall be designed, located, and placed so that the dust or dirt particles shall fall or be projected into the hoods in the direction of the air flow. No wheels, discs, straps, or belts shall be operated in such manner and in such direction as to cause the dust and dirt particles to be thrown into the operator's breathing zone.

(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands, pedestals, benches, and special-purpose grinding machines and abrasive cutting-off wheels shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volumes shown in Table G-4 with a recommended minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per minute in the branch and 3,500 feet per minute in the main. The entry losses from all hoods except the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 velocity pressure for a straight takeoff and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-spindle disc grinder hood is shown in figure G-1 (following §1910.94(b)).

Table G-4—Grinding and Abrasive Cutting-Off Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches)Wheel width (inches)Minimum exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
To 911/2220
Over 9 to 162390
Over 16 to 193500
Over 19 to 244610
Over 24 to 305880
Over 30 to 3661,200

For any wheel wider than wheel diameters shown in Table G-4, increase the exhaust volume by the ratio of the new width to the width shown.

Example: If wheel width=412 inches, then

4.5÷4×610 = 686 (rounded to 690).

(iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all buffing and polishing wheels mounted on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or special-purpose machines shall have not less than the minimum exhaust volume shown in Table G-5.

Table G-5—Buffing and Polishing Wheels

Wheel diameter (inches)Wheel width (inches)Minimum exhaust volume (feet3/min.)
To 92300
Over 9 to 163500
Over 16 to 194610
Over 19 to 245740
Over 24 to 3061,040
Over 30 to 3661,200

(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be hooded to collect the dust or dirt generated by the grinding operation and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-6.

Table G-6—Horizontal Single-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 12220
Over 12 to 19390
Over 19 to 30610
Over 30 to 36880

(v) Grinding wheels or discs for horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood enclosing the grinding chamber and the hood shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-7.

Table G-7—Horizontal Double-Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 19610
Over 19 to 25880
Over 25 to 301,200
Over 30 to 531,770
Over 53 to 726,280

(vi) Grinding wheels or discs for vertical single-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with hoods to remove the dust generated in the operation. The hoods shall be connected to one or more branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-8.

Table G-8—Vertical Spindle Disc Grinder

Disc diameter (inches)One-half or more of disc coveredDisc not covered
Number1Exhaust foot3/min.)Number1Exhaust foot3/min.
Up to 2015002780
Over 20 to 30278021,480
Over 30 to 5321,77043,530
Over 53 to 7223,14056,010

1Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or equal distribution provided by other means.

(vii) Grinding and polishing belts shall be provided with hoods to remove dust and dirt generated in the operations and the hoods shall be connected to branch pipes having exhaust volumes as shown in Table G-9.

Table G-9—Grinding and Polishing Belts

Belts width (inches)Exhaust volume (ft.3/min.)
Up to 3220
Over 3 to 5300
Over 5 to 7390
Over 7 to 9500
Over 9 to 11610
Over 11 to 13740

(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grinders. Where cradles are used for handling the parts to be ground, polished, or buffed, requiring large partial enclosures to house the complete operation, a minimum average air velocity of 150 feet per minute shall be maintained over the entire opening of the enclosure. Swing-frame grinders shall also be exhausted in the same manner as provided for cradles. (See fig. G-3)

(ix) Where the work is outside the hood, air volumes must be increased as shown in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960 (section 4, exhaust hoods).

(4) Exhaust systems. (i) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations should be designed in accordance with American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding, polishing, and buffing operations shall be tested in the manner described in American Standard Fundamentals Governing the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1960.

(iii) All exhaust systems shall be provided with suitable dust collectors.

(5) Hood and enclosure design. (i)(a) It is the dual function of grinding and abrasive cutting-off wheel hoods to protect the operator from the hazards of bursting wheels, as well as to provide a means for the removal of dust and dirt generated. All hoods shall be not less in structural strength than specified in Tables O-1 and O-9 of §1910.215.

(b) Due to the variety of work and types of grinding machines employed, it is necessary to develop hoods adaptable to the particular machine in question, and such hoods shall be located as close as possible to the operation.

(ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands, pedestals, and bench grinders shall be designed in accordance with figure G-2. The adjustable tongue shown in the figure shall be kept in working order and shall be adjusted within one-fourth inch of the wheel periphery at all times.

(iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be provided with exhaust booths as indicated in figure G-3.

(iv) Portable grinding operations, whenever the nature of the work permits, shall be conducted within a partial enclosure. The opening in the enclosure shall be no larger than is actually required in the operation and an average face air velocity of not less than 200 feet per minute shall be maintained.

(v) Hoods for polishing and buffing and scratch-brush wheels shall be constructed to conform as closely to figure G-4 as the nature of the work will permit.

(vi) Cradle grinding and polishing operations shall be performed within a partial enclosure similar to figure G-5. The operator shall be positioned outside the working face of the opening of the enclosure. The face opening of the enclosure should not be any greater in area than that actually required for the performance of the operation and the average air velocity into the working face of the enclosure shall not be less than 150 feet per minute.

(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spindle disc grinders shall be constructed to conform as closely as possible to the hood shown in figure G-6. It is essential that there be a space between the back of the wheel and the hood, and a space around the periphery of the wheel of at least 1 inch in order to permit the suction to act around the wheel periphery. The opening on the side of the disc shall be no larger than is required for the grinding operation, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlet.

(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc grinders shall have a hood encircling the wheels and grinding chamber similar to that illustrated in figure G-7. The openings for passing the work into the grinding chamber should be kept as small as possible, but must never be less than twice the area of the branch outlets.

(ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders shall be encircled with a hood so constructed that the heavy dust is drawn off a surface of the disc and the lighter dust exhausted through a continuous slot at the top of the hood as shown in figure G-1.

(x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods shall be constructed as close to the operation as possible. The hood should extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch wide openings should be provided on either side. Figure G-8 shows a typical hood for a belt operation.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.015.gif

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Dia D. inchesExhaust EVolume Exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft3/minNote
Min.Max.No PipesDia.
20141/4500When one-half or more of the disc can be hooded, use exhaust ducts as shown at the left.
Over 203024780
Over 3072261,770
Over 5372283,140
2024780When no hood can be used over disc, use exhaust ducts as shown at left.
Over 202024780
Over 3030251/21,480
Over 5353463,530
   72576,010

Entry loss=1.0 slot velocity pressure + 0.5 branch velocity pressure.

Minimum slot velocity=2,000 ft/min—1/2-inch slot width.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.016.gif

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Wheel dimension, inchesExhaust outlet, inches EVolume of air at 4,500 ft/min
DiameterWidth, Max
Min=dMax=D
   911/23220
Over 91624390
Over 1619341/2500
Over 192445610
Over 243056880
Over 3036671,200

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.

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Standard Buffing and Polishing Hood

Wheel dimension, inchesExhaust outlet, inches EVolume of air at 4,500 ft/min
DiameterWidth, Max
Min=dMax=D
   9231/2300
Over 91634500
Over 161945610
Over 1924551/2740
Over 2430661/21.040
Over 3036671.200

Entry loss = 0.15 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.

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Dia D, inchesExhaust E, dia. inchesVolume exhausted at 4,500 ft/min ft3/min
Min.Max.
   123220
Over 12194390
Over 19305610
Over 30366880

Note: If grinding wheels are used for disc grinding purposes, hoods must conform to structural strength and materials as described in 9.1.

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.

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Disc dia. inchesExhaust EVolume exhaust at 4,500 ft/min. ft3/minNote
Min.Max.No PipesDia.
   1915610
Over 192516880When width “W” permits, exhaust ducts should be as near heaviest grinding as possible.
Over 2530171,200
Over 3053261,770
Over 5372486,280

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.

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Belt width W. InchesExhaust volume. ft.1/min
Up to 3220
3 to 5300
5 to 7390
7 to 9500
9 to 11610
11 to 13740

Minimum duct velocity = 4,500 ft/min branch, 3,500 ft/min main.

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.

(6) Scope. This paragraph (b), prescribes the use of exhaust hood enclosures and systems in removing dust, dirt, fumes, and gases generated through the grinding, polishing, or buffing of ferrous and nonferrous metals.

(c) Spray finishing operations—(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph—(i) Spray-finishing operations. Spray-finishing operations are employment of methods wherein organic or inorganic materials are utilized in dispersed form for deposit on surfaces to be coated, treated, or cleaned. Such methods of deposit may involve either automatic, manual, or electrostatic deposition but do not include metal spraying or metallizing, dipping, flow coating, roller coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or spray washing and degreasing as conducted in self-contained washing and degreasing machines or systems.

(ii) Spray booth. Spray booths are defined and described in §1910.107(a).

(iii) Spray room. A spray room is a room in which spray-finishing operations not conducted in a spray booth are performed separately from other areas.

(iv) Minimum maintained velocity. Minimum maintained velocity is the velocity of air movement which must be maintained in order to meet minimum specified requirements for health and safety.

(2) Location and application. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all operations. Spray-finishing operations shall be located as provided in sections 201 through 206 of the Standard for Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33-1969.

(3) Design and construction of spray booths. (i) Spray booths shall be designed and constructed in accordance with §1910.107(b)(1) through (b)(4) and (b)(6) through (b)(10). For a more detailed discussion of fundamentals relating to this subject, see ANSI Z9.2-1960, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(a) Lights, motors, electrical equipment, and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of §1910.107(b)(10) and (c).

(b) In no case shall combustible material be used in the construction of a spray booth and supply or exhaust duct connected to it.

(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not be less than 612 feet high and shall be maintained clear of obstruction from any work location in the booth to a booth exit or open booth front. In booths where the open front is the only exit, such exits shall be not less than 3 feet wide. In booths having multiple exits, such exits shall not be less than 2 feet wide, provided that the maximum distance from the work location to the exit is 25 feet or less. Where booth exits are provided with doors, such doors shall open outward from the booth.

(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and dry-type overspray collectors shall conform to the requirements of §1910.107(b)(4) and (b)(5).

(a) Overspray filters shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the requirements of §1910.107(b)(5), and shall only be in a location easily accessible for inspection, cleaning, or replacement.

(b) Where effective means, independent of the overspray filters, are installed which will result in design air distribution across the booth cross section, it is permissible to operate the booth without the filters in place.

(iv) (a) For wet or water-wash spray booths, the water-chamber enclosure, within which intimate contact of contaminated air and cleaning water or other cleaning medium is maintained, if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or heavier and adequately protected against corrosion.

(b) Chambers may include scrubber spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or other devices. Chambers shall be provided with adequate means for creating and maintaining scrubbing action for removal of particulate matter from the exhaust air stream.

(v) Collecting tanks shall be of welded steel construction or other suitable non-combustible material. If pits are used as collecting tanks, they shall be concrete, masonry, or other material having similar properties.

(a) Tanks shall be provided with weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to prevent sludge and floating paint from entering the pump suction box. Means for automatically maintaining the proper water level shall also be provided. Fresh water inlets shall not be submerged. They shall terminate at least one pipe diameter above the safety overflow level of the tank.

(b) Tanks shall be so constructed as to discourage accumulation of hazardous deposits.

(vi) Pump manifolds, risers, and headers shall be adequately sized to insure sufficient water flow to provide efficient operation of the water chamber.

(4) Design and construction of spray rooms. (i) Spray rooms, including floors, shall be constructed of masonry, concrete, or other noncombustible material.

(ii) Spray rooms shall have noncombustible fire doors and shutters.

(iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately ventilated so that the atmosphere in the breathing zone of the operator shall be maintained in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of this section.

(iv) Spray rooms used for production spray-finishing operations shall conform to the requirements for spray booths.

(5) Ventilation. (i) Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with provisions of §1910.107(d), and in accordance with the following:

(a) Where a fan plenum is used to equalize or control the distribution of exhaust air movement through the booth, it shall be of sufficient strength or rigidity to withstand the differential air pressure or other superficially imposed loads for which the equipment is designed and also to facilitate cleaning. Construction specifications shall be at least equivalent to those of paragraph (c)(5)(iii) of this section.

(b) [Reserved]

(ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to transport makeup air to spray booths or surrounding areas shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(a) If negative pressure exists within inlet ductwork, all seams and joints shall be sealed if there is a possibility of infiltration of harmful quantities of noxious gases, fumes, or mists from areas through which ductwork passes.

(b) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in accordance with volume flow requirements and provide design air requirements at the spray booth.

(c) Inlet ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain at least its own weight plus any negative pressure which is exerted upon it under normal operating conditions.

(iii)(a) Exhaust ductwork shall be adequately supported throughout its length to sustain its weight plus any normal accumulation in interior during normal operating conditions and any negative pressure exerted upon it.

(b) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized in accordance with good design practice which shall include consideration of fan capacity, length of duct, number of turns and elbows, variation in size, volume, and character of materials being exhausted. See American National Standard Z9.2-1960 for further details and explanation concerning elements of design.

(c) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel ductwork shall be either lock-seamed, riveted, or welded. For other than steel construction, equivalent securing of joints shall be provided.

(d) Circumferential joints in ductwork shall be substantially fastened together and lapped in the direction of airflow. At least every fourth joint shall be provided with connecting flanges, bolted together, or of equivalent fastening security.

(e) Inspection or clean-out doors shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet of running length for ducts up to 12 inches in diameter, but the distance between cleanout doors may be greater for larger pipes. A clean-out door or doors shall be provided for servicing the fan, and where necessary, a drain shall be provided.

(f) Where ductwork passes through a combustible roof or wall, the roof or wall shall be protected at the point of penetration by open space or fire-resistive material between the duct and the roof or wall. When ducts pass through firewalls, they shall be provided with automatic fire dampers on both sides of the wall, except that three-eighth-inch steel plates may be used in lieu of automatic fire dampers for ducts not exceeding 18 inches in diameter.

(g) Ductwork used for ventilating any process covered in this standard shall not be connected to ducts ventilating any other process or any chimney or flue used for conveying any products of combustion.

(6) Velocity and air flow requirements. (i) Except where a spray booth has an adequate air replacement system, the velocity of air into all openings of a spray booth shall be not less than that specified in Table G-10 for the operating conditions specified. An adequate air replacement system is one which introduces replacement air upstream or above the object being sprayed and is so designed that the velocity of air in the booth cross section is not less than that specified in Table G-10 when measured upstream or above the object being sprayed.

Table G-10—Minimum Maintained Velocities Into Spray Booths

Operating conditions for objects completely inside boothCrossdraft, f.p.m.Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
DesignRange
Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth without operatorNegligible50 large booth50-75
   100 small booth75-125
Air-operated guns, manual or automaticUp to 50100 large booth75-125
   150 small booth125-175
Air-operated guns, manual or automaticUp to 100150 large booth125-175
   200 small booth150-250

Notes:

   (1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray booth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of the booth to its height and width.

   (2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design should be sought. Crossdrafts in excess of 100fpm (feet per minute) should not be permitted.

   (3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material waste in addition to creating a backlash that may carry overspray and fumes into adjacent work areas.

   (4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed “Design.” However, booths operating with velocities shown in the column headed “Range” are in compliance with this standard.

(ii) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (c)(6)(i) of this section the total air volume exhausted through a spray booth shall be such as to dilute solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of the lower explosive limit of the solvent being sprayed. An example of the method of calculating this volume is given below.

Example: To determine the lower explosive limits of the most common solvents used in spray finishing, see Table G-11. Column 1 gives the number of cubic feet of vapor per gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by volume of air. Note that the quantity of solvent will be diminished by the quantity of solids and nonflammables contained in the finish.

To determine the volume of air in cubic feet necessary to dilute the vapor from 1 gallon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower explosive limit, apply the following formula:

Dilution volume required per gallon of solvent = 4 (100−LEL) (cubic feet of vapor per gallon)÷ LEL

Using toluene as the solvent.

(1) LEL of toluene from Table G-11, column 2, is 1.4 percent.

(2) Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from Table G-11, column 1, is 30.4 cubic feet per gallon.

(3) Dilution volume required=

4 (100−1.4) 30.4÷ 1.4 = 8,564 cubic feet.

(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of required ventilation, multiply the dilution volume required per gallon of solvent by the number of gallons of solvent evaporated per minute.

Table G-11—Lower Explosive Limit of Some Commonly Used Solvents

SolventCubic feet per gallon of vapor of liquid at 70 °F.Lower explosive limit in percent by volume of air at 70 °F
   Column 1Column 2
Acetone44.02.6
Amyl Acetate (iso)21.611.0
Amyl Alcohol (n)29.61.2
Amyl Alcohol (iso)29.61.2
Benzene36.811.4
Butyl Acetate (n)24.81.7
Butyl Alcohol (n)35.21.4
Butyl Cellosolve24.81.1
Cellosolve33.61.8
Cellosolve Acetate23.21.7
Cyclohexanone31.211.1
1,1 Dichloroethylene42.45.9
1,2 Dichloroethylene42.49.7
Ethyl Acetate32.82.5
Ethyl Alcohol55.24.3
Ethyl Lactate28.011.5
Methyl Acetate40.03.1
Methyl Alcohol80.87.3
Methyl Cellosolve40.82.5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone36.01.8
Methyl n-Propyl Ketone30.41.5
Naphtha (VM&P) (76° Naphtha)22.40.9
Naphtha (100 °Flash) Safety Solvent—Stoddard Solvent23.21.0
Propyl Acetate (n)27.22.8
Propyl Acetate (iso)28.01.1
Propyl Alcohol (n)44.82.1
Propyl Alcohol (iso)44.02.0
Toluene30.41.4
Turpentine20.80.8
Xylene (o)26.41.0

1At 212 °F.

(iii)(a) When an operator is in a booth downstream from the object being sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or other type of respirator must be used by employees that has been approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for the material being sprayed.

(b) Where downdraft booths are provided with doors, such doors shall be closed when spray painting.

(7) Make-up air. (i) Clean fresh air, free of contamination from adjacent industrial exhaust systems, chimneys, stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to a spray booth or room in quantities equal to the volume of air exhausted through the spray booth.

(ii) Where a spray booth or room receives make-up air through self-closing doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall be fully open at all times when the booth or room is in use for spraying. The velocity of air through such doors, dampers, or louvers shall not exceed 200 feet per minute. If the fan characteristics are such that the required air flow through the booth will be provided, higher velocities through the doors, dampers, or louvers may be used.

(iii)(a) Where the air supply to a spray booth or room is filtered, the fan static pressure shall be calculated on the assumption that the filters are dirty to the extent that they require cleaning or replacement.

(b) The rating of filters shall be governed by test data supplied by the manufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage shall be installed to show the pressure drop across the filters. This gage shall be marked to show the pressure drop at which the filters require cleaning or replacement. Filters shall be replaced or cleaned whenever the pressure drop across them becomes excessive or whenever the air flow through the face of the booth falls below that specified in Table G-10.

(iv)(a) Means for heating make-up air to any spray booth or room, before or at the time spraying is normally performed, shall be provided in all places where the outdoor temperature may be expected to remain below 55 °F. for appreciable periods of time during the operation of the booth except where adequate and safe means of radiant heating for all operating personnel affected is provided. The replacement air during the heating seasons shall be maintained at not less than 65 °F. at the point of entry into the spray booth or spray room. When otherwise unheated make-up air would be at a temperature of more than 10 °F. below room temperature, its temperature shall be regulated as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI Z9.2-1960.

(b) As an alternative to an air replacement system complying with the preceding section, general heating of the building in which the spray room or booth is located may be employed provided that all occupied parts of the building are maintained at not less than 65 °F. when the exhaust system is in operation or the general heating system supplemented by other sources of heat may be employed to meet this requirement.

(c) No means of heating make-up air shall be located in a spray booth.

(d) Where make-up air is heated by coal or oil, the products of combustion shall not be allowed to mix with the make-up air, and the products of combustion shall be conducted outside the building through a flue terminating at a point remote from all points where make-up air enters the building.

(e) Where make-up air is heated by gas, and the products of combustion are not mixed with the make-up air but are conducted through an independent flue to a point outside the building remote from all points where make-up air enters the building, it is not necessary to comply with paragraph (c)(7)(iv)(f) of this section.

(f) Where make-up air to any manually operated spray booth or room is heated by gas and the products of combustion are allowed to mix with the supply air, the following precautions must be taken:

(1) The gas must have a distinctive and strong enough odor to warn workmen in a spray booth or room of its presence if in an unburned state in the make-up air.

(2) The maximum rate of gas supply to the make-up air heater burners must not exceed that which would yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000 p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the mixture if the unburned gas upon the occurrence of flame failure were mixed with all of the make-up air supplied.

(3) A fan must be provided to deliver the mixture of heated air and products of combustion from the plenum chamber housing the gas burners to the spray booth or room.

(8) Scope. Spray booths or spray rooms are to be used to enclose or confine all spray finishing operations covered by this paragraph (c). This paragraph does not apply to the spraying of the exteriors of buildings, fixed tanks, or similar structures, nor to small portable spraying apparatus not used repeatedly in the same location.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 23073, May 28, 1975; 40 FR 24522, June 9, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 58 FR 35308, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996; 63 FR 1269, Jan. 8, 1998; 64 FR 13909, Mar. 23, 1999; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007; 74 FR 46356, Sept. 9, 2009]

§1910.95   Occupational noise exposure.

(a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in Table G-16 when measured on the A scale of a standard sound level meter at slow response. When noise levels are determined by octave band analysis, the equivalent A-weighted sound level may be determined as follows:

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.023.gif

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Figure G-9

Equivalent sound level contours. Octave band sound pressure levels may be converted to the equivalent A-weighted sound level by plotting them on this graph and noting the A-weighted sound level corresponding to the point of highest penetration into the sound level contours. This equivalent A-weighted sound level, which may differ from the actual A-weighted sound level of the noise, is used to determine exposure limits from Table 1.G-16.

(b)(1) When employees are subjected to sound exceeding those listed in Table G-16, feasible administrative or engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of Table G-16, personal protective equipment shall be provided and used to reduce sound levels within the levels of the table.

(2) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or less, it is to be considered continuous.

Table G-16—Permissible Noise Exposures1

Duration per day, hoursSound level dBA slow response
890
692
495
397
2100
11/2102
1105
1/2110
1/4 or less115

1When the daily noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise exposure of different levels, their combined effect should be considered, rather than the individual effect of each. If the sum of the following fractions: C1/T1+C2/T2Cn/Tn exceeds unity, then, the mixed exposure should be considered to exceed the limit value. Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specified noise level, and Tn indicates the total time of exposure permitted at that level.

Exposure to impulsive or impact noise should not exceed 140 dB peak sound pressure level.

(c) Hearing conservation program. (1) The employer shall administer a continuing, effective hearing conservation program, as described in paragraphs (c) through (o) of this section, whenever employee noise exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA) of 85 decibels measured on the A scale (slow response) or, equivalently, a dose of fifty percent. For purposes of the hearing conservation program, employee noise exposures shall be computed in accordance with appendix A and Table G-16a, and without regard to any attenuation provided by the use of personal protective equipment.

(2) For purposes of paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section, an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or a dose of fifty percent shall also be referred to as the action level.

(d) Monitoring. (1) When information indicates that any employee's exposure may equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels, the employer shall develop and implement a monitoring program.

(i) The sampling strategy shall be designed to identify employees for inclusion in the hearing conservation program and to enable the proper selection of hearing protectors.

(ii) Where circumstances such as high worker mobility, significant variations in sound level, or a significant component of impulse noise make area monitoring generally inappropriate, the employer shall use representative personal sampling to comply with the monitoring requirements of this paragraph unless the employer can show that area sampling produces equivalent results.

(2)(i) All continuous, intermittent and impulsive sound levels from 80 decibels to 130 decibels shall be integrated into the noise measurements.

(ii) Instruments used to measure employee noise exposure shall be calibrated to ensure measurement accuracy.

(3) Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment or controls increases noise exposures to the extent that:

(i) Additional employees may be exposed at or above the action level; or

(ii) The attenuation provided by hearing protectors being used by employees may be rendered inadequate to meet the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section.

(e) Employee notification. The employer shall notify each employee exposed at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels of the results of the monitoring.

(f) Observation of monitoring. The employer shall provide affected employees or their representatives with an opportunity to observe any noise measurements conducted pursuant to this section.

(g) Audiometric testing program. (1) The employer shall establish and maintain an audiometric testing program as provided in this paragraph by making audiometric testing available to all employees whose exposures equal or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels.

(2) The program shall be provided at no cost to employees.

(3) Audiometric tests shall be performed by a licensed or certified audiologist, otolaryngologist, or other physician, or by a technician who is certified by the Council of Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation, or who has satisfactorily demonstrated competence in administering audiometric examinations, obtaining valid audiograms, and properly using, maintaining and checking calibration and proper functioning of the audiometers being used. A technician who operates microprocessor audiometers does not need to be certified. A technician who performs audiometric tests must be responsible to an audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician.

(4) All audiograms obtained pursuant to this section shall meet the requirements of appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.

(5) Baseline audiogram. (i) Within 6 months of an employee's first exposure at or above the action level, the employer shall establish a valid baseline audiogram against which subsequent audiograms can be compared.

(ii) Mobile test van exception. Where mobile test vans are used to meet the audiometric testing obligation, the employer shall obtain a valid baseline audiogram within 1 year of an employee's first exposure at or above the action level. Where baseline audiograms are obtained more than 6 months after the employee's first exposure at or above the action level, employees shall wearing hearing protectors for any period exceeding six months after first exposure until the baseline audiogram is obtained.

(iii) Testing to establish a baseline audiogram shall be preceded by at least 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise. Hearing protectors may be used as a substitute for the requirement that baseline audiograms be preceded by 14 hours without exposure to workplace noise.

(iv) The employer shall notify employees of the need to avoid high levels of non-occupational noise exposure during the 14-hour period immediately preceding the audiometric examination.

(6) Annual audiogram. At least annually after obtaining the baseline audiogram, the employer shall obtain a new audiogram for each employee exposed at or above an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels.

(7) Evaluation of audiogram. (i) Each employee's annual audiogram shall be compared to that employee's baseline audiogram to determine if the audiogram is valid and if a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred. This comparison may be done by a technician.

(ii) If the annual audiogram shows that an employee has suffered a standard threshold shift, the employer may obtain a retest within 30 days and consider the results of the retest as the annual audiogram.

(iii) The audiologist, otolaryngologist, or physician shall review problem audiograms and shall determine whether there is a need for further evaluation. The employer shall provide to the person performing this evaluation the following information:

(A) A copy of the requirements for hearing conservation as set forth in paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section;

(B) The baseline audiogram and most recent audiogram of the employee to be evaluated;

(C) Measurements of background sound pressure levels in the audiometric test room as required in appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.

(D) Records of audiometer calibrations required by paragraph (h)(5) of this section.

(8) Follow-up procedures. (i) If a comparison of the annual audiogram to the baseline audiogram indicates a standard threshold shift as defined in paragraph (g)(10) of this section has occurred, the employee shall be informed of this fact in writing, within 21 days of the determination.

(ii) Unless a physician determines that the standard threshold shift is not work related or aggravated by occupational noise exposure, the employer shall ensure that the following steps are taken when a standard threshold shift occurs:

(A) Employees not using hearing protectors shall be fitted with hearing protectors, trained in their use and care, and required to use them.

(B) Employees already using hearing protectors shall be refitted and retrained in the use of hearing protectors and provided with hearing protectors offering greater attenuation if necessary.

(C) The employee shall be referred for a clinical audiological evaluation or an otological examination, as appropriate, if additional testing is necessary or if the employer suspects that a medical pathology of the ear is caused or aggravated by the wearing of hearing protectors.

(D) The employee is informed of the need for an otological examination if a medical pathology of the ear that is unrelated to the use of hearing protectors is suspected.

(iii) If subsequent audiometric testing of an employee whose exposure to noise is less than an 8-hour TWA of 90 decibels indicates that a standard threshold shift is not persistent, the employer:

(A) Shall inform the employee of the new audiometric interpretation; and

(B) May discontinue the required use of hearing protectors for that employee.

(9) Revised baseline. An annual audiogram may be substituted for the baseline audiogram when, in the judgment of the audiologist, otolaryngologist or physician who is evaluating the audiogram:

(i) The standard threshold shift revealed by the audiogram is persistent; or

(ii) The hearing threshold shown in the annual audiogram indicates significant improvement over the baseline audiogram.

(10) Standard threshold shift. (i) As used in this section, a standard threshold shift is a change in hearing threshold relative to the baseline audiogram of an average of 10 dB or more at 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz in either ear.

(ii) In determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred, allowance may be made for the contribution of aging (presbycusis) to the change in hearing level by correcting the annual audiogram according to the procedure described in appendix F: Calculation and Application of Age Correction to Audiograms.

(h) Audiometric test requirements. (1) Audiometric tests shall be pure tone, air conduction, hearing threshold examinations, with test frequencies including as a minimum 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz. Tests at each frequency shall be taken separately for each ear.

(2) Audiometric tests shall be conducted with audiometers (including microprocessor audiometers) that meet the specifications of, and are maintained and used in accordance with, American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(3) Pulsed-tone and self-recording audiometers, if used, shall meet the requirements specified in appendix C: Audiometric Measuring Instruments.

(4) Audiometric examinations shall be administered in a room meeting the requirements listed in appendix D: Audiometric Test Rooms.

(5) Audiometer calibration. (i) The functional operation of the audiometer shall be checked before each day's use by testing a person with known, stable hearing thresholds, and by listening to the audiometer's output to make sure that the output is free from distorted or unwanted sounds. Deviations of 10 decibels or greater require an acoustic calibration.

(ii) Audiometer calibration shall be checked acoustically at least annually in accordance with appendix E: Acoustic Calibration of Audiometers. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this check. Deviations of 15 decibels or greater require an exhaustive calibration.

(iii) An exhaustive calibration shall be performed at least every two years in accordance with sections 4.1.2; 4.1.3.; 4.1.4.3; 4.2; 4.4.1; 4.4.2; 4.4.3; and 4.5 of the American National Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969. Test frequencies below 500 Hz and above 6000 Hz may be omitted from this calibration.

(i) Hearing protectors. (1) Employers shall make hearing protectors available to all employees exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater at no cost to the employees. Hearing protectors shall be replaced as necessary.

(2) Employers shall ensure that hearing protectors are worn:

(i) By an employee who is required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section to wear personal protective equipment; and

(ii) By any employee who is exposed to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or greater, and who:

(A) Has not yet had a baseline audiogram established pursuant to paragraph (g)(5)(ii); or

(B) Has experienced a standard threshold shift.

(3) Employees shall be given the opportunity to select their hearing protectors from a variety of suitable hearing protectors provided by the employer.

(4) The employer shall provide training in the use and care of all hearing protectors provided to employees.

(5) The employer shall ensure proper initial fitting and supervise the correct use of all hearing protectors.

(j) Hearing protector attenuation. (1) The employer shall evaluate hearing protector attenuation for the specific noise environments in which the protector will be used. The employer shall use one of the evaluation methods described in appendix B: Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protection Attenuation.

(2) Hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure at least to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 90 decibels as required by paragraph (b) of this section.

(3) For employees who have experienced a standard threshold shift, hearing protectors must attenuate employee exposure to an 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels or below.

(4) The adequacy of hearing protector attenuation shall be re-evaluated whenever employee noise exposures increase to the extent that the hearing protectors provided may no longer provide adequate attenuation. The employer shall provide more effective hearing protectors where necessary.

(k) Training program. (1) The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to noise at or above an 8-hour time weighted average of 85 decibels in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.

(2) The training program shall be repeated annually for each employee included in the hearing conservation program. Information provided in the training program shall be updated to be consistent with changes in protective equipment and work processes.

(3) The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the following:

(i) The effects of noise on hearing;

(ii) The purpose of hearing protectors, the advantages, disadvantages, and attenuation of various types, and instructions on selection, fitting, use, and care; and

(iii) The purpose of audiometric testing, and an explanation of the test procedures.

(l) Access to information and training materials. (1) The employer shall make available to affected employees or their representatives copies of this standard and shall also post a copy in the workplace.

(2) The employer shall provide to affected employees any informational materials pertaining to the standard that are supplied to the employer by the Assistant Secretary.

(3) The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials related to the employer's training and education program pertaining to this standard to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.

(m) Recordkeeping—(1) Exposure measurements. The employer shall maintain an accurate record of all employee exposure measurements required by paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) Audiometric tests. (i) The employer shall retain all employee audiometric test records obtained pursuant to paragraph (g) of this section:

(ii) This record shall include:

(A) Name and job classification of the employee;

(B) Date of the audiogram;

(C) The examiner's name;

(D) Date of the last acoustic or exhaustive calibration of the audiometer; and

(E) Employee's most recent noise exposure assessment.

(F) The employer shall maintain accurate records of the measurements of the background sound pressure levels in audiometric test rooms.

(3) Record retention. The employer shall retain records required in this paragraph (m) for at least the following periods.

(i) Noise exposure measurement records shall be retained for two years.

(ii) Audiometric test records shall be retained for the duration of the affected employee's employment.

(4) Access to records. All records required by this section shall be provided upon request to employees, former employees, representatives designated by the individual employee, and the Assistant Secretary. The provisions of 29 CFR 1910.1020 (a)-(e) and (g)-(i) apply to access to records under this section.

(5) Transfer of records. If the employer ceases to do business, the employer shall transfer to the successor employer all records required to be maintained by this section, and the successor employer shall retain them for the remainder of the period prescribed in paragraph (m)(3) of this section.

(n) Appendices. (1) Appendices A, B, C, D, and E to this section are incorporated as part of this section and the contents of these appendices are mandatory.

(2) Appendices F and G to this section are informational and are not intended to create any additional obligations not otherwise imposed or to detract from any existing obligations.

(o) Exemptions. Paragraphs (c) through (n) of this section shall not apply to employers engaged in oil and gas well drilling and servicing operations.

Appendix A to §1910.95—Noise Exposure Computation

This appendix is Mandatory

I. Computation of Employee Noise Exposure

(1) Noise dose is computed using Table G-16a as follows:

(i) When the sound level, L, is constant over the entire work shift, the noise dose, D, in percent, is given by: D=100 C/T where C is the total length of the work day, in hours, and T is the reference duration corresponding to the measured sound level, L, as given in Table G-16a or by the formula shown as a footnote to that table.

(ii) When the workshift noise exposure is composed of two or more periods of noise at different levels, the total noise dose over the work day is given by:

D=100(C1/T1+C2/T2+Cn/Tn),

where Cn indicates the total time of exposure at a specific noise level, and Tn indicates the reference duration for that level as given by Table G-16a.

(2) The eight-hour time-weighted average sound level (TWA), in decibels, may be computed from the dose, in percent, by means of the formula: TWA=16.61 log10 (D/100)+90. For an eight-hour workshift with the noise level constant over the entire shift, the TWA is equal to the measured sound level.

(3) A table relating dose and TWA is given in Section II.

Table G-16a

A-weighted sound level, L (decibel)Reference duration, T (hour)
8032
8127.9
8224.3
8321.1
8418.4
8516
8613.9
8712.1
8810.6
899.2
908
917.0
926.1
935.3
944.6
954
963.5
973.0
982.6
992.3
1002
1011.7
1021.5
1031.3
1041.1
1051
1060.87
1070.76
1080.66
1090.57
1100.5
1110.44
1120.38
1130.33
1140.29
1150.25
1160.22
1170.19
1180.16
1190.14
1200.125
1210.11
1220.095
1230.082
1240.072
1250.063
1260.054
1270.047
1280.041
1290.036
1300.031

In the above table the reference duration, T, is computed by

eCFR graphic er25se06.008.gif

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where L is the measured A-weighted sound level.

II. Conversion Between “Dose” and “8-Hour Time-Weighted Average” Sound Level

Compliance with paragraphs (c)-(r) of this regulation is determined by the amount of exposure to noise in the workplace. The amount of such exposure is usually measured with an audiodosimeter which gives a readout in terms of “dose.” In order to better understand the requirements of the amendment, dosimeter readings can be converted to an “8-hour time-weighted average sound level.” (TWA).

In order to convert the reading of a dosimeter into TWA, see Table A-1, below. This table applies to dosimeters that are set by the manufacturer to calculate dose or percent exposure according to the relationships in Table G-16a. So, for example, a dose of 91 percent over an eight hour day results in a TWA of 89.3 dB, and, a dose of 50 percent corresponds to a TWA of 85 dB.

If the dose as read on the dosimeter is less than or greater than the values found in Table A-1, the TWA may be calculated by using the formula: TWA=16.61 log10 (D/100)+90 where TWA=8-hour time-weighted average sound level and D=accumulated dose in percent exposure.

Table A-1—Conversion From “Percent Noise Exposure” or “Dose” to “8-Hour Time-Weighted Average Sound Level” (TWA)

Dose or percent noise exposureTWA
1073.4
1576.3
2078.4
2580.0
3081.3
3582.4
4083.4
4584.2
5085.0
5585.7
6086.3
6586.9
7087.4
7587.9
8088.4
8188.5
8288.6
8388.7
8488.7
8588.8
8688.9
8789.0
8889.1
8989.2
9089.2
9189.3
9289.4
9389.5
9489.6
9589.6
9689.7
9789.8
9889.9
9989.9
10090.0
10190.1
10290.1
10390.2
10490.3
10590.4
10690.4
10790.5
10890.6
10990.6
11090.7
11190.8
11290.8
11390.9
11490.9
11591.1
11691.1
11791.1
11891.2
11991.3
12091.3
12591.6
13091.9
13592.2
14092.4
14592.7
15092.9
15593.2
16093.4
16593.6
17093.8
17594.0
18094.2
18594.4
19094.6
19594.8
20095.0
21095.4
22095.7
23096.0
24096.3
25096.6
26096.9
27097.2
28097.4
29097.7
30097.9
31098.2
32098.4
33098.6
34098.8
35099.0
36099.2
37099.4
38099.6
39099.8
400100.0
410100.2
420100.4
430100.5
440100.7
450100.8
460101.0
470101.2
480101.3
490101.5
500101.6
510101.8
520101.9
530102.0
540102.2
550102.3
560102.4
570102.6
580102.7
590102.8
600102.9
610103.0
620103.2
630103.3
640103.4
650103.5
660103.6
670103.7
680103.8
690103.9
700104.0
710104.1
720104.2
730104.3
740104.4
750104.5
760104.6
770104.7
780104.8
790104.9
800105.0
810105.1
820105.2
830105.3
840105.4
850105.4
860105.5
870105.6
880105.7
890105.8
900105.8
910105.9
920106.0
930106.1
940106.2
950106.2
960106.3
970106.4
980106.5
990106.5
999106.6

Appendix B to §1910.95—Methods for Estimating the Adequacy of Hearing Protector Attenuation

This appendix is Mandatory

For employees who have experienced a significant threshold shift, hearing protector attenuation must be sufficient to reduce employee exposure to a TWA of 85 dB. Employers must select one of the following methods by which to estimate the adequacy of hearing protector attenuation.

The most convenient method is the Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). According to EPA regulation, the NRR must be shown on the hearing protector package. The NRR is then related to an individual worker's noise environment in order to assess the adequacy of the attenuation of a given hearing protector. This appendix describes four methods of using the NRR to determine whether a particular hearing protector provides adequate protection within a given exposure environment. Selection among the four procedures is dependent upon the employer's noise measuring instruments.

Instead of using the NRR, employers may evaluate the adequacy of hearing protector attenuation by using one of the three methods developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which are described in the “List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data,” HEW Publication No. 76-120, 1975, pages 21-37. These methods are known as NIOSH methods #1B1, #1B2 and #1B3. The NRR described below is a simplification of NIOSH method #1B2. The most complex method is NIOSH method #1B1, which is probably the most accurate method since it uses the largest amount of spectral information from the individual employee's noise environment. As in the case of the NRR method described below, if one of the NIOSH methods is used, the selected method must be applied to an individual's noise environment to assess the adequacy of the attenuation. Employers should be careful to take a sufficient number of measurements in order to achieve a representative sample for each time segment.

Note: The employer must remember that calculated attenuation values reflect realistic values only to the extent that the protectors are properly fitted and worn.

When using the NRR to assess hearing protector adequacy, one of the following methods must be used:

(i) When using a dosimeter that is capable of C-weighted measurements:

(A) Obtain the employee's C-weighted dose for the entire workshift, and convert to TWA (see appendix A, II).

(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.

(ii) When using a dosimeter that is not capable of C-weighted measurements, the following method may be used:

(A) Convert the A-weighted dose to TWA (see appendix A).

(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR.

(C) Subtract the remainder from the A-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.

(iii) When using a sound level meter set to the A-weighting network:

(A) Obtain the employee's A-weighted TWA.

(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR, and subtract the remainder from the A-weighted TWA to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.

(iv) When using a sound level meter set on the C-weighting network:

(A) Obtain a representative sample of the C-weighted sound levels in the employee's environment.

(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted average sound level to obtain the estimated A-weighted TWA under the ear protector.

(v) When using area monitoring procedures and a sound level meter set to the A-weighing network.

(A) Obtain a representative sound level for the area in question.

(B) Subtract 7 dB from the NRR and subtract the remainder from the A-weighted sound level for that area.

(vi) When using area monitoring procedures and a sound level meter set to the C-weighting network:

(A) Obtain a representative sound level for the area in question.

(B) Subtract the NRR from the C-weighted sound level for that area.

Appendix C to §1910.95—Audiometric Measuring Instruments

This appendix is Mandatory

1. In the event that pulsed-tone audiometers are used, they shall have a tone on-time of at least 200 milliseconds.

2. Self-recording audiometers shall comply with the following requirements:

(A) The chart upon which the audiogram is traced shall have lines at positions corresponding to all multiples of 10 dB hearing level within the intensity range spanned by the audiometer. The lines shall be equally spaced and shall be separated by at least 14 inch. Additional increments are optional. The audiogram pen tracings shall not exceed 2 dB in width.

(B) It shall be possible to set the stylus manually at the 10-dB increment lines for calibration purposes.

(C) The slewing rate for the audiometer attenuator shall not be more than 6 dB/sec except that an initial slewing rate greater than 6 dB/sec is permitted at the beginning of each new test frequency, but only until the second subject response.

(D) The audiometer shall remain at each required test frequency for 30 seconds (±3 seconds). The audiogram shall be clearly marked at each change of frequency and the actual frequency change of the audiometer shall not deviate from the frequency boundaries marked on the audiogram by more than ±3 seconds.

(E) It must be possible at each test frequency to place a horizontal line segment parallel to the time axis on the audiogram, such that the audiometric tracing crosses the line segment at least six times at that test frequency. At each test frequency the threshold shall be the average of the midpoints of the tracing excursions.

Appendix D to §1910.95—Audiometric Test Rooms

This appendix is Mandatory

Rooms used for audiometric testing shall not have background sound pressure levels exceeding those in Table D-1 when measured by equipment conforming at least to the Type 2 requirements of American National Standard Specification for Sound Level Meters, S1.4-1971 (R1976), and to the Class II requirements of American National Standard Specification for Octave, Half-Octave, and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets, S1.11-1971 (R1976).

Table D-1—Maximum Allowable Octave-Band Sound Pressure Levels for Audiometric Test Rooms

Octave-band center frequency (Hz)5001000200040008000
Sound pressure level (dB)4040475762

Appendix E to §1910.95—Acoustic Calibration of Audiometers

This appendix is Mandatory

Audiometer calibration shall be checked acoustically, at least annually, according to the procedures described in this appendix. The equipment necessary to perform these measurements is a sound level meter, octave-band filter set, and a National Bureau of Standards 9A coupler. In making these measurements, the accuracy of the calibrating equipment shall be sufficient to determine that the audiometer is within the tolerances permitted by American Standard Specification for Audiometers, S3.6-1969.

(1) Sound Pressure Output Check

A. Place the earphone coupler over the microphone of the sound level meter and place the earphone on the coupler.

B. Set the audiometer's hearing threshold level (HTL) dial to 70 dB.

C. Measure the sound pressure level of the tones at each test frequency from 500 Hz through 6000 Hz for each earphone.

D. At each frequency the readout on the sound level meter should correspond to the levels in Table E-1 or Table E-2, as appropriate, for the type of earphone, in the column entitled “sound level meter reading.”

(2) Linearity Check

A. With the earphone in place, set the frequency to 1000 Hz and the HTL dial on the audiometer to 70 dB.

B. Measure the sound levels in the coupler at each 10-dB decrement from 70 dB to 10 dB, noting the sound level meter reading at each setting.

C. For each 10-dB decrement on the audiometer the sound level meter should indicate a corresponding 10 dB decrease.

D. This measurement may be made electrically with a voltmeter connected to the earphone terminals.

(3) Tolerances

When any of the measured sound levels deviate from the levels in Table E-1 or Table E-2 by ±3 dB at any test frequency between 500 and 3000 Hz, 4 dB at 4000 Hz, or 5 dB at 6000 Hz, an exhaustive calibration is advised. An exhaustive calibration is required if the deviations are greater than 15 dB or greater at any test frequency.

Table E-1—Reference Threshold Levels for Telephonics—TDH-39 Earphones

Frequency, HzReference threshold level for TDH-39 earphones, dBSound level meter reading, dB
50011.581.5
1000777
2000979
30001080
40009.579.5
600015.585.5

Table E-2—Reference Threshold Levels for Telephonics—TDH-49 Earphones

Frequency, HzReference threshold level for TDH-49 earphones, dBSound level meter reading, dB
50013.583.5
10007.577.5
20001181.0
30009.579.5
400010.580.5
600013.583.5

Appendix F to §1910.95—Calculations and Application of Age Corrections to Audiograms

This appendix Is Non-Mandatory

In determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred, allowance may be made for the contribution of aging to the change in hearing level by adjusting the most recent audiogram. If the employer chooses to adjust the audiogram, the employer shall follow the procedure described below. This procedure and the age correction tables were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in the criteria document entitled “Criteria for a Recommended Standard .  .  . Occupational Exposure to Noise,” ((HSM)-11001).

For each audiometric test frequency;

(i) Determine from Tables F-1 or F-2 the age correction values for the employee by:

(A) Finding the age at which the most recent audiogram was taken and recording the corresponding values of age corrections at 1000 Hz through 6000 Hz;

(B) Finding the age at which the baseline audiogram was taken and recording the corresponding values of age corrections at 1000 Hz through 6000 Hz.

(ii) Subtract the values found in step (i)(B) from the value found in step (i)(A).

(iii) The differences calculated in step (ii) represented that portion of the change in hearing that may be due to aging.

Example: Employee is a 32-year-old male. The audiometric history for his right ear is shown in decibels below.
Employee's ageAudiometric test frequency (Hz)
10002000300040006000
261055105
*2700055
28000105
29505155
3005102010
31510201515
*32510102520

The audiogram at age 27 is considered the baseline since it shows the best hearing threshold levels. Asterisks have been used to identify the baseline and most recent audiogram. A threshold shift of 20 dB exists at 4000 Hz between the audiograms taken at ages 27 and 32.

(The threshold shift is computed by subtracting the hearing threshold at age 27, which was 5, from the hearing threshold at age 32, which is 25). A retest audiogram has confirmed this shift. The contribution of aging to this change in hearing may be estimated in the following manner:

Go to Table F-1 and find the age correction values (in dB) for 4000 Hz at age 27 and age 32.

  Frequency (Hz)
10002000300040006000
Age 326571014
Age 27546711
Difference11133

The difference represents the amount of hearing loss that may be attributed to aging in the time period between the baseline audiogram and the most recent audiogram. In this example, the difference at 4000 Hz is 3 dB. This value is subtracted from the hearing level at 4000 Hz, which in the most recent audiogram is 25, yielding 22 after adjustment. Then the hearing threshold in the baseline audiogram at 4000 Hz (5) is subtracted from the adjusted annual audiogram hearing threshold at 4000 Hz (22). Thus the age-corrected threshold shift would be 17 dB (as opposed to a threshold shift of 20 dB without age correction).

Table F-1—Age Correction Values in Decibels for Males

YearsAudiometric Test Frequencies (Hz)
10002000300040006000
20 or younger53458
2153458
2253458
2353469
2453569
25535710
26545710
27546711
28646811
29646812
30646912
31647913
326571014
336571014
346581115
357581115
367591216
377691217
387691317
3976101418
4076101419
4176101420
4287111620
4387121621
4487121722
4587131823
4688131924
4788141924
4898142025
4999152126
5099162227
5199162328
52910172429
53910182530
541010182631
551011192732
561011202834
571011212935
581012223136
591112223237
60 or older1113233338

Table F-2—Age Correction Values in Decibels for Females

YearsAudiometric Test Frequencies (Hz)
10002000300040006000
20 or younger74336
2174436
2274446
2375447
2475447
2585447
2685548
2785558
2885558
2985559
3086559
3186659
32966610
33966610
34966610
35967711
36977711
37977712
381077712
391078812
401078813
411088813
421089913
431189914
441189914
45118101015
46119101015
47119101116
48129111116
49129111116
501210111217
511210121217
521210121318
531310131318
541311131419
551311141419
561311141520
571311151520
581412151621
591412161621
60 or older1412161722

Appendix G to §1910.95—Monitoring Noise Levels Non-Mandatory Informational Appendix

This appendix provides information to help employers comply with the noise monitoring obligations that are part of the hearing conservation amendment.

What is the purpose of noise monitoring?

This revised amendment requires that employees be placed in a hearing conservation program if they are exposed to average noise levels of 85 dB or greater during an 8 hour workday. In order to determine if exposures are at or above this level, it may be necessary to measure or monitor the actual noise levels in the workplace and to estimate the noise exposure or “dose” received by employees during the workday.

When is it necessary to implement a noise monitoring program?

It is not necessary for every employer to measure workplace noise. Noise monitoring or measuring must be conducted only when exposures are at or above 85 dB. Factors which suggest that noise exposures in the workplace may be at this level include employee complaints about the loudness of noise, indications that employees are losing their hearing, or noisy conditions which make normal conversation difficult. The employer should also consider any information available regarding noise emitted from specific machines. In addition, actual workplace noise measurements can suggest whether or not a monitoring program should be initiated.

How is noise measured?

Basically, there are two different instruments to measure noise exposures: the sound level meter and the dosimeter. A sound level meter is a device that measures the intensity of sound at a given moment. Since sound level meters provide a measure of sound intensity at only one point in time, it is generally necessary to take a number of measurements at different times during the day to estimate noise exposure over a workday. If noise levels fluctuate, the amount of time noise remains at each of the various measured levels must be determined.

To estimate employee noise exposures with a sound level meter it is also generally necessary to take several measurements at different locations within the workplace. After appropriate sound level meter readings are obtained, people sometimes draw “maps” of the sound levels within different areas of the workplace. By using a sound level “map” and information on employee locations throughout the day, estimates of individual exposure levels can be developed. This measurement method is generally referred to as area noise monitoring.

A dosimeter is like a sound level meter except that it stores sound level measurements and integrates these measurements over time, providing an average noise exposure reading for a given period of time, such as an 8-hour workday. With a dosimeter, a microphone is attached to the employee's clothing and the exposure measurement is simply read at the end of the desired time period. A reader may be used to read-out the dosimeter's measurements. Since the dosimeter is worn by the employee, it measures noise levels in those locations in which the employee travels. A sound level meter can also be positioned within the immediate vicinity of the exposed worker to obtain an individual exposure estimate. Such procedures are generally referred to as personal noise monitoring.

Area monitoring can be used to estimate noise exposure when the noise levels are relatively constant and employees are not mobile. In workplaces where employees move about in different areas or where the noise intensity tends to fluctuate over time, noise exposure is generally more accurately estimated by the personal monitoring approach.

In situations where personal monitoring is appropriate, proper positioning of the microphone is necessary to obtain accurate measurements. With a dosimeter, the microphone is generally located on the shoulder and remains in that position for the entire workday. With a sound level meter, the microphone is stationed near the employee's head, and the instrument is usually held by an individual who follows the employee as he or she moves about.

Manufacturer's instructions, contained in dosimeter and sound level meter operating manuals, should be followed for calibration and maintenance. To ensure accurate results, it is considered good professional practice to calibrate instruments before and after each use.

How often is it necessary to monitor noise levels?

The amendment requires that when there are significant changes in machinery or production processes that may result in increased noise levels, remonitoring must be conducted to determine whether additional employees need to be included in the hearing conservation program. Many companies choose to remonitor periodically (once every year or two) to ensure that all exposed employees are included in their hearing conservation programs.

Where can equipment and technical advice be obtained?

Noise monitoring equipment may be either purchased or rented. Sound level meters cost about $500 to $1,000, while dosimeters range in price from about $750 to $1,500. Smaller companies may find it more economical to rent equipment rather than to purchase it. Names of equipment suppliers may be found in the telephone book (Yellow Pages) under headings such as: “Safety Equipment,” “Industrial Hygiene,” or “Engineers-Acoustical.” In addition to providing information on obtaining noise monitoring equipment, many companies and individuals included under such listings can provide professional advice on how to conduct a valid noise monitoring program. Some audiological testing firms and industrial hygiene firms also provide noise monitoring services. Universities with audiology, industrial hygiene, or acoustical engineering departments may also provide information or may be able to help employers meet their obligations under this amendment.

Free, on-site assistance may be obtained from OSHA-supported state and private consultation organizations. These safety and health consultative entities generally give priority to the needs of small businesses.

Appendix H to §1910.95—Availability of Referenced Documents

Paragraphs (c) through (o) of 29 CFR 1910.95 and the accompanying appendices contain provisions which incorporate publications by reference. Generally, the publications provide criteria for instruments to be used in monitoring and audiometric testing. These criteria are intended to be mandatory when so indicated in the applicable paragraphs of §1910.95 and appendices.

It should be noted that OSHA does not require that employers purchase a copy of the referenced publications. Employers, however, may desire to obtain a copy of the referenced publications for their own information.

The designation of the paragraph of the standard in which the referenced publications appear, the titles of the publications, and the availability of the publications are as follows:

Paragraph designationReferenced publicationAvailable from—
Appendix B“List of Personal Hearing Protectors and Attenuation Data,” HEW Pub. No. 76-120, 1975. NTIS-PB267461National Technical Information Service, Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.
Appendix D“Specification for Sound Level Meters,” S1.4-1971 (R1976)American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
§1910.95(k)(2), appendix E“Specifications for Audiometers,” S3.6-1969American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.
Appendix D“Specification for Octave, Half-Octave and Third-Octave Band Filter Sets,” S1.11-1971 (R1976)Back Numbers Department, Dept. STD, American Institute of Physics, 333 E. 45th St., New York, NY 10017; American National Standards Institute, Inc., 1430 Broadway, New York, NY 10018.

The referenced publications (or a microfiche of the publications) are available for review at many universities and public libraries throughout the country. These publications may also be examined at the OSHA Technical Data Center, Room N2439, United States Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210, (202) 219-7500 or at any OSHA Regional Office (see telephone directories under United States Government—Labor Department).

Appendix I to §1910.95—Definitions

These definitions apply to the following terms as used in paragraphs (c) through (n) of 29 CFR 1910.95.

Action level—An 8-hour time-weighted average of 85 decibels measured on the A-scale, slow response, or equivalently, a dose of fifty percent.

Audiogram—A chart, graph, or table resulting from an audiometric test showing an individual's hearing threshold levels as a function of frequency.

Audiologist—A professional, specializing in the study and rehabilitation of hearing, who is certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association or licensed by a state board of examiners.

Baseline audiogram—The audiogram against which future audiograms are compared.

Criterion sound level—A sound level of 90 decibels.

Decibel (dB)—Unit of measurement of sound level.

Hertz (Hz)—Unit of measurement of frequency, numerically equal to cycles per second.

Medical pathology—A disorder or disease. For purposes of this regulation, a condition or disease affecting the ear, which should be treated by a physician specialist.

Noise dose—The ratio, expressed as a percentage, of (1) the time integral, over a stated time or event, of the 0.6 power of the measured SLOW exponential time-averaged, squared A-weighted sound pressure and (2) the product of the criterion duration (8 hours) and the 0.6 power of the squared sound pressure corresponding to the criterion sound level (90 dB).

Noise dosimeter—An instrument that integrates a function of sound pressure over a period of time in such a manner that it directly indicates a noise dose.

Otolaryngologist—A physician specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose and throat.

Representative exposure—Measurements of an employee's noise dose or 8-hour time-weighted average sound level that the employers deem to be representative of the exposures of other employees in the workplace.

Sound level—Ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the square of the measured A-weighted sound pressure to the square of the standard reference pressure of 20 micropascals. Unit: decibels (dB). For use with this regulation, SLOW time response, in accordance with ANSI S1.4-1971 (R1976), is required.

Sound level meter—An instrument for the measurement of sound level.

Time-weighted average sound level—That sound level, which if constant over an 8-hour exposure, would result in the same noise dose as is measured.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 46 FR 4161, Jan. 16, 1981; 46 FR 62845, Dec. 29, 1981; 48 FR 9776, Mar. 8, 1983; 48 FR 29687, June 28, 1983; 54 FR 24333, June 7, 1989; 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996; 71 FR 16672, Apr. 3, 2006; 73 FR 75584, Dec. 12, 2008]

§1910.97   Nonionizing radiation.

(a) Electromagnetic radiation—(1) Definitions applicable to this paragraph. (i) The term electromagnetic radiation is restricted to that portion of the spectrum commonly defined as the radio frequency region, which for the purpose of this specification shall include the microwave frequency region.

(ii) Partial body irradiation. Pertains to the case in which part of the body is exposed to the incident electromagnetic energy.

(iii) Radiation protection guide. Radiation level which should not be exceeded without careful consideration of the reasons for doing so.

(iv) The word “symbol” as used in this specification refers to the overall design, shape, and coloring of the rf radiation sign shown in figure G-11.

(v) Whole body irradiation. Pertains to the case in which the entire body is exposed to the incident electromagnetic energy or in which the cross section of the body is smaller than the cross section of the incident radiation beam.

(2) Radiation protection guide. (i) For normal environmental conditions and for incident electromagnetic energy of frequencies from 10 MHz to 100 GHz, the radiation protection guide is 10 mW/cm.2 (milliwatt per square centimeter) as averaged over any possible 0.1-hour period. This means the following:

Power density: 10 mW./cm.2 for periods of 0.1-hour or more.

Energy density: 1 mW.-hr./cm.2 (milliwatt hour per square centimeter) during any 0.1-hour period.

This guide applies whether the radiation is continuous or intermittent.

(ii) These formulated recommendations pertain to both whole body irradiation and partial body irradiation. Partial body irradiation must be included since it has been shown that some parts of the human body (e.g., eyes, testicles) may be harmed if exposed to incident radiation levels significantly in excess of the recommended levels.

(3) Warning symbol. (i) The warning symbol for radio frequency radiation hazards shall consist of a red isosceles triangle above an inverted black isosceles triangle, separated and outlined by an aluminum color border. The words “Warning—Radio-Frequency Radiation Hazard” shall appear in the upper triangle. See figure G-11.

(ii) ANSI Z53.1-1967 or ANSI Z535.1-2006(R2011), incorporated by reference in §1910.6, is for use for color specification. All lettering and the border shall be of aluminum color.

(iii) The inclusion and choice of warning information or precautionary instructions is at the discretion of the user. If such information is included it shall appear in the lower triangle of the warning symbol.

eCFR graphic ec27oc91.024.gif

View or download PDF

Figure G-11—Radio-Frequency Radiation Hazard Warning Symbol

(4) Scope. This section applies to all radiations originating from radio stations, radar equipment, and other possible sources of electromagnetic radiation such as used for communication, radio navigation, and industrial and scientific purposes. This section does not apply to the deliberate exposure of patients by, or under the direction of, practitioners of the healing arts.

(b) [Reserved]

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996; 78 FR 35566, June 13, 2013]

§1910.98   Effective dates.

(a) The provisions of this subpart G shall become effective on August 27, 1971, except as provided in the remaining paragraphs of this section.

(b) The following provisions shall become effective on February 15, 1972:

§1910.94 (a)(2)(iii), (a)(3), (a)(4), (b), (c)(2), (c)(3), (c)(4), (c)(5), (c)(6)(i), (c)(6)(ii), (d)(1)(ii), (d)(3), (d)(4), (d)(5), and (d)(7).

(c) Notwithstanding anything in paragraph (a), (b), or (d) of this section, any provision in any other section of this subpart which contains in itself a specific effective date or time limitation shall become effective on such date or shall apply in accordance with such limitation.

(d) Notwithstanding anything in paragraph (a) of this section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by reference in §50-204.2(a)(1), is or becomes applicable at any time to any employment and place of employment, by virtue of the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act, or the Service Contract Act of 1965, or the National Foundation on Arts and Humanities Act of 1965, any corresponding established Federal standard in this subpart G which is derived from 41 CFR part 50-204 shall also become effective, and shall be applicable to such employment and place of employment, on the same date.

Subpart H—Hazardous Materials

Authority: Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), 9-83 (48 FR 35736), 1-90 (55 FR 9033), 6-96 (62 FR 111), 3-2000 (65 FR 50017), or 5-2007 (72 FR 31159), 4-2010 (75 FR 55355) or 1-2012 (77 FR 3912), as applicable; and 29 CFR part 1911.

Sections 1910.103, 1910.106 through 1910.111, and 1910.119, 1910.120, and 1910.122 through 1910.126 also issued under 29 CFR part 1911.

Section 1910.119 also issued under Section 304, Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Pub. L. 101-549), reprinted at 29 U.S.C.A. 655 Note.

Section 1910.120 also issued under Section 126, Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 as amended (29 U.S.C.A. 655 Note), and 5 U.S.C. 553.

§1910.101   Compressed gases (general requirements).

(a) Inspection of compressed gas cylinders. Each employer shall determine that compressed gas cylinders under his control are in a safe condition to the extent that this can be determined by visual inspection. Visual and other inspections shall be conducted as prescribed in the Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR parts 171-179 and 14 CFR part 103). Where those regulations are not applicable, visual and other inspections shall be conducted in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets C-6-1968 and C-8-1962, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(b) Compressed gases. The in-plant handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks shall be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet P-1-1965, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(c) Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers. Compressed gas cylinders, portable tanks, and cargo tanks shall have pressure relief devices installed and maintained in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlets S-1.1-1963 and 1965 addenda and S-1.2-1963, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9236, Mar. 7, 1996]

§1910.102   Acetylene.

(a) Cylinders. Employers must ensure that the in-plant transfer, handling, storage, and use of acetylene in cylinders comply with the provisions of CGA Pamphlet G-1-2009 (“Acetylene”) (incorporated by reference, see §1910.6).

(b) Piped systems. (1) Employers must comply with Chapter 9 (“Acetylene Piping”) of NFPA 51A-2006 (“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection Association, 2006 ed., 2006).

(2) When employers can demonstrate that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were installed prior to February 16, 2006, these employers may comply with the provisions of Chapter 7 (“Acetylene Piping”) of NFPA 51A-2001 (“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection Association, 2001 ed., 2001).

(3) The provisions of §1910.102(b)(2) also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were approved for construction or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and installed on or after that date.

(4) For additional information on acetylene piping systems, see CGA G-1.2-2006, part 3 (“Acetylene piping”) (Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 3rd ed., 2006).

(c) Generators and filling cylinders. (1) Employers must ensure that facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2006 (“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection Association, 2006 ed., 2006).

(2) When employers can demonstrate that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene or to charge (fill) of acetylene cylinders were constructed or installed prior to February 16, 2006, these employers may comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2001 (“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection Association, 2001 ed., 2001).

(3) The provisions of §1910.102(c)(2) also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations were approved for construction or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and installed on or after that date.

[74 FR 40447, Aug. 11, 2009, as amended at 76 FR 75786, Dec. 5, 2011]

§1910.103   Hydrogen.

(a) General—(1) Definitions. As used in this section (i) Gaseous hydrogen system is one in which the hydrogen is delivered, stored and discharged in the gaseous form to consumer's piping. The system includes stationary or movable containers, pressure regulators, safety relief devices, manifolds, interconnecting piping and controls. The system terminates at the point where hydrogen at service pressure first enters the consumer's distribution piping.

(ii) Approved—Means, unless otherwise indicated, listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(iii) Listed—See “approved”.

(iv) ASME—American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

(v) DOT Specifications—Regulations of the Department of Transportation published in 49 CFR Chapter I.

(vi) DOT regulations—See §1910.103 (a)(1)(v).

(2) Scope—(i) Gaseous hydrogen systems. (a) Paragraph (b) of this section applies to the installation of gaseous hydrogen systems on consumer premises where the hydrogen supply to the consumer premises originates outside the consumer premises and is delivered by mobile equipment.

(b) Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to gaseous hydrogen systems having a total hydrogen content of less than 400 cubic feet, nor to hydrogen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the hydrogen supplier or his agent for the purpose of storing hydrogen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars.

(ii) Liquefied hydrogen systems. (a) Paragraph (c) of this section applies to the installation of liquefied hydrogen systems on consumer premises.

(b) Paragraph (c) of this section does not apply to liquefied hydrogen portable containers of less than 150 liters (39.63 gallons) capacity; nor to liquefied hydrogen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the hydrogen supplier or his agent for the sole purpose of storing liquefied hydrogen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars.

(b) Gaseous hydrogen systems—(1) Design—(i) Containers. (a) Hydrogen containers shall comply with one of the following:

(1) Designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(2) Designed, constructed, tested and maintained in accordance with U.S. Department of Transportation Specifications and Regulations.

(b) Permanently installed containers shall be provided with substantial noncombustible supports on firm noncombustible foundations.

(c) Each portable container shall be legibly marked with the name “Hydrogen” in accordance with the marking requirements set forth in §1910.253(b)(1)(ii). Each manifolded hydrogen supply unit shall be legibly marked with the name “Hydrogen” or a legend such as “This unit contains hydrogen.”

(ii) Safety relief devices. (a) Hydrogen containers shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII Unfired Pressure Vessels, 1968 or the DOT Specifications and Regulations under which the container is fabricated.

(b) Safety relief devices shall be arranged to discharge upward and unobstructed to the open air in such a manner as to prevent any impingement of escaping gas upon the container, adjacent structure or personnel. This requirement does not apply to DOT Specification containers having an internal volume of 2 cubic feet or less.

(c) Safety relief devices or vent piping shall be designed or located so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.

(iii) Piping, tubing, and fittings. (a) Piping, tubing, and fittings shall be suitable for hydrogen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved. Cast iron pipe and fittings shall not be used.

(b) Piping and tubing shall conform to section 2—“Industrial Gas and Air Piping”—Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.1-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(c) Joints in piping and tubing may be made by welding or brazing or by use of flanged, threaded, socket, or compression fittings. Gaskets and thread sealants shall be suitable for hydrogen service.

(iv) Equipment assembly. (a) Valves, gauges, regulators, and other accessories shall be suitable for hydrogen service.

(b) Installation of hydrogen systems shall be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices with reference to their construction and use.

(c) Storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories shall be readily accessible, and shall be protected against physical damage and against tampering.

(d) Cabinets or housings containing hydrogen control or operating equipment shall be adequately ventilated.

(e) Each mobile hydrogen supply unit used as part of a hydrogen system shall be adequately secured to prevent movement.

(f) Mobile hydrogen supply units shall be electrically bonded to the system before discharging hydrogen.

(v) Marking. The hydrogen storage location shall be permanently placarded as follows: “HYDROGEN—FLAMMABLE GAS—NO SMOKING—NO OPEN FLAMES,” or equivalent.

(vi) Testing. After installations, all piping, tubing, and fittings shall be tested and proved hydrogen gas tight at maximum operating pressure.

(2) Location—(i) General. (a) The system shall be located so that it is readily accessible to delivery equipment and to authorized personnel.

(b) Systems shall be located above ground.

(c) Systems shall not be located beneath electric power lines.

(d) Systems shall not be located close to flammable liquid piping or piping of other flammable gases.

(e) Systems near aboveground flammable liquid storage shall be located on ground higher than the flammable liquid storage except when dikes, diversion curbs, grading, or separating solid walls are used to prevent accumulation of flammable liquids under the system.

(ii) Specific requirements. (a) The location of a system, as determined by the maximum total contained volume of hydrogen, shall be in the order of preference as indicated by Roman numerals in Table H-1.

Table H-1

Nature of locationSize of hydrogen system
Less than 3,000 CF3,000 CF to 15,000 CFIn excess of 15,000 CF
OutdoorsIIDI.
In a separate buildingIIIIII.
In a special roomIIIIIINot permitted.
Inside buildings not in a special room and exposed to other occupanciesIVNot permittedNot permitted.

(b) The minimum distance in feet from a hydrogen system of indicated capacity located outdoors, in separate buildings or in special rooms to any specified outdoor exposure shall be in accordance with Table H-2.

(c) The distances in Table H-2 Items 1 and 3 to 10 inclusive do not apply where protective structures such as adequate fire walls are located between the system and the exposure.

Table H-2

Type of outdoor exposureSize of hydrogen system
      Less than 3,000 CF3,000 CF to 15,000 CFIn excess of 15,000 CF
1. Building or structureWood frame construction1102550
   Heavy timber, noncombustible or ordinary construction1010225
   Fire-resistive construction1000
2. Wall openingsNot above any part of a system101010
   Above any part of a system252525
3. Flammable liquids above ground.0 to 1,000 gallons
In excess of 1,000 gallons
10
25
25
50
25
50
4. Flammable liquids below ground—0 to 1,000 gallonsTank
Vent or fill opening of tank
10
25
10
25
10
25
5. Flammable liquids below ground—in excess of 1,000 gallons.Tank
Vent or fill opening of tank
20
25
20
25
20
25
6. Flammable gas storage, either high pressure or low pressure.0 to 15,000 CF capacity
In excess of 15,000 CF capacity
10
25
25
50
25
50
7. Oxygen storage12,000 CF or less4
   More than 12,000 CF5
8. Fast burning solids such as ordinary lumber, excelsior or paper505050
9. Slow burning solids such as heavy timber or coal252525
10. Open flames and other sources of ignition252525
11. Air compressor intakes or inlets to ventilating or air-conditioning equipment505050
12. Concentration of people3255050

1Refer to NFPA No. 220 Standard Types of Building Construction for definitions of various types of construction. (1969 Ed.)

2But not less than one-half the height of adjacent side wall of the structure.

3In congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time-clock areas.

4Refer to NFPA No. 51, gas systems for welding and cutting (1969).

5Refer to NFPA No. 566, bulk oxygen systems at consumer sites (1969).

(d) Hydrogen systems of less than 3,000 CF when located inside buildings and exposed to other occupancies shall be situated in the building so that the system will be as follows:

(1) In an adequately ventilated area as in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(b) of this section.

(2) Twenty feet from stored flammable materials or oxidizing gases.

(3) Twenty-five feet from open flames, ordinary electrical equipment or other sources of ignition.

(4) Twenty-five feet from concentrations of people.

(5) Fifty feet from intakes of ventilation or air-conditioning equipment and air compressors.

(6) Fifty feet from other flammable gas storage.

(7) Protected against damage or injury due to falling objects or working activity in the area.

(8) More than one system of 3,000 CF or less may be installed in the same room, provided the systems are separated by at least 50 feet. Each such system shall meet all of the requirements of this paragraph.

(3) Design consideration at specific locations—(i) Outdoor locations. (a) Where protective walls or roofs are provided, they shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(b) Where the enclosing sides adjoin each other, the area shall be properly ventilated.

(c) Electrical equipment within 15 feet shall be in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(ii) Separate buildings. (a) Separate buildings shall be built of at least noncombustible construction. Windows and doors shall be located so as to be readily accessible in case of emergency. Windows shall be of glass or plastic in metal frames.

(b) Adequate ventilation to the outdoors shall be provided. Inlet openings shall be located near the floor in exterior walls only. Outlet openings shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or roof. Inlet and outlet openings shall each have minimum total area of one (1) square foot per 1,000 cubic feet of room volume. Discharge from outlet openings shall be directed or conducted to a safe location.

(c) Explosion venting shall be provided in exterior walls or roof only. The venting area shall be equal to not less than 1 square foot per 30 cubic feet of room volume and may consist of any one or any combination of the following: Walls of light, noncombustible material, preferably single thickness, single strength glass; lightly fastened hatch covers; lightly fastened swinging doors in exterior walls opening outward; lightly fastened walls or roof designed to relieve at a maximum pressure of 25 pounds per square foot.

(d) There shall be no sources of ignition from open flames, electrical equipment, or heating equipment.

(e) Electrical equipment shall be in accordance with subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 locations.

(f) Heating, if provided, shall be by steam, hot water, or other indirect means.

(iii) Special rooms. (a) Floor, walls, and ceiling shall have a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours. Walls or partitions shall be continuous from floor to ceiling and shall be securely anchored. At least one wall shall be an exterior wall. Openings to other parts of the building shall not be permitted. Windows and doors shall be in exterior walls and shall be located so as to be readily accessible in case of emergency. Windows shall be of glass or plastic in metal frames.

(b) Ventilation shall be as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(b) of this section.

(c) Explosion venting shall be as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(c) of this section.

(d) There shall be no sources of ignition from open flames, electrical equipment, or heating equipment.

(e) Electric equipment shall be in accordance with the requirements of subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 locations.

(f) Heating, if provided, shall be by steam, hot water, or indirect means.

(4) Operating instructions. For installations which require any operation of equipment by the user, legible instructions shall be maintained at operating locations.

(5) Maintenance. The equipment and functioning of each charged gaseous hydrogen system shall be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. The area within 15 feet of any hydrogen container shall be kept free of dry vegetation and combustible material.

(c) Liquefied hydrogen systems—(1) Design—(i) Containers. (a) Hydrogen containers shall comply with the following: Storage containers shall be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels (1968) or applicable provisions of API Standard 620, Recommended Rules for Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Second Edition (June 1963) and appendix R (April 1965), which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(b) Portable containers shall be designed, constructed and tested in accordance with DOT Specifications and Regulations.

(ii) Supports. Permanently installed containers shall be provided with substantial noncombustible supports securely anchored on firm noncombustible foundations. Steel supports in excess of 18 inches in height shall be protected with a protective coating having a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

(iii) Marking. Each container shall be legibly marked to indicate “LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN—FLAMMABLE GAS.”

(iv) Safety relief devices. (a)(1) Stationary liquefied hydrogen containers shall be equipped with safety relief devices sized in accordance with CGA Pamphlet S-1, part 3, Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(2) Portable liquefied hydrogen containers complying with the U.S. Department of Transportation Regulations shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required in the U.S. Department of Transportation Specifications and Regulations. Safety relief devices shall be sized in accordance with the requirements of CGA Pamphlet S-1, Safety Relief Device Standards, part 1, Compressed Gas Cylinders and part 2, Cargo and Portable Tank Containers.

(b) Safety relief devices shall be arranged to discharge unobstructed to the outdoors and in such a manner as to prevent impingement of escaping liquid or gas upon the container, adjacent structures or personnel. See paragraph (c)(2)(i)(f) of this section for venting of safety relief devices in special locations.

(c) Safety relief devices or vent piping shall be designed or located so that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.

(d) Safety relief devices shall be provided in piping wherever liquefied hydrogen could be trapped between closures.

(v) Piping, tubing, and fittings. (a) Piping, tubing, and fittings and gasket and thread sealants shall be suitable for hydrogen service at the pressures and temperatures involved. Consideration shall be given to the thermal expansion and contraction of piping systems when exposed to temperature fluctuations of ambient to liquefied hydrogen temperatures.

(b) Gaseous hydrogen piping and tubing (above −20 °F.) shall conform to the applicable sections of Pressure Piping section 2—Industrial Gas and Air Piping, ANSI B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.1-1969. Design of liquefied hydrogen or cold (−20 °F. or below) gas piping shall use Petroleum Refinery Piping ANSI B31.3-1966 or Refrigeration Piping ANSI B31.5-1966 with addenda B31.5a-1968 as a guide, which are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(c) Joints in piping and tubing shall preferably be made by welding or brazing; flanged, threaded, socket, or suitable compression fittings may be used.

(d) Means shall be provided to minimize exposure of personnel to piping operating at low temperatures and to prevent air condensate from contacting piping, structural members, and surfaces not suitable for cryogenic temperatures. Only those insulating materials which are rated nonburning in accordance with ASTM Procedures D1692-68, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, may be used. Other protective means may be used to protect personnel. The insulation shall be designed to have a vapor-tight seal in the outer covering to prevent the condensation of air and subsequent oxygen enrichment within the insulation. The insulation material and outside shield shall also be of adequate design to prevent attrition of the insulation due to normal operating conditions.

(e) Uninsulated piping and equipment which operate at liquefied-hydrogen temperature shall not be installed above asphalt surfaces or other combustible materials in order to prevent contact of liquid air with such materials. Drip pans may be installed under uninsulated piping and equipment to retain and vaporize condensed liquid air.

(vi) Equipment assembly. (a) Valves, gauges, regulators, and other accessories shall be suitable for liquefied hydrogen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved.

(b) Installation of liquefied hydrogen systems shall be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices and with reference to their construction and use.

(c) Storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories shall be readily accessible and shall be protected against physical damage and against tampering. A shutoff valve shall be located in liquid product withdrawal lines as close to the container as practical. On containers of over 2,000 gallons capacity, this shutoff valve shall be of the remote control type with no connections, flanges, or other appurtenances (other than a welded manual shutoff valve) allowed in the piping between the shutoff valve and its connection to the inner container.

(d) Cabinets or housings containing hydrogen control equipment shall be ventilated to prevent any accumulation of hydrogen gas.

(vii) Testing. (a) After installation, all field-erected piping shall be tested and proved hydrogen gas-tight at operating pressure and temperature.

(b) Containers if out of service in excess of 1 year shall be inspected and tested as outlined in (a) of this subdivision. The safety relief devices shall be checked to determine if they are operable and properly set.

(viii) Liquefied hydrogen vaporizers. (a) The vaporizer shall be anchored and its connecting piping shall be sufficiently flexible to provide for the effect of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.

(b) The vaporizer and its piping shall be adequately protected on the hydrogen and heating media sections with safety relief devices.

(c) Heat used in a liquefied hydrogen vaporizer shall be indirectly supplied utilizing media such as air, steam, water, or water solutions.

(d) A low temperature shutoff switch shall be provided in the vaporizer discharge piping to prevent flow of liquefied hydrogen in the event of the loss of the heat source.

(ix) Electrical systems. (a) Electrical wiring and equipment located within 3 feet of a point where connections are regularly made and disconnected, shall be in accordance with subpart S of this part, for Class I, Group B, Division 1 locations.

(b) Except as provided in (a) of this subdivision, electrical wiring, and equipment located within 25 feet of a point where connections are regularly made and disconnected or within 25 feet of a liquid hydrogen storage container, shall be in accordance with subpart S of this part, for Class I, Group B, Division 2 locations. When equipment approved for class I, group B atmospheres is not commercially available, the equipment may be—

(1) Purged or ventilated in accordance with NFPA No. 496-1967, Standard for Purged Enclosures for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations,

(2) Intrinsically safe, or

(3) Approved for Class I, Group C atmospheres. This requirement does not apply to electrical equipment which is installed on mobile supply trucks or tank cars from which the storage container is filled.

(x) Bonding and grounding. The liquefied hydrogen container and associated piping shall be electrically bonded and grounded.

(2) Location of liquefied hydrogen storage—(i) General requirements. (a) The storage containers shall be located so that they are readily accessible to mobile supply equipment at ground level and to authorized personnel.

(b) The containers shall not be exposed by electric power lines, flammable liquid lines, flammable gas lines, or lines carrying oxidizing materials.

(c) When locating liquified hydrogen storage containers near above-ground flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, it is advisable to locate the liquefied hydrogen container on ground higher than flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage.

(d) Where it is necessary to locate the liquefied hydrogen container on ground that is level with or lower than adjacent flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, suitable protective means shall be taken (such as by diking, diversion curbs, grading), with respect to the adjacent flammable liquid storage or liquid oxygen storage, to prevent accumulation of liquids within 50 feet of the liquefied hydrogen container.

(e) Storage sites shall be fenced and posted to prevent entrance by unauthorized personnel. Sites shall also be placarded as follows: “Liquefied Hydrogen—Flammable Gas—No Smoking—No Open Flames.”

(f) If liquified hydrogen is located in (as specified in Table H-3) a separate building, in a special room, or inside buildings when not in a special room and exposed to other occupancies, containers shall have the safety relief devices vented unobstructed to the outdoors at a minimum elevation of 25 feet above grade to a safe location as required in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(b) of this section.

(ii) Specific requirements. (a) The location of liquefied hydrogen storage, as determined by the maximum total quantity of liquified hydrogen, shall be in the order of preference as indicated by Roman numerals in the following Table H-3.

Table H-3—Maximum Total Quantity of Liquefied Hydrogen Storage Permitted

Nature of locationSize of hydrogen storage (capacity in gallons)
39.63 (150 liters) to 5051 to 300301 to 600In excess of 600
OutdoorsIIII.
In a separate buildingIIIIIINot permitted.
In a special roomIIIIIINot permitted      Do.
Inside buildings not in a special room and exposed to other occupanciesIVNot permitted......do      Do.

Note: This table does not apply to the storage in dewars of the type generally used in laboratories for experimental purposes.

(b) The minimum distance in feet from liquefied hydrogen systems of indicated storage capacity located outdoors, in a separate building, or in a special room to any specified exposure shall be in accordance with Table H-4.

Table H-4—Minimum Distance (Feet) From Liquefied Hydrogen Systems to Exposure1 2

Type of exposureLiquefied hydrogen storage (capacity in gallons)
39.63 (150 liters) to 3,5003,501 to 15,00015,001 to 30,000
1. Fire-resistive building and fire walls3555
2. Noncombustible building3255075
3. Other buildings35075100
4. Wall openings, air-compressor intakes, inlets for air-conditioning or ventilating equipment757575
5. Flammable liquids (above ground and vent or fill openings if below ground) (see 513 and 514)5075100
6. Between stationary liquefied hydrogen containers555
7. Flammable gas storage5075100
8. Liquid oxygen storage and other oxidizers (see 513 and 514)100100100
9. Combustible solids5075100
10. Open flames, smoking and welding505050
11. Concentrations of people757575

1The distance in Nos. 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12 in Table H-4 may be reduced where protective structures, such as firewalls equal to height of top of the container, to safeguard the liquefied hydrogen storage system, are located between the liquefied hydrogen storage installation and the exposure.

2Where protective structures are provided, ventilation and confinement of product should be considered. The 5-foot distance in Nos. 1 and 6 facilitates maintenance and enhances ventilation.

3Refer to Standard Types of Building Construction, NFPA No. 220-1969 for definitions of various types of construction.

In congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time-clock areas.

(iii) Handling of liquefied hydrogen inside buildings other than separate buildings and special rooms. Portable liquefied hydrogen containers of 50 gallons or less capacity as permitted in Table H-3 and in compliance with subdivision (i)(f) of this subparagraph when housed inside buildings not located in a special room and exposed to other occupancies shall comply with the following minimum requirements:

(a) Be located 20 feet from flammable liquids and readily combustible materials such as excelsior or paper.

(b) Be located 25 feet from ordinary electrical equipment and other sources of ignition including process or analytical equipment.

(c) Be located 25 feet from concentrations of people.

(d) Be located 50 feet from intakes of ventilation and air-conditioning equipment or intakes of compressors.

(e) Be located 50 feet from storage of other flammable-gases or storage of oxidizing gases.

(f) Containers shall be protected against damage or injury due to falling objects or work activity in the area.

(g) Containers shall be firmly secured and stored in an upright position.

(h) Welding or cutting operations, and smoking shall be prohibited while hydrogen is in the room.

(i) The area shall be adequately ventilated. Safety relief devices on the containers shall be vented directly outdoors or to a suitable hood. See paragraphs (c)(1)(iv)(b) and (c)(2)(i)(f) of this section.

(3) Design considerations at specific locations—(i) Outdoor locations. (a) Outdoor location shall mean outside of any building or structure, and includes locations under a weather shelter or canopy provided such locations are not enclosed by more than two walls set at right angles and are provided with vent-space between the walls and vented roof or canopy.

(b) Roadways and yard surfaces located below liquefied hydrogen piping, from which liquid air may drip, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

(c) If protective walls are provided, they shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (c)(3)(i)(a) of this section.

(d) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with paragraph (c)(1)(ix) (a) and (b) of this section.

(e) Adequate lighting shall be provided for nighttime transfer operation.

(ii) Separate buildings. (a) Separate buildings shall be of light noncombustible construction on a substantial frame. Walls and roofs shall be lightly fastened and designed to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 25 pounds per square foot. Windows shall be of shatterproof glass or plastic in metal frames. Doors shall be located in such a manner that they will be readily accessible to personnel in an emergency.

(b) Adequate ventilation to the outdoors shall be provided. Inlet openings shall be located near the floor level in exterior walls only. Outlet openings shall be located at the high point of the room in exterior walls or roof. Both the inlet and outlet vent openings shall have a minimum total area of 1 square foot per 1,000 cubic feet of room volume. Discharge from outlet openings shall be directed or conducted to a safe location.

(c) There shall be no sources of ignition.

(d) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with paragraphs (c)(1)(ix) (a) and (b) of this section except that the provisions of paragraph (c)(1)(ix)(b) of this section shall apply to all electrical wiring and equipment in the separate building.

(e) Heating, if provided, shall be by steam, hot water, or other indirect means.

(iii) Special rooms. (a) Floors, walls, and ceilings shall have a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours. Walls or partitions shall be continuous from floor to ceiling and shall be securely anchored. At least one wall shall be an exterior wall. Openings to other parts of the building shall not be permitted. Windows and doors shall be in exterior walls and doors shall be located in such a manner that they will be accessible in an emergency. Windows shall be of shatterproof glass or plastic in metal frames.

(b) Ventilation shall be as provided in paragraph (c)(3)(ii)(b) of this section.

(c) Explosion venting shall be provided in exterior walls or roof only. The venting area shall be equal to not less than 1 square foot per 30 cubic feet of room volume and may consist of any one or any combination of the following: Walls of light noncombustible material; lightly fastened hatch covers; lightly fastened swinging doors opening outward in exterior walls; lightly fastened walls or roofs designed to relieve at a maximum pressure of 25 pounds per square foot.

(d) There shall be no sources of ignition.

(e) Electrical wiring and equipment shall comply with paragraph (c)(1)(ix) (a) and (b) of this section except that the provision of paragraph (c)(1)(ix)(b) of this section shall apply to all electrical wiring and equipment in the special room.

(f) Heating, if provided, shall be steam, hot water, or by other indirect means.

(4) Operating instructions—(i) Written instructions. For installation which require any operation of equipment by the user, legible instructions shall be maintained at operating locations.

(ii) Attendant. A qualified person shall be in attendance at all times while the mobile hydrogen supply unit is being unloaded.

(iii) Security. Each mobile liquefied hydrogen supply unit used as part of a hydrogen system shall be adequately secured to prevent movement.

(iv) Grounding. The mobile liquefied hydrogen supply unit shall be grounded for static electricity.

(5) Maintenance. The equipment and functioning of each charged liquefied hydrogen system shall be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. Weeds or similar combustibles shall not be permitted within 25 feet of any liquefied hydrogen equipment.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 58 FR 35309, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9236, 9237, Mar. 7, 1996; 69 FR 31881, June 8, 2004; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007]

§1910.104   Oxygen.

(a) Scope. This section applies to the installation of bulk oxygen systems on industrial and institutional consumer premises. This section does not apply to oxygen manufacturing plants or other establishments operated by the oxygen supplier or his agent for the purpose of storing oxygen and refilling portable containers, trailers, mobile supply trucks, or tank cars, nor to systems having capacities less than those stated in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(b) Bulk oxygen systems—(1) Definition. As used in this section: A bulk oxygen system is an assembly of equipment, such as oxygen storage containers, pressure regulators, safety devices, vaporizers, manifolds, and interconnecting piping, which has storage capacity of more than 13,000 cubic feet of oxygen, Normal Temperature and Pressure (NTP), connected in service or ready for service, or more than 25,000 cubic feet of oxygen (NTP) including unconnected reserves on hand at the site. The bulk oxygen system terminates at the point where oxygen at service pressure first enters the supply line. The oxygen containers may be stationary or movable, and the oxygen may be stored as gas or liquid.

(2) Location—(i) General. Bulk oxygen storage systems shall be located above ground out of doors, or shall be installed in a building of noncombustible construction, adequately vented, and used for that purpose exclusively. The location selected shall be such that containers and associated equipment shall not be exposed by electric power lines, flammable or combustible liquid lines, or flammable gas lines.

(ii) Accessibility. The system shall be located so that it is readily accessible to mobile supply equipment at ground level and to authorized personnel.

(iii) Leakage. Where oxygen is stored as a liquid, noncombustible surfacing shall be provided in an area in which any leakage of liquid oxygen might fall during operation of the system and filling of a storage container. For purposes of this paragraph, asphaltic or bituminous paving is considered to be combustible.

(iv) Elevation. When locating bulk oxygen systems near above-ground flammable or combustible liquid storage which may be either indoors or outdoors, it is advisable to locate the system on ground higher than the flammable or combustible liquid storage.

(v) Dikes. Where it is necessary to locate a bulk oxygen system on ground lower than adjacent flammable or combustible liquid storage suitable means shall be taken (such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading) with respect to the adjacent flammable or combustible liquid storage to prevent accumulation of liquids under the bulk oxygen system.

(3) Distance between systems and exposures—(i) General. The minimum distance from any bulk oxygen storage container to exposures, measured in the most direct line except as indicated in paragraphs (b)(3) (vi) and (viii) of this section, shall be as indicated in paragraphs (b)(3) (ii) to (xviii) of this section inclusive.

(ii) Combustible structures. Fifty feet from any combustible structures.

(iii) Fire resistive structures. Twenty-five feet from any structures with fire-resistive exterior walls or sprinklered buildings of other construction, but not less than one-half the height of adjacent side wall of the structure.

(iv) Openings. At least 10 feet from any opening in adjacent walls of fire resistive structures. Spacing from such structures shall be adequate to permit maintenance, but shall not be less than 1 foot.

(v) Flammable liquid storage above-ground.

Distance (feet)Capacity (gallons)
500 to 1000.
901001 or more.

(vi) Flammable liquid storage below-ground.

Distance measured horizontally from oxygen storage container to flammable liquid tank (feet)Distance from oxygen storage container to filling and vent connections or openings to flammable liquid tank (feet)Capacity gallons
15500 to 1000.
30501001 or more.

(vii) Combustible liquid storage above-ground.

Distance (feet)Capacity (gallons)
250 to 1000.
501001 or more.

(viii) Combustible liquid storage belowground.

Distance measured horizontally from oxygen storage container to combustible liquid tank (feet)Distance from oxygen storage container to filling and vent connections or openings to combustible liquid tank (feet)
1540.

(ix) Flammable gas storage. (Such as compressed flammable gases, liquefied flammable gases and flammable gases in low pressure gas holders):

Distance (feet)Capacity (cu. ft. NTP)
50Less than 5000.
905000 or more.

(x) Highly combustible materials. Fifty feet from solid materials which burn rapidly, such as excelsior or paper.

(xi) Slow-burning materials. Twenty-five feet from solid materials which burn slowly, such as coal and heavy timber.

(xii) Ventilation. Seventy-five feet in one direction and 35 feet in approximately 90° direction from confining walls (not including firewalls less than 20 feet high) to provide adequate ventilation in courtyards and similar confining areas.

(xiii) Congested areas. Twenty-five feet from congested areas such as offices, lunchrooms, locker rooms, time clock areas, and similar locations where people may congregate.

(xiv)-(xvii) [Reserved]

(xviii) Exceptions. The distances in paragraphs (b)(3) (ii), (iii), (v) to (xi) inclusive, of this section do not apply where protective structures such as firewalls of adequate height to safeguard the oxygen storage systems are located between the bulk oxygen storage installation and the exposure. In such cases, the bulk oxygen storage installation may be a minimum distance of 1 foot from the firewall.

(4) Storage containers—(i) Foundations and supports. Permanently installed containers shall be provided with substantial noncombustible supports on firm noncombustible foundations.

(ii) Construction—liquid. Liquid oxygen storage containers shall be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6. Containers operating at pressures above 15 pounds per square inch gage (p.s.i.g.) shall be designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968. Insulation surrounding the liquid oxygen container shall be noncombustible.

(iii) Construction—gaseous. High- pressure gaseous oxygen containers shall comply with one of the following:

(a) Designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with appropriate requirements of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968.

(b) Designed, constructed, tested, and maintained in accordance with DOT Specifications and Regulations.

(5) Piping, tubing, and fittings—(i) Selection. Piping, tubing, and fittings shall be suitable for oxygen service and for the pressures and temperatures involved.

(ii) Specification. Piping and tubing shall conform to section 2—Gas and Air Piping Systems of Code for Pressure Piping, ANSI, B31.1-1967 with addenda B31.10a-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(iii) Fabrication. Piping or tubing for operating temperatures below −20 °F. shall be fabricated from materials meeting the impact test requirements of paragraph UG-84 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessels—1968, when tested at the minimum operating temperature to which the piping may be subjected in service.

(6) Safety relief devices—(i) General. Bulk oxygen storage containers, regardless of design pressure shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required by the ASME code or the DOT specifications and regulations.

(ii) DOT containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with DOT specification shall be equipped with safety relief devices as required thereby.

(iii) ASME containers. Bulk oxygen storage containers designed and constructed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII—Unfired Pressure Vessel—1968 shall be equipped with safety relief devices meeting the provisions of the Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet “Safety Relief Device Standards for Compressed Gas Storage Containers,” S-1, part 3, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(iv) Insulation. Insulation casings on liquid oxygen containers shall be equipped with suitable safety relief devices.

(v) Reliability. All safety relief devices shall be so designed or located that moisture cannot collect and freeze in a manner which would interfere with proper operation of the device.

(7) Liquid oxygen vaporizers—(i) Mounts and couplings. The vaporizer shall be anchored and its connecting piping be sufficiently flexible to provide for the effect of expansion and contraction due to temperature changes.

(ii) Relief devices. The vaporizer and its piping shall be adequately protected on the oxygen and heating medium sections with safety relief devices.

(iii) Heating. Heat used in an oxygen vaporizer shall be indirectly supplied only through media such as steam, air, water, or water solutions which do not react with oxygen.

(iv) Grounding. If electric heaters are used to provide the primary source of heat, the vaporizing system shall be electrically grounded.

(8) Equipment assembly and installation—(i) Cleaning. Equipment making up a bulk oxygen system shall be cleaned in order to remove oil, grease or other readily oxidizable materials before placing the system in service.

(ii) Joints. Joints in piping and tubing may be made by welding or by use of flanged, threaded, slip, or compression fittings. Gaskets or thread sealants shall be suitable for oxygen service.

(iii) Accessories. Valves, gages, regulators, and other accessories shall be suitable for oxygen service.

(iv) Installation. Installation of bulk oxygen systems shall be supervised by personnel familiar with proper practices with reference to their construction and use.

(v) Testing. After installation all field erected piping shall be tested and proved gas tight at maximum operating pressure. Any medium used for testing shall be oil free and nonflammable.

(vi) Security. Storage containers, piping, valves, regulating equipment, and other accessories shall be protected against physical damage and against tampering.

(vii) Venting. Any enclosure containing oxygen control or operating equipment shall be adequately vented.

(viii) Placarding. The bulk oxygen storage location shall be permanently placarded to indicate: “OXYGEN—NO SMOKING—NO OPEN FLAMES”, or an equivalent warning.

(ix) Electrical wiring. Bulk oxygen installations are not hazardous locations as defined and covered in subpart S of this part. Therefore, general purpose or weatherproof types of electrical wiring and equipment are acceptable depending upon whether the installation is indoors or outdoors. Such equipment shall be installed in accordance with the applicable provisions of subpart S of this part.

(9) Operating instructions. For installations which require any operation of equipment by the user, legible instructions shall be maintained at operating locations.

(10) Maintenance. The equipment and functioning of each charged bulk oxygen system shall be maintained in a safe operating condition in accordance with the requirements of this section. Wood and long dry grass shall be cut back within 15 feet of any bulk oxygen storage container.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 61 FR 9237, Mar. 7, 1996]

§1910.105   Nitrous oxide.

The piped systems for the in-plant transfer and distribution of nitrous oxide shall be designed, installed, maintained, and operated in accordance with Compressed Gas Association Pamphlet G-8.1-1964, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 61 FR 9237, Mar. 7, 1996]

§1910.106   Flammable liquids.

(a) Definitions. As used in this section:

(1) Aerosol shall mean a material which is dispensed from its container as a mist, spray, or foam by a propellant under pressure.

(2) Atmospheric tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures from atmospheric through 0.5 p.s.i.g.

(3) Automotive service station shall mean that portion of property where flammable liquids used as motor fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles and shall include any facilities available for the sale and service of tires, batteries, and accessories, and for minor automotive maintenance work. Major automotive repairs, painting, body and fender work are excluded.

(4) Basement shall mean a story of a building or structure having one-half or more of its height below ground level and to which access for fire fighting purposes is unduly restricted.

(5) Boiling point shall mean the boiling point of a liquid at a pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (p.s.i.a.) (760 mm.). Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for purposes of this section the 10 percent point of a distillation performed in accordance with the Standard Method of Test for Distillation of Petroleum Products, ASTM D-86-62, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, may be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

(6) Boilover shall mean the expulsion of crude oil (or certain other liquids) from a burning tank. The light fractions of the crude oil burnoff producing a heat wave in the residue, which on reaching a water strata may result in the expulsion of a portion of the contents of the tank in the form of froth.

(7) Bulk plant shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids are received by tank vessel, pipelines, tank car, or tank vehicle, and are stored or blended in bulk for the purpose of distributing such liquids by tank vessel, pipeline, tank car, tank vehicle, or container.

(8) Chemical plant shall mean a large integrated plant or that portion of such a plant other than a refinery or distillery where flammable liquids are produced by chemical reactions or used in chemical reactions.

(9) Closed container shall mean a container as herein defined, so sealed by means of a lid or other device that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures.

(10) Crude petroleum shall mean hydrocarbon mixtures that have a flash point below 150 °F. and which have not been processed in a refinery.

(11) Distillery shall mean a plant or that portion of a plant where flammable liquids produced by fermentation are concentrated, and where the concentrated products may also be mixed, stored, or packaged.

(12) Fire area shall mean an area of a building separated from the remainder of the building by construction having a fire resistance of at least 1 hour and having all communicating openings properly protected by an assembly having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour.

(13) Flammable aerosol shall mean a flammable aerosol as defined by Appendix B to §1910.1200—Physical Hazard Criteria. For the purposes of paragraph (d) of this section, such aerosols are considered Category 1 flammable liquids.

(14) *  *  *

(i) For a liquid which has a viscosity of less than 45 SUS at 100 °F (37.8 °C), does not contain suspended solids, and does not have a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the procedure specified in the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Tag Closed Tester (ASTM D-56-70), which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, or an equivalent test method as defined in Appendix B to §1910.1200—Physical Hazard Criteria, shall be used.

(ii) For a liquid which has a viscosity of 45 SUS or more at 100 °F (37.8 °C), or contains suspended solids, or has a tendency to form a surface film while under test, the Standard Method of Test for Flashpoint by Pensky-Martens Closed Tester (ASTM D-93-71) or an equivalent method as defined by Appendix B to §1910.1200—Physical Hazard Criteria, shall be used except that the methods specified in Note 1 to section 1.1 of ASTM D-93-71 may be used for the respective materials specified in the Note. The preceding ASTM standard is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(iii) For a liquid that is a mixture of compounds that have different volatilities and flashpoints, its flashpoint shall be determined by using the procedure specified in paragraph (a)(14)(i) or (ii) of this section on the liquid in the form it is shipped.

(iv) Organic peroxides, which undergo autoaccelerating thermal decomposition, are excluded from any of the flashpoint determination methods specified in this subparagraph.

(15) Hotel shall mean buildings or groups of buildings under the same management in which there are sleeping accommodations for hire, primarily used by transients who are lodged with or without meals including but not limited to inns, clubs, motels, and apartment hotels.

(16) Institutional occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof by persons harbored or detained to receive medical, charitable or other care or treatment, or by persons involuntarily detained.

(17) Liquid shall mean, for the purpose of this section, any material which has a fluidity greater than that of 300 penetration asphalt when tested in accordance with ASTM Test for Penetration for Bituminous Materials, D-5-65, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(18) [Reserved]

(19) Flammable liquid means any liquid having a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). Flammable liquids are divided into four categories as follows:

(i) Category 1 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point at or below 95 °F (35 °C).

(ii) Category 2 shall include liquids having flashpoints below 73.4 °F (23 °C) and having a boiling point above 95 °F (35 °C).

(iii) Category 3 shall include liquids having flashpoints at or above 73.4 °F (23 °C) and at or below 140 °F (60 °C). When a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C).

(iv) Category 4 shall include liquids having flashpoints above 140 °F (60 °C) and at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C). When a Category 4 flammable liquid is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 3 liquid with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C).

(v) When liquid with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) is heated for use to within 30 °F (16.7 °C) of its flashpoint, it shall be handled in accordance with the requirements for a Category 4 flammable liquid.

(20) Unstable (reactive) liquid shall mean a liquid which in the pure state or as commercially produced or transported will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shocks, pressure, or temperature.

(21) Low-pressure tank shall mean a storage tank which has been designed to operate at pressures above 0.5 p.s.i.g. but not more than 15 p.s.i.g.

(22) Marine service station shall mean that portion of a property where flammable liquids used as fuels are stored and dispensed from fixed equipment on shore, piers, wharves, or floating docks into the fuel tanks of self-propelled craft, and shall include all facilities used in connection therewith.

(23) Mercantile occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the displaying, selling, or buying of goods, wares, or merchandise.

(24) Office occupancy shall mean the occupancy or use of a building or structure or any portion thereof for the transaction of business, or the rendering or receiving of professional services.

(25) Portable tank shall mean a closed container having a liquid capacity over 60 U.S. gallons and not intended for fixed installation.

(26) Pressure vessel shall mean a storage tank or vessel which has been designed to operate at pressures above 15 p.s.i.g.

(27) Protection for exposure shall mean adequate fire protection for structures on property adjacent to tanks, where there are employees of the establishment.

(28) Refinery shall mean a plant in which flammable liquids are produced on a commercial scale from crude petroleum, natural gasoline, or other hydrocarbon sources.

(29) Safety can shall mean an approved container, of not more than 5 gallons capacity, having a spring-closing lid and spout cover and so designed that it will safely relieve internal pressure when subjected to fire exposure.

(30) Vapor pressure shall mean the pressure, measured in pounds per square inch (absolute) exerted by a volatile liquid as determined by the “Standard Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method),” American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D323-68, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.

(31) Ventilation as specified in this section is for the prevention of fire and explosion. It is considered adequate if it is sufficient to prevent accumulation of significant quantities of vapor-air mixtures in concentration over one-fourth of the lower flammable limit.

(32) Storage: Flammable liquids shall be stored in a tank or in a container that complies with paragraph (d)(2) of this section.

(33) Barrel shall mean a volume of 42 U.S. gallons.

(34) Container shall mean any can, barrel, or drum.

(35) Approved unless otherwise indicated, approved, or listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(36) Listed see “approved” in §1910.106(a)(35).

(37) SUS means Saybolt Universal Seconds as determined by the Standard Method of Test for Saybolt Viscosity (ASTM D-88-56), and may be determined by use of the SUS conversion tables specified in ASTM Method D2161-66 following determination of viscosity in accordance with the procedures specified in the Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (ASTM D445-65).

(38) Viscous means a viscosity of 45 SUS or more.

(b) Tank storage—(1) Design and construction of tanks—(i) Materials. (a) Tanks shall be built of steel except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) (b) through (e) of this section.

(b) Tanks may be built of materials other than steel for installation underground or if required by the properties of the liquid stored. Tanks located above ground or inside buildings shall be of noncombustible construction.

(c) Tanks built of materials other than steel shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering design for the material used.

(d) Unlined concrete tanks may be used for storing flammable liquids having a gravity of 40° API or heavier. Concrete tanks with special lining may be used for other services provided the design is in accordance with sound engineering practice.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) Special engineering consideration shall be required if the specific gravity of the liquid to be stored exceeds that of water or if the tanks are designed to contain flammable liquids at a liquid temperature below 0 °F.

(ii) Fabrication. (a) [Reserved]

(b) Metal tanks shall be welded, riveted, and caulked, brazed, or bolted, or constructed by use of a combination of these methods. Filler metal used in brazing shall be nonferrous metal or an alloy having a melting point above 1000 °F. and below that of the metal joined.

(iii) Atmospheric tanks. (a) Atmospheric tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable good standards of design. Atmospheric tanks may be built in accordance with the following consensus standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6:

(1) Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., Subjects No. 142, Standard for Steel Aboveground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, 1968; No. 58, Standard for Steel Underground Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Fifth Edition, December 1961; or No. 80, Standard for Steel Inside Tanks for Oil-Burner Fuel, September 1963.

(2) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 650, Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, Third Edition, 1966.

(3) American Petroleum Institute Standards No. 12B, Specification for Bolted Production Tanks, Eleventh Edition, May 1958, and Supplement 1, March 1962; No. 12D, Specification for Large Welded Production Tanks, Seventh Edition, August 1957; or No. 12F, Specification for Small Welded Production Tanks, Fifth Edition, March 1961. Tanks built in accordance with these standards shall be used only as production tanks for storage of crude petroleum in oil-producing areas.

(b) Tanks designed for underground service not exceeding 2,500 gallons capacity may be used aboveground.

(c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels may be used as atmospheric tanks.

(d) Atmospheric tanks shall not be used for the storage of a flammable liquid at a temperature at or above its boiling point.

(iv) Low pressure tanks. (a) The normal operating pressure of the tank shall not exceed the design pressure of the tank.

(b) Low-pressure tanks shall be built in accordance with acceptable standards of design. Low-pressure tanks may be built in accordance with the following consensus standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6:

(1) American Petroleum Institute Standard No. 620. Recommended Rules for the Design and Construction of Large, Welded, Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, Third Edition, 1966.

(2) The principles of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code, 1968.

(c) Atmospheric tanks built according to Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., requirements in subdivision (iii)(a) of and shall be limited to 2.5 p.s.i.g. under emergency venting conditions.

This paragraph may be used for operating pressures not exceeding 1 p.s.i.g.

(d) Pressure vessels may be used as low-pressure tanks.

(v) Pressure vessels. (a) The normal operating pressure of the vessel shall not exceed the design pressure of the vessel.

(b) Pressure vessels shall be built in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code 1968.

(vi) Provisions for internal corrosion. When tanks are not designed in accordance with the American Petroleum Institute, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, or the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc.'s, standards, or if corrosion is anticipated beyond that provided for in the design formulas used, additional metal thickness or suitable protective coatings or linings shall be provided to compensate for the corrosion loss expected during the design life of the tank.

(2) Installation of outside aboveground tanks.

(i) [Reserved]

(ii) Spacing (shell-to-shell) between aboveground tanks. (a) The distance between any two flammable liquid storage tanks shall not be less than 3 feet.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(c) of this section, the distance between any two adjacent tanks shall not be less than one-sixth the sum of their diameters. When the diameter of one tank is less than one-half the diameter of the adjacent tank, the distance between the two tanks shall not be less than one-half the diameter of the smaller tank.

(c) Where crude petroleum in conjunction with production facilities are located in noncongested areas and have capacities not exceeding 126,000 gallons (3,000 barrels), the distance between such tanks shall not be less than 3 feet.

(d) Where unstable flammable liquids are stored, the distance between such tanks shall not be less than one-half the sum of their diameters.

(e) When tanks are compacted in three or more rows or in an irregular pattern, greater spacing or other means shall be provided so that inside tanks are accessible for firefighting purposes.

(f) The minimum separation between a liquefied petroleum gas container and a flammable liquid storage tank shall be 20 feet, except in the case of flammable liquid tanks operating at pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. or equipped with emergency venting which will permit pressures to exceed 2.5 p.s.i.g. in which case the provisions of subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subdivision shall apply. Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids under adjacent liquefied petroleum gas containers such as by diversion curbs or grading. When flammable liquid storage tanks are within a diked area, the liquefied petroleum gas containers shall be outside the diked area and at least 10 feet away from the centerline of the wall of the diked area. The foregoing provisions shall not apply when liquefied petroleum gas containers of 125 gallons or less capacity are installed adjacent to fuel oil supply tanks of 550 gallons or less capacity.

(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Normal venting for aboveground tanks. (a) Atmospheric storage tanks shall be adequately vented to prevent the development of vacuum or pressure sufficient to distort the roof of a cone roof tank or exceeding the design pressure in the case of other atmospheric tanks, as a result of filling or emptying, and atmospheric temperature changes.

(b) Normal vents shall be sized either in accordance with: (1) The American Petroleum Institute Standard 2000 (1968), Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6; or (2) other accepted standard; or (3) shall be at least as large as the filling or withdrawal connection, whichever is larger but in no case less than 114 inch nominal inside diameter.

(c) Low-pressure tanks and pressure vessels shall be adequately vented to prevent development of pressure or vacuum, as a result of filling or emptying and atmospheric temperature changes, from exceeding the design pressure of the tank or vessel. Protection shall also be provided to prevent overpressure from any pump discharging into the tank or vessel when the pump discharge pressure can exceed the design pressure of the tank or vessel.

(d) If any tank or pressure vessel has more than one fill or withdrawal connection and simultaneous filling or withdrawal can be made, the vent size shall be based on the maximum anticipated simultaneous flow.

(e) Unless the vent is designed to limit the internal pressure 2.5 p.s.i. or less, the outlet of vents and vent drains shall be arranged to discharge in such a manner as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(f)(1) Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 1 flammable liquids shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting to pressure or vacuum conditions. Tanks and pressure vessels storing Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C) shall be equipped with venting devices which shall be normally closed except when venting under pressure or vacuum conditions, or with approved flame arresters.

(2) Exemption: Tanks of 3,000 bbls (barrels). capacity or less containing crude petroleum in crude-producing areas and outside aboveground atmospheric tanks under 1,000 gallons capacity containing other than Category 1 flammable liquids may have open vents. (See paragraph (b)(2)(vi)(b) of this section.)

(g) Flame arresters or venting devices required in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(f) of this section may be omitted for Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C) where conditions are such that their use may, in case of obstruction, result in tank damage.

(v) Emergency relief venting for fire exposure for aboveground tanks. (a) Every aboveground storage tank shall have some form of construction or device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by exposure fires.

(b) In a vertical tank the construction referred to in subdivision (a) of this subdivision may take the form of a floating roof, lifter roof, a weak roof-to-shell seam, or other approved pressure relieving construction. The weak roof-to-shell seam shall be constructed to fail preferential to any other seam.

(c) Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table H-10 except as provided in subdivision (e) or (f) of this subdivision. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet above grade of the exposed shell area of a vertical tank.

Table H-10—Wetted Area Versus Cubic Feet Free Air Per Hour

[14.7 psia and 60 °F.]

Square feetCFHSquare feetCFHSquare feetCFH
2021,100200211,0001,000524,000
3031,600250239,0001,200557,000
4042,100300265,0001,400587,000
5052,700350288,0001,600614,000
6063,200400312,0001,800639,000
7073,700500354,0002,000662,000
8084,200600392,0002,400704,000
9094,800700428,0002,800742,000
100105,000800462,000and
120126,000900493,000over
140147,0001,000524,000
160168,000
180190,000
200211,000

(d) For tanks and storage vessels designed for pressure over 1 p.s.i.g., the total rate of venting shall be determined in accordance with Table H-10, except that when the exposed wetted area of the surface is greater than 2,800 square feet, the total rate of venting shall be calculated by the following formula:

CFH = 1,107A 0.82

Where;

CFH = Venting requirement, in cubic feet of free air per hour.

A = Exposed wetted surface, in square feet.

Note: The foregoing formula is based on Q=21,000A0.82.

(e) The total emergency relief venting capacity for any specific stable liquid may be determined by the following formula:

V = 1337 ÷ L√M

V = Cubic feet of free air per hour from Table H-10.

L = Latent heat of vaporization of specific liquid in B.t.u. per pound.

M = Molecular weight of specific liquids.

(f) The required airflow rate of subdivision (c) or (e) of this subdivision may be multiplied by the appropriate factor listed in the following schedule when protection is provided as indicated. Only one factor may be used for any one tank.

0.5 for drainage in accordance with subdivision (vii)(b) of this subparagraph for tanks over 200 square feet of wetted area.

0.3 for approved water spray.

0.3 for approved insulation.

0.15 for approved water spray with approved insulation.

(g) The outlet of all vents and vent drains on tanks equipped with emergency venting to permit pressures exceeding 2.5 p.s.i.g. shall be arranged to discharge in such a way as to prevent localized overheating of any part of the tank, in the event vapors from such vents are ignited.

(h) Each commercial tank venting device shall have stamped on it the opening pressure, the pressure at which the valve reaches the full open position, and the flow capacity at the latter pressure, expressed in cubic feet per hour of air at 60 °F. and at a pressure of 14.7 p.s.i.a.

(i) The flow capacity of tank venting devices 12 inches and smaller in nominal pipe size shall be determined by actual test of each type and size of vent. These flow tests may be conducted by the manufacturer if certified by a qualified impartial observer, or may be conducted by an outside agency. The flow capacity of tank venting devices larger than 12 inches nominal pipe size, including manhole covers with long bolts or equivalent, may be calculated provided that the opening pressure is actually measured, the rating pressure and corresponding free orifice area are stated, the word “calculated” appears on the nameplate, and the computation is based on a flow coefficient of 0.5 applied to the rated orifice area.

(vi) Vent piping for aboveground tanks. (a) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Where vent pipe outlets for tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are adjacent to buildings or public ways, they shall be located so that the vapors are released at a safe point outside of buildings and not less than 12 feet above the adjacent ground level. In order to aid their dispersion, vapors shall be discharged upward or horizontally away from closely adjacent walls. Vent outlets shall be located so that flammable vapors will not be trapped by eaves or other obstructions and shall be at least five feet from building openings.

(c) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are subject to the same fire exposure.

(vii) Drainage, dikes, and walls for aboveground tanks—(a) Drainage and diked areas. The area surrounding a tank or a group of tanks shall be provided with drainage as in subdivision (b) of this subdivision, or shall be diked as provided in subdivision (c) of this subdivision, to prevent accidental discharge of liquid from endangering adjoining property or reaching waterways.

(b) Drainage. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is by means of a natural or manmade drainage system, such systems shall comply with the following:

(1) [Reserved]

(2) The drainage system shall terminate in vacant land or other area or in an impounding basin having a capacity not smaller than that of the largest tank served. This termination area and the route of the drainage system shall be so located that, if the flammable liquids in the drainage system are ignited, the fire will not seriously expose tanks or adjoining property.

(c) Diked areas. Where protection of adjoining property or waterways is accomplished by retaining the liquid around the tank by means of a dike, the volume of the diked area shall comply with the following requirements:

(1) Except as provided in subdivision (2) of this subdivision, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall not be less than the greatest amount of liquid that can be released from the largest tank within the diked area, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked area enclosing more than one tank shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tanks other than the largest tank below the height of the dike.

(2) For a tank or group of tanks with fixed roofs containing crude petroleum with boilover characteristics, the volumetric capacity of the diked area shall be not less than the capacity of the largest tank served by the enclosure, assuming a full tank. The capacity of the diked enclosure shall be calculated by deducting the volume below the height of the dike of all tanks within the enclosure.

(3) Walls of the diked area shall be of earth, steel, concrete or solid masonry designed to be liquidtight and to withstand a full hydrostatic head. Earthen walls 3 feet or more in height shall have a flat section at the top not less than 2 feet wide. The slope of an earthen wall shall be consistent with the angle of repose of the material of which the wall is constructed.

(4) The walls of the diked area shall be restricted to an average height of 6 feet above interior grade.

(5) [Reserved]

(6) No loose combustible material, empty or full drum or barrel, shall be permitted within the diked area.

(viii) Tank openings other than vents for aboveground tanks.

(a)-(c) [Reserved]

(d) Openings for gaging shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover.

(e) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity. A fill pipe entering the top of a tank shall terminate within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank and shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration.

(f) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.

(3) Installation of underground tanks— (i) Location. Excavation for underground storage tanks shall be made with due care to avoid undermining of foundations of existing structures. Underground tanks or tanks under buildings shall be so located with respect to existing building foundations and supports that the loads carried by the latter cannot be transmitted to the tank. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), to the nearest wall of any basement or pit shall be not less than 1 foot, and to any property line that may be built upon, not less than 3 feet. The distance from any part of a tank storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids to the nearest wall of any basement, pit or property line shall be not less than 1 foot.

(ii) Depth and cover. Underground tanks shall be set on firm foundations and surrounded with at least 6 inches of noncorrosive, inert materials such as clean sand, earth, or gravel well tamped in place. The tank shall be placed in the hole with care since dropping or rolling the tank into the hole can break a weld, puncture or damage the tank, or scrape off the protective coating of coated tanks. Tanks shall be covered with a minimum of 2 feet of earth, or shall be covered with not less than 1 foot of earth, on top of which shall be placed a slab of reinforced concrete not less than 4 inches thick. When underground tanks are, or are likely to be, subject to traffic, they shall be protected against damage from vehicles passing over them by at least 3 feet of earth cover, or 18 inches of well-tamped earth, plus 6 inches of reinforced concrete or 8 inches of asphaltic concrete. When asphaltic or reinforced concrete paving is used as part of the protection, it shall extend at least 1 foot horizontally beyond the outline of the tank in all directions.

(iii) Corrosion protection. Corrosion protection for the tank and its piping shall be provided by one or more of the following methods:

(a) Use of protective coatings or wrappings;

(b) Cathodic protection; or,

(c) Corrosion resistant materials of construction.

(iv) Vents.-(a) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be so located that the discharge point is outside of buildings, higher than the fill pipe opening, and not less than 12 feet above the adjacent ground level. Vent pipes shall discharge only upward in order to disperse vapors. Vent pipes 2 inches or less in nominal inside diameter shall not be obstructed by devices that will cause excessive back pressure. Vent pipe outlets shall be so located that flammable vapors will not enter building openings, or be trapped under eaves or other obstructions. If the vent pipe is less than 10 feet in length, or greater than 2 inches in nominal inside diameter, the outlet shall be provided with a vacuum and pressure relief device or there shall be an approved flame arrester located in the vent line at the outlet or within the approved distance from the outlet.

(b) Size of vents. Each tank shall be vented through piping adequate in size to prevent blow-back of vapor or liquid at the fill opening while the tank is being filled. Vent pipes shall be not less than 114 inch nominal inside diameter.

Table H-11—Vent Line Diameters

Maximum flow GPMPipe length1
50 feet100 feet200 feet
   Inches   Inches   Inches   
10011/411/411/4
20011/411/411/4
30011/411/411/2
40011/411/22   
50011/211/22   
60011/22   2   
7002   2   2   
8002   2   3   
9002   2   3   
1,0002   2   3   

1Vent lines of 50 ft., 100 ft., and 200 ft. of pipe plus 7 ells.

(c) Location and arrangement of vents for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Vent pipes from tanks storing Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids shall terminate outside of the building and higher than the fill pipe opening. Vent outlets shall be above normal snow level. They may be fitted with return bends, coarse screens or other devices to minimize ingress of foreign material.

(d) Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section. Vent pipes shall be so laid as to drain toward the tank without sags or traps in which liquid can collect. They shall be located so that they will not be subjected to physical damage. The tank end of the vent pipe shall enter the tank through the top.

(e) When tank vent piping is manifolded, pipe sizes shall be such as to discharge, within the pressure limitations of the system, the vapors they may be required to handle when manifolded tanks are filled simultaneously.

(v) Tank openings other than vents. (a) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquid tight.

(b) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe, shall be provided with a liquid-tight cap or cover. If inside a building, each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.

(c) Fill and discharge lines shall enter tanks only through the top. Fill lines shall be sloped toward the tank.

(d) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasolines, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank.

(e) Filling and emptying connections which are made and broken shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. Such connection shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The connection shall be properly identified.

(4) Installation of tanks inside of buildings—(i) Location. Tanks shall not be permitted inside of buildings except as provided in paragraphs (e), (g), (h), or (i) of this section.

(ii) Vents. Vents for tanks inside of buildings shall be as provided in subparagraphs (2) (iv), (v), (vi)(b), and (3)(iv) of this paragraph, except that emergency venting by the use of weak roof seams on tanks shall not be permitted. Vents shall discharge vapors outside the buildings.

(iii) Vent piping. Vent piping shall be constructed in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(iv) Tank openings other than vents. (a) Connections for all tank openings shall be vapor or liquidtight. Vents are covered in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph.

(b) Each connection to a tank inside of buildings through which liquid can normally flow shall be provided with an internal or an external valve located as close as practical to the shell of the tank. Such valves, when external, and their connections to the tank shall be of steel except when the chemical characteristics of the liquid stored are incompatible with steel. When materials other than steel are necessary, they shall be suitable for the pressures, structural stresses, and temperatures involved, including fire exposures.

(c) Flammable liquid tanks located inside of buildings, except in one-story buildings designed and protected for flammable liquid storage, shall be provided with an automatic-closing heat-actuated valve on each withdrawal connection below the liquid level, except for connections used for emergency disposal, to prevent continued flow in the event of fire in the vicinity of the tank. This function may be incorporated in the valve required in (b) of this subdivision, and if a separate valve, shall be located adjacent to the valve required in (b) of this subdivision.

(d) Openings for manual gaging, if independent of the fill pipe (see (f) of this subdivision), shall be provided with a vaportight cap or cover. Each such opening shall be protected against liquid overflow and possible vapor release by means of a spring loaded check valve or other approved device.

(e) For Category 2 flammable liquids and Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), other than crude oils, gasoline, and asphalts, the fill pipe shall be so designed and installed as to minimize the possibility of generating static electricity by terminating within 6 inches of the bottom of the tank.

(f) The fill pipe inside of the tank shall be installed to avoid excessive vibration of the pipe.

(g) The inlet of the fill pipe shall be located outside of buildings at a location free from any source of ignition and not less than 5 feet away from any building opening. The inlet of the fill pipe shall be closed and liquidtight when not in use. The fill connection shall be properly identified.

(h) Tanks inside buildings shall be equipped with a device, or other means shall be provided, to prevent overflow into the building.

(5) Supports, foundations, and anchorage for all tank locations—(i) General. Tank supports shall be installed on firm foundations. Tank supports shall be of concrete, masonry, or protected steel. Single wood timber supports (not cribbing) laid horizontally may be used for outside aboveground tanks if not more than 12 inches high at their lowest point.

(ii) Fire resistance. Steel supports or exposed piling shall be protected by materials having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours, except that steel saddles need not be protected if less than 12 inches high at their lowest point. Water spray protection or its equivalent may be used in lieu of fire-resistive materials to protect supports.

(iii) Spheres. The design of the supporting structure for tanks such as spheres shall receive special engineering consideration.

(iv) Load distribution. Every tank shall be so supported as to prevent the excessive concentration of loads on the supporting portion of the shell.

(v) Foundations. Tanks shall rest on the ground or on foundations made of concrete, masonry, piling, or steel. Tank foundations shall be designed to minimize the possibility of uneven settling of the tank and to minimize corrosion in any part of the tank resting on the foundation.

(vi) Flood areas. Where a tank is located in an area that may be subjected to flooding, the applicable precautions outlined in this subdivision shall be observed.

(a) No aboveground vertical storage tank containing a flammable liquid shall be located so that the allowable liquid level within the tank is below the established maximum flood stage, unless the tank is provided with a guiding structure such as described in (m), (n), and (o) of this subdivision.

(b) Independent water supply facilities shall be provided at locations where there is no ample and dependable public water supply available for loading partially empty tanks with water.

(c) In addition to the preceding requirements, each tank so located that more than 70 percent, but less than 100 percent, of its allowable liquid storage capacity will be submerged at the established maximum flood stage, shall be safeguarded by one of the following methods: Tank shall be raised, or its height shall be increased, until its top extends above the maximum flood stage a distance equivalent to 30 percent or more of its allowable liquid storage capacity: Provided, however, That the submerged part of the tank shall not exceed two and one-half times the diameter. Or, as an alternative to the foregoing, adequate noncombustible structural guides, designed to permit the tank to float vertically without loss of product, shall be provided.

(d) Each horizontal tank so located that more than 70 percent of its storage capacity will be submerged at the established flood stage, shall be anchored, attached to a foundation of concrete or of steel and concrete, of sufficient weight to provide adequate load for the tank when filled with flammable liquid and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage, or adequately secured by other means.

(e) [Reserved]

(f) At locations where there is no ample and dependable water supply, or where filling of underground tanks with liquids is impracticable because of the character of their contents, their use, or for other reasons, each tank shall be safeguarded against movement when empty and submerged by high ground water or flood waters by anchoring, weighting with concrete or other approved solid loading material, or securing by other means. Each such tank shall be so constructed and installed that it will safely resist external pressures due to high ground water or flood waters.

(g) At locations where there is an ample and dependable water supply available, underground tanks containing flammable liquids, so installed that more than 70 percent of their storage capacity will be submerged at the maximum flood stage, shall be so anchored, weighted, or secured by other means, as to prevent movement of such tanks when filled with flammable liquids, and submerged by flood waters to the established flood stage.

(h) Pipe connections below the allowable liquid level in a tank shall be provided with valves or cocks located as closely as practicable to the tank shell. Such valves and their connections to tanks shall be of steel or other material suitable for use with the liquid being stored. Cast iron shall not be permitted.

(i) At locations where an independent water supply is required, it shall be entirely independent of public power and water supply. Independent source of water shall be available when flood waters reach a level not less than 10 feet below the bottom of the lowest tank on a property.

(j) The self-contained power and pumping unit shall be so located or so designed that pumping into tanks may be carried on continuously throughout the rise in flood waters from a level 10 feet below the lowest tank to the level of the potential flood stage.

(k) Capacity of the pumping unit shall be such that the rate of rise of water in all tanks shall be equivalent to the established potential average rate of rise of flood waters at any stage.

(l) Each independent pumping unit shall be tested periodically to insure that it is in satisfactory operating condition.

(m) Structural guides for holding floating tanks above their foundations shall be so designed that there will be no resistance to the free rise of a tank, and shall be constructed of noncombustible material.

(n) The strength of the structure shall be adequate to resist lateral movement of a tank subject to a horizontal force in any direction equivalent to not less than 25 pounds per square foot acting on the projected vertical cross-sectional area of the tank.

(o) Where tanks are situated on exposed points or bends in a shoreline where swift currents in flood waters will be present, the structures shall be designed to withstand a unit force of not less than 50 pounds per square foot.

(p) The filling of a tank to be protected by water loading shall be started as soon as flood waters reach a dangerous flood stage. The rate of filling shall be at least equal to the rate of rise of the floodwaters (or the established average potential rate of rise).

(q) Sufficient fuel to operate the water pumps shall be available at all times to insure adequate power to fill all tankage with water.

(r) All valves on connecting pipelines shall be closed and locked in closed position when water loading has been completed.

(s) Where structural guides are provided for the protection of floating tanks, all rigid connections between tanks and pipelines shall be disconnected and blanked off or blinded before the floodwaters reach the bottom of the tank, unless control valves and their connections to the tank are of a type designed to prevent breakage between the valve and the tank shell.

(t) All valves attached to tanks other than those used in connection with water loading operations shall be closed and locked.

(u) If a tank is equipped with a swing line, the swing pipe shall be raised to and secured at its highest position.

(v) Inspections. The Assistant Secretary or his designated representative shall make periodic inspections of all plants where the storage of flammable liquids is such as to require compliance with the foregoing requirements, in order to assure the following:

(1) That all flammable liquid storage tanks are in compliance with these requirements and so maintained.

(2) That detailed printed instructions of what to do in flood emergencies are properly posted.

(3) That station operators and other employees depended upon to carry out such instructions are thoroughly informed as to the location and operation of such valves and other equipment necessary to effect these requirements.

(vii) Earthquake areas. In areas subject to earthquakes, the tank supports and connections shall be designed to resist damage as a result of such shocks.

(6) Sources of ignition. In locations where flammable vapors may be present, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition by eliminating or controlling sources of ignition. Sources of ignition may include open flames, lightning, smoking, cutting and welding, hot surfaces, frictional heat, sparks (static, electrical, and mechanical), spontaneous ignition, chemical and physical-chemical reactions, and radiant heat.

(7) Testing—(i) General. All tanks, whether shop built or field erected, shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with the applicable paragraphs of the code under which they were built. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) code stamp, American Petroleum Institute (API) monogram, or the label of the Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc., on a tank shall be evidence of compliance with this strength test. Tanks not marked in accordance with the above codes shall be strength tested before they are placed in service in accordance with good engineering principles and reference shall be made to the sections on testing in the codes listed in subparagraphs (1) (iii)(a), (iv)(b), or (v)(b) of this paragraph.

(ii) Strength. When the vertical length of the fill and vent pipes is such that when filled with liquid the static head imposed upon the bottom of the tank exceeds 10 pounds per square inch, the tank and related piping shall be tested hydrostatically to a pressure equal to the static head thus imposed.

(iii) Tightness. In addition to the strength test called for in subdivisions (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph, all tanks and connections shall be tested for tightness. Except for underground tanks, this tightness test shall be made at operating pressure with air, inert gas, or water prior to placing the tank in service. In the case of field-erected tanks the strength test may be considered to be the test for tank tightness. Underground tanks and piping, before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use, shall be tested for tightness hydrostatically, or with air pressure at not less than 3 pounds per square inch and not more than 5 pounds per square inch.

(iv) Repairs. All leaks or deformations shall be corrected in an acceptable manner before the tank is placed in service. Mechanical caulking is not permitted for correcting leaks in welded tanks except pinhole leaks in the roof.

(v) Derated operations. Tanks to be operated at pressures below their design pressure may be tested by the applicable provisions of subdivision (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph, based upon the pressure developed under full emergency venting of the tank.

(c) Piping, valves, and fittings—(1) General—(i) Design. The design (including selection of materials) fabrication, assembly, test, and inspection of piping systems containing flammable liquids shall be suitable for the expected working pressures and structural stresses. Conformity with the applicable provisions of Pressure Piping, ANSI B31 series and the provisions of this paragraph, shall be considered prima facie evidence of compliance with the foregoing provisions.

(ii) Exceptions. This paragraph does not apply to any of the following:

(a) Tubing or casing on any oil or gas wells and any piping connected directly thereto.

(b) Motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engines.

(c) Piping within the scope of any applicable boiler and pressures vessel code.

(iii) Definitions. As used in this paragraph, piping systems consist of pipe, tubing, flanges, bolting, gaskets, valves, fittings, the pressure containing parts of other components such as expansion joints and strainers, and devices which serve such purposes as mixing, separating, snubbing, distributing, metering, or controlling flow.

(2) Materials for piping, valves, and fittings—(i) Required materials. Materials for piping, valves, or fittings shall be steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron, except as provided in paragraph (c)(2) (ii), (iii) and (iv) of this section.

(ii) Exceptions. Materials other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron may be used underground, or if required by the properties of the flammable liquid handled. Material other than steel, nodular iron, or malleable iron shall be designed to specifications embodying principles recognized as good engineering practices for the material used.

(iii) Linings. Piping, valves, and fittings may have combustible or noncombustible linings.

(iv) Low-melting materials. When low-melting point materials such as aluminum and brass or materials that soften on fire exposure such as plastics, or non-ductile materials such as cast iron, are necessary, special consideration shall be given to their behavior on fire exposure. If such materials are used in above ground piping systems or inside buildings, they shall be suitably protected against fire exposure or so located that any spill resulting from the failure of these materials could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures or can be readily controlled by remote valves.

(3) Pipe joints. Joints shall be made liquid tight. Welded or screwed joints or approved connectors shall be used. Threaded joints and connections shall be made up tight with a suitable lubricant or piping compound. Pipe joints dependent upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used inside buildings. They may be used outside of buildings above or below ground. If used above ground, the piping shall either be secured to prevent disengagement at the fitting or the piping system shall be so designed that any spill resulting from such disengagement could not unduly expose persons, important buildings or structures, and could be readily controlled by remote valves.

(4) Supports. Piping systems shall be substantially supported and protected against physical damage and excessive stresses arising from settlement, vibration, expansion, or contraction.

(5) Protection against corrosion. All piping for flammable liquids, both aboveground and underground, where subject to external corrosion, shall be painted or otherwise protected.

(6) Valves. Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to protect the plant. Piping systems in connection with pumps shall contain a sufficient number of valves to control properly the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage. Each connection to pipelines, by which equipments such as tankcars or tank vehicles discharge liquids by means of pumps into storage tanks, shall be provided with a check valve for automatic protection against backflow if the piping arrangement is such that backflow from the system is possible.

(7) Testing. All piping before being covered, enclosed, or placed in use shall be hydrostatically tested to 150 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, or pneumatically tested to 110 percent of the maximum anticipated pressure of the system, but not less than 5 pounds per square inch gage at the highest point of the system. This test shall be maintained for a sufficient time to complete visual inspection of all joints and connections, but for at least 10 minutes.

(d) Container and portable tank storage—(1) Scope—(i) General. This paragraph shall apply only to the storage of flammable liquids in drums or other containers (including flammable aerosols) not exceeding 60 gallons individual capacity and those portable tanks not exceeding 660 gallons individual capacity.

(ii) Exceptions. This paragraph shall not apply to the following:

(a) Storage of containers in bulk plants, service stations, refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries;

(b) Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids in the fuel tanks of a motor vehicle, aircraft, boat, or portable or stationary engine;

(c) Flammable paints, oils, varnishes, and similar mixtures used for painting or maintenance when not kept for a period in excess of 30 days;

(d) Beverages when packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1 gallon in size.

(2) Design, construction, and capacity of containers—(i) General. Only approved containers and portable tanks shall be used. Metal containers and portable tanks meeting the requirements of and containing products authorized by chapter I, title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (regulations issued by the Hazardous Materials Regulations Board, Department of Transportation), shall be deemed to be acceptable.

(ii) Emergency venting. Each portable tank shall be provided with one or more devices installed in the top with sufficient emergency venting capacity to limit internal pressure under fire exposure conditions to 10 p.s.i.g., or 30 percent of the bursting pressure of the tank, whichever is greater. The total venting capacity shall be not less than that specified in paragraphs (b)(2)(v) (c) or (e) of this section. At least one pressure-activated vent having a minimum capacity of 6,000 cubic feet of free air (14.7 p.s.i.a. and 60 °F.) shall be used. It shall be set to open at not less than 5 p.s.i.g. If fusible vents are used, they shall be actuated by elements that operate at a temperature not exceeding 300 °F.

(iii) Size. Flammable and combustible liquid containers shall be in accordance with Table H-12, except that glass or plastic containers of no more than 1-gallon capacity may be used for a Category 1 or 2 flammable liquid if:

(a)(1) Such liquid either would be rendered unfit for its intended use by contact with metal or would excessively corrode a metal container so as to create a leakage hazard; and

(2) The user's process either would require more than 1 pint of a Category 1 flammable liquid or more than 1 quart of a Category 2 flammable liquid of a single assay lot to be used at one time, or would require the maintenance of an analytical standard liquid of a quality which is not met by the specified standards of liquids available, and the quantity of the analytical standard liquid required to be used in any one control process exceeds one-sixteenth the capacity of the container allowed under Table H-12 for the category of liquid; or

(b) The containers are intended for direct export outside the United States.

Table H-12—Maximum Allowable Size of Containers and Portable Tanks for Flammable Liquids

Container typeCategory 1Category 2Category 3Category 4
Glass or approved plastic1 pt1 qt1 gal1 gal.
Metal (other than DOT drums)1 gal5 gal5 gal5 gal.
Safety cans2 gal5 gal5 gal5 gal.
Metal drums (DOT specifications)60 gal60 gal60 gal60 gal.
Approved portable tanks660 gal660 gal660 gal660 gal.

Note: Container exemptions: (a) Medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer items, when packaged according to commonly accepted practices, shall be exempt from the requirements of 1910.106(d)(2)(i) and (ii).

(3) Design, construction, and capacity of storage cabinets—(i) Maximum capacity. Not more than 60 gallons of Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquids, nor more than 120 gallons of Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored in a storage cabinet.

(ii) Fire resistance. Storage cabinets shall be designed and constructed to limit the internal temperature to not more than 325 °F. when subjected to a 10-minute fire test using the standard time-temperature curve as set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6. All joints and seams shall remain tight and the door shall remain securely closed during the fire test. Cabinets shall be labeled in conspicuous lettering, “Flammable—Keep Fire Away.”

(a) Metal cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed to be in compliance. The bottom, top, door, and sides of cabinet shall be at least No. 18 gage sheet iron and double walled with 112 -inch air space. Joints shall be riveted, welded or made tight by some equally effective means. The door shall be provided with a three-point lock, and the door sill shall be raised at least 2 inches above the bottom of the cabinet.

(b) Wooden cabinets constructed in the following manner shall be deemed in compliance. The bottom, sides, and top shall be constructed of an approved grade of plywood at least 1 inch in thickness, which shall not break down or delaminate under fire conditions. All joints shall be rabbetted and shall be fastened in two directions with flathead woodscrews. When more than one door is used, there shall be a rabbetted overlap of not less than 1 inch. Hinges shall be mounted in such a manner as not to lose their holding capacity due to loosening or burning out of the screws when subjected to the fire test.

(4) Design and construction of inside storage rooms—(i) Construction. Inside storage rooms shall be constructed to meet the required fire-resistive rating for their use. Such construction shall comply with the test specifications set forth in Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969. Where an automatic sprinkler system is provided, the system shall be designed and installed in an acceptable manner. Openings to other rooms or buildings shall be provided with noncombustible liquid-tight raised sills or ramps at least 4 inches in height, or the floor in the storage area shall be at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor. Openings shall be provided with approved self-closing fire doors. The room shall be liquid-tight where the walls join the floor. A permissible alternate to the sill or ramp is an open-grated trench inside of the room which drains to a safe location. Where other portions of the building or other properties are exposed, windows shall be protected as set forth in the Standard for Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA No. 80-1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, for Class E or F openings. Wood at least 1 inch nominal thickness may be used for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations.

(ii) Rating and capacity. Storage in inside storage rooms shall comply with Table H-13.

Table H-13—Storage in Inside Rooms

Fire protection1 providedFire resistanceMaximum sizeTotal allowable quantities (gals./sq. ft./floor area)
Yes2 hours500 sq. ft10
No2 hours500 sq. ft5
Yes1 hour150 sq. ft4
No1 hour150 sq. ft2

1Fire protection system shall be sprinkler, water spray, carbon dioxide, or other system.

(iii) Wiring. Electrical wiring and equipment located in inside storage rooms used for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be approved under subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations; for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, shall be approved for general use.

(iv) Ventilation. Every inside storage room shall be provided with either a gravity or a mechanical exhaust ventilation system. Such system shall be designed to provide for a complete change of air within the room at least six times per hour. If a mechanical exhaust system is used, it shall be controlled by a switch located outside of the door. The ventilating equipment and any lighting fixtures shall be operated by the same switch. A pilot light shall be installed adjacent to the switch if Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are dispensed within the room. Where gravity ventilation is provided, the fresh air intake, as well as the exhaust outlet from the room, shall be on the exterior of the building in which the room is located.

(v) Storage in inside storage rooms. In every inside storage room there shall be maintained one clear aisle at least 3 feet wide. Containers over 30 gallons capacity shall not be stacked one upon the other. Dispensing shall be by approved pump or self-closing faucet only.

(5) Storage inside building—(i) Egress. Flammable liquids, including stock for sale, shall not be stored so as to limit use of exits, stairways, or areas normally used for the safe egress of people.

(ii) Containers. The storage of flammable liquids in containers or portable tanks shall comply with subdivisions (iii) through (v) of this subparagraph.

(iii) Office occupancies. Storage shall be prohibited except that which is required for maintenance and operation of building and operation of equipment. Such storage shall be kept in closed metal containers stored in a storage cabinet or in safety cans or in an inside storage room not having a door that opens into that portion of the building used by the public.

(iv) Mercantile occupancies and other retail stores.

(a)-(d) [Reserved]

(e) Leaking containers shall be removed to a storage room or taken to a safe location outside the building and the contents transferred to an undamaged container.

(v) General purpose public warehouses. Storage shall be in accordance with Table H-14 or H-15 and in buildings or in portions of such buildings cut off by standard firewalls. Material creating no fire exposure hazard to the flammable liquids may be stored in the same area.

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(vi) Flammable liquid warehouses or storage buildings. (a) If the storage building is located 50 feet or less from a building or line of adjoining property that may be built upon, the exposing wall shall be a blank wall having a fire-resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(b) The total quantity of liquids within a building shall not be restricted, but the arrangement of storage shall comply with Table H-14 or H-15.

(c) Containers in piles shall be separated by pallets or dunnage where necessary to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls.

(d) Portable tanks stored over one tier high shall be designed to nest securely, without dunnage, and adequate materials handing equipment shall be available to handle tanks safely at the upper tier level.

(e) No pile shall be closer than 3 feet to the nearest beam, chord, girder, or other obstruction, and shall be 3 feet below sprinkler deflectors or discharge orifices of water spray, or other overhead fire protection systems.

(f) Aisles of at least 3 feet wide shall be provided where necessary for reasons of access to doors, windows or standpipe connections.

(6) Storage outside buildings—(i) General. Storage outside buildings shall be in accordance with Table H-16 or H-17, and subdivisions (ii) and (iv) of this subparagraph.

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(ii) Maximum storage. A maximum of 1,100 gallons of flammable liquids may be located adjacent to buildings located on the same premises and under the same management provided the provisions of subdivisions (a) and (b) of this subdivision are complied with.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Where quantity stored exceeds 1,100 gallons, or provisions of subdivision (a) of this subdivision cannot be met, a minimum distance of 10 feet between buildings and nearest container of flammable liquid shall be maintained.

(iii) Spill containment. The storage area shall be graded in a manner to divert possible spills away from buildings or other exposures or shall be surrounded by a curb at least 6 inches high. When curbs are used, provisions shall be made for draining of accumulations of ground or rain water or spills of flammable liquids. Drains shall terminate at a safe location and shall be accessible to operation under fire conditions.

(iv) Security. The storage area shall be protected against tampering or trespassers where necessary and shall be kept free of weeds, debris and other combustible material not necessary to the storage.

(7) Fire control—(i) Extinguishers. Suitable fire control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available at locations where flammable liquids are stored.

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(a) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units shall be located outside of, but not more than 10 feet from, the door opening into any room used for storage.

(b) At least one portable fire extinguisher having a rating of not less than 12-B units must be located not less than 10 feet, nor more than 25 feet, from any Category 1, 2, or 3 flammable liquid storage area located outside of a storage room but inside a building.

(ii) Sprinklers. When sprinklers are provided, they shall be installed in accordance with §1910.159.

(iii) Open flames and smoking. Open flames and smoking shall not be permitted in flammable liquid storage areas.

(iv) Water reactive materials. Materials which will react with water shall not be stored in the same room with flammable liquids.

(e) Industrial plants—(1) Scope—(i) Application. This paragraph shall apply to those industrial plants where:

(a) The use of flammable liquids is incidental to the principal business, or

(b) Where flammable liquids are handled or used only in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical reaction. This paragraph shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.

(ii) Exceptions. Where portions of such plants involve chemical reactions such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes, those portions of the plant shall be in accordance with paragraph (h) of this section.

(2) Incidental storage or use of flammable liquids—(i) Application. This subparagraph shall be applicable to those portions of an industrial plant where the use and handling of flammable liquids is only incidental to the principal business, such as automobile assembly, construction of electronic equipment, furniture manufacturing, or other similar activities.

(ii) Containers. Flammable liquids shall be stored in tanks or closed containers.

(a) Except as provided in subdivisions (b) and (c) of this subdivision, all storage shall comply with paragraph (d) (3) or (4) of this section.

(b) The quantity of liquid that may be located outside of an inside storage room or storage cabinet in a building or in any one fire area of a building shall not exceed:

(1) 25 gallons of Category 1 flammable liquids in containers

(2) 120 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in containers

(3) 660 gallons of Category 2, 3, or 4 flammable liquids in a single portable tank.

(c) Where large quantities of flammable liquids are necessary, storage may be in tanks which shall comply with the applicable requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Separation and protection. Areas in which flammable liquids are transferred from one tank or container to another container shall be separated from other operations in the building by adequate distance or by construction having adequate fire resistance. Drainage or other means shall be provided to control spills. Adequate natural or mechanical ventilation shall be provided.

(iv) Handling liquids at point of final use.-(a) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be kept in covered containers when not actually in use.

(b) Where flammable liquids are used or handled, except in closed containers, means shall be provided to dispose promptly and safely of leakage or spills.

(c) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), may be used only where there are no open flames or other sources of ignition within the possible path of vapor travel.

(d) Flammable liquids shall be drawn from or transferred into vessels, containers, or portable tanks within a building only through a closed piping system, from safety cans, by means of a device drawing through the top, or from a container or portable tanks by gravity through an approved self-closing valve. Transferring by means of air pressure on the container or portable tanks shall be prohibited.

(3) Unit physical operations—(i) Application. This subparagraph shall be applicable in those portions of industrial plants where flammable liquids are handled or used in unit physical operations such as mixing, drying, evaporating, filtering, distillation, and similar operations which do not involve chemical change. Examples are plants compounding cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, solvents, cleaning fluids, insecticides, and similar types of activities.

(ii) Location. Industrial plants shall be located so that each building or unit of equipment is accessible from at least one side for firefighting and fire control purposes. Buildings shall be located with respect to lines of adjoining property which may be built upon as set forth in paragraph (h)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section except that the blank wall referred to in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section shall have a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(iii) Chemical processes. Areas where unstable liquids are handled or small scale unit chemical processes are carried on shall be separated from the remainder of the plant by a fire wall of 2-hour minimum fire resistance rating.

(iv) Drainage. (a) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire; see paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(b) of this section.

(b) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separator.

(v) Ventilation.-(a) Areas as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section using Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provision shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.

(b) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than 5 feet from equipment which exposes Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.

(vi) Storage and handling. The storage, transfer, and handling of liquid shall comply with paragraph (h)(4) of this section.

(4) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. (i) Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids, measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(ii) [Reserved]

(5) Fire control—(i) Portable and special equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.

(ii) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam-producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation, dispensing and storage.

(iii) Special extinguishers. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation dispensing and storage.

(iv) Special hazards. Where the need is indicated by special hazards of operation, flammable liquid processing equipment, major piping, and supporting steel shall be protected by approved water spray systems, deluge systems, approved fire-resistant coatings, insulation, or any combination of these.

(v) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition, and they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.

(6) Sources of ignition—(i) General. Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.

(ii) Grounding. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(7) Electrical—(i) Equipment. (a) All electrical wiring and equipment shall be installed according to the requirements of subpart S of this part.

(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with subparagraph (3)(v)(b) of this paragraph, the Division 1 area shall extend 5 feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.

(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. These locations include an area within 20 feet horizontally, 3 feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet, if indoors, or 10 feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If only Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.

(d) Where the provisions of subdivisions (a), (b), and (c), of this subdivision require the installation of electrical equipment suitable for Class I, Division 1 or Division 2 locations, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.

(8) Repairs to equipment. Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge. The individual in responsible charge shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.

(9) Housekeeping—(i) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.

(ii) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of flammable liquid storage, use, or any unit physical operation.

(iii) Waste and residue. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or unit operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in covered metal receptacles and disposed of daily.

(iv) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and unit operating areas shall be kept free of weeds, trash, or other unnecessary combustible materials.

(f) Bulk plants—(1) (i) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be stored in closed containers, or in storage tanks above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids. Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids shall be stored in containers, or in tanks within buildings or above ground outside of buildings, or underground in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

(iii) Piling containers. Containers of flammable liquids when piled one upon the other shall be separated by dunnage sufficient to provide stability and to prevent excessive stress on container walls. The height of the pile shall be consistent with the stability and strength of containers.

(2) Buildings—(i) Exits. Rooms in which flammable liquids are stored or handled by pumps shall have exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire.

(ii) Heating. Rooms in which Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are stored or handled shall be heated only by means not constituting a source of ignition, such as steam or hot water. Rooms containing heating appliances involving sources of ignition shall be located and arranged to prevent entry of flammable vapors.

(iii) Ventilation. (a) Ventilation shall be provided for all rooms, buildings, or enclosures in which Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are pumped or dispensed. Design of ventilation systems shall take into account the relatively high specific gravity of the vapors. Ventilation may be provided by adequate openings in outside walls at floor level unobstructed except by louvers or coarse screens. Where natural ventilation is inadequate, mechanical ventilation shall be provided.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.

(c) Containers of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be drawn from or filled within buildings unless provision is made to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors in hazardous concentrations. Where mechanical ventilation is required, it shall be kept in operation while flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C) are being handled.

(3) Loading and unloading facilities— (i) Separation. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings or nearest line of adjoining property that may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill spout. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility.

(ii) Category restriction. Equipment such as piping, pumps, and meters used for the transfer of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), between storage tanks and the fill stem of the loading rack shall not be used for the transfer of Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.

(iii) Valves. Valves used for the final control for filling tank vehicles shall be of the self-closing type and manually held open except where automatic means are provided for shutting off the flow when the vehicle is full or after filling of a preset amount.

(iv) Static protection. (a) Bonding facilities for protection against static sparks during the loading of tank vehicles through open domes shall be provided:

(1) Where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are loaded, or

(2) Where Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are loaded into vehicles which may contain vapors from previous cargoes of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C).

(b) Protection as required in (a) of this subdivision (iv) shall consist of a metallic bond wire permanently electrically connected to the fill stem or to some part of the rack structure in electrical contact with the fill stem. The free end of such wire shall be provided with a clamp or equivalent device for convenient attachment to some metallic part in electrical contact with the cargo tank of the tank vehicle.

(c) Such bonding connection shall be made fast to the vehicle or tank before dome covers are raised and shall remain in place until filling is completed and all dome covers have been closed and secured.

(d) Bonding as specified in (a), (b), and (c) of this subdivision is not required:

(1) Where vehicles are loaded exclusively with products not having a static accumulating tendency, such as asphalt, most crude oils, residual oils, and water soluble liquids;

(2) Where no Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are handled at the loading facility and the tank vehicles loaded are used exclusively for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids; and

(3) Where vehicles are loaded or unloaded through closed bottom or top connections.

(e) Filling through open domes into the tanks of tank vehicles or tank cars, that contain vapor-air mixtures within the flammable range or where the liquid being filled can form such a mixture, shall be by means of a downspout which extends near the bottom of the tank. This precaution is not required when loading liquids which are nonaccumulators of static charges.

(v) Stray currents. Tank car loading facilities where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are loaded through open domes shall be protected against stray currents by bonding the pipe to at least one rail and to the rack structure if of metal. Multiple lines entering the rack area shall be electrically bonded together. In addition, in areas where excessive stray currents are known to exist, all pipe entering the rack area shall be provided with insulating sections to electrically isolate the rack piping from the pipelines. No bonding between the tank car and the rack or piping is required during either loading or unloading of Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids.

(vi) Container filling facilities. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(4) Wharves—(i) Definition, application. The term wharf shall mean any wharf, pier, bulkhead, or other structure over or contiguous to navigable water used in conjunction with a bulk plant, the primary function of which is the transfer of flammable liquid cargo in bulk between the bulk plant and any tank vessel, ship, barge, lighter boat, or other mobile floating craft; and this subparagraph shall apply to all such installations except Marine Service Stations as covered in paragraph (g) of this section.

(ii)-(iii) [Reserved]

(iv) Design and construction. Substructure and deck shall be substantially designed for the use intended. Deck may employ any material which will afford the desired combination of flexibility, resistance to shock, durability, strength, and fire resistance. Heavy timber construction is acceptable.

(v) [Reserved]

(vi) Pumps. Loading pumps capable of building up pressures in excess of the safe working pressure of cargo hose or loading arms shall be provided with bypasses, relief valves, or other arrangement to protect the loading facilities against excessive pressure. Relief devices shall be tested at not more than yearly intervals to determine that they function satisfactorily at the pressure at which they are set.

(vii) Hoses and couplings. All pressure hoses and couplings shall be inspected at intervals appropriate to the service. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended and using the “inservice maximum operating pressures.” Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.

(viii) Piping and fittings. Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, with the following exceptions and additions:

(a) Flexibility of piping shall be assured by appropriate layout and arrangement of piping supports so that motion of the wharf structure resulting from wave action, currents, tides, or the mooring of vessels will not subject the pipe to repeated strain beyond the elastic limit.

(b) Pipe joints depending upon the friction characteristics of combustible materials or grooving of pipe ends for mechanical continuity of piping shall not be used.

(c) Swivel joints may be used in piping to which hoses are connected, and for articulated swivel-joint transfer systems, provided that the design is such that the mechanical strength of the joint will not be impaired if the packing material should fail, as by exposure to fire.

(d) Piping systems shall contain a sufficient number of valves to operate the system properly and to control the flow of liquid in normal operation and in the event of physical damage.

(e) In addition to the requirements of paragraph (f)(4)(viii)(d) of this section, each line conveying Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), leading to a wharf shall be provided with a readily accessible block valve located on shore near the approach to the wharf and outside of any diked area. Where more than one line is involved, the valves shall be grouped in one location.

(f) Means of easy access shall be provided for cargo line valves located below the wharf deck.

(g) Pipelines on flammable liquids wharves shall be adequately bonded and grounded. If excessive stray currents are encountered, insulating joints shall be installed. Bonding and grounding connections on all pipelines shall be located on wharfside of hose-riser insulating flanges, if used, and shall be accessible for inspection.

(h) Hose or articulated swivel-joint pipe connections used for cargo transfer shall be capable of accommodating the combined effects of change in draft and maximum tidal range, and mooring lines shall be kept adjusted to prevent the surge of the vessel from placing stress on the cargo transfer system.

(i) Hose shall be supported so as to avoid kinking and damage from chafing.

(ix) Fire protection. Suitable portable fire extinguishers with a rating of not less than 12-BC shall be located within 75 feet of those portions of the facility where fires are likely to occur, such as hose connections, pumps, and separator tanks.

(a) Where piped water is available, ready-connected fire hose in size appropriate for the water supply shall be provided so that manifolds where connections are made and broken can be reached by at least one hose stream.

(b) Material shall not be placed on wharves in such a manner as to obstruct access to firefighting equipment, or important pipeline control valves.

(c) Where the wharf is accessible to vehicle traffic, an unobstructed roadway to the shore end of the wharf shall be maintained for access of firefighting apparatus.

(x) Operations control. Loading or discharging shall not commence until the wharf superintendent and officer in charge of the tank vessel agree that the tank vessel is properly moored and all connections are properly made. Mechanical work shall not be performed on the wharf during cargo transfer, except under special authorization based on a review of the area involved, methods to be employed, and precautions necessary.

(5) Electrical equipment—(i) Application. This paragraph (f)(5)(i) shall apply to areas where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are stored or handled. For areas where only Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled, the electrical equipment may be installed in accordance with the provisions of Subpart S of this part, for ordinary locations.

(ii) Conformance. All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(iii) Classification. So far as it applies Table H-18 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. In Table H-18 a classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition. The area classifications listed shall be based on the premise that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.

(6) Sources of ignition. Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be handled, drawn, or dispensed where flammable vapors may reach a source of ignition. Smoking shall be prohibited except in designated localities. “No Smoking” signs shall be conspicuously posted where hazard from flammable liquid vapors is normally present.

(7) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made to prevent flammable liquids which may be spilled at loading or unloading points from entering public sewers and drainage systems, or natural waterways. Connection to such sewers, drains, or waterways by which flammable liquids might enter shall be provided with separator boxes or other approved means whereby such entry is precluded. Crankcase drainings and flammable liquids shall not be dumped into sewers, but shall be stored in tanks or tight drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.

(8) Fire control. Suitable fire-control devices, such as small hose or portable fire extinguishers, shall be available to locations where fires are likely to occur. Additional fire-control equipment may be required where a tank of more than 50,000 gallons individual capacity contains Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), and where an unusual exposure hazard exists from surrounding property. Such additional fire-control equipment shall be sufficient to extinguish a fire in the largest tank. The design and amount of such equipment shall be in accordance with approved engineering standards.

(g) Service stations—(1) Storage and handling—(i) General provisions. (a) Liquids shall be stored in approved closed containers not exceeding 60 gallons capacity, in tanks located underground, in tanks in special enclosures as described in paragraph (g)(i) of this section, or in aboveground tanks as provided for in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii), (b), (c) and (d) of this section.

(b) Aboveground tanks, located in an adjoining bulk plant, may be connected by piping to service station underground tanks if, in addition to valves at aboveground tanks, a valve is also installed within control of service station personnel.

(c) Apparatus dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles of the public shall not be located at a bulk plant unless separated by a fence or similar barrier from the area in which bulk operations are conducted.

(d) [Reserved]

(e) The provisions of paragraph (g)(1)(i)(a) of this section shall not prohibit the dispensing of flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C) in the open from a tank vehicle to a motor vehicle. Such dispensing shall be permitted provided:

(1) The tank vehicle complies with the requirements covered in the Standard on Tank Vehicles for Flammable Liquids, NFPA 385-1966.

(2) The dispensing is done on premises not open to the public.

(3) [Reserved]

(4) The dispensing hose does not exceed 50 feet in length.

(5) The dispensing nozzle is a listed automatic-closing type without a latchopen device.

(f) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be stored or handled within a building having a basement or pit into which flammable vapors may travel, unless such area is provided with ventilation designed to prevent the accumulation of flammable vapors therein.

(g) [Reserved]

Table H-18—Electrical Equipment Hazardous Areas—Bulk Plants

LocationClass I Group D divisionExtent of classified area
Tank vehicle and tank car:1
Loading through open dome1Within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
   2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through bottom connections with atmospheric venting1Within 3 feet of point of venting to atmosphere extending in all directions.
   2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from point of venting to atmosphere, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of loading connection.
Loading through closed dome with atmospheric venting1
2
Within 3 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions. Also within 3 feet of edge of dome, extending in all directions.
Loading through closed dome with vapor recovery2Within 3 feet of point of connection of both fill and vapor lines, extending in all directions.
Bottom loading with vapor recovery or any bottom unloading2Within 3 feet of point of connections extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade with in a horizontal radius of 10 feet from point of connection.
Drum and container filling:
Outdoors, or indoors with adequate ventilation1Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
   2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Outdoors, or indoors with adequate ventilation1Within 3 feet of vent and fill opening, extending in all directions.
   2Area between 3 feet and 5 feet from vent or fill opening, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above floor or grade level within a horizontal radius of 10 feet from vent or fill opening.
Tank—Aboveground:
Shell, ends, or roof and dike area2Within 10 feet from shell, ends, or roof of tank, Area inside dikes to level of top of dike.
Vent1Within 5 feet of open end of vent, extending in all directions.
   2Area between 5 feet and 10 feet from open end of vent, extending in all directions.
Floating roof1Area above the roof and within the shell.
Pits:
Without mechanical ventilation1Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
With mechanical ventilation2Entire area within pit if any part is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area.
Containing valves, fittings or piping, and not within a Division 1 or 2 classified area2Entire pit.
Pumps, bleeders, withdrawal fittings, meters and similar devices:
Indoors2Within 5 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Outdoors2Within 3 feet of any edge of such devices, extending in all directions. Also up to 18 inches above grade level within 10 feet horizontally from any edge of such devices.
Storage and repair garage for tank vehicles1All pits or spaces below floor level.
   2Area up to 18 inches above floor or grade level for entire storage or repair garage.
Drainage ditches, separators, impounding basins2Area up to 18 inches above ditch, separator or basin. Also up to 18 inches above grade within 15 feet horizontally from any edge.
Garages for other than tank vehicles(2)If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an outdoor classified area, the entire room shall be classified the same as the area classification at the point of the opening.
Outdoor drum storage(2)
Indoor warehousing where there is no flammable liquid transfer(2)If there is any opening to these rooms within the extent of an indoor classified are, the room shall be classified the same as if the wall, curb or partition did not exist.
Office and rest rooms(2)

1When classifying the extent of the area, consideration shall be given to the fact that tank cars or tank vehicles may be spotted at varying points. Therefore, the extremities of the loading or unloading positions shall be used.

2Ordinary.

(ii) Special enclosures. (a) When installation of tanks in accordance with paragraph (b)(3) of this section is impractical because of property or building limitations, tanks for flammable liquids may be installed in buildings if properly enclosed.

(b) The enclosure shall be substantially liquid and vaportight without backfill. Sides, top, and bottom of the enclosure shall be of reinforced concrete at least 6 inches thick, with openings for inspection through the top only. Tank connections shall be so piped or closed that neither vapors nor liquid can escape into the enclosed space. Means shall be provided whereby portable equipment may be employed to discharge to the outside any liquid or vapors which might accumulate should leakage occur.

(iii) Inside buildings. (a) Except where stored in tanks as provided in paragraph (g)(1)(ii) of this section, no Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be stored within any service station building except in closed containers of aggregate capacity not exceeding 60 gallons. One container not exceeding 60 gallons capacity equipped with an approved pump is permitted.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), may be transferred from one container to another in lubrication or service rooms of a service station building provided the electrical installation complies with Table H-19 and provided that any heating equipment complies with paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

(c) Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids may be stored and dispensed inside service station buildings from tanks of not more than 120 gallons capacity each.

(iv) [Reserved]

(v) Dispensing into portable containers. No delivery of any Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be made into portable containers unless the container is constructed of metal, has a tight closure with screwed or spring cover, and is fitted with a spout or so designed so the contents can be poured without spilling.

(2) [Reserved]

(3) Dispensing systems—(i) Location. Dispensing devices at automotive service stations shall be so located that all parts of the vehicle being served will be on the premises of the service station.

(ii) Inside location. Approved dispensing units may be located inside of buildings. The dispensing area shall be separated from other areas in an approved manner. The dispensing unit and its piping shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means and shall be located in a position where it cannot be struck by a vehicle descending a ramp or other slope out of control. The dispensing area shall be provided with an approved mechanical or gravity ventilation system. When dispensing units are located below grade, only approved mechanical ventilation shall be used and the entire dispensing area shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system. Ventilating systems shall be electrically interlocked with gasoline dispensing units so that the dispensing units cannot be operated unless the ventilating fan motors are energized.

(iii) Emergency power cutoff. A clearly identified and easily accessible switch(es) or a circuit breaker(s) shall be provided at a location remote from dispensing devices, including remote pumping systems, to shut off the power to all dispensing devices in the event of an emergency.

(iv) Dispensing units. (a) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be transferred from tanks by means of fixed pumps so designed and equipped as to allow control of the flow and to prevent leakage or accidental discharge.

(b)(1) Only listed devices may be used for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). No such device may be used if it shows evidence of having been dismantled.

(2) Every dispensing device for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), installed after December 31, 1978, shall contain evidence of listing so placed that any attempt to dismantle the device will result in damage to such evidence, visible without disassembly or dismounting of the nozzle.

(c) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed by pressure from drums, barrels, and similar containers. Approved pumps taking suction through the top of the container or approved self-closing faucets shall be used.

(d) The dispensing units, except those attached to containers, shall be mounted either on a concrete island or protected against collision damage by suitable means.

(v) Remote pumping systems. (a) This paragraph (g)(3)(v) shall apply to systems for dispensing Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), where such liquids are transferred from storage to individual or multiple dispensing units by pumps located elsewhere than at the dispensing units.

(b) Pumps shall be designed or equipped so that no part of the system will be subjected to pressures above its allowable working pressure. Pumps installed above grade, outside of buildings, shall be located not less than 10 feet from lines of adjoining property which may be built upon, and not less than 5 feet from any building opening. When an outside pump location is impractical, pumps may be installed inside of buildings, as provided for dispensers in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, or in pits as provided in subdivision (c) of this subdivision. Pumps shall be substantially anchored and protected against physical damage by vehicles.

(c) Pits for subsurface pumps or piping manifolds of submersible pumps shall withstand the external forces to which they may be subjected without damage to the pump, tank, or piping. The pit shall be no larger than necessary for inspection and maintenance and shall be provided with a fitted cover.

(d) A control shall be provided that will permit the pump to operate only when a dispensing nozzle is removed from its bracket on the dispensing unit and the switch on this dispensing unit is manually actuated. This control shall also stop the pump when all nozzles have been returned to their brackets.

(e) An approved impact valve, incorporating a fusible link, designed to close automatically in the event of severe impact or fire exposure shall be properly installed in the dispensing supply line at the base of each individual dispensing device.

(f) Testing. After the completion of the installation, including any paving, that section of the pressure piping system between the pump discharge and the connection for the dispensing facility shall be tested for at least 30 minutes at the maximum operating pressure of the system. Such tests shall be repeated at 5-year intervals thereafter.

(vi) Delivery nozzles. (a) A listed manual or automatic-closing type hose nozzle valve shall be provided on dispensers used for the dispensing of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C).

(b) Manual-closing type valves shall be held open manually during dispensing. Automatic-closing type valves may be used in conjunction with an approved latch-open device.

(4) Marine service stations—(i) Dispensing. (a) The dispensing area shall be located away from other structures so as to provide room for safe ingress and egress of craft to be fueled. Dispensing units shall in all cases be at least 20 feet from any activity involving fixed sources of ignition.

(b) Dispensing shall be by approved dispensing units with or without integral pumps and may be located on open piers, wharves, or floating docks or on shore or on piers of the solid fill type.

(c) Dispensing nozzles shall be automatic-closing without a hold-open latch.

(ii) Tanks and pumps. (a) Tanks, and pumps not integral with the dispensing unit, shall be on shore or on a pier of the solid fill type, except as provided in paragraphs (g)(4)(ii) (b) and (c) of this section.

(b) Where shore location would require excessively long supply lines to dispensers, tanks may be installed on a pier provided that applicable portions of paragraph (b) of this section relative to spacing, diking, and piping are complied with and the quantity so stored does not exceed 1,100 gallons aggregate capacity.

(c) Shore tanks supplying marine service stations may be located above ground, where rock ledges or high water table make underground tanks impractical.

(d) Where tanks are at an elevation which would produce gravity head on the dispensing unit, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a pressure control valve positioned adjacent to and outside the tank block valve specified in paragraph (b)(2)(ix)(b) of this section, so adjusted that liquid cannot flow by gravity from the tank in case of piping or hose failure.

(iii) Piping. (a) Piping between shore tanks and dispensing units shall be as described in paragraph (c) of this section, except that, where dispensing is from a floating structure, suitable lengths of oil-resistant flexible hose may be employed between the shore piping and the piping on the floating structure as made necessary by change in water level or shoreline.

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(b) A readily accessible valve to shut off the supply from shore shall be provided in each pipeline at or near the approach to the pier and at the shore end of each pipeline adjacent to the point where flexible hose is attached.

(c) Piping shall be located so as to be protected from physical damage.

(d) Piping handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall be grounded to control stray currents.

(5) Electrical equipment—(i) Application. This paragraph (g)(5) shall apply to areas where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are stored or handled. For areas where Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids are stored or handled the electrical equipment may be installed in accordance with the provisions of subpart S of this part, for ordinary locations.

(ii) All electrical equipment and wiring shall be of a type specified by and shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(iii) So far as it applies. Table H-19 shall be used to delineate and classify hazardous areas for the purpose of installation of electrical equipment under normal circumstances. A classified area shall not extend beyond an unpierced wall, roof, or other solid partition.

(iv) The area classifications listed shall be based on the assumption that the installation meets the applicable requirements of this section in all respects.

(6) Heating equipment—(i) Conformance. Heating equipment shall be installed as provided in paragraphs (g)(6) (ii) through (v) of this section.

(ii) Application. Heating equipment may be installed in the conventional manner in an area except as provided in paragraph (g)(6) (iii), (iv), or (v) of this section.

(iii) Special room. Heating equipment may be installed in a special room separated from an area classified by Table H-19 by walls having a fire resistance rating of at least 1 hour and without any openings in the walls within 8 feet of the floor into an area classified in Table H-19. This room shall not be used for combustible storage and all air for combustion purposes shall come from outside the building.

(iv) Work areas. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel may be installed in the lubrication, sales, or service room where there is no dispensing or transferring of Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids or 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), provided the bottom of the combustion chamber is at least 18 inches above the floor and the heating equipment is protected from physical damage by vehicles. Heating equipment using gas or oil fuel listed for use in garages may be installed in the lubrication or service room where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are dispensed provided the equipment is installed at least 8 feet above the floor.

(v) Electric heat. Electrical heating equipment shall conform to paragraph (g)(5) of this section.

(7) Drainage and waste disposal. Provision shall be made in the area where Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), are dispensed to prevent spilled liquids from flowing into the interior of service station buildings. Such provision may be by grading driveways, raising door sills, or other equally effective means. Crankcase drainings and flammable liquids shall not be dumped into sewers but shall be stored in tanks or drums outside of any building until removed from the premises.

(8) Sources of ignition. In addition to the previous restrictions of this paragraph, the following shall apply: There shall be no smoking or open flames in the areas used for fueling, servicing fuel systems for internal combustion engines, receiving or dispensing of flammable liquids. Conspicuous and legible signs prohibiting smoking shall be posted within sight of the customer being served. The motors of all equipment being fueled shall be shut off during the fueling operation.

(9) Fire control. Each service station shall be provided with at least one fire extinguisher having a minimum approved classification of 6 B, C, located so that an extinguisher, will be within 75 feet of each pump, dispenser, underground fill pipe opening, and lubrication or service room.

(h) Processing plants—(1) Scope. This paragraph shall apply to those plants or buildings which contain chemical operations such as oxidation, reduction, halogenation, hydrogenation, alkylation, polymerization, and other chemical processes but shall not apply to chemical plants, refineries or distilleries.

(2) Location—(i) Classification. The location of each processing vessel shall be based upon its flammable liquid capacity.

(ii) [Reserved]

(3) Processing building—(i) Construction. (a) Processing buildings shall be of fire-resistance or noncombustible construction, except heavy timber construction with load-bearing walls may be permitted for plants utilizing only stable Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids. Except as provided in paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section or in the case of explosion resistant walls used in conjunction with explosion relieving facilities, see paragraph (h)(3)(iv) of this section, load-bearing walls are prohibited. Buildings shall be without basements or covered pits.

(b) Areas shall have adequate exit facilities arranged to prevent occupants from being trapped in the event of fire. Exits shall not be exposed by the drainage facilities described in paragraph (h)(ii) of this section.

(ii) Drainage. (a) Emergency drainage systems shall be provided to direct flammable liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location. This may require curbs, scuppers, or special drainage systems to control the spread of fire, see paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(b) of this section.

(b) Emergency drainage systems, if connected to public sewers or discharged into public waterways, shall be equipped with traps or separators.

(iii) Ventilation. (a) Enclosed processing buildings shall be ventilated at a rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot of solid floor area. This shall be accomplished by natural or mechanical ventilation with discharge or exhaust to a safe location outside of the building. Provisions shall be made for introduction of makeup air in such a manner as not to short circuit the ventilation. Ventilation shall be arranged to include all floor areas or pits where flammable vapors may collect.

(b) Equipment used in a building and the ventilation of the building shall be designed so as to limit flammable vapor-air mixtures under normal operating conditions to the interior of equipment, and to not more than 5 feet from equipment which exposes Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), to the air. Examples of such equipment are dispensing stations, open centrifuges, plate and frame filters, open vacuum filters, and surfaces of open equipment.

(iv) Explosion relief. Areas where Category 1 or unstable liquids are processed shall have explosion venting through one or more of the following methods:

(a) Open air construction.

(b) Lightweight walls and roof.

(c) Lightweight wall panels and roof hatches.

(d) Windows of explosion venting type.

(4) Liquid handling—(i) Storage. (a) The storage of flammable liquids in tanks shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) If the storage of flammable liquids in outside aboveground or underground tanks is not practical because of temperature or production considerations, tanks may be permitted inside of buildings or structures in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (b) of this section.

(c) Storage tanks inside of buildings shall be permitted only in areas at or above grade which have adequate drainage and are separated from the processing area by construction having a fire resistance rating of at least 2 hours.

(d) The storage of flammable liquids in containers shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Piping, valves, and fittings shall be in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) Approved flexible connectors may be used where vibration exists or where frequent movement is necessary. Approved hose may be used at transfer stations.

(c) Piping containing flammable liquids shall be identified.

(iii) Transfer. (a) The transfer of large quantities of flammable liquids shall be through piping by means of pumps or water displacement. Except as required in process equipment, gravity flow shall not be used. The use of compressed air as a transferring medium is prohibited.

(b) Positive displacement pumps shall be provided with pressure relief discharging back to the tank or to pump suction.

(iv) Equipment. (a) Equipment shall be designed and arranged to prevent the unintentional escape of liquids and vapors and to minimize the quantity escaping in the event of accidental release.

(b) Where the vapor space of equipment is usually within the flammable range, the probability of explosion damage to the equipment can be limited by inerting, by providing an explosion suppression system, or by designing the equipment to contain the peak explosion pressure which may be modified by explosion relief. Where the special hazards of operation, sources of ignition, or exposures indicate a need, consideration shall be given to providing protection by one or more of the above means.

(5) Tank vehicle and tank car loading and unloading. Tank vehicle and tank car loading or unloading facilities shall be separated from aboveground tanks, warehouses, other plant buildings, or nearest line of adjoining property which may be built upon by a distance of 25 feet for Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), and 15 feet for Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) and Category 4 flammable liquids measured from the nearest position of any fill stem. Buildings for pumps or shelters for personnel may be a part of the facility. Operations of the facility shall comply with the appropriate portions of paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(6) Fire control—(i) Portable extinguishers. Approved portable fire extinguishers of appropriate size, type, and number shall be provided.

(ii) Other controls. Where the special hazards of operation or exposure indicate a need, the following fire control provision shall be provided.

(a) A reliable water supply shall be available in pressure and quantity adequate to meet the probable fire demands.

(b) Hydrants shall be provided in accordance with accepted good practice.

(c) Hose connected to a source of water shall be installed so that all vessels, pumps, and other equipment containing flammable liquids can be reached with at least one hose stream. Nozzles that are capable of discharging a water spray shall be provided.

(d) Processing plants shall be protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system or equivalent extinguishing system. If special extinguishing systems including but not limited to those employing foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical are provided, approved equipment shall be used and installed in an approved manner.

(iii) Alarm systems. An approved means for prompt notification of fire to those within the plant and any public fire department available shall be provided. It may be advisable to connect the plant system with the public system where public fire alarm system is available.

(iv) Maintenance. All plant fire protection facilities shall be adequately maintained and periodically inspected and tested to make sure they are always in satisfactory operating condition and that they will serve their purpose in time of emergency.

(7) Sources of ignition—(i) General. (a) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the ignition of flammable vapors. Sources of ignition include but are not limited to open flames; lightning; smoking; cutting and welding; hot surfaces; frictional heat; static, electrical, and mechanical sparks; spontaneous ignition, including heat-producing chemical reactions; and radiant heat.

(b) Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C), shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected. Where the metallic floorplate on which the container stands while filling is electrically connected to the fill stem or where the fill stem is bonded to the container during filling operations by means of a bond wire, the provisions of this section shall be deemed to have been complied with.

(ii) Maintenance and repair. (a) When necessary to do maintenance work in a flammable liquid processing area, the work shall be authorized by a responsible representative of the employer.

(b) Hot work, such as welding or cutting operations, use of spark-producing power tools, and chipping operations shall be permitted only under supervision of an individual in responsible charge who shall make an inspection of the area to be sure that it is safe for the work to be done and that safe procedures will be followed for the work specified.

(iii) Electrical. (a) All electric wiring and equipment shall be installed in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(b) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under normal operations shall be classified Class I, Division 1 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. For those pieces of equipment installed in accordance with paragraph (h)(3)(iii)(b) of this section, the Division 1 area shall extend 5 feet in all directions from all points of vapor liberation. All areas within pits shall be classified Division 1 if any part of the pit is within a Division 1 or 2 classified area, unless the pit is provided with mechanical ventilation.

(c) Locations where flammable vapor-air mixtures may exist under abnormal conditions and for a distance beyond Division 1 locations shall be classified Division 2 according to the requirements of subpart S of this part. These locations include an area within 20 feet horizontally, 3 feet vertically beyond a Division 1 area, and up to 3 feet above floor or grade level within 25 feet, if indoors, or 10 feet if outdoors, from any pump, bleeder, withdrawal fitting, meter, or similar device handling Category 1 or 2 flammable liquids, or Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint below 100 °F (37.8 °C). Pits provided with adequate mechanical ventilation within a Division 1 or 2 area shall be classified Division 2. If Category 3 flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or above 100 °F (37.8 °C) or Category 4 flammable liquids only are handled, then ordinary electrical equipment is satisfactory though care shall be used in locating electrical apparatus to prevent hot metal from falling into open equipment.

(d) Where the provisions of paragraphs (h)(7)(iii) (a), (b), and (c) of this section require the installation of explosion-proof equipment, ordinary electrical equipment including switchgear may be used if installed in a room or enclosure which is maintained under positive pressure with respect to the hazardous area. Ventilation makeup air shall be uncontaminated by flammable vapors.

(8) Housekeeping—(i) General. Maintenance and operating practices shall be in accordance with established procedures which will tend to control leakage and prevent the accidental escape of flammable liquids. Spills shall be cleaned up promptly.

(ii) Access. Adequate aisles shall be maintained for unobstructed movement of personnel and so that fire protection equipment can be brought to bear on any part of the processing equipment.

(iii) Waste and residues. Combustible waste material and residues in a building or operating area shall be kept to a minimum, stored in closed metal waste cans, and disposed of daily.

(iv) Clear zone. Ground area around buildings and operating areas shall be kept free of tall grass, weeds, trash, or other combustible materials.

(i) Refineries, chemical plants, and distilleries—(1) Storage tanks. Flammable liquids shall be stored in tanks, in containers, or in portable tanks. Tanks shall be installed in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Tanks for the storage of flammable liquids in tank farms and in locations other than process areas shall be located in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) (i) and (ii) of this section.

(2) Wharves. Wharves handling flammable liquids shall be in accordance with paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(3) Fired and unfired pressure vessels—(i) Fired vessels. Fired pressure vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Fired Pressure Vessels, Section I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968.

(ii) Unfired vessels shall be constructed in accordance with the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968.

(4) Location of process units. Process units shall be located so that they are accessible from at least one side for the purpose of fire control.

(5) Fire control—(i) Portable equipment. Portable fire extinguishment and control equipment shall be provided in such quantities and types as are needed for the special hazards of operation and storage.

(ii) Water supply. Water shall be available in volume and at adequate pressure to supply water hose streams, foam producing equipment, automatic sprinklers, or water spray systems as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

(iii) Special equipment. Special extinguishing equipment such as that utilizing foam, inert gas, or dry chemical shall be provided as the need is indicated by the special hazards of operation and storage.

(j) Scope. This section applies to the handling, storage, and use of flammable liquids with a flashpoint at or below 199.4 °F (93 °C) unless otherwise noted. This section does not apply to:

(1) Bulk transportation of flammable liquids;

(2) Storage, handling, and use of fuel oil tanks and containers connected with oil burning equipment;

(3) Storage of flammable liquids on farms;

(4) Liquids without flashpoints that may be flammable under some conditions, such as certain halogenated hydrocarbons and mixtures containing halogenated hydrocarbons;

(5) Mists, sprays, or foams, except flammable aerosols covered in paragraph (d) of this section; or

(6) Installations made in accordance with requirements of the following standards that are incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6:

(i) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Drycleaning Plants, NFPA No. 32-1970;

(ii) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Manufacture of Organic Coatings, NFPA No. 35-1970;

(iii) National Fire Protection Association Standard for Solvent Extraction Plants, NFPA No. 36-1967; or

(iv) National Fire Protection Association Standard for the Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines, NFPA No. 37-1970.

[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 3982, Jan. 27, 1975; 40 FR 23743, June 2, 1975; 43 FR 49746, Oct. 24, 1978; 43 FR 51759, Nov. 7, 1978; 47 FR 39164, Sept. 7, 1982; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 53 FR 12121, Apr. 12, 1988; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9237, Mar. 7, 1996; 70 FR 53929, Sept. 13, 2005; 77 FR 17765, Mar. 26, 2012]

§1910.107   Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials.

(a) Definitions applicable to this section—(1) Aerated solid powders. Aerated powders shall mean any powdered material used as a coating material which shall be fluidized within a container by passing air uniformly from below. It is common practice to fluidize such materials to form a fluidized powder bed and then dip the part to be coated into the bed in a manner similar to that used in liquid dipping. Such beds are also used as sources for powder spray operations.

(2) Spraying area. Any area in which dangerous quantities of flammable vapors or mists, or combustible residues, dusts, or deposits are present due to the operation of spraying processes.

(3) Spray booth. A power-ventilated structure provided to enclose or accommodate a spraying operation to confine and limit the escape of spray, vapor, and residue, and to safely conduct or direct them to an exhaust system.

(4) Waterwash spray booth. A spray booth equipped with a water washing system designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts and to permit the recovery of overspray finishing material.

(5) Dry spray booth. A spray booth not equipped with a water washing system as described in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph. A dry spray booth may be equipped with (i) distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; or (ii) overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or (iii) overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or (iv) overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or (v) where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material.

(6) Fluidized bed. A container holding powder coating material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material through which the preheated object to be coated is immersed and transported.

(7) Electrostatic fluidized bed. A container holding powder coating material which is aerated from below so as to form an air-supported expanded cloud of such material which is electrically charged with a charge opposite to the charge of the object to be coated; such object is transported, through the container immediately above the charged and aerated materials in order to be coated.

(8) Approved. Shall mean approved and listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.

(9) Listed. See “approved” in §1910.107(a)(8).

(b) Spray booths—(1) Construction. Spray booths shall be substantially constructed of steel, securely and rigidly supported, or of concrete or masonry except that aluminum or other substantial noncombustible material may be used for intermittent or low volume spraying. Spray booths shall be designed to sweep air currents toward the exhaust outlet.

(2) Interiors. The interior surfaces of spray booths shall be smooth and continuous without edges and otherwise designed to prevent pocketing of residues and facilitate cleaning and washing without injury.

(3) Floors. The floor surface of a spray booth and operator's working area, if combustible, shall be covered with noncombustible material of such character as to facilitate the safe cleaning and removal of residues.

(4) Distribution or baffle plates. Distribution or baffle plates, if installed to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct, shall be of noncombustible material and readily removable or accessible on both sides for cleaning. Such plates shall not be located in exhaust ducts.

(5) Dry type overspray collectors—(exhaust air filters). In conventional dry type spray booths, overspray dry filters or filter rolls, if installed, shall conform to the following:

(i) The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations shall be so designed, installed and maintained that the average air velocity over the open face of the booth (or booth cross section during spraying operations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. Electrostatic spraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity over the open face of the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per minute, or more, depending on the volume of the finishing material being applied and its flammability and explosion characteristics. Visible gauges or audible alarm or pressure activated devices shall be installed to indicate or insure that the required air velocity is maintained. Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure proper replacement of filter media.

(ii) All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately removed to a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled metal container and disposed of at the close of the day's operation unless maintained completely in water.

(iii) The location of filters in a spray booth shall be so as to not reduce the effective booth enclosure of the articles being sprayed.

(iv) Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream sides of filters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers.

(v) Filters or filter rolls shall not be used when applying a spray material known to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition.

(vi) Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a type having a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not be alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the combination of materials may be conducive to spontaneous ignition. See also paragraph (g)(6) of this section.

(6) Frontal area. Each spray booth having a frontal area larger than 9 square feet shall have a metal deflector or curtain not less than 212 inches deep installed at the upper outer edge of the booth over the opening.

(7) Conveyors. Where conveyors are arranged to carry work into or out of spray booths, the openings therefor shall be as small as practical.

(8) Separation of operations. Each spray booth shall be separated from other operations by not less than 3 feet, or by a greater distance, or by such partition or wall as to reduce the danger from juxtaposition of hazardous operations. See also paragraph (c)(1) of this section.

(9) Cleaning. Spray booths shall be so installed that all portions are readily accessible for cleaning. A clear space of not less than 3 feet on all sides shall be kept free from storage or combustible construction.

(10) Illumination. When spraying areas are illuminated through glass panels or other transparent materials, only fixed lighting units shall be used as a source of illumination. Panels shall effectively isolate the spraying area from the area in which the lighting unit is located, and shall be of a noncombustible material of such a nature or so protected that breakage will be unlikely. Panels shall be so arranged that normal accumulations of residue on the exposed surface of the panel will not be raised to a dangerous temperature by radiation or conduction from the source of illumination.

(c) Electrical and other sources of ignition—(1) Conformance. All electrical equipment, open flames and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of this paragraph, except as follows:

(i) Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section;

(ii) Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section;

(iii) Automobile undercoating spray operations in garages shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (k) of this section;

(iv) Powder-coating equipment shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (l)(1) of this section.

(2) Minimum separation. There shall be no open flame or spark producing equipment in any spraying area nor within 20 feet thereof, unless separated by a partition.

(3) Hot surfaces. Space-heating appliances, steampipes, or hot surfaces shall not be located in a spraying area where deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate.

(4) Wiring conformance. Electrical wiring and equipment shall conform to the provisions of this paragraph and shall otherwise be in accordance with subpart S of this part.

(5) Combustible residues, areas. Unless specifically approved for locations containing both deposits of readily ignitable residue and explosive vapors, there shall be no electrical equipment in any spraying area, whereon deposits of combustible residues may readily accumulate, except wiring in rigid conduit or in boxes or fittings containing no taps, splices, or terminal connections.

(6) Wiring type approved. Electrical wiring and equipment not subject to deposits of combustible residues but located in a spraying area as herein defined shall be of explosion-proof type approved for Class I, group D locations and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this part, for Class I, Division 1, Hazardous Locations. Electrical wiring, motors, and other equipment outside of but within twenty (20) feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by partitions, shall not produce sparks under normal operating conditions and shall otherwise conform to the provisions of subpart S of this part for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations.

(7) Lamps. Electric lamps outside of, but within twenty (20) feet of any spraying area, and not separated therefrom by a partition, shall be totally enclosed to prevent the falling of hot particles and shall be protected from mechanical injury by suitable guards or by location.

(8) Portable lamps. Portable electric lamps shall not be used in any spraying area during spraying operations. Portable electric lamps, if used during cleaning or repairing operations, shall be of the type approved for hazardous Class I locations.

(9) Grounding. (i) All metal parts of spray booths, exhaust ducts, and piping systems conveying flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) or aerated solids shall be properly electrically grounded in an effective and permanent manner.

(ii) [Reserved]

(d) Ventilation—(1) Conformance. Ventilating and exhaust systems shall be in accordance with the Standard for Blower and Exhaust Systems for Vapor Removal, NFPA No. 91-1961, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, where applicable and shall also conform to the provisions of this section.

(2) General. All spraying areas shall be provided with mechanical ventilation adequate to remove flammable vapors, mists, or powders to a safe location and to confine and control combustible residues so that life is not endangered. Mechanical ventilation shall be kept in operation at all times while spraying operations are being conducted and for a sufficient time thereafter to allow vapors from drying coated articles and drying finishing material residue to be exhausted.

(3) Independent exhaust. Each spray booth shall have an independent exhaust duct system discharging to the exterior of the building, except that multiple cabinet spray booths in which identical spray finishing material is used with a combined frontal area of not more than 18 square feet may have a common exhaust. If more than one fan serves one booth, all fans shall be so interconnected that one fan cannot operate without all fans being operated.

(4) Fan-rotating element. The fan-rotating element shall be nonferrous or nonsparking or the casing shall consist of or be lined with such material. There shall be ample clearance between the fan-rotating element and the fan casing to avoid a fire by friction, necessary allowance being made for ordinary expansion and loading to prevent contact between moving parts and the duct or fan housing. Fan blades shall be mounted on a shaft sufficiently heavy to maintain perfect alignment even when the blades of the fan are heavily loaded, the shaft preferably to have bearings outside the duct and booth. All bearings shall be of the self-lubricating type, or lubricated from the outside duct.

(5) Electric motors. Electric motors driving exhaust fans shall not be placed inside booths or ducts. See also paragraph (c) of this section.

(6) Belts. Belts shall not enter the duct or booth unless the belt and pulley within the duct or booth are thoroughly enclosed.

(7) Exhaust ducts. Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of steel and shall be substantially supported. Exhaust ducts without dampers are preferred; however, if dampers are installed, they shall be maintained so that they will be in a full open position at all times the ventilating system is in operation.

(i) Exhaust ducts shall be protected against mechanical damage and have a clearance from unprotected combustible construction or other combustible material of not less than 18 inches.

(ii) If combustible construction is provided with the following protection applied to all surfaces within 18 inches, clearances may be reduced to the distances indicated:

(a) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/4-inch asbestos mill board12 inches.
(b) 28-gage sheet metal on 1/8-inch asbestos mill board spaced out 1 inch on noncombustible spacers9 inches.
(c) 22-gage sheet metal on 1-inch rockwool batts reinforced with wire mesh or the equivalent3 inches.
(d) Where ducts are protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system, properly maintained, the clearance required in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph may be reduced to 6 inches

(8) Discharge clearance. Unless the spray booth exhaust duct terminal is from a water-wash spray booth, the terminal discharge point shall be not less than 6 feet from any combustible exterior wall or roof nor discharge in the direction of any combustible construction or unprotected opening in any noncombustible exterior wall within 25 feet.

(9) Air exhaust. Air exhaust from spray operations shall not be directed so that it will contaminate makeup air being introduced into the spraying area or other ventilating intakes, nor directed so as to create a nuisance. Air exhausted from spray operations shall not be recirculated.

(10) Access doors. When necessary to facilitate cleaning, exhaust ducts shall be provided with an ample number of access doors.

(11) Room intakes. Air intake openings to rooms containing spray finishing operations shall be adequate for the efficient operation of exhaust fans and shall be so located as to minimize the creation of dead air pockets.

(12) Drying spaces. Freshly sprayed articles shall be dried only in spaces provided with adequate ventilation to prevent the formation of explosive vapors. In the event adequate and reliable ventilation is not provided such drying spaces shall be considered a spraying area. See also paragraph (j) of this section.

(e) Flammable liquids and liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C)—(1) Conformance. The storage of flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) in connection with spraying operations shall conform to the requirements of §1910.106, where applicable.

(2) Quantity. The quantity of flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) kept in the vicinity of spraying operations shall be the minimum required for operations and should ordinarily not exceed a supply for 1 day or one shift. Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner.

(3) Containers. Original closed containers, approved portable tanks, approved safety cans or a properly arranged system of piping shall be used for bringing flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) into spray finishing room. Open or glass containers shall not be used.

(4) Transferring liquids. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(5) of this section the withdrawal of flammable liquids and liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) from containers having a capacity of greater than 60 gallons shall be by approved pumps. The withdrawal of flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) from containers and the filling of containers, including portable mixing tanks, shall be done only in a suitable mixing room or in a spraying area when the ventilating system is in operation. Adequate precautions shall be taken to protect against liquid spillage and sources of ignition.

(5) Spraying containers. Containers supplying spray nozzles shall be of closed type or provided with metal covers kept closed. Containers not resting on floors shall be on metal supports or suspended by wire cables. Containers supplying spray nozzles by gravity flow shall not exceed 10 gallons capacity. Original shipping containers shall not be subject to air pressure for supplying spray nozzles. Containers under air pressure supplying spray nozzles shall be of limited capacity, not exceeding that necessary for 1 day's operation; shall be designed and approved for such use; shall be provided with a visible pressure gage; and shall be provided with a relief valve set to operate in conformance with the requirements of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6. Containers under air pressure supplying spray nozzles, air-storage tanks and coolers shall conform to the standards of the Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels, Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code—1968 for construction, tests, and maintenance.

(6) Pipes and hoses. (i) All containers or piping to which is attached a hose or flexible connection shall be provided with a shutoff valve at the connection. Such valves shall be kept shut when spraying operations are not being conducted.

(ii) When a pump is used to deliver products, automatic means shall be provided to prevent pressure in excess of the design working pressure of accessories, piping, and hose.

(iii) All pressure hose and couplings shall be inspected at regular intervals appropriate to this service. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended, and using the “inservice maximum operating pressures.” Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings, shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded.

(iv) Piping systems conveying flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) shall be of steel or other material having comparable properties of resistance to heat and physical damage. Piping systems shall be properly bonded and grounded.

(7) Spray liquid heaters. Electrically powered spray liquid heaters shall be approved and listed for the specific location in which used (see paragraph (c) of this section). Heaters shall not be located in spray booths nor other locations subject to the accumulation of deposits or combustible residue. If an electric motor is used, see paragraph (c) of this section.

(8) Pump relief. If flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) are supplied to spray nozzles by positive displacement pumps, the pump discharge line shall be provided with an approved relief valve discharging to a pump suction or a safe detached location, or a device provided to stop the prime mover if the discharge pressure exceeds the safe operating pressure of the system.

(9) Grounding. Whenever flammable liquids or liquids with a flashpoint greater than 199.4 °F (93 °C) are transferred from one container to another, both containers shall be effectively bonded and grounded to prevent discharge sparks of static electricity.

(f) Protection—(1) Conformance. In sprinklered buildings, the automatic sprinkler system in rooms containing spray finishing operations shall conform to the requirements of §1910.159. In unsprinklered buildings where sprinklers are installed only to protect spraying areas, the installation shall conform to such standards insofar as they are applicable. Sprinkler heads shall be located so as to provide water distribution throughout the entire booth.

(2) Valve access. Automatic sprinklers protecting each spray booth (together with its connecting exhaust) shall be under an accessibly located separate outside stem and yoke (OS&Y) subcontrol valve.

(3) Cleaning of heads. Sprinklers protecting spraying areas shall be kept as free from deposits as practical by cleaning daily if necessary. (See also paragraph (g) of this section.)

(4) Portable extinguishers. An adequate supply of suitable portable fire extinguishers shall be installed near all spraying areas.

(g) Operations and maintenance—(1) Spraying. Spraying shall not be conducted outside of predetermined spraying areas.

(2) Cleaning. All spraying areas shall be kept as free from the accumulation of deposits of combustible residues as practical, with cleaning conducted daily if necessary. Scrapers, spuds, or other such tools used for cleaning purposes shall be of nonsparking material.

(3) Residue disposal. Residue scrapings and debris contaminated with residue shall be immediately removed from the premises and properly disposed of. Approved metal waste cans shall be provided wherever rags or waste are impregnated with finishing material and all such rags or waste deposited therein immediately after use. The contents of waste cans shall be properly disposed of at least once daily or at the end of each shift.

(4) Clothing storage. Spray finishing employees' clothing shall not be left on the premises overnight unless kept in metal lockers.

(5) Cleaning solvents. The use of solvents for cleaning operations shall be restricted to those having flashpoints not less than 100 °F.; however, for cleaning spray nozzles and auxiliary equipment, solvents having flashpoints not less than those normally used in spray operations may be used. Such cleaning shall be conducted inside spray booths and ventilating equipment operated during cleaning.

(6) Hazardous materials combinations. Spray booths shall not be alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the combination of the materials may be conducive to spontaneous ignition, unless all deposits of the first used material are removed from the booth and exhaust ducts prior to spraying with the second used material.

(7) “No Smoking” signs. “No smoking” signs in large letters on contrasting color background shall be conspicuously posted at all spraying areas and paint storage rooms.

(h) Fixed electrostatic apparatus—(1) Conformance. Where installation and use of electrostatic spraying equipment is used, such installation and use shall conform to all other paragraphs of this section, and shall also conform to the requirements of this paragraph.

(2) Type approval. Electrostatic apparatus and devices used in connection with coating operations shall be of approved types.

(3) Location. Transformers, power packs, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of high-voltage grids, electrodes, and electrostatic atomizing heads and their connections, shall be located outside of the spraying area, or shall otherwise conform to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(4) Support. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads shall be adequately supported in permanent locations and shall be effectively insulated from the ground. Electrodes and electrostatic atomizing heads which are permanently attached to their bases, supports, or reciprocators, shall be deemed to comply with this section. Insulators shall be nonporous and noncombustible.

(5) Insulators, grounding. High-voltage leads to electrodes shall be properly insulated and protected from mechanical injury or exposure to destructive chemicals. Electrostatic atomizing heads shall be effectively and permanently supported on suitable insulators and shall be effectively guarded against accidental contact or grounding. An automatic means shall be provided for grounding the electrode system when it is electrically deenergized for any reason. All insulators shall be kept clean and dry.

(6) Safe distance. A safe distance shall be maintained between goods being painted and electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads or conductors of at least twice the sparking distance. A suitable sign indicating this safe distance shall be conspicuously posted near the assembly.

(7) Conveyors required. Goods being painted using this process are to be supported on conveyors. The conveyors shall be so arranged as to maintain safe distances between the goods and the electrodes or electrostatic atomizing heads at all times. Any irregularly shaped or other goods subject to possible swinging or movement shall be rigidly supported to prevent such swinging or movement which would reduce the clearance to less than that specified in paragraph (h)(6) of this section.

(8) Prohibition. This process is not acceptable where goods being coated are manipulated by hand. When finishing materials are applied by electrostatic equipment which is manipulated by hand, see paragraph (i) of this section for applicable requirements.

(9) Fail-safe controls. Electrostatic apparatus shall be equipped with automatic controls which will operate without time delay to disconnect the power supply to the high voltage transformer and to signal the operator under any of the following conditions:

(i) Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause.

(ii) Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high voltage field.

(iii) Occurrence of a ground or of an imminent ground at any point on the high voltage system.

(iv) Reduction of clearance below that specified in paragraph (h)(6) of this section.

(10) Guarding. Adequate booths, fencing, railings, or guards shall be so placed about the equipment that they, either by their location or character or both, assure that a safe isolation of the process is maintained from plant storage or personnel. Such railings, fencing, and guards shall be of conducting material, adequately grounded.

(11) Ventilation. Where electrostatic atomization is used the spraying area shall be so ventilated as to insure safe conditions from a fire and health standpoint.

(12) Fire protection. All areas used for spraying, including the interior of the booth, shall be protected by automatic sprinklers where this protection is available. Where this protection is not available, other approved automatic extinguishing equipment shall be provided.

(i) Electrostatic hand spraying equipment—(1) Application. This paragraph shall apply to any equipment using electrostatically charged elements for the atomization and/or, precipitation of materials for coatings on articles, or for other similar purposes in which the atomizing device is hand held and manipulated during the spraying operation.

(2) Conformance. Electrostatic hand spraying equipment shall conform with the other provisions of this section.

(3) Equipment approval and specifications. Electrostatic hand spray apparatus and devices used in connection with coating operations shall be of approved types. The high voltage circuits shall be designed so as to not produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any vapor-air mixtures nor result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a grounded object under all normal operating conditions. The electrostatically charged exposed elements of the handgun shall be capable of being energized only by a switch which also controls the coating material supply.

(4) Electrical support equipment. Transformers, powerpacks, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of the handgun itself and its connections to the power supply shall be located outside of the spraying area or shall otherwise conform to the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(5) Spray gun ground. The handle of the spraying gun shall be electrically connected to ground by a metallic connection and to be so constructed that the operator in normal operating position is in intimate electrical contact with the grounded handle.

(6) Grounding—general. All electrically conductive objects in the spraying area shall be adequately grounded. This requirement shall apply to paint containers, wash cans, and any other objects or devices in the area. The equipment shall carry a prominent permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for this grounding feature.

(7) Maintenance of grounds. Objects being painted or coated shall be maintained in metallic contact with the conveyor or other grounded support. Hooks shall be regularly cleaned to insure this contact and areas of contact shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible. Points of support of the object shall be concealed from random spray where feasible and where the objects being sprayed are supported from a conveyor, the point of attachment to the conveyor shall be so located as to not collect spray material during normal operation.

(8) Interlocks. The electrical equipment shall be so interlocked with the ventilation of the spraying area that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilation fans are in operation.

(9) Ventilation. The spraying operation shall take place within a spray area which is adequately ventilated to remove solvent vapors released from the operation.

(j) Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus—(1) Conformance. Drying, curing, or fusion apparatus in connection with spray application of flammable and combustible finishes shall conform to the Standard for Ovens and Furnaces, NFPA 86A-1969, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6, where applicable and shall also conform with the following requirements of this paragraph.

(2) Alternate use prohibited. Spray booths, rooms, or other enclosures used for spraying operations shall not alternately be used for the purpose of drying by any arrangement which will cause a material increase in the surface temperature of the spray booth, room, or enclosure.

(3) Adjacent system interlocked. Except as specifically provided in paragraph (j)(4) of this section, drying, curing, or fusion units utilizing a heating system having open flames or which may produce sparks shall not be installed in a spraying area, but may be installed adjacent thereto when equipped with an interlocked ventilating system arranged to:

(i) Thoroughly ventilate the drying space before the heating system can be started;

(ii) Maintain a safe atmosphere at any source of ignition;

(iii) Automatically shut down the heating system in the event of failure of the ventilating system.

(4) Alternate use permitted. Automobile refinishing spray booths or enclosures, otherwise installed and maintained in full conformity with this section, may alternately be used for drying with portable electrical infrared drying apparatus when conforming with the following:

(i) Interior (especially floors) of spray enclosures shall be kept free of overspray deposits.

(ii) During spray operations, the drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray enclosure nor in any other location where spray residues may be deposited thereon.

(iii) The spraying apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with suitable interlocks so arranged that:

(a) The spraying apparatus cannot be operated while the drying apparatus is inside the spray enclosure.

(b) The spray enclosure will be purged of spray vapors for a period of not less than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus can be energized.

(c) The ventilating system will maintain a safe atmosphere within the enclosure during the drying process and the drying apparatus will automatically shut off in the event of failure of the ventilating system.

(iv) All electrical wiring and equipment of the drying apparatus shall conform with the applicable sections of subpart S of this part. Only equipment of a type approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations shall be located within 18 inches of floor level. All metallic parts of the drying apparatus shall be properly electrically bonded and grounded.

(v) The drying apparatus shall contain a prominently located, permanently attached warning sign indicating that ventilation should be maintained during the drying period and that spraying should not be conducted in the vicinity that spray will deposit on apparatus.

(k) Automobile undercoating in garages. Automobile undercoating spray operations in garages, conducted in areas having adequate natural or mechanical ventilation, are exempt from the requirements pertaining to spray finishing operations, when using undercoating materials not more hazardous than kerosene (as listed by Underwriters' Laboratories in respect to fire hazard rating 30-40) or undercoating materials using only solvents listed as having a flash point in excess of 100 °F. Undercoating spray operations not conforming to these provisions are subject to all requirements of this section pertaining to spray finishing operations.

(l) Powder coating—(1) Electrical and other sources of ignition. Electrical equipment and other sources of ignition shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1) (i)-(iv), (8) and (9)(i) of this section and subpart S of this part.

(2) Ventilation. (i) In addition to the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section, where applicable, exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to maintain the atmosphere below the lowest explosive limits for the materials being applied. All nondeposited air-suspended powders shall be safely removed via exhaust ducts to the powder recovery cyclone or receptacle. Each installation shall be designed and operated to meet the foregoing performance specification.

(ii) Powders shall not be released to the outside atmosphere.

(3) Drying, curing, or fusion equipment. The provisions of the Standard for ovens and furnaces, NFPA No. 86A-1969 shall apply where applicable.

(4) Operation and maintenance. (i) All areas shall be kept free of the accumulation of powder coating dusts, particularly such horizontal surfaces as ledges, beams, pipes, hoods, booths, and floors.

(ii) Surfaces shall be cleaned in such manner as to avoid scattering dust to other places or creating dust clouds.

(iii) “No Smoking” signs in large letters on contrasting color background shall be conspicuously posted at all powder coating areas and powder storage rooms.

(5) Fixed electrostatic spraying equipment. The provisions of paragraph (h) of this section and other subparagraphs of this paragraph shall apply to fixed electrostatic equipment, except that electrical equipment not covered therein shall conform to paragraph (l)(1) of this section.

(6) Electrostatic hand spraying equipment. The provisions of paragraph (i) of this section and other subparagraphs of this paragraph, shall apply to electrostatic handguns when used in powder coating, except that electrical equipment not covered therein shall conform to paragraph (l)(1) of this section.

(7) Electrostatic fluidized beds. (i) Electrostatic fluidized beds and associated equipment shall be of approved types. The maximum surface temperature of this equipment in the coating area shall not exceed 150 °F. The high voltage circuits shall be so designed as to not produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any powder-air mixtures nor result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a grounded object under normal operating conditions.

(ii) Transformers, powerpacks, control apparatus, and all other electrical portions of the equipment, with the exception of the charging electrodes and their connections to the power supply shall be located outside of the powder coating area or shall otherwise conform to the requirements of paragraph (l)(1) of this section.

(iii) All electrically conductive objects within the charging influence of the electrodes shall be adequately grounded. The powder coating equipment shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for grounding these objects.

(iv) Objects being coated shall be maintained in contact with the conveyor or other support in order to insure proper grounding. Hangers shall be regularly cleaned to insure effective contact and areas of contact shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible.

(v) The electrical equipment shall be so interlocked with the ventilation system that the equipment cannot be operated unless the ventilation fans are in operation.

(m) Organic peroxides and dual component coatings—(1) Conformance. All spraying operations involving the use of organic peroxides and other dual component coatings shall be conducted in approved sprinklered spray booths meeting the requirements of this section.

(2) Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited and “No Smoking” signs shall be prominently displayed and only nonsparking tools shall be used in any area where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied.

(n) Scope. This section applies to flammable and combustible finishing materials when applied as a spray by compressed air, “airless” or “hydraulic atomization,” steam, electrostatic methods, or by any other means in continuous or intermittent processes. The section also covers the application of combustible powders by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidized beds, or electrostatic fluidized beds. The section does not apply to outdoor spray application of buildings, tanks, or other similar structures, n