About GPO   |   Newsroom/Media   |   Congressional Relations   |   Inspector General   |   Careers   |   Contact   |   askGPO   |   Help  
 
Home   |   Customers   |   Vendors   |   Libraries  
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government produced by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Publishing Office.


Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF

Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.

Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.

Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.

[1-C]
 
 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR data is current as of April 23, 2015

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter A → Part 1


Title 26: Internal Revenue


PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


Contents

CORPORATE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS

Effects on Recipients

§1.301-1   Rules applicable with respect to distributions of money and other property.
§1.302-1   General.
§1.302-2   Redemptions not taxable as dividends.
§1.302-3   Substantially disproportionate redemption.
§1.302-4   Termination of shareholder's interest.
§1.303-1   General.
§1.303-2   Requirements.
§1.303-3   Application of other sections.
§1.304-1   General.
§1.304-2   Acquisition by related corporation (other than subsidiary).
§1.304-3   Acquisition by a subsidiary.
§1.304-4   Special rules for the use of related corporations to avoid the application of section 304.
§1.304-5   Control.
§1.305-1   Stock dividends.
§1.305-2   Distributions in lieu of money.
§1.305-3   Disproportionate distributions.
§1.305-4   Distributions of common and preferred stock.
§1.305-5   Distributions on preferred stock.
§1.305-6   Distributions of convertible preferred.
§1.305-7   Certain transactions treated as distributions.
§1.305-8   Effective dates.
§1.306-1   General.
§1.306-2   Exception.
§1.306-3   Section 306 stock defined.
§1.307-1   General.
§1.307-2   Exception.

effects on corporation

§1.312-1   Adjustment to earnings and profits reflecting distributions by corporations.
§1.312-2   Distribution of inventory assets.
§1.312-3   Liabilities.
§1.312-4   Examples of adjustments provided in section 312(c).
§1.312-5   Special rule for partial liquidations and certain redemptions.
§1.312-6   Earnings and profits.
§1.312-7   Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.
§1.312-8   Effect on earnings and profits of receipt of tax-free distributions requiring adjustment or allocation of basis of stock.
§1.312-9   Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913.
§1.312-10   Allocation of earnings in certain corporate separations.
§1.312-11   Effect on earnings and profits of certain other tax-free exchanges, tax-free distributions, and tax-free transfers from one corporation to another.
§1.312-12   Distributions of proceeds of loans guaranteed by the United States.
§1.312-15   Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

definitions; constructive ownership of stock

§1.316-1   Dividends.
§1.316-2   Sources of distribution in general.
§1.317-1   Property defined.
§1.318-1   Constructive ownership of stock; introduction.
§1.318-2   Application of general rules.
§1.318-3   Estates, trusts, and options.
§1.318-4   Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions.

Corporate Liquidations

effects on recipients

§1.331-1   Corporate liquidations.
§1.332-1   Distributions in liquidation of subsidiary corporation; general.
§1.332-2   Requirements for nonrecognition of gain or loss.
§1.332-3   Liquidations completed within one taxable year.
§1.332-4   Liquidations covering more than one taxable year.
§1.332-5   Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.
§1.332-6   Records to be kept and information to be filed with return.
§1.332-7   Indebtedness of subsidiary to parent.
§1.334-1   Basis of property received in liquidations.
§1.336-0   Table of contents.
§1.336-1   General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.
§1.336-2   Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election.
§1.336-3   Aggregate deemed asset disposition price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset disposition.
§1.336-4   Adjusted grossed-up basis.
§1.336-5   Effective/applicability date.

effects on corporation

§1.337(d)-1   Transitional loss limitation rule.
§1.337(d)-1T   [Reserved]
§1.337(d)-2   Loss limitation rules.
§1.337(d)-4   Taxable to tax-exempt.
§1.337(d)-5   Old transitional rules imposing tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT
§1.337(d)-6   New transitional rules imposing tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT.
§1.337(d)-7   Tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT.
§1.338-0   Outline of topics.
§1.338-1   General principles; status of old target and new target.
§1.338-2   Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.
§1.338-3   Qualification for the section 338 election.
§1.338-4   Aggregate deemed sale price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset sale.
§1.338-5   Adjusted grossed-up basis.
§1.338-6   Allocation of ADSP and AGUB among target assets.
§1.338-7   Allocation of redetermined ADSP and AGUB among target assets.
§1.338-8   Asset and stock consistency.
§1.338-9   International aspects of section 338.
§1.338-10   Filing of returns.
§1.338-11   Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets.
§1.338(h)(10)-1   Deemed asset sale and liquidation.
§1.338(i)-1   Effective/applicability date.

collapsible corporations; foreign personal holding companies

§1.341-1   Collapsible corporations; in general.
§1.341-2   Definitions.
§1.341-3   Presumptions.
§1.341-4   Limitations on application of section.
§1.341-5   Application of section.
§1.341-6   Exceptions to application of section.
§1.341-7   Certain sales of stock of consenting corporations.

definition

§1.346-1   Partial liquidation.
§1.346-2   Treatment of certain redemptions.
§1.346-3   Effect of certain sales.

Corporate Organizations and Reorganizations

corporate organizations

§1.351-1   Transfer to corporation controlled by transferor.
§1.351-2   Receipt of property.
§1.351-3   Records to be kept and information to be filed.

effects on shareholders and security holders

§1.354-1   Exchanges of stock and securities in certain reorganizations.
§1.355-0   Outline of sections.
§1.355-1   Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.
§1.355-2   Limitations.
§1.355-3   Active conduct of a trade or business.
§1.355-4   Non pro rata distributions, etc.
§1.355-5   Records to be kept and information to be filed.
§1.355-6   Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation.
§1.355-7   Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with an acquisition.
§1.356-1   Receipt of additional consideration in connection with an exchange.
§1.356-2   Receipt of additional consideration not in connection with an exchange.
§1.356-3   Rules for treatment of securities as “other property”.
§1.356-4   Exchanges for section 306 stock.
§1.356-5   Transactions involving gift or compensation.
§1.356-6   Rules for treatment of nonqualified preferred stock as other property.
§1.356-7   Rules for treatment of nonqualified preferred stock and other preferred stock received in certain transactions.
§1.357-1   Assumption of liability.
§1.357-2   Liabilities in excess of basis.
§1.358-1   Basis to distributees.
§1.358-2   Allocation of basis among nonrecognition property.
§1.358-3   Treatment of assumption of liabilities.
§1.358-4   Exceptions.
§1.358-5   Special rules for assumption of liabilities.
§1.358-6   Stock basis in certain triangular reorganizations.
§1.358-7   Transfers by partners and partnerships to corporations.

effects on corporation

§1.361-1   Nonrecognition of gain or loss to corporations.
§1.362-1   Basis to corporations.
§1.362-2   Certain contributions to capital.
§1.362-4   Basis of loss duplication property.
§1.367(a)-1   Transfers to foreign corporations subject to section 367(a): In general.
§1.367(a)-1T   Transfers to foreign corporations subject to section 367(a): In general (temporary).
§1.367(a)-2   Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business.
§1.367(a)-2T   Exception for transfers of property for use in the active conduct of a trade or business (temporary).
§1.367(a)-3   Treatment of transfers of stock or securities to foreign corporations.
§1.367(a)-3T   Treatment of transfers of stock or securities to foreign corporations (temporary).
§1.367(a)-4   Special rules applicable to specified transfers of property.
§1.367(a)-4T   Special rules applicable to specified transfers of property (temporary).
§1.367(a)-5   Property subject to section 367(a)(1) regardless of use in a trade or business.
§1.367(a)-5T   Property subject to section 367(a)(1) regardless of use in trade or business (temporary).
§1.367(a)-6T   Transfer of foreign branch with previously deducted losses (temporary).
§1.367(a)-7   Outbound transfers of property described in section 361(a) or (b).
§1.367(a)-8   Gain recognition agreement requirements.
§1.367(a)-9T   Treatment of deemed section 351 exchanges pursuant to section 304(a)(1) (temporary).
§1.367(b)-0   Table of contents.
§1.367(b)-1   Other transfers.
§1.367(b)-2   Definitions and special rules.
§1.367(b)-3   Repatriation of foreign corporate assets in certain nonrecognition transactions.
§1.367(b)-3T   Repatriation of foreign corporate assets in certain nonrecognition transactions (temporary).
§1.367(b)-4   Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a foreign corporation in certain nonrecognition transactions.
§1.367(b)-4T   Acquisition of foreign corporate stock or assets by a foreign corporation in certain nonrecognition transactions (temporary).
§1.367(b)-5   Distributions of stock described in section 355.
§1.367(b)-6   Effective/applicability dates and coordination rules.
§1.367(b)-7   Carryover of earnings and profits and foreign income taxes in certain foreign-to-foreign nonrecognition transactions.
§1.367(b)-8   Allocation of earnings and profits and foreign income taxes in certain foreign corporate separations. [Reserved]
§1.367(b)-9   Special rule for F reorganizations and similar transactions.
§1.367(b)-10   Acquisition of parent stock or securities for property in triangular reorganizations.
§1.367(b)-12   Subsequent treatment of amounts attributed or included in income.
§1.367(b)-13   Special rules for determining basis and holding period.
§1.367(d)-1T   Transfers of intangible property to foreign corporations (temporary).
§1.367(e)-0   Outline of §§1.367(e)-1 and 1.367(e)-2.
§1.367(e)-1   Distributions described in section 367(e)(1).
§1.367(e)-2   Distributions described in section 367(e)(2).

special rule; definitions

§1.368-1   Purpose and scope of exception of reorganization exchanges.
§1.368-2   Definition of terms.
§1.368-3   Records to be kept and information to be filed with returns.

Insolvency Reorganizations

Carryovers

§1.381(a)-1   General rule relating to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.
§1.381(b)-1   Operating rules applicable to carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.
§1.381(c)(1)-1   Net operating loss carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.
§1.381(c)(1)-2   Net operating loss carryovers; two or more dates of distribution or transfer in the taxable year.
§1.381(c)(2)-1   Earnings and profits.
§1.381(c)(3)-1   Capital loss carryovers.
§1.381(c)(4)-1   Method of accounting.
§1.381(c)(5)-1   Inventory method.
§1.381(c)(6)-1   Depreciation method.
§1.381(c)(8)-1   Installment method.
§1.381(c)(9)-1   Amortization of bond discount or premium.
§1.381(c)(10)-1   Deferred exploration and development expenditures.
§1.381(c)(11)-1   Contributions to pension plan, employees' annuity plans, and stock bonus and profit-sharing plans.
§1.381(c)(12)-1   Recovery of bad debts, prior taxes, or delinquency amounts.
§1.381(c)(13)-1   Involuntary conversions.
§1.381(c)(14)-1   Dividend carryover to personal holding company.
§1.381(c)(15)-1   Indebtedness of certain personal holding companies.
§1.381(c)(16)-1   Obligations of distributor or transferor corporation.
§1.381(c)(17)-1   Deficiency dividend of personal holding company.
§1.381(c)(18)-1   Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.
§1.381(c)(19)-1   Charitable contribution carryovers in certain acquisitions.
§1.381(c)(21)-1   Pre-1954 adjustments resulting from change in method of accounting.
§1.381(c)(22)-1   Successor life insurance company.
§1.381(c)(23)-1   Investment credit carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.
§1.381(c)(24)-1   Work incentive program credit carryovers in certain corporate acquisitions.
§1.381(c)(25)-1   Deficiency dividend of a qualified investment entity.
§1.381(c)(26)-1   Credit for employment of certain new employees.
§1.381(d)-1   Operations loss carryovers of life insurance companies.
§1.382-1   Table of contents.
§1.382-1T   Table of contents (temporary).
§1.382-2   General rules for ownership change.
§1.382-2T   Definition of ownership change under section 382, as amended by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (temporary).
§1.382-3   Definitions and rules relating to a 5-percent shareholder.
§1.382-3T   Definitions and rules relating to a 5-percent shareholder (temporary).
§1.382-4   Constructive ownership of stock.
§1.382-5   Section 382 limitation.
§1.382-6   Allocation of income and loss to periods before and after the change date for purposes of section 382.
§1.382-7   Built-in gains and losses.
§1.382-8   Controlled groups.
§1.382-9   Special rules under section 382 for corporations under the jurisdiction of a court in a title 11 or similar case.
§1.382-10   Special rules for determining time and manner of acquisition of an interest in a loss corporation.
§1.382-11   Reporting requirements.
§1.383-0   Effective date.
§1.383-1   Special limitations on certain capital losses and excess credits.
§1.383-2   Limitations on certain capital losses and excess credits in computing alternative minimum tax. [Reserved]
§§1.384-1.400   [Reserved]

Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805, unless otherwise noted.

Section 1.301-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 357(d)(3).

Section 1.301-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 357(d)(3).

Section 1.304-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 304.

Section 1.305-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 305.

Section 1.305-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 305.

Section 1.305-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 305.

Section 1.336-2 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 336.

Section 1.336-3 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 336.

Section 1.336-4 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 336.

Section 1.336-5 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 336.

Section 1.337(d)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d).

Section 1.337(d)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d).

Section 1.337(d)-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337.

Section 1.337(d)-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337.

Section 1.337(d)-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337.

Section 1.337(d)-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337.

Section 1.338-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-10 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338-11 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 338.

Section 1.338-11T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 338.

Section 1.338(h)(10)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.338(h)(10)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338 and 1502.

Section 1.338(i)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d), 338, and 1502.

Section 1.351-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351.

Section 1.351-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351(g)(4).

Section 1.354-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351(g)(4).

Section 1.355-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351(g)(4).

Section 1.355-2(g) and (i) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 355(b)(3)(D).

Section 1.355-2T(g) and (i) are also issued under 26 U.S.C. 355(b)(3)(D).

Section 1.355-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 355(d)(9).

Section 1.356-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351(g)(4).

Section 1.355-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 355(e)(5).

Section 1.356-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 351(g)(4).

Section 1.358-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 358(b)(1).

Section 1.358-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 358(h)(2).

Section 1.358-5T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 358(h)(2).

Section 1.358-7 also issued under Public Law 106-554, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-638 (2001).

Section 1.362-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 362(e)(2)(C)(ii).

Section 1.367(a)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a).

Section 1.367(a)-1T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a).

Section 1.367(a)-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a).

Section 1.367(a)-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a).

Section 1.367(a)-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a), (b), (c), and 337(d).

Section 1.367(a)-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(a)-9T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-0 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Sections 1.367(b)-2(c)(1) and (2) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b)(1) and (2).

Section 1.367(b)-2(d)(3) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b)(1) and (2).

Section 1.367(b)-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-3T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-4(b)(1) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-4(d) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b)(1) and (2).

Section 1.367(b)-4T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b), 26 U.S.C. 902, and 26 U.S.C. 904.

Section 1.367(b)-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b), 26 U.S.C. 902, and 26 U.S.C. 904.

Section 1.367(b)-10 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(b)-12 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(a) and (b).

Section 1.367(b)-13 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(b).

Section 1.367(e)-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(e)(1).

Section 1.367(e)-1(a) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(e).

Section 1.367(e)-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 367(e)(2).

Section 1.382-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(k)(1), (l)(3), (m), and 26 U.S.C. 383.

Section 1.382-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(g)(4)(C), (i), (k)(1) and (6), (l)(3), (m), and 26 U.S.C. 383.

Section 1.382-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.382-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(l)(3) and 382(m).

Section 1.382-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.382-5T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.382-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(b)(3)(A), 26 U.S.C.(d)(1), 26 U.S.C. 382(m), and 26 U.S.C.383(d).

Section 1.382-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C 382(m).

Section 1.382-7T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.382-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.382-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(l)(3) and (m).

Section 1.382-10 also issued under 26 U.S.C 382(m).

Section 1.382-10T is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m).

Section 1.383-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 383.

Section 1.383-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 383.

Source: T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, unless otherwise noted.

CORPORATE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ADJUSTMENTS

DISTRIBUTIONS BY CORPORATIONS

Effects on Recipients

§1.301-1   Rules applicable with respect to distributions of money and other property.

(a) General. Section 301 provides the general rule for treatment of distributions on or after June 22, 1954, of property by a corporation to a shareholder with respect to its stock. The term property is defined in section 317(a). Such distributions, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, shall be treated as provided in section 301(c). Under section 301(c), distributions may be included in gross income, applied against and reduce the adjusted basis of the stock, treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property, or (in the case of certain distributions out of increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913) may be exempt from tax. The amount of the distributions to which section 301 applies is determined in accordance with the provisions of section 301(b). The basis of property received in a distribution to which section 301 applies is determined in accordance with the provisions of section 301(d). Accordingly, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, a distribution on or after June 22, 1954, of property by a corporation to a shareholder with respect to its stock shall be included in gross income to the extent the amount distributed is considered a dividend under section 316. For examples of distributions treated otherwise, see sections 116, 301(c)(2), 301(c)(3)(B), 301(e), 302(b), 303, and 305. See also part II (relating to distributions in partial or complete liquidation), part III (relating to corporate organizations and reorganizations), and part IV (relating to insolvency reorganizations), subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code.

(b) Time of inclusion in gross income and of determination of fair market value. A distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders shall be included in the gross income of the distributees when the cash or other property is unqualifiedly made subject to their demands. However, if such distribution is a distribution other than in cash, the fair market value of the property shall be determined as of the date of distribution without regard to whether such date is the same as that on which the distribution is includible in gross income. For example, if a corporation distributes a taxable dividend in property (the adjusted basis of which exceeds its fair market value on December 31, 1955) on December 31, 1955, which is received by, or unqualifiedly made subject to the demand of, its shareholders on January 2, 1956, the amount to be included in the gross income of the shareholders will be the fair market value of such property on December 31, 1955, although such amount will not be includible in the gross income of the shareholders until January 2, 1956.

(c) Application of section to shareholders. Section 301 is not applicable to an amount paid by a corporation to a shareholder unless the amount is paid to the shareholder in his capacity as such.

(d) Distributions to corporate shareholders. (1) If the shareholder is a corporation, the amount of any distribution to be taken into account under section 301(c) shall be:

(i) The amount of money distributed,

(ii) An amount equal to the fair market value of any property distributed which consists of any obligations of the distributing corporation, stock of the distributing corporation treated as property under section 305(b), or rights to acquire such stock treated as property under section 305(b), plus

(iii) In the case of a distribution not described in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, an amount equal to (a) the fair market value of any other property distributed or, if lesser, (b) the adjusted basis of such other property in the hands of the distributing corporation (determined immediately before the distribution and increased for any gain recognized to the distributing corporation under section 311 (b), (c), or (d), or under section 341(f), 617(d), 1245(a), 1250(a), 1251(c), 1252(a), or 1254(a)), or

(iv) In the case of a distribution made after November 8, 1971, to a shareholder which is a foreign corporation, an amount equal to the fair market value of any other property distributed, but only if the distribution received by such shareholder is not effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such shareholder.

(2) In the case of a distribution the amount of which is determined by reference to the adjusted basis described in subparagraph (1)(iii)(b) of this paragraph:

(i) That portion of the distribution which is a dividend under section 301(c)(1) may not exceed such adjusted basis, or

(ii) If the distribution is not out of earnings and profits, the amount of the reduction in basis of the shareholder's stock, and the amount of any gain resulting from such distribution, are to be determined by reference to such adjusted basis of the property which is distributed.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(1)(iii), if a distribution of property described in such paragraph is made after December 31, 1962, by a foreign corporation to a shareholder which is a corporation, the amount of the distribution to be taken into account under section 301(c) shall be determined under section 301(b)(1)(C) and paragraph (n) of this section.

(e) Adjusted basis. In determining the adjusted basis of property distributed in the hands of the distributing corporation immediately before the distribution for purposes of section 301(b)(1)(B)(ii), (b)(1)(C)(i), and (d)(2)(B), the basis to be used shall be the basis for determining gain upon a sale or exchange.

(f) Examples. The application of this section (except paragraph (n)) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On January 1, 1955, A, an individual owned all of the stock of Corporation M with an adjusted basis of $2,000. During 1955, A received distributions from Corporation M totaling $30,000, consisting of $10,000 in cash and listed securities having a basis in the hands of Corporation M and a fair market value on the date distributed of $20,000. Corporation M's taxable year is the calendar year. As of December 31, 1954, Corporation M had earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, in the amount of $26,000, and it had no earnings and profits and no deficit for 1955. Of the $30,000 received by A, $26,000 will be treated as an ordinary dividend; the remaining $4,000 will be applied against the adjusted basis of his stock; the $2,000 in excess of the adjusted basis of his stock will either be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property (under section 301(c)(3)(A)) or, if out of increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913, will (under section 301(c)(3)(B)) be exempt from tax. If A subsequently sells his stock in Corporation M, the basis for determining gain or loss on the sale will be zero.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 with the exceptions that the shareholder of Corporation M is Corporation W and that the securities which were distributed had an adjusted basis to Corporation M of $15,000. The distribution received by Corporation W totals $25,000 consisting of $10,000 in cash and securities with an adjusted basis of $15,000. The total $25,000 will be treated as a dividend to Corporation W since the earnings and profits of Corporation M ($26,000) are in excess of the amount of the distribution.
Example 3. Corporation X owns timber land which it acquired prior to March 1, 1913, at a cost of $50,000 with $5,000 allocated as the separate cost of the land. On March 1, 1913, this property had a fair market value of $150,000 of which $135,000 was attributable to the timber and $15,000 to the land. All of the timber was cut prior to 1955 and the full appreciation in the value thereof, $90,000 ($135,000−$45,000), realized through depletion allowances based on March 1, 1913, value. None of this surplus from realized appreciation had been distributed. In 1955, Corporation X sold the land for $20,000 thereby realizing a gain of $15,000. Of this gain, $10,000 is due to realized appreciation in value which accrued before March 1, 1913 ($15,000−$5,000). Of the gain of $15,000, $5,000 is taxable. Therefore, at December 31, 1955, Corporation X had a surplus from realized appreciation in the amount of $100,000. It had no accumulated earnings and profits and no deficit at January 1, 1955. The net earnings for 1955 (including the $5,000 gain on the sale of the land) were $20,000. During 1955, Corporation X distributed $75,000 to its stockholders. Of this amount, $20,000 will be treated as a dividend. The remaining $55,000, which is a distribution of realized appreciation, will be applied against and reduce the adjusted basis of the shareholders' stock. If any part of the $55,000 is in excess of the adjusted basis of a shareholder's stock, such part will be exempt from tax.

(g) Reduction for liabilities—(1) General rule. For the purpose of section 301, no reduction shall be made for the amount of any liability, unless the liability is assumed by the shareholder within the meaning of section 357(d).

(2) No reduction below zero. Any reduction pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section shall not cause the amount of the distribution to be reduced below zero.

(3) Effective dates—(i) In general. This paragraph (g) applies to distributions occurring after January 4, 2001.

(ii) Retroactive application. This paragraph (g) also applies to distributions made on or before January 4, 2001, if the distribution is made as part of a transaction described in, or substantially similar to, the transaction in Notice 99-59 (1999-2 C.B. 761), including transactions designed to reduce gain (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). For rules for distributions on or before January 4, 2001 (other than distributions on or before that date to which this paragraph (g) applies), see rules in effect on January 4, 2001 (see §1.301-1(g) as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2001).

(h) Basis. The basis of property received in the distribution to which section 301 applies shall be—

(1) If the shareholder is not a corporation, the fair market value of such property;

(2) If the shareholder is a corporation—

(i) In the case of a distribution of the obligations of the distributing corporation or of the stock of such corporation or rights to acquire such stock (if such stock or rights are treated as property under section 305(b)), the fair market value of such obligations, stock, or rights;

(ii) In the case of the distribution of any other property, except as provided in subdivision (iii) (relating to certain distributions by a foreign corporation) or subdivision (iv) (relating to certain distributions to foreign corporate distributees) of this subparagraph, whichever of the following is the lesser—

(a) The fair market value of such property; or

(b) The adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation immediately before the distribution) of such property increased in the amount of gain to the distributing corporation which is recognized under section 311(b) (relating to distributions of LIFO inventory), section 311(c) (relating to distributions of property subject to liabilities in excess of basis), section 311(d) (relating to appreciated proterty used to redeem stock), section 341(f) (relating to certain sales of stock of consenting corporations), section 617(d) (relating to gain from dispositions of certain mining property), section 1245(a) or 1250(a) (relating to gain from dispositions of certain depreciable property), section 1251(c) (relating to gain from disposition of farm recapture property), section 1252(a) (relating to gain from disposition of farm land), or 1254(a) (relating to gain from disposition of interest in natural resource recapture property);

(iii) In the case of the distribution by a foreign corporation of any other property after December 31, 1962, in a distribution not described in subdivision (iv) of this subparagraph, the amount determined under paragraph (n) of this section;

(iv) In the case of the distribution of any other property made after November 8, 1971, to a shareholder which is a foreign corporation, the fair market value of such property, but only if the distribution received by such shareholder is not effectively connected for the taxable year with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States by such shareholder.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Transfers for less than fair market value. If property is transferred by a corporation to a shareholder which is not a corporation for an amount less than its fair market value in a sale or exchange, such shareholder shall be treated as having received a distribution to which section 301 applies. In such case, the amount of the distribution shall be the difference between the amount paid for the property and its fair market value. If property is transferred in a sale or exchange by a corporation to a shareholder which is a corporation, for an amount less than its fair market value and also less than its adjusted basis, such shareholder shall be treated as having received a distribution to which section 301 applies, and—

(1) Where the fair market value of the property equals or exceeds its adjusted basis in the hands of the distributing corporation the amount of the distribution shall be the excess of the adjusted basis (increased by the amount of gain recognized under section 311 (b), (c), or (d), or under section 341(f), 617(d), 1245(a), 1250(a), 1251(c), 1252(a), or 1254(a) to the distributing corporation) over the amount paid for the property;

(2) Where the fair market value of the property is less than its adjusted basis in the hands of the distributing corporation, the amount of the distribution shall be the excess of such fair market value over the amount paid for the property. If property is transferred in a sale or exchange after December 31, 1962, by a foreign corporation to a shareholder which is a corporation for an amount less than the amount which would have been computed under paragraph (n) of this section if such property had been received in a distribution to which section 301 applied, such shareholder shall be treated as having received a distribution to which section 301 applies, and the amount of the distribution shall be the excess of the amount which would have been computed under paragraph (n) of this section with respect to such property over the amount paid for the property. In all cases, the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation shall be decreased by the excess of the basis of the property in the hands of the distributing corporation over the amount received therefor. In computing gain or loss from the subsequent sale of such property, its basis shall be the amount paid for the property increased by the amount of the distribution.

If property is transferred in a sale or exchange after December 31, 1962, by a foreign corporation to a shareholder which is a corporation for an amount less than the amount which would have been computed under paragraph (n) of this section if such property had been received in a distribution to which section 301 applied, such shareholder shall be treated as having received a distribution to which section 301 applies, and the amount of the distribution shall be the excess of the amount which would have been computed under paragraph (n) of this section with respect to such property over the amount paid for the property. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this paragraph, if property is transferred in a sale or exchange after November 8, 1971, by a corporation to a shareholder which is a foreign corporation, for an amount less than its fair market value, and if paragraph (d)(1)(iv) of this section would apply if such property were received in a distribution to which section 301 applies, such shareholder shall be treated as having received a distribution to which section 301 applies and the amount of the distribution shall be the difference between the amount paid for the property and its fair market value. In all cases, the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation shall be decreased by the excess of the basis of the property in the hands of the distributing corporation over the amount received therefor. In computing gain or loss from the subsequent sale of such property, its basis shall be the amount paid for the property increased by the amount of the distribution.

(k) Application of rule respecting transfers for less than fair market value. The application of paragraph (j) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On January 1, 1955, A, an individual shareholder of corporation X, purchased property from that corporation for $20. The fair market value of such property was $100, and its basis in the hands of corporation X was $25. The amount of the distribution determined under section 301(b) is $80. If A were a corporation, the amount of the distribution would be $5 (assuming that sections 311 (b) and (c), 1245(a), and 1250(a) do not apply), the excess of the basis of the property in the hands of corporation X over the amount received therefor. The basis of such property to corporation A would be $25. If the basis of the property in the hands of corporation X were $10, the corporate shareholder, A, would not receive a distribution. The basis of such property to corporation A would be $20. Whether or not A is a corporation, the excess of the amount paid over the basis of the property in the hands of corporation X ($20 over $10) would be a taxable gain to corporation X.
Example 2. On January 1, 1963, corporation A, which is a shareholder of corporation B (a foreign corporation engaged in business within the United States), purchased one share of corporation X stock from B for $20. The fair market value of the share was $100, and its adjusted basis in the hands of B was $25. Assume that if the share of corporation X stock had been received by A in a distribution to which section 301 applied, the amount of the distribution under paragraph (n) of this section would have been $55. The amount of the distribution under section 301 is $35, i.e., $55 (amount computed under paragraph (n) of this section) minus $20 (amount paid for the property). The basis of such property to A is $55.

(l) Transactions treated as distributions. A distribution to shareholders with respect to their stock is within the terms of section 301 although it takes place at the same time as another transaction if the distribution is in substance a separate transaction whether or not connected in a formal sense. This is most likely to occur in the case of a recapitalization, a reincorporation, or a merger of a corporation with a newly organized corporation having substantially no property. For example, if a corporation having only common stock outstanding, exchanges one share of newly issued common stock and one bond in the principal amount of $10 for each share of outstanding common stock, the distribution of the bonds will be a distribution of property (to the extent of their fair market value) to which section 301 applies, even though the exchange of common stock for common stock may be pursuant to a plan of reorganization under the terms of section 368(a)(1)(E) (recapitalization) and even though the exchange of common stock for common stock may be tax free by virtue of section 354.

(m) Cancellation of indebtedness. The cancellation of indebtedness of a shareholder by a corporation shall be treated as a distribution of property.

(n) [Reserved]

(o) Distributions of certain property by DISC's to corporate shareholders. See §1.997-1 for the rule that if a corporation which is a DISC or former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)(1) or (3) as the case may be) makes a distribution of property (other than money and other than the obligations of the DISC or former DISC) out of accumulated DISC income (as defined in section 996(f)(1)) or previously taxed income (as defined in section 996(f)(2)), such distribution of property shall be treated as if it were made to an individual and that the basis of the property distributed, in the hands of the recipient corporation, shall be determined as if such property were distributed to an individual.

(p) Cross references. For certain rules relating to adjustments to earnings and profits and for determining the extent to which a distribution is a dividend, see sections 312 and 316 and regulations thereunder.

(q) Split-dollar and other life insurance arrangements—(1) Split-dollar life insurance arrangements—(i) Distribution of economic benefits. The provision by a corporation to its shareholder pursuant to a split-dollar life insurance arrangement, as defined in §1.61-22(b)(1) or (2), of economic benefits described in §1.61-22(d) or of amounts described in §1.61-22(e) is treated as a distribution of property, the amount of which is determined under §1.61-22(d) and (e), respectively.

(ii) Distribution of entire contract or undivided interest therein. A transfer (within the meaning of §1.61-22(c)(3)) of the ownership of a life insurance contract (or an undivided interest therein) that is part of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement is a distribution of property, the amount of which is determined pursuant to §1.61-22(g)(1) and (2).

(2) Other life insurance arrangements. A payment by a corporation on behalf of a shareholder of premiums on a life insurance contract or an undivided interest therein that is owned by the shareholder constitutes a distribution of property, even if such payment is not part of a split-dollar life insurance arrangement under §1.61-22(b).

(3) When distribution is made—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (q)(3)(ii) of this section, paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to determine when a distribution described in paragraph (q)(1) or (2) of this section is taken into account by a shareholder.

(ii) Exception. Notwithstanding paragraph (b) of this section, a distribution described in paragraph (q)(1)(ii) of this section shall be treated as made by a corporation to its shareholder at the time that the life insurance contract, or an undivided interest therein, is transferred (within the meaning of §1.61-22(c)(3)) to the shareholder.

(4) Effective date—(i) General rule. This paragraph (q) applies to split-dollar and other life insurance arrangements entered into after September 17, 2003. For purposes of this paragraph (q)(4), a split-dollar life insurance arrangement is entered into as determined under §1.61-22(j)(1)(ii).

(ii) Modified arrangements treated as new arrangements. If a split-dollar life insurance arrangement entered into on or before September 17, 2003 is materially modified (within the meaning of §1.61-22(j)(2)) after September 17, 2003, the arrangement is treated as a new arrangement entered into on the date of the modification.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.301-1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§1.302-1   General.

(a) Under section 302(d), unless otherwise provided in subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code, a distribution in redemption of stock shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies if the distribution is not within any of the provisions of section 302(b). A distribution in redemption of stock shall be considered a distribution in part or full payment in exchange for the stock under section 302(a) provided paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 302(b) applies. Section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) applies to all redemptions under section 302 except that in the termination of a shareholder's interest certain limitations are placed on the application of section 318(a)(1) by section 302(c)(2). The term redemption of stock is defined in section 317(b). Section 302 does not apply to that portion of any distribution which qualifies as a distribution in partial liquidation under section 346. For special rules relating to redemption of stock to pay death taxes see section 303. For special rules relating to redemption of section 306 stock see section 306. For special rules relating to redemption of stock in partial or complete liquidation see section 331.

(b) If, in connection with a partial liquidation under the terms of section 346, stock is redeemed in an amount in excess of the amount specified by section 331(a)(2), section 302(b) shall first apply as to each shareholder to which it is applicable without limitation because of section 331(a)(2). That portion of the total distribution which is used in all redemptions from specific shareholders which are within the terms of section 302(a) shall be excluded in determining the application of sections 346 and 331(a)(2). For example, Corporation X has $50,000 which is attributable to the sale of one of two active businesses and which, if distributed in redemption of stock, would qualify as a partial liquidation under the terms of section 346(b). Corporation X distributes $60,000 to its shareholders in redemption of stock, $20,000 of which is in redemption of all of the stock of shareholder A within the meaning of section 302(b)(3). The $20,000 distributed in redemption of the stock of shareholder A will be excluded in determining the application of sections 346 and 331(a)(2). The entire $60,000 will be treated as in part or full payment for stock ($20,000 qualifying under section 302(a) and $40,000 qualifying under sections 346 and 331(a)(2)).

§1.302-2   Redemptions not taxable as dividends.

(a) In general. The fact that a redemption fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (2), (3) or (4) of section 302(b) shall not be taken into account in determining whether the redemption is not essentially equivalent to a dividend under section 302(b)(1). See, however, paragraph (b) of this section. For example, if a shareholder owns only nonvoting stock of a corporation which is not section 306 stock and which is limited and preferred as to dividends and in liquidation, and one-half of such stock is redeemed, the distribution will ordinarily meet the requirements of paragraph (1) of section 302(b) but will not meet the requirements of paragraph (2), (3) or (4) of such section. The determination of whether or not a distribution is within the phrase “essentially equivalent to a dividend” (that is, having the same effect as a distribution without any redemption of stock) shall be made without regard to the earnings and profits of the corporation at the time of the distribution. For example, if A owns all the stock of a corporation and the corporation redeems part of his stock at a time when it has no earnings and profits, the distribution shall be treated as a distribution under section 301 pursuant to section 302(d).

(b) Redemption not essentially equivalent to a dividend—(1) In general. The question whether a distribution in redemption of stock of a shareholder is not essentially equivalent to a dividend under section 302(b)(1) depends upon the facts and circumstances of each case. One of the facts to be considered in making this determination is the constructive stock ownership of such shareholder under section 318(a). All distributions in pro rata redemptions of a part of the stock of a corporation generally will be treated as distributions under section 301 if the corporation has only one class of stock outstanding. However, for distributions in partial liquidation, see section 302(e). The redemption of all of one class of stock (except section 306 stock) either at one time or in a series of redemptions generally will be considered as a distribution under section 301 if all classes of stock outstanding at the time of the redemption are held in the same proportion. Distributions in redemption of stock may be treated as distributions under section 301 regardless of the provisions of the stock certificate and regardless of whether all stock being redeemed was acquired by the stockholders from whom the stock was redeemed by purchase or otherwise.

(2) Statement. Unless §1.331-1(d) applies, every significant holder that transfers stock to the issuing corporation in exchange for property from such corporation must include on or with such holder's return for the taxable year of such exchange a statement entitled, “STATEMENT PURSUANT TO §1.302-2(b)(2) BY [INSERT NAME AND TAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF TAXPAYER], A SIGNIFICANT HOLDER OF THE STOCK OF [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF ISSUING CORPORATION].” If a significant holder is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957), each United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) with respect thereto must include this statement on or with its return. The statement must include—

(i) The fair market value and basis of the stock transferred by the significant holder to the issuing corporation; and

(ii) A description of the property received by the significant holder from the issuing corporation.

(3) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i) Significant holder means any person that, immediately before the exchange—

(A) Owned at least five percent (by vote or value) of the total outstanding stock of the issuing corporation if the stock owned by such person is publicly traded; or

(B) Owned at least one percent (by vote or value) of the total outstanding stock of the issuing corporation if the stock owned by such person is not publicly traded.

(ii) Publicly traded stock means stock that is listed on—

(A) A national securities exchange registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f); or

(B) An interdealer quotation system sponsored by a national securities association registered under section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-3).

(iii) Issuing corporation means the corporation that issued the shares of stock, some or all of which were transferred by a significant holder to such corporation in the exchange described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(4) Cross reference. See section 6043 of the Internal Revenue Code for requirements relating to a return by a liquidating corporation.

(c) Basis adjustments. In any case in which an amount received in redemption of stock is treated as a distribution of a dividend, proper adjustment of the basis of the remaining stock will be made with respect to the stock redeemed. (For adjustments to basis required for certain redemptions of corporate shareholders that are treated as extraordinary dividends, see section 1059 and the regulations thereunder.) The following examples illustrate the application of this rule:

Example 1. A, an individual, purchased all of the stock of Corporation X for $100,000. In 1955 the corporation redeems half of the stock for $150,000, and it is determined that this amount constitutes a dividend. The remaining stock of Corporation X held by A has a basis of $100,000.
Example 2. H and W, husband and wife, each own half of the stock of Corporation X. All of the stock was purchased by H for $100,000 cash. In 1950 H gave one-half of the stock to W, the stock transferred having a value in excess of $50,000. In 1955 all of the stock of H is redeemed for $150,000, and it is determined that the distribution to H in redemption of his shares constitutes the distribution of a dividend. Immediately after the transaction, W holds the remaining stock of Corporation X with a basis of $100,000.
Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example (2) with the additional facts that the outstanding stock of Corporation X consists of 1,000 shares and all but 10 shares of the stock of H is redeemed. Immediately after the transaction, H holds 10 shares of the stock of Corporation X with a basis of $50,000, and W holds 500 shares with a basis of $50,000.

(d) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this section apply to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraphs (b)(2), (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.302-2 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 8724, 62 FR 38028, July 26, 1997; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30593, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32796, June 14, 2007]

§1.302-3   Substantially disproportionate redemption.

(a) Section 302(b)(2) provides for the treatment of an amount received in redemption of stock as an amount received in exchange for such stock if—

(1) Immediately after the redemption the shareholder owns less than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock as provided in section 302(b)(2)(B),

(2) The redemption is a substantially disproportionate redemption within the meaning of section 302(b)(2)(C), and

(3) The redemption is not pursuant to a plan described in section 302(b)(2)(D).

Section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) shall apply both in making the disproportionate redemption test and in determining the percentage of stock ownership after the redemption. The requirements under section 302(b)(2) shall be applied to each shareholder separately and shall be applied only with respect to stock which is issued and outstanding in the hands of the shareholders. Section 302(b)(2) only applies to a redemption of voting stock or to a redemption of both voting stock and other stock. Section 302(b)(2) does not apply to the redemption solely of nonvoting stock (common or preferred). However, if a redemption is treated as an exchange to a particular shareholder under the terms of section 302(b)(2), such section will apply to the simultaneous redemption of nonvoting preferred stock (which is not section 306 stock) owned by such shareholder and such redemption will also be treated as an exchange. Generally, for purposes of this section, stock which does not have voting rights until the happening of an event, such as a default in the payment of dividends on preferred stock, is not voting stock until the happening of the specified event. Subsection 302(b)(2)(D) provides that a redemption will not be treated as substantially disproportionate if made pursuant to a plan the purpose or effect of which is a series of redemptions which result in the aggregate in a distribution which is not substantially disproportionate. Whether or not such a plan exists will be determined from all the facts and circumstances.

(b) The application of paragraph (a) of this section is illustrated by the following example:

Example. Corporation M has outstanding 400 shares of common stock of which A, B, C and D each own 100 shares or 25 percent. No stock is considered constructively owned by A, B, C or D under section 318. Corporation M redeems 55 shares from A, 25 shares from B, and 20 shares from C. For the redemption to be disproportionate as to any shareholder, such shareholder must own after the redemptions less than 20 percent (80 percent of 25 percent) of the 300 shares of stock then outstanding. After the redemptions, A owns 45 shares (15 percent), B owns 75 shares (25 percent), and C owns 80 shares (2623 percent). The distribution is disproportionate only with respect to A.

§1.302-4   Termination of shareholder's interest.

Section 302(b)(3) provides that a distribution in redemption of all of the stock of the corporation owned by a shareholder shall be treated as a distribution in part or full payment in exchange for the stock of such shareholder. In determining whether all of the stock of the shareholder has been redeemed, the general rule of section 302(c)(1) requires that the rules of constructive ownership provided in section 318(a) shall apply. Section 302(c)(2), however, provides that section 318(a)(1) (relating to constructive ownership of stock owned by members of a family) shall not apply where the specific requirements of section 302(c)(2) are met. The following rules shall be applicable in determining whether the specific requirements of section 302(c)(2) are met:

(a) Statement. The agreement specified in section 302(c)(2)(A)(iii) shall be in the form of a statement entitled, “STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 302(c)(2)(A)(iii) BY [INSERT NAME AND TAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF TAXPAYER OR RELATED PERSON, AS THE CASE MAY BE], A DISTRIBUTEE (OR RELATED PERSON) OF [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF DISTRIBUTING CORPORATION].” The distributee must include such statement on or with the distributee's first return for the taxable year in which the distribution described in section 302(b)(3) occurs. If the distributee is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957), each United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) with respect thereto must include this statement on or with its return. The distributee must represent in the statement—

(1) THE DISTRIBUTEE (OR RELATED PERSON) HAS NOT ACQUIRED, OTHER THAN BY BEQUEST OR INHERITANCE, ANY INTEREST IN THE CORPORATION (AS DESCRIBED IN SECTION 302(c)(2)(A)(i)) SINCE THE DISTRIBUTION; and

(2) THE DISTRIBUTEE (OR RELATED PERSON) WILL NOTIFY THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE OF ANY ACQUISITION, OTHER THAN BY BEQUEST OR INHERITANCE, OF SUCH AN INTEREST IN THE CORPORATION WITHIN 30 DAYS AFTER THE ACQUISITION, IF THE ACQUISITION OCCURS WITHIN 10 YEARS FROM THE DATE OF THE DISTRIBUTION.

(b) Substantiation information. The distributee who files an agreement under section 302(c)(2)(A)(iii) shall retain copies of income tax returns and any other records indicating fully the amount of tax which would have been payable had the redemption been treated as a distribution subject to section 301.

(c) Stock of parent, subsidiary or successor corporation redeemed. If stock of a parent corporation is redeemed, section 302(c)(2)(A), relating to acquisition of an interest in the corporation within 10 years after termination shall be applied with reference to an interest both in the parent corporation and any subsidiary of such parent corporation. If stock of a parent corporation is sold to a subsidiary in a transaction described in section 304, section 302(c)(2)(A) shall be applicable to the acquisition of an interest in such subsidiary corporation or in the parent corporation. If stock of a subsidiary corporation is redeemed, section 302(c)(2)(A) shall be applied with reference to an interest both in such subsidiary corporation and its parent. Section 302(c)(2)(A) shall also be applied with respect to an interest in a corporation which is a successor corporation to the corporation the interest in which has been terminated.

(d) Redeemed shareholder as creditor. For the purpose of section 302(c)(2)(A)(i), a person will be considered to be a creditor only if the rights of such person with respect to the corporation are not greater or broader in scope than necessary for the enforcement of his claim. Such claim must not in any sense be proprietary and must not be subordinate to the claims of general creditors. An obligation in the form of a debt may thus constitute a proprietary interest. For example, if under the terms of the instrument the corporation may discharge the principal amount of its obligation to a person by payments, the amount or certainty of which are dependent upon the earnings of the corporation, such a person is not a creditor of the corporation. Furthermore, if under the terms of the instrument the rate of purported interest is dependent upon earnings, the holder of such instrument may not, in some cases, be a creditor.

(e) Acquisition of assets pursuant to creditor's rights. In the case of a distributee to whom section 302(b)(3) is applicable, who is a creditor after such transaction, the acquisition of the assets of the corporation in the enforcement of the rights of such creditor shall not be considered an acquisition of an interest in the corporation for purposes of section 302(c)(2) unless stock of the corporation, its parent corporation, or, in the case of a redemption of stock of a parent corporation, of a subsidiary of such corporation is acquired.

(f) Constructive ownership rules applicable. In determining whether an entire interest in the corporation has been terminated under section 302(b)(3), under all circumstances paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) shall be applicable.

(g) Avoidance of Federal income tax. Section 302(c)(2)(B) provides that section 302(c)(2)(A) shall not apply—

(1) If any portion of the stock redeemed was acquired directly or indirectly within the 10-year period ending on the date of the distribution by the distributee from a person, the ownership of whose stock would (at the time of distribution) be attributable to the distributee under section 318(a), or

(2) If any person owns (at the time of the distribution) stock, the ownership of which is attributable to the distributee under section 318(a), such person acquired any stock in the corporation directly or indirectly from the distributee within the 10-year period ending on the date of the distribution, and such stock so acquired from the distributee is not redeemed in the same transaction,unless the acquisition (described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph) or the disposition by the distributee (described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph) did not have as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax. A transfer of stock by the transferor, within the 10-year period ending on the date of the distribution, to a person whose stock would be attributable to the transferor shall not be deemed to have as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax merely because the transferee is in a lower income tax bracket than the transferor.

(h) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (a) of this section applies to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (a) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.302-4 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

(Sec. 302(c)(2)(A)(iii) (68A Stat. 87; 26 U.S.C. 302 (c)(2)(A)(iii)))

[T.D. 7535, 43 FR 10686, Mar. 15, 1978, as amended by T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30594, 30607, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32796, 32808, June 14, 2007]

§1.303-1   General.

Section 303 provides that in certain cases a distribution in redemption of stock, the value of which is included in determining the value of the gross estate of a decedent, shall be treated as a distribution in full payment in exchange for the stock so redeemed.

§1.303-2   Requirements.

(a) Section 303 applies only where the distribution is with respect to stock of a corporation the value of whose stock in the gross estate of the decedent for Federal estate tax purposes is an amount in excess of (1) 35 percent of the value of the gross estate of such decedent, or (2) 50 percent of the taxable estate of such decedent. For the purposes of such 35 percent and 50 percent requirements, stock of two or more corporations shall be treated as the stock of a single corporation if more than 75 percent in value of the outstanding stock of each such corporation is included in determining the value of the decedent's gross estate. For the purpose of the 75 percent requirement, stock which, at the decedent's death, represents the surviving spouse's interest in community property shall be considered as having been included in determining the value of the decedent's gross estate.

(b) For the purpose of section 303(b)(2)(A)(i), the term gross estate means the gross estate as computed in accordance with section 2031 (or, in the case of the estate of a decedent nonresident not a citizen of the United States, in accordance with section 2103). For the purpose of section 303(b)(2)(A)(ii), the term taxable estate means the taxable estate as computed in accordance with section 2051 (or, in the case of the estate of a decedent nonresident not a citizen of the United States, in accordance with section 2106). In case the value of an estate is determined for Federal estate tax purposes under section 2032 (relating to alternate valuation), then, for purposes of section 303(b)(2), the value of the gross estate, the taxable estate, and the stock shall each be determined on the applicable date prescribed in section 2032.

(c)(1) In determining whether the estate of the decedent is comprised of stock of a corporation of sufficient value to satisfy the percentage requirements of section 303(b)(2)(A) and section 303(b)(2)(B), the total value, in the aggregate, of all classes of stock of the corporation includible in determining the value of the gross estate is taken into account. A distribution under section 303(a) may be in redemption of the stock of the corporation includible in determining the value of the gross estate, without regard to the class of such stock.

(2) The above may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. The gross estate of the decedent has a value of $1,000,000, the taxable estate is $700,000, and the sum of the death taxes and funeral and administration expenses is $275,000. Included in determining the gross estate of the decedent is stock of three corporations which, for Federal estate tax purposes, is valued as follows:
Corporation A:
Common stock$100,000
Preferred stock100,000
Corporation B:
Common stock50,000
Preferred stock350,000
Corporation C: Common stock200,000

The stock of Corporation A and Corporation C included in the estate of the decedent constitutes all of the outstanding stock of both corporations. The stock of Corporation A and the stock of Corporation C, treated as the stock of a single corporation under section 303(b)(2)(B), has a value in excess of $350,000 (35 percent of the gross estate or 50 percent of the taxable estate). Likewise, the stock of Corporation B has a value in excess of $350,000. The distribution by one or more of the above corporations, within the period prescribed in section 303(b)(1), of amounts not exceeding, in the aggregate, $275,000, in redemption of preferred stock or common stock of such corporation or corporations, will be treated as in full payment in exchange for the stock so redeemed.

(d) If stock includible in determining the value of the gross estate of a decedent is exchanged for new stock, the basis of which is determined by reference to the basis of the old stock, the redemption of the new stock will be treated the same under section 303 as the redemption of the old stock would have been. Thus section 303 shall apply with respect to a distribution in redemption of stock received by the estate of a decedent (1) in connection with a reorganization under section 368, (2) in a distribution or exchange under section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355), (3) in an exchange under section 1036 or (4) in a distribution to which section 305(a) applies. Similarly, a distribution in redemption of stock will qualify under section 303, notwithstanding the fact that the stock redeemed is section 306 stock to the extent that the conditions of section 303 are met.

(e) Section 303 applies to distributions made after the death of the decedent and (1) before the expiration of the 3-year period of limitations for the assessment of estate tax provided in section 6501(a) (determined without the application of any provisions of law extending or suspending the running of such period of limitations), or within 90 days after the expiration of such period, or (2) if a petition for redetermination of a deficiency in such estate tax has been filed with the Tax Court within the time prescribed in section 6213, at any time before the expiration of 60 days after the decision of the Tax Court becomes final. The extension of the period of distribution provided in section 303(b)(1)(B) has reference solely to bona fide contests in the Tax Court and will not apply in the case of a petition for redetermination of a deficiency which is initiated solely for the purpose of extending the period within which section 303 would otherwise be applicable.

(f) While section 303 will most frequently have application in the case where stock is redeemed from the executor or administrator of an estate, the section is also applicable to distributions in redemption of stock included in the decedent's gross estate and held at the time of the redemption by any person who acquired the stock by any of the means comprehended by part III, subchapter A, chapter 11 of the Code, including the heir, legatee, or donee of the decedent, a surviving joint tenant, surviving spouse, appointee, or taker in default of appointment, or a trustee of a trust created by the decedent. Thus section 303 may apply with respect to a distribution in redemption of stock from a donee to whom the decedent has transferred stock in contemplation of death where the value of such stock is included in the decedent's gross estate under section 2035. Similarly, section 303 may apply to the redemption of stock from a beneficiary of the estate to whom an executor has distributed the stock pursuant to the terms of the will of the decedent. However, section 303 is not applicable to the case where stock is redeemed from a stockholder who has acquired the stock by gift or purchase from any person to whom such stock has passed from the decedent. Nor is section 303 applicable to the case where stock is redeemed from a stockholder who has acquired the stock from the executor in satisfaction of a specific monetary bequest.

(g)(1) The total amount of the distributions to which section 303 may apply with respect to redemptions of stock included in the gross estate of a decedent may not exceed the sum of the estate, inheritance, legacy, and succession taxes (including any interest collected as a part of such taxes) imposed because of the decedent's death and the amount of funeral and administration expenses allowable as deductions to the estate. Where there is more than one distribution in redemption of stock described in section 303(b)(2) during the period of time prescribed in section 303(b)(1), the distributions shall be applied against the total amount which qualifies for treatment under section 303 in the order in which the distributions are made. For this purpose, all distributions in redemption of such stock shall be taken into account, including distributions which under another provision of the Code are treated as in part or full payment in exchange for the stock redeemed.

(2) Subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. (i) The gross estate of the decedent has a value of $800,000, the taxable estate is $500,000, and the sum of the death taxes and funeral and administrative expenses is $225,000. Included in determining the gross estate of the decedent is the stock of a corporation which for Federal estate tax purposes is valued at $450,000. During the first year of administration, one-third of such stock is distributed to a legatee and shortly thereafter this stock is redeemed by the corporation for $150,000. During the second year of administration, another one-third of such stock includible in the estate is redeemed for $150,000.

(ii) The first distribution of $150,000 is applied against the $225,000 amount that qualifies for treatment under section 303, regardless of whether the first distribution was treated as in payment in exchange for stock under section 302(a). Thus, only $75,000 of the second distribution may be treated as in full payment in exchange for stock under section 303. The tax treatment of the remaining $75,000 would be determined under other provisions of the Code.

(h) For the purpose of section 303, the estate tax or any other estate, inheritance, legacy, or succession tax shall be ascertained after the allowance of any credit, relief, discount, refund, remission or reduction of tax.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6724, 29 FR 5343, Apr. 21, 1964; T.D. 7346, 40 FR 10669, Mar. 7, 1975]

§1.303-3   Application of other sections.

(a) The sole effect of section 303 is to exempt from tax as a dividend a distribution to which such section is applicable when made in redemption of stock includible in a decedent's gross estate. Such section does not, however, in any other manner affect the principles set forth in sections 302 and 306. Thus, if stock of a corporation is owned equally by A, B, and the C Estate, and the corporation redeems one-half of the stock of each shareholder, the determination of whether the distributions to A and B are essentially equivalent to dividends shall be made without regard to the effect which section 303 may have upon the taxability of the distribution to the C Estate.

(b) See section 304 relative to redemption of stock through the use of related corporations.

§1.304-1   General.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, section 304 is applicable where a shareholder sells stock of one corporation to a related corporation as defined in section 304. Sales to which section 304 is applicable shall be treated as redemptions subject to sections 302 and 303.

(b) In the case of—

(1) Any acquisition of stock described in section 304 which occurred before June 22, 1954, and

(2) Any acquisition of stock described in section 304 which occurred on or after June 22, 1954, and on or before December 31, 1958, pursuant to a contract entered into before June 22, 1954.

The extent to which the property received in return for such acquisition shall be treated as a dividend shall be determined as if the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 continued to apply in respect of such acquisition and as if the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 had not been enacted. See section 391. In cases to which this paragraph applies, the basis of the stock received by the acquiring corporation shall be determined as if the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 continued to apply in respect of such acquisition and as if the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 had not been enacted.

[T.D. 6533, 26 FR 401, Jan. 19, 1961]

§1.304-2   Acquisition by related corporation (other than subsidiary).

(a) If a corporation, in return for property, acquires stock of another corporation from one or more persons, and the person or persons from whom the stock was acquired were in control of both such corporations before the acquisition, then such property shall be treated as received in redemption of stock of the acquiring corporation. The stock received by the acquiring corporation shall be treated as a contribution to the capital of such corporation. See section 362(a) for determination of the basis of such stock. The transferor's basis for his stock in the acquiring corporation shall be increased by the basis of the stock surrendered by him. (But see below in this paragraph for subsequent reductions of basis in certain cases.) As to each person transferring stock, the amount received shall be treated as a distribution of property under section 302(d), unless as to such person such amount is to be treated as received in exchange for the stock under the terms of section 302(a) or section 303. In applying section 302(b), reference shall be had to the shareholder's ownership of stock in the issuing corporation and not to his ownership of stock in the acquiring corporation (except for purposes of applying section 318(a)). In determining control and applying section 302(b), section 318(a) (relating to the constructive ownership of stock) shall be applied without regard to the 50-percent limitation contained in section 318(a)(2)(C) and (3)(C). A series of redemptions referred to in section 302(b)(2)(D) shall include acquisitions by either of the corporations of stock of the other and stock redemptions by both corporations. If section 302(d) applies to the surrender of stock by a shareholder, his basis for his stock in the acquiring corporation after the transaction (increased as stated above in this paragraph) shall not be decreased except as provided in section 301. If section 302(d) does not apply, the property received shall be treated as received in a distribution in payment in exchange for stock of the acquiring corporation under section 302(a), which stock has a basis equal to the amount by which the shareholder's basis for his stock in the acquiring corporation was increased on account of the contribution to capital as provided for above in this paragraph. Accordingly, such amount shall be applied in reduction of the shareholder's basis for his stock in the acquiring corporation. Thus, the basis of each share of the shareholder's stock in the acquiring corporation will be the same as the basis of such share before the entire transaction. The holding period of the stock which is considered to have been redeemed shall be the same as the holding period of the stock actually surrendered.

(b) In any case in which two or more persons, in the aggregate, control two corporations, section 304(a)(1) will apply to sales by such persons of stock in either corporation to the other (whether or not made simultaneously) provided the sales by each of such persons are related to each other. The determination of whether the sales are related to each other shall be dependent upon the facts and circumstances surrounding all of the sales. For this purpose, the fact that the sales may occur during a period of one or more years (such as in the case of a series of sales by persons who together control each of such corporations immediately prior to the first of such sales and immediately subsequent to the last of such sales) shall be disregarded, provided the other facts and circumstances indicate related transactions.

(c) The application of section 304(a)(1) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X and corporation Y each have outstanding 200 shares of common stock. One-half of the stock of each corporation is owned by an individual, A, and one-half by another individual, B, who is unrelated to A. On or after August 31, 1964, A sells 30 shares of corporation X stock to corporation Y for $50,000, such stock having an adjusted basis of $10,000 to A. After the sale, A is considered as owning corporation X stock as follows: (i) 70 shares directly, and (ii) 15 shares constructively, since by virtue of his 50-percent ownership of Y he constructively owns 50 percent of the 30 shares owned directly by Y. Since A's percentage of ownership of X's voting stock after the sale (85 out of 200 shares, or 42.5%) is not less than 80 percent of his percentage of ownership of X's voting stock before the sale (100 out of 200 shares, or 50%), the transfer is not “substantially disproportionate” as to him as provided in section 302(b)(2). Under these facts, and assuming that section 302(b)(1) is not applicable, the entire $50,000 is treated as a dividend to A to the extent of the earnings and profits of corporation Y. The basis of the corporation X stock to corporation Y is $10,000, its adjusted basis to A. The amount of $10,000 is added to the basis of the stock of corporation Y in the hands of A.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example (1) except that A sells 80 shares of corporation X stock to corporation Y, and the sale occurs before August 31, 1964. After the sale, A is considered as owning corporation X stock as follows: (i) 20 shares directly, and (ii) 90 shares indirectly, since by virtue of his 50-percent ownership of Y he constructively owns 50 percent of the 80 shares owned directly by Y and 50 percent of the 100 shares attributed to Y because they are owned by Y's stockholder, B. Since after the sale A owns a total of more than 50 percent of the voting power of all of the outstanding stock of X (110 out of 200 shares, or 55%), the transfer is not “substantially disproportionate” as to him as provided in section 302(b)(2).
Example 3. Corporation X and corporation Y each have outstanding 100 shares of common stock. A, an individual, owns one-half the stock of corporation X, and C owns one-half the stock of corporation Y. A, B, and C are unrelated. A sells 30 shares of the stock of corporation X to corporation Y for $50,000, such stock having an adjusted basis of $10,000 to him. After the sale, A is considered as owning 35 shares of the stock of corporation X (20 shares directly and 15 constructively because one-half of the 30 shares owned by corporation Y are attributed to him). Since before the sale he owned 50 percent of the stock of corporation X and after the sale he owned directly and constructively only 35 percent of such stock, the redemption is substantially disproportionate as to him pursuant to the provisions of section 302(b)(2). He, therefore, realizes a gain of $40,000 ($50,000 minus $10,000). If the stock surrendered is a capital asset, such gain is long-term or short-term capital gain depending on the period of time that such stock was held. The basis to A for the stock of corporation Y is not changed as a result of the entire transaction. The basis to corporation Y for the stock of corporation X is $50,000, i.e., the basis of the transferor ($10,000), increased in the amount of gain recognized to the transferor ($40,000) on the transfer.
Example 4. Corporation X and corporation Y each have outstanding 100 shares of common stock. H, an individual, W, his wife, S, his son, and G, his grandson, each own 25 shares of stock of each corporation. H sells all of his 25 shares of stock of corporation X to corporation Y. Since both before and after the transaction H owned directly and constructively 100 percent of the stock of corporation X, and assuming that section 302(b)(1) is not applicable, the amount received by him for his stock of corporation X is treated as a dividend to him to the extent of the earnings and profits of corporation Y.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11997, Aug. 23, 1968]

§1.304-3   Acquisition by a subsidiary.

(a) If a subsidiary acquires stock of its parent corporation from a shareholder of the parent corporation, the acquisition of such stock shall be treated as though the parent corporation had redeemed its own stock. For the purpose of this section, a corporation is a parent corporation if it meets the 50 percent ownership requirements of section 304(c). The determination whether the amount received shall be treated as an amount received in payment in exchange for the stock shall be made by applying section 303, or by applying section 302(b) with reference to the stock of the issuing parent corporation. If such distribution would have been treated as a distribution of property (pursuant to section 302(d)) under section 301, the entire amount of the selling price of the stock shall be treated as a dividend to the seller to the extent of the earnings and profits of the parent corporation determined as if the distribution had been made to it of the property that the subsidiary exchanged for the stock. In such cases, the transferor's basis for his remaining stock in the parent corporation will be determined by including the amount of the basis of the stock of the parent corporation sold to the subsidiary.

(b) Section 304(a)(2) may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Corporation M has outstanding 100 shares of common stock which are owned as follows: B, 75 shares, C, son of B, 20 shares, and D, daughter of B, 5 shares. Corporation M owns the stock of Corporation X. B sells his 75 shares of Corporation M stock to Corporation X. Under section 302(b)(3) this is a termination of B's entire interest in Corporation M and the full amount received from the sale of his stock will be treated as payment in exchange for this stock, provided he fulfills the requirements of section 302(c)(2) (relating to an acquisition of an interest in the corporations).

§1.304-4   Special rules for the use of related corporations to avoid the application of section 304.

(a) Scope and purpose. This section applies to determine the amount of a property distribution constituting a dividend (and the source thereof) under section 304(b)(2), for certain transactions involving controlled corporations. The purpose of this section is to prevent the avoidance of the application of section 304 to a controlled corporation.

(b) Amount and source of dividend. For purposes of determining the amount constituting a dividend (and source thereof) under section 304(b)(2), the following rules shall apply:

(1) Deemed acquiring corporation. A corporation (deemed acquiring corporation) shall be treated as acquiring for property the stock of a corporation (issuing corporation) acquired for property by another corporation (acquiring corporation) that is controlled by the deemed acquiring corporation, if a principal purpose for creating, organizing, or funding the acquiring corporation by any means (including through capital contributions or debt) is to avoid the application of section 304 to the deemed acquiring corporation. See paragraph (c) Example 1 of this section for an illustration of this paragraph.

(2) Deemed issuing corporation. The acquiring corporation shall be treated as acquiring for property the stock of a corporation (deemed issuing corporation) controlled by the issuing corporation if, in connection with the acquisition for property of stock of the issuing corporation by the acquiring corporation, the issuing corporation acquired stock of the deemed issuing corporation with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of section 304 to the deemed issuing corporation. See paragraph (c) Example 2 of this section for an illustration of this paragraph.

(c) Examples. The rules of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) Facts. P, a domestic corporation, wholly owns CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation with substantial accumulated earnings and profits. CFC1 is organized in Country X, which imposes a high rate of tax on the income of CFC1. P also wholly owns CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation with accumulated earnings and profits of $200x. CFC2 is organized in Country Y, which imposes a low rate of tax on the income of CFC2. P wishes to own all of its foreign corporations in a direct chain and to repatriate the cash of CFC2. In order to avoid having to obtain Country X approval for the acquisition of CFC1 (a Country X corporation) by CFC2 (a Country Y corporation) and to avoid the dividend distribution from CFC2 to P that would result if CFC2 were the acquiring corporation, P causes CFC2 to form CFC3 in Country X and to contribute $100x to CFC3. CFC3 then acquires all of the stock of CFC1 from P for $100x.

(ii) Result. Because a principal purpose for creating, organizing, or funding CFC3 (acquiring corporation) is to avoid the application of section 304 to CFC2 (deemed acquiring corporation), under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, for purposes of determining the amount of the $100x distribution constituting a dividend (and source thereof) under section 304(b)(2), CFC2 shall be treated as acquiring the stock of CFC1 (issuing corporation) from P for $100x. As a result, P receives a $100x distribution out of the earnings and profits of CFC2 to which section 301(c)(1) applies.

Example 2. (i) Facts. P, a domestic corporation, wholly owns CFC1, a controlled foreign corporation with substantial accumulated earnings and profits. The CFC1 stock has a basis of $100x. CFC1 is organized in Country X. P also wholly owns CFC2, a controlled foreign corporation with zero accumulated earnings and profits. CFC2 is organized in Country Y. P wishes to own all of its foreign corporations in a direct chain and to repatriate the cash of CFC2. In order to avoid having to obtain Country X approval for the acquisition of CFC1 (a Country X corporation) by CFC2 (a Country Y corporation) and to avoid a dividend distribution from CFC1 to P, P forms a new corporation (CFC3) in Country X and transfers the stock of CFC1 to CFC3 in exchange for CFC3 stock. P then transfers the stock of CFC3 to CFC2 in exchange for $100x.

(ii) Result. Because a principal purpose for the transfer of the stock of CFC1 (deemed issuing corporation) by P to CFC3 (issuing corporation) is to avoid the application of section 304 to CFC1, under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, for purposes of determining the amount of the $100x distribution constituting a dividend (and source thereof) under section 304(b)(2), CFC2 (acquiring corporation) shall be treated as acquiring the stock of CFC1 from P for $100x . As a result, P receives a $100x distribution out of the earnings and profits of CFC1 to which section 301(c)(1) applies.

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to acquisitions of stock occurring on or after December 29, 2009.

[T.D. 9606, 77 FR 75845, Dec. 26, 2012]

§1.304-5   Control.

(a) Control requirement in general. Section 304(c)(1) provides that, for purposes of section 304, control means the ownership of stock possessing at least 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock. Section 304(c)(3) makes section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock), as modified by section 304(c)(3)(B), applicable to section 304 for purposes of determining control under section 304(c)(1).

(b) Effect of section 304(c)(2)(B)—(1) In general. In determining whether the control test with respect to both the issuing and acquiring corporations is satisfied, section 304(a)(1) considers only the person or persons that—

(i) Control the issuing corporation before the transaction;

(ii) Transfer issuing corporation stock to the acquiring corporation for property; and

(iii) Control the acquiring corporation thereafter.

(2) Application. Section 317 defines property to include money, securities, and any other property except stock (or stock rights) in the distributing corporation. However, section 304(c)(2)(B) provides a special rule to extend the relevant group of persons to be tested for control of both the issuing and acquiring corporations to include the person or persons that do not acquire property, but rather solely stock from the acquiring corporation in the transaction. Section 304(c)(2)(B) provides that if two or more persons in control of the issuing corporation transfer stock of such corporation to the acquiring corporation, and if the transferors are in control of the acquiring corporation after the transfer, the person or persons in control of each corporation include each of those transferors. Because the purpose of section 304(c)(2)(B) is to include in the relevant control group the person or persons that retain or acquire acquiring corporation stock in the transaction, only the person or persons transferring stock of the issuing corporation that retain or acquire any proprietary interest in the acquiring corporation are taken into account for purposes of applying section 304(c)(2)(B).

(3) Example. This section may be illustrated by the following example.

Example. (a) A, the owner of 20% of T's only class of stock, transfers that stock to P solely in exchange for all of the P stock. Pursuant to the same transaction, P, solely in exchange for cash, acquires the remaining 80% of the T stock from T's other shareholder, B, who is unrelated to A and P.

(b) Although A and B together were in control of T (the issuing corporation) before the transaction and A and B each transferred T stock to P (the acquiring corporation), sections 304(a)(1) and (c)(2)(B) do not apply to B because B did not retain or acquire any proprietary interest in P in the transaction. Section 304(a)(1) also does not apply to A because A (or any control group of which A was a member) did not control T before the transaction and P after the transaction.

(c) Effective date. This section is effective on January 20, 1994.

[T.D. 8515, 59 FR 2960, Jan. 20, 1994]

§1.305-1   Stock dividends.

(a) In general. Under section 305, a distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders in its stock or in rights to acquire its stock is not included in gross income except as provided in section 305(b) and the regulations promulgated under the authority of section 305(c). A distribution made by a corporation to its shareholders in its stock or rights to acquire its stock which would not otherwise be included in gross income by reason of section 305 shall not be so included merely because such distribution was made out of Treasury stock or consisted of rights to acquire Treasury stock. See section 307 for rules as to basis of stock and stock rights acquired in a distribution.

(b) Amount of distribution. (1) In general, where a distribution of stock or rights to acquire stock of a corporation is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies by reason of section 305(b), the amount of the distribution, in accordance with section 301(b) and §1.301-1, is the fair market value of such stock or rights on the date of distribution. See Example (1) of §1.305-2(b).

(2) Where a corporation which regularly distributes its earnings and profits, such as a regulated investment company, declares a dividend pursuant to which the shareholders may elect to receive either money or stock of the distributing corporation of equivalent value, the amount of the distribution of the stock received by any shareholder electing to receive stock will be considered to equal the amount of the money which could have been received instead. See Example (2) of §1.305-2(b).

(3) For rules for determining the amount of the distribution where certain transactions, such as changes in conversion ratios or periodic redemptions, are treated as distributions under section 305(c), see Examples (6), (8), (9), and (15) of §1.305-3(e).

(c) Adjustment in purchase price. A transfer of stock (or rights to acquire stock) or an increase or decrease in the conversion ratio or redemption price of stock which represents an adjustment of the price to be paid by the distributing corporation in acquiring property (within the meaning of section 317(a)) is not within the purview of section 305 because it is not a distribution with respect to its stock. For example, assume that on January 1, 1970, pursuant to a reorganization, corporation X acquires all the stock of corporation Y solely in exchange for its convertible preferred class B stock. Under the terms of the class B stock, its conversion ratio is to be adjusted in 1976 under a formula based upon the earnings of corporation Y over the 6-year period ending on December 31, 1975. Such an adjustment in 1976 is not covered by section 305.

(d) Definitions. (1) For purposes of this section and §§1.305-2 through 1.305-7, the term stock includes rights or warrants to acquire such stock.

(2) For purposes of §§1.305-2 through 1.305-7, the term shareholder includes a holder of rights or warrants or a holder of convertible securities.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18532, July 12, 1973; 38 FR 19910, July 25, 1973]

§1.305-2   Distributions in lieu of money.

(a) In general. Under section 305(b)(1), if any shareholder has the right to an election or option with respect to whether a distribution shall be made either in money or any other property, or in stock or rights to acquire stock of the distributing corporation, then, with respect to all shareholders, the distribution of stock or rights to acquire stock is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies regardless of—

(1) Whether the distribution is actually made in whole or in part in stock or in stock rights;

(2) Whether the election or option is exercised or exercisable before or after the declaration of the distribution;

(3) Whether the declaration of the distribution provides that the distribution will be made in one medium unless the shareholder specifically requests payment in the other;

(4) Whether the election governing the nature of the distribution is provided in the declaration of the distribution or in the corporate charter or arises from the circumstances of the distribution; or

(5) Whether all or part of the shareholders have the election.

(b) Examples. The application of section 305(b)(1) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) Corporation X declared a dividend payable in additional shares of its common stock to the holders of its outstanding common stock on the basis of two additional shares for each share held on the record date but with the provision that, at the election of any shareholder made within a specified period prior to the distribution date, he may receive one additional share for each share held on the record date plus $12 principal amount of securities of corporation Y owned by corporation X. The fair market value of the stock of corporation X on the distribution date was $10 per share. The fair market value of $12 principal amount of securities of corporation Y on the distribution date was $11 but such securities had a cost basis to corporation X of $9.

(ii) The distribution to all shareholders of one additional share of stock of corporation X (with respect to which no election applies) for each share outstanding is not a distribution to which section 301 applies.

(iii) The distribution of the second share of stock of corporation X to those shareholders who do not elect to receive securities of corporation Y is a distribution of property to which section 301 applies, whether such shareholders are individuals or corporations. The amount of the distribution to which section 301 applies is $10 per share of stock of corporation X held on the record date (the fair market value of the stock of corporation X on the distribution date).

(iv) The distribution of securities of corporation Y in lieu of the second share of stock of corporation X to the shareholders of corporation X whether individuals or corporations, who elect to receive such securities, is also a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

(v) In the case of the individual shareholders of corporation X who elects to receive such securities, the amount of the distribution to which section 301 applies is $11 per share of stock of corporation X held on the record date (the fair market value of the $12 principal amount of securities of corporation Y on the distribution date).

(vi) In the case of the corporate shareholders of corporation X electing to receive such securities, the amount of the distribution to which section 301 applies is $9 per share of stock of corporation X held on the record date (the basis of the securities of corporation Y in the hands of corporation X).

Example 2. On January 10, 1970, corporation X, a regulated investment company, declared a dividend of $1 per share on its common stock payable on February 11, 1970, in cash or in stock of corporation X of equivalent value determined as of January 22, 1970, at the election of the shareholder made on or before January 22, 1970. The amount of the distribution to which section 301 applies is $1 per share whether the shareholder elects to take cash or stock and whether the shareholder is an individual or a corporation. Such amount will also be used in determining the dividend paid deduction of corporation X and the reduction in earnings and profits of corporation X.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18532, July 12, 1973]

§1.305-3   Disproportionate distributions.

(a) In general. Under section 305(b)(2), a distribution (including a deemed distribution) by a corporation of its stock or rights to acquire its stock is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies if the distribution (or a series of distributions of which such distribution is one) has the result of (1) the receipt of money or other property by some shareholders, and (2) an increase in the proportionate interests of other shareholders in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation. Thus, if a corporation has two classes of common stock outstanding and cash dividends are paid on one class and stock dividends are paid on the other class, the stock dividends are treated as distributions to which section 301 applies.

(b) Special rules. (1) As used in section 305(b)(2), the term a series of distributions encompasses all distributions of stock made or deemed made by a corporation which have the result of the receipt of cash or property by some shareholders and an increase in the proportionate interests of other shareholders.

(2) In order for a distribution of stock to be considered as one of a series of distributions it is not necessary that such distribution be pursuant to a plan to distribute cash or property to some shareholders and to increase the proportionate interests of other shareholders. It is sufficient if there is an actual or deemed distribution of stock (of which such distribution is one) and as a result of such distribution or distributions some shareholders receive cash or property and other shareholders increase their proportionate interests. For example, if a corporation pays quarterly stock dividends to one class of common shareholders and annual cash dividends to another class of common shareholders the quarterly stock dividends constitute a series of distributions of stock having the result of the receipt of cash or property by some shareholders and an increase in the proportionate interests of other shareholders. This is so whether or not the stock distributions and the cash distributions are steps in an overall plan or are independent and unrelated. Accordingly, all the quarterly stock dividends are distributions to which section 301 applies.

(3) There is no requirement that both elements of section 305(b)(2) (i.e., receipt of cash or property by some shareholders and an increase in proportionate interests of other shareholders) occur in the form of a distribution or series of distributions as long as the result of a distribution or distributions of stock is that some shareholders' proportionate interests increase and other shareholders in fact receive cash or property. Thus, there is no requirement that the shareholders receiving cash or property acquire the cash or property by way of a corporate distribution with respect to their shares, so long as they receive such cash or property in their capacity as shareholders, if there is a stock distribution which results in a change in the proportionate interests of some shareholders and other shareholders receive cash or property. However, in order for a distribution of property to meet the requirement of section 305(b)(2), such distribution must be made to a shareholder in his capacity as a shareholder, and must be a distribution to which section 301, 356(a)(2), 871(a)(1)(A), 881(a)(1), 852(b), or 857(b) applies. (Under section 305(d)(2), the payment of interest to a holder of a convertible debenture is treated as a distribution of property to a shareholder for purposes of section 305(b)(2).) For example if a corporation makes a stock distribution to its shareholders and, pursuant to a prearranged plan with such corporation, a related corporation purchases such stock from those shareholders who want cash, in a transaction to which section 301 applies by virtue of section 304, the requirements of section 305(b)(2) are satisfied. In addition, a distribution of property incident to an isolated redemption of stock (for example, pursuant to a tender offer) will not cause section 305(b)(2) to apply even though the redemption distribution is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301, 871(a)(1)(A), 881(a)(1), or 356(a)(2) applies.

(4) Where the receipt of cash or property occurs more than 36 months following a distribution or series of distributions of stock, or where a distribution or series of distributions of stock is made more than 36 months following the receipt of cash or property, such distribution or distributions will be presumed not to result in the receipt of cash or property by some shareholders and an increase in the proportionate interest of other shareholders, unless the receipt of cash or property and the distribution or series of distributions of stock are made pursuant to a plan. For example, if, pursuant to a plan, a corporation pays cash dividends to some shareholders on January 1, 1971 and increases the proportionate interests of other shareholders on March 1, 1974, such increases in proportionate interests are distributions to which section 301 applies.

(5) In determining whether a distribution or a series of distributions has the result of a disproportionate distribution, there shall be treated as outstanding stock of the distributing corporation (i) any right to acquire such stock (whether or not exercisable during the taxable year), and (ii) any security convertible into stock of the distributing corporation (whether or not convertible during the taxable year).

(6) In cases where there is more than one class of stock outstanding, each class of stock is to be considered separately in determining whether a shareholder has increased his proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of a corporation. The individual shareholders of a class of stock will be deemed to have an increased interest if the class of stock as a whole has an increased interest in the corporation.

(c) Distributions of cash in lieu of fractional shares. (1) Section 305(b)(2) will not apply if—

(i) A corporation declares a dividend payable in stock of the corporation and distributes cash in lieu of fractional shares to which shareholders would otherwise be entitled, or

(ii) Upon a conversion of convertible stock or securities a corporation distributes cash in lieu of fractional shares to which shareholders would otherwise be entitled.

Provided the purpose of the distribution of cash is to save the corporation the trouble, expense, and inconvenience of issuing and transferring fractional shares (or scrip representing fractional shares), or issuing full shares representing the sum of fractional shares, and not to give any particular group of shareholders an increased interest in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation. For purposes of paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, if the total amount of cash distributed in lieu of fractional shares is 5 percent or less of the total fair market value of the stock distributed (determined as of the date of declaration), the distribution shall be considered to be for such valid purpose.

(2) In a case to which subparagraph (1) of this paragraph applies, the transaction will be treated as though the fractional shares were distributed as part of the stock distribution and then were redeemed by the corporation. The treatment of the cash received by a shareholder will be determined under section 302.

(d) Adjustment in conversion ratio. (1)(i) Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, if a corporation has convertible stock or convertible securities outstanding (upon which it pays or is deemed to pay dividends or interest in money or other property) and distributes a stock dividend (or rights to acquire such stock) with respect to the stock into which the convertible stock or securities are convertible, an increase in proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation by reason of such stock dividend shall be considered to have occurred unless a full adjustment in the conversion ratio or conversion price to reflect such stock dividend is made. Under certain circumstances, however, the application of an adjustment formula which in effect provides for a “credit” where stock is issued for consideration in excess of the conversion price may not satisfy the requirement for a “full adjustment.” Thus, if under a “conversion price” antidilution formula the formula provides for a “credit” where stock is issued for consideration in excess of the conversion price (in effect as an offset against any decrease in the conversion price which would otherwise be required when stock is subsequently issued for consideration below the conversion price) there may still be an increase in proportionate interest by reason of a stock dividend after application of the formula, since any downward adjustment of the conversion price that would otherwise be required to reflect the stock dividend may be offset, in whole or in part, by the effect of prior sales made at prices above the conversion price. On the other hand, if there were no prior sales of stock above the conversion price then a full adjustment would occur upon the application of such an adjustment formula and there would be no change in proportionate interest. Similarly, if consideration is to be received in connection with the issuance of stock, such as in the case of a rights offering or a distribution of warrants, the fact that such consideration is taken into account in making the antidilution adjustment will not preclude a full adjustment. See paragraph (b) of the example in this subparagraph for a case where the application of an adjustment formula with a cumulative feature does not result in a full adjustment and where a change in proportionate interest therefore occurs. See paragraph (c) for a case where the application of an adjustment formula with a cumulative feature does result in a full adjustment and where no change in proportionate interest therefore occurs. See paragraph (d) for an application of an antidilution formula in the case of a rights offering. See paragraph (e) for a case where the application of a noncumulative type adjustment formula will in all cases prevent a change in proportionate interest from occurring in the case of a stock dividend, because of the omission of the cumulative feature.

(ii) The principles of this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example.

Example. (a) Corporation S has two classes of securities outstanding, convertible debentures and common stock. At the time of issuance of the debentures the corporation had 100 shares of common stock outstanding. Each debenture is interest-paying and is convertible into common stock at a conversion price of $2. The debenture's conversion price is subject to reduction pursuant to the following formula: (Number of common shares outstanding at date of issue of debentures times initial conversion price) plus (Consideration received upon issuance of additional common shares) divided by (Number of common shares outstanding at date of issue of debentures) plus (Number of additional common shares issued)

Under the formula, common stock dividends are treated as an issue of common stock for zero consideration. If the computation results in a figure which is less than the existing conversion price the conversion price is reduced. However, under the formula, the existing conversion price is never increased. The formula works upon a cumulative basis since the numerator includes the consideration received upon the issuance of all common shares subsequent to the issuance of the debentures, and the reduction effected by the formula because of a sale or issuance of common stock below the existing conversion price is thus limited by any prior sales made above the existing conversion price.

(b) In 1972 corporation S sells 100 common shares at $3 per share. In 1973 the corporation declares a stock dividend of 20 shares to all holders of common stock. Under the antidilution formula no adjustment will be made to the conversion price of the debentures to reflect the stock dividend to common stockholders since the prior sale of common stock in excess of the conversion price in 1972 offsets the reduction in the conversion price which would otherwise result, as follows:

100×$2+$300÷100+120=$500÷220=$2.27

Since $2.27 is greater than the existing conversion price of $2 no adjustment is required. As a result, there is an increase in proportionate interest of the common stockholders by reason of the stock dividend and the additional shares of common stock will be treated, pursuant to section 305(b)(2), as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

(c) Assume the same facts as above, but instead of selling 100 common shares at $3 per share in 1972, assume corporation S sold no shares. Application of the antidilution formula would give rise to an adjustment in the conversion price as follows:

100×$2+$0÷100+20=$200÷120=$1.67

The conversion price, being reduced from $2 to $1.67, fully reflects the stock dividend distributed to the common stockholders. Hence, the distribution of common stock is not treated under section 305(b)(2) as one to which section 301 applies because the distribution does not increase the proportionate interests of the common shareholders as a class.

(d) Corporation S distributes to its shareholders rights entitling the shareholders to purchase a total of 20 shares at $1 per share. Application of the antidilution formula would produce an adjustment in the conversion price as follows:

100×$2+20×$1÷100+20=$220÷120=$1.83

The conversion price, being reduced from $2 to $1.83, fully reflects the distribution of rights to purchase stock at a price lower than the conversion price. Hence, the distribution of the rights is not treated under section 305(b)(2) as one to which section 301 applies because the distribution does not increase the proportionate interests of the common shareholders as a class.

(e) Assume the same facts as in (b) above, but instead of using a “conversion price” antidilution formula which operates on a cumulative basis, assume corporation S has employed a formula which operates as follows with respect to all stock dividends: The conversion price in effect at the opening of business on the day following the dividend record date is reduced by multiplying such conversion price by a fraction the numerator of which is the number of shares of common stock outstanding at the close of business on the record date and the denominator of which is the sum of such shares so outstanding and the number of shares constituting the stock dividend. Under such a formula the following adjustment would be made to the conversion price upon the declaration of a stock dividend of 20 shares in 1973:

200÷200+20=200÷220×$2=$1.82

The conversion price, being reduced from $2 to $1.82, fully reflects the stock dividend distributed to the common stockholders. Hence, the distribution of common stock is not treated under section 305(b)(2) as one to which section 301 applies because the distribution does not increase the proportionate interests of the common shareholders as a class.

(2)(i) A distributing corporation either must make the adjustment required by subparagraph (1) of this paragraph as of the date of the distribution of the stock dividend, or must elect (in the manner provided in subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph) to make such adjustment within the time provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) If the distributing corporation elects to make such adjustment, such adjustment must be made no later than the earlier of (a) 3 years after the date of the stock dividend, or (b) that date as of which the aggregate stock dividends for which adjustment of the conversion ratio has not previously been made total at least 3 percent of the issued and outstanding stock with respect to which such stock dividends were distributed.

(iii) The election provided by subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph shall be made by filing with the income tax return for the taxable year during which the stock dividend is distributed—

(a) A statement that an adjustment will be made as provided by that subdivision, and

(b) A description of the antidilution provisions under which the adjustment will be made.

(3) Notwithstanding the preceding subparagraph, if a distribution has been made before July 12, 1973, and the adjustment required by subparagraph (1) or the election to make such adjustment was not made before such date, the adjustment or the election to make such adjustment, as the case may be, shall be considered valid if made no later than 15 days following the date of the first annual meeting of the shareholders after July 12, 1973, or July 12, 1974, whichever is earlier. If the election is made within such period, and, if the income tax return has been filed before the time of such election, the statement of adjustment and the description of the antidilution provisions required by subparagraph (2)(iii) shall be filed with the Internal Revenue Service Center with which the income tax return was filed.

(4) See §1.305-7(b) for a discussion of antidilution adjustments in connection with the application of section 305(c) in conjunction with section 305(b).

(e) Examples. The application of section 305(b)(2) to distributions of stock and section 305(c) to deemed distributions of stock may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X is organized with two classes of common stock, class A and class B. Each share of stock is entitled to share equally in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation. Dividends may be paid in stock or in cash on either class of stock without regard to the medium of payment of dividends on the other class. A dividend is declared on the class A stock payable in additional shares of class A stock and a dividend is declared on class B stock payable in cash. Since the class A shareholders as a class will have increased their proportionate interests in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation and the class B shareholders will have received cash, the additional shares of class A stock are distributions of property to which section 301 applies. This is true even with respect to those shareholders who may own class A stock and class B stock in the same proportion.
Example 2. Corporation Y is organized with two classes of stock, class A common, and class B, which is nonconvertible and limited and preferred as to dividends. A dividend is declared upon the class A stock payable in additional shares of class A stock and a dividend is declared on the class B stock payable in cash. The distribution of class A stock is not one to which section 301 applies because the distribution does not increase the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders as a class.
Example 3. Corporation K is organized with two classes of stock, class A common, and class B, which is nonconvertible preferred stock. A dividend is declared upon the class A stock payable in shares of class B stock and a dividend is declared on the class B stock payable in cash. Since the class A shareholders as a class have an increased interest in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation, the stock distribution is treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies. If, however, a dividend were declared upon the class A stock payable in a new class of preferred stock that is subordinated in all respects to the class B stock, the distribution would not increase the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation and would not be treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies.
Example 4. (i) Corporation W has one class of stock outstanding, class A common. The corporation also has outstanding interest paying securities convertible into class A common stock which have a fixed conversion ratio that is not subject to full adjustment in the event stock dividends or rights are distributed to the class A shareholders. Corporation W distributes to the class A shareholders rights to acquire additional shares of class A stock. During the year, interest is paid on the convertible securities.

(ii) The stock rights and convertible securities are considered to be outstanding stock of the corporation and the distribution increases the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation. Therefore, the distribution is treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies. The same result would follow if, instead of convertible securities, the corporation had outstanding convertible stock. If, however, the conversion ratio of the securities or stock were fully adjusted to reflect the distribution of rights to the class A shareholders, the rights to acquire class A stock would not increase the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation and would not be treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies.

Example 5. (i) Corporation S is organized with two classes of stock, class A common and class B convertible preferred. The class B is fully protected against dilution in the event of a stock dividend or stock split with respect to the class A stock; however, no adjustment in the conversion ratio is required to be made until the stock dividends equal 3 percent of the common stock issued and outstanding on the date of the first such stock dividend except that such adjustment must be made no later than 3 years after the date of the stock dividend. Cash dividends are paid annually on the class B stock.

(ii) Corporation S pays a 1 percent stock dividend on the class A stock in 1970. In 1971, another 1 percent stock dividend is paid and in 1972 another 1 percent stock dividend is paid. The conversion ratio of the class B stock is increased in 1972 to reflect the three stock dividends paid on the class A stock. The distributions of class A stock are not distributions to which section 301 applies because they do not increase the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation.

Example 6. (i) Corporation M is organized with two classes of stock outstanding, class A and class B. Each class B share may be converted, at the option of the holder, into class A shares. During the first year, the conversion ratio is one share of class A stock for each share of class B stock. At the beginning of each subsequent year, the conversion ratio is increased by 0.05 share of class A stock for each share of class B stock. Thus, during the second year, the conversion ratio would be 1.05 shares of class A stock for each share of class B stock, during the third year, the ratio would be 1.10 shares, etc.

(ii) M pays an annual cash dividend on the class A stock. At the beginning of the second year, when the conversion ratio is increased to 1.05 shares of class A stock for each share of class B stock, a distribution of 0.05 shares of class A stock is deemed made under section 305(c) with respect to each share of class B stock, since the proportionate interests of the class B shareholders in the assets or earnings and profits of M are increased and the transaction has the effect described in section 305(b)(2). Accordingly, sections 305(b)(2) and 301 apply to the transaction.

Example 7. (i) Corporation N has two classes of stock outstanding, class A and class B. Each class B share is convertible into class A stock. However, in accordance with a specified formula, the conversion ratio is decreased each time a cash dividend is paid on the class B stock to reflect the amount of the cash dividend. The conversion ratio is also adjusted in the event that cash dividends are paid on the class A stock to increase the number of class A shares into which the class B shares are convertible to compensate the class B shareholders for the cash dividend paid on the class A stock.

(ii) In 1972, a $1 cash dividend per share is declared and paid on the class B stock. On the date of payment, the conversion ratio of the class B stock is decreased. A distribution of stock is deemed made under section 305(c) to the class A shareholders, since the proportionate interest of the class A shareholders in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation is increased and the transaction has the effect described in section 305(b)(2). Accordingly, sections 305(b)(2) and 301 apply to the transaction.

(iii) In the following year a cash dividend is paid on the class A stock and none is paid on the class B stock. The increase in conversion rights of the class B shares is deemed to be a distribution under section 305(c) to the class B shareholders since their proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation is increased and since the transaction has the effect described in section 305(b)(2). Accordingly, sections 305(b)(2) and 301 apply to the transaction.

Example 8. Corporation T has 1,000 shares of stock outstanding. C owns 100 shares. Nine other shareholders each owns 100 shares. Pursuant to a plan for periodic redemptions, T redeems up to 5 percent of each shareholder's stock each year. During the year, each of the nine other shareholders has 5 shares of his stock redeemed for cash. Thus, C's proportionate interest in the assets and earnings and profits of T is increased. Assuming that the cash received by the nine other shareholders is taxable under section 301, C is deemed under section 305(c) to have received a distribution under section 305(b)(2) of 5.25 shares of T stock to which section 301 applies. The amount of C's distribution is measured by the fair market value of the number of shares which would have been distributed to C had the corporation sought to increase his interest by 0.47 percentage points (C owned 10 percent of the T stock immediately before the redemption and 10.47 percent immediately thereafter) and the other shareholders continued to hold 900 shares (i.e.,

(a) 100÷955=10.47% (percent of C's ownership after redemption)

(b) 100+x÷1000+x=10.47%; x=5.25 (additional shares considered to be distributed to C)).

Since in computing the amount of additional shares deemed to be distributed to C the redemption of shares is disregarded, the redemption of shares will be similarly disregarded in determining the value of the stock of the corporation which is deemed to be distributed. Thus, in the example, 1,005.25 shares of stock are considered as outstanding after the redemption. The value of each share deemed to be distributed to C is then determined by dividing the 1,005.25 shares into the aggregate fair market value of the actual shares outstanding (955) after the redemption.

Example 9. (i) Corporation O has a stock redemption program under which, instead of paying out earnings and profits to its shareholders in the form of dividends, it redeems the stock of its shareholders up to a stated amount which is determined by the earnings and profits of the corporation. If the stock tendered for redemption exceeds the stated amount, the corporation redeems the stock on a pro rata basis up to the stated amount.

(ii) During the year corporation O offers to distribute $10,000 in redemption of its stock. At the time of the offering, corporation O has 1,000 shares outstanding of which E and F each owns 150 shares and G and H each owns 350 shares. The corporation redeems 15 shares from E and 35 shares from G. F and H continue to hold all of their stock.

(iii) F and H have increased their proportionate interests in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation. Assuming that the cash E and G receive is taxable under section 301, F will be deemed under section 305(c) to have received a distribution under section 305(b)(2) of 16.66 shares of stock to which section 301 applies and H will be deemed under section 305(c) to have received a distribution under section 305(b)(2) of 38.86 shares of stock to which section 301 applies. The amount of the distribution to F and H is measured by the number of shares which would have been distributed to F and H had the corporation sought to increase the interest of F by 0.79 percentage points (F owned 15 percent of the stock immediately before the redemption and 15.79 percent immediately thereafter) and the interest of H by 1.84 percentage points (H owned 35 percent of the stock immediately before the redemption and 36.84 percent immediately thereafter) and E and G had continued to hold 150 shares and 350 shares, respectively (i.e.,

(a)   150÷950+350÷950=52.63% (percent of F and H's ownership after redemption)

(b)   500+y÷1000+y=52.63%; y=55.52 (additional shares considered to be distributed to F and H)

(c)(1)   150÷500×55.52=16.66 (shares considered to be distributed to F)

(2)   350÷500×55.52=38.86 (shares considered to be distributed to H)).

Since in computing the amount of additional shares deemed to be distributed to F and H the redemption of shares is disregarded, the redemption of shares will be similarly disregarded in determining the value of the stock of the corporation which is deemed to be distributed. Thus, in the example, 1,055.52 shares of stock are considered as outstanding after the redemption. The value of each share deemed to be distributed to F and H is then determined by dividing the 1,055.52 shares into the aggregate fair market value of the actual shares outstanding (950) after the redemption.

Example 10. Corporation P has 1,000 shares of stock outstanding. T owns 700 shares of the P stock and G owns 300 shares of the P stock. In a single and isolated redemption to which section 301 applies, the corporation redeems 150 shares of T's stock. Since this is an isolated redemption and is not a part of a periodic redemption plan, G is not treated as having received a deemed distribution under section 305(c) to which sections 305(b)(2) and 301 apply even though he has an increased proportionate interest in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation.
Example 11. Corporation Q is a large corporation whose sole class of stock is widely held. However, the four largest shareholders are officers of the corporation and each owns 8 percent of the outstanding stock. In 1974, in a distribution to which section 301 applies, the corporation redeems 1.5 percent of the stock from each of the four largest shareholders in preparation for their retirement. From 1970 through 1974, the corporation distributes annual stock dividends to its shareholders. No other distributions were made to these shareholders. Since the 1974 redemptions are isolated and are not part of a plan for periodically redeeming the stock of the corporation, the shareholders receiving stock dividends will not be treated as having received a distribution under section 305(b)(2) even though they have an increased proportionate interest in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation and whether or not the redemptions are treated as distributions to which section 301 applies.
Example 12. Corporation R has 2,000 shares of class A stock outstanding. Five shareholders own 300 shares each and five shareholders own 100 shares each. In preparation for the retirement of the five major shareholders, corporation R, in a single and isolated transaction, has a recapitalization in which each share of class A stock may be exchanged either for five shares of new class B nonconvertible preferred stock plus 0.4 share of new class C common stock, or for two shares of new class C common stock. As a result of the exchanges, each of the five major shareholders receives 1,500 shares of class B nonconvertible preferred stock and 120 shares of class C common stock. The remaining shareholders each receives 200 shares of class C common stock. None of the exchanges are within the purview of section 305.
Example 13. Corporation P is a widely-held company whose shares are listed for trading on a stock exchange. P distributes annual cash dividends to its shareholders. P purchases shares of its common stock directly from small stockholders (holders of record of 100 shares or less) or through brokers where the holders may not be known at the time of purchase. Where such purchases are made through brokers, they are pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission. The shares are purchased for the purpose of issuance to employee stock investment plans, to holders of convertible stock or debt, to holders of stock options, or for future acquisitions. Provided the purchases are not pursuant to a plan to increase the proportionate interest of some shareholders and distribute property to other shareholders, the remaining shareholders of P are not treated as having received a deemed distribution under section 305(c) to which section 305(b)(2) and 301 apply, even though they have an increased proportionate interest in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation.
Example 14. Corporation U is a large manufacturing company whose products are sold through independent dealers. In order to assist individuals who lack capital to become dealers, the corporation has an established investment plan under which it provides 75 percent of the capital necessary to form a dealership corporation and the individual dealer provides the remaining 25 percent. Corporation U receives class A stock and a note representing its 75 percent interest. The individual dealer receives class B stock representing his 25 percent interest. The class B stock is nonvoting until all the class A shares are redeemed. At least 70 percent of the earnings and profits of the dealership corporation must be used each year to retire the note and to redeem the class A stock. The class A stock is redeemed at a fixed price. The individual dealer has no control over the redemption of stock and has no right to have his stock redeemed during the period the plan is in existence. U's investment is thus systematically eliminated and the individual becomes the sole owner of the dealership corporation. Since this type of plan is akin to a security arrangement, the redemptions of the class A stock will not be deemed under section 305(c) as distributions taxable under sections 305(b)(2) and 301 during the years in which the class A stock is redeemed.
Example 15. (i) Facts. Corporation V is organized with two classes of stock, class A common and class B convertible preferred. The class B stock is issued for $100 per share and is convertible at the holder's option into class A at a fixed ratio that is not subject to full adjustment in the event stock dividends or rights are distributed to the class A shareholders. The class B stock pays no dividends but it is mandatorily redeemable in 10 years for $200. Under sections 305(c) and 305(b)(4), the entire redemption premium (i.e., the excess of the redemption price over the issue price) is deemed to be a distribution of preferred stock on preferred stock which is taxable as a distribution of property under section 301. This amount is considered to be distributed over the 10-year period under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a). During the year, the corporation declares a dividend on the class A stock payable in additional shares of class A stock.

(ii) Analysis. The distribution on the class A stock is a distribution to which sections 305(b)(2) and 301 apply since it increases the proportionate interests of the class A shareholders in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation and the class B shareholders have received property (i.e., the constructive distribution described above). If, however, the conversion ratio of the class B stock were subject to full adjustment to reflect the distribution of stock to class A shareholders, the distribution of stock dividends on the class A stock would not increase the proportionate interest of the class A shareholders in the assets and earnings and profits of the corporation and such distribution would not be a distribution to which section 301 applies.

(iii) Effective date. This Example 15 applies to stock issued on or after December 20, 1995. For previously issued stock, see §1.305-3(e) Example (15) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised April 1, 1995).

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18532, July 12, 1973; 38 FR 19910, 19911, July 25, 1973; as amended by T.D. 7329, 39 FR 36860, Oct. 15, 1974; T.D. 8643, 60 FR 66136, Dec. 21, 1995]

§1.305-4   Distributions of common and preferred stock.

(a) In general. Under section 305(b)(3), a distribution (or a series of distributions) by a corporation which results in the receipt of preferred stock whether or not convertible into common stock) by some common shareholders and the receipt of common stock by other common shareholders is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies. For the meaning of the term a series of distribution, see subparagraphs (1) through (6) of §1.305-3(b).

(b) Examples. The application of section 305(b)(3) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X is organized with two classes of common stock, class A and class B. Dividends may be paid in stock or in cash on either class of stock without regard to the medium of payment of dividends on the other class. A dividend is declared on the class A stock payable in additional shares of class A stock and a dividend is declared on class B stock payable in newly authorized class C stock which is nonconvertible and limited and preferred as to dividends. Both the distribution of class A shares and the distribution of new class C shares are distributions to which section 301 applies.
Example 2. Corporation Y is organized with one class of stock, class A common. During the year the corporation declares a dividend on the class A stock payable in newly authorized class B preferred stock which is convertible into class A stock no later than 6 months from the date of distribution at a price that is only slightly higher than the market price of class A stock on the date of distribution. Taking into account the dividend rate, redemption provisions, the marketability of the convertible stock, and the conversion price, it is reasonable to anticipate that within a relatively short period of time some shareholders will exercise their conversion rights and some will not. Since the distribution can reasonably be expected to result in the receipt of preferred stock by some common shareholders and the receipt of common stock by other common shareholders, the distribution is a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18536, July 12, 1973]

§1.305-5   Distributions on preferred stock.

(a) In general. Under section 305(b)(4), a distribution by a corporation of its stock (or rights to acquire its stock) made (or deemed made under section 305(c)) with respect to its preferred stock is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies unless the distribution is made with respect to convertible preferred stock to take into account a stock dividend, stock split, or any similar event (such as the sale of stock at less than the fair market value pursuant to a rights offering) which would otherwise result in the dilution of the conversion right. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an adjustment in the conversion ratio of convertible preferred stock made solely to take into account the distribution by a closed end regulated investment company of a capital gain dividend with respect to the stock into which such stock is convertible shall not be considered a “similar event.” The term preferred stock generally refers to stock which, in relation to other classes of stock outstanding, enjoys certain limited rights and privileges (generally associated with specified dividend and liquidation priorities) but does not participate in corporate growth to any significant extent. The distinguishing feature of preferred stock for the purposes of section 305(b)(4) is not its privileged position as such, but that such privileged position is limited, and that such stock does not participate in corporate growth to any significant extent. However, a right to participate which lacks substance will not prevent a class of stock from being treated as preferred stock. Thus, stock which enjoys a priority as to dividends and on liquidation but which is entitled to participate, over and above such priority, with another less privileged class of stock in earnings and profits and upon liquidation, may nevertheless be treated as preferred stock for purposes of section 305 if, taking into account all the facts and circumstances, it is reasonable to anticipate at the time a distribution is made (or is deemed to have been made) with respect to such stock that there is little or no likelihood of such stock actually participating in current and anticipated earnings and upon liquidation beyond its preferred interest. Among the facts and circumstances to be considered are the prior and anticipated earnings per share, the cash dividends per share, the book value per share, the extent of preference and of participation of each class, both absolutely and relative to each other, and any other facts which indicate whether or not the stock has a real and meaningful probability of actually participating in the earnings and growth of the corporation. The determination of whether stock is preferred for purposes of section 305 shall be made without regard to any right to convert such stock into another class of stock of the corporation. The term preferred stock, however, does not include convertible debentures.

(b) Redemption premium—(1) In general. If a corporation issues preferred stock that may be redeemed under the circumstances described in this paragraph (b) at a price higher than the issue price, the difference (the redemption premium) is treated under section 305(c) as a constructive distribution (or series of constructive distributions) of additional stock on preferred stock that is taken into account under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a). However, constructive distribution treatment does not result under this paragraph (b) if the redemption premium does not exceed a de minimis amount, as determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3). For purposes of this paragraph (b), preferred stock that may be acquired by a person other than the issuer (the third person) is deemed to be redeemable under the circumstances described in this paragraph (b), and references to the issuer include the third person, if—

(i) This paragraph (b) would apply to the stock if the third person were the issuer; and

(ii) Either—

(A) The acquisition of the stock by the third person would be treated as a redemption for federal income tax purposes (under section 304 or otherwise); or

(B) The third person and the issuer are members of the same affiliated group (having the meaning for this purpose given the term by section 1504(a), except that section 1504(b) shall not apply) and a principal purpose of the arrangement for the third person to acquire the stock is to avoid the application of section 305 and paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(2) Mandatory redemption or holder put. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies to stock if the issuer is required to redeem the stock at a specified time or the holder has the option (whether or not currently exercisable) to require the issuer to redeem the stock. However, paragraph (b)(1) of this section will not apply if the issuer's obligation to redeem or the holder's ability to require the issuer to redeem is subject to a contingency that is beyond the legal or practical control of either the holder or the holders as a group (or through a related party within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)), and that, based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date, renders remote the likelihood of redemption. For purposes of this paragraph, a contingency does not include the possibility of default, insolvency, or similar circumstances, or that a redemption may be precluded by applicable law which requires that the issuer have a particular level of capital, surplus, or similar items. A contingency also does not include an issuer's option to require earlier redemption of the stock. For rules applicable if stock may be redeemed at more than one time, see paragraph (b)(4) of this section.

(3) Issuer call—(i) In general. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies to stock by reason of the issuer's right to redeem the stock (even if the right is immediately exercisable), but only if, based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date, redemption pursuant to that right is more likely than not to occur. However, even if redemption is more likely than not to occur, paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply if the redemption premium is solely in the nature of a penalty for premature redemption. A redemption premium is not a penalty for premature redemption unless it is a premium paid as a result of changes in economic or market conditions over which neither the issuer nor the holder has legal or practical control.

(ii) Safe harbor. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(3), redemption pursuant to an issuer's right to redeem is not treated as more likely than not to occur if—

(A) The issuer and the holder are not related within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b) (for purposes of applying sections 267(b) and 707(b) (including section 267(f)(1)), the phrase “20 percent” shall be substituted for the phrase “50 percent”);

(B) There are no plans, arrangements, or agreements that effectively require or are intended to compel the issuer to redeem the stock (disregarding, for this purpose, a separate mandatory redemption obligation described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section); and

(C) Exercise of the right to redeem would not reduce the yield of the stock, as determined under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a) and the regulations under sections 1271 through 1275.

(iii) Effect of not satisfying safe harbor. The fact that a redemption right is not described in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section does not affect the determination of whether a redemption pursuant to the right to redeem is more likely than not to occur.

(4) Coordination of multiple redemption provisions. If stock may be redeemed at more than one time, the time and price at which redemption is most likely to occur must be determined based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date. Any constructive distribution under paragraph (b)(1) of this section will result only with respect to the time and price identified in the preceding sentence. However, if redemption does not occur at that identified time, the amount of any additional premium payable on any later redemption date, to the extent not previously treated as distributed, is treated as a constructive distribution over the period from the missed call or put date to that later date, to the extent required under the principles of this paragraph (b).

(5) Consistency. The issuer's determination as to whether there is a constructive distribution under this paragraph (b) is binding on all holders of the stock, other than a holder that explicitly discloses that its determination as to whether there is a constructive distribution under this paragraph (b) differs from that of the issuer. Unless otherwise prescribed by the Commissioner, the disclosure must be made on a statement attached to the holder's timely filed federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the date the holder acquired the stock. The issuer must provide the relevant information to the holder in a reasonable manner. For example, the issuer may provide the name or title and either the address or telephone number of a representative of the issuer who will make available to holders upon request the information required for holders to comply with this provision of this paragraph (b).

(c) Cross reference. For rules for applying sections 305(b)(4) and 305(c) to recapitalizations, see §1.305-7(c).

(d) Examples. The application of sections 305(b)(4) and 305(c) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (i) Corporation T has outstanding 1,000 shares of $100 par 5-percent cumulative preferred stock and 10,000 shares of no-par common stock. The corporation is 4 years in arrears on dividends to the preferred shareholders. The issue price of the preferred stock is $100 per share. Pursuant to a recapitalization under section 368(a)(1)(E), the preferred shareholders exchange their preferred stock, including the right to dividend arrearages, on the basis of one old preferred share for 1.20 newly authorized class A preferred shares. Immediately following the recapitalization, the new class A shares are traded at $100 per share. The class A shares are entitled to a liquidation preference of $100. The preferred shareholders have increased their proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of corporation T since the fair market value of 1.20 shares of class A preferred stock ($120) exceeds the issue price of the old preferred stock ($100). Accordingly, the preferred shareholders are deemed under section 305(c) to receive a distribution in the amount of $20 on each share of old preferred stock and the distribution is one to which sections 305(b)(4) and 301 apply.

(ii) The same result would occur if the fair market value of the common stock immediately following the recapitalization were $20 per share and each share of preferred stock were exchanged for one share of the new class A preferred stock and one share of common stock.

Example 2. Corporation A, a publicly held company whose stock is traded on a securities exchange (or in the over-the-counter market) has two classes of stock outstanding, common and cumulative preferred. Each share of preferred stock is convertible into .75 shares of common stock. There are no dividend arrearages. At the time of issue of the preferred stock, there was no plan or prearrangement by which it was to be exchanged for common stock. The issue price of the preferred stock is $100 per share. In order to retire the preferred stock, corporation A recapitalizes in a transaction to which section 368(a)(1)(E) applies and each share of preferred stock is exchanged for one share of common stock. Immediately after the recapitalization the common stock has a fair market value of $110 per share. Notwithstanding the fact that the fair market value of the common stock received in the exchange (determined immediately following the recapitalization) exceeds the issue price of the preferred stock surrendered, the recapitalization is not deemed under section 305(c) to result in a distribution to which sections 305(b)(4) and 301 apply since the recapitalization is not pursuant to a plan to periodically increase a shareholder's proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits and does not involve dividend arrearages.
Example 3. Corporation V is organized with two classes of stock, 1,000 shares of class A common and 1,000 shares of class B convertible preferred. Each share of class B stock may be converted into two shares of class A stock. Pursuant to a recapitalization under section 368(a)(1)(E), the 1,000 shares of class A stock are surrendered in exchange for 500 shares of new class A common and 500 shares of newly authorized class C common. The conversion right of class B stock is changed to one share of class A stock and one share of class C stock for each share of class B stock. The change in the conversion right is not deemed under section 305(c) to be a distribution on preferred stock to which sections 305(b)(4) and 301 apply.
Example 4. (i) Facts. Corporation X is a domestic corporation with only common stock outstanding. In connection with its acquisition of Corporation T, X issues 100 shares of its 4% preferred stock to the shareholders of T, who are unrelated to X both before and after the transaction. The issue price of the preferred stock is $40 per share. Each share of preferred stock is convertible at the shareholder's election into three shares of X common stock. At the time the preferred stock is issued, the X common stock has a value of $10 per share. The preferred stock does not provide for its mandatory redemption or for redemption at the option of the holder. It is callable at the option of X at any time beginning three years from the date of issuance for $100 per share. There are no other plans, arrangements, or agreements that effectively require or are intended to compel X to redeem the stock.

(ii) Analysis. The preferred stock is described in the safe harbor rule of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section because X and the former shareholders of T are unrelated, there are no plans, arrangements, or agreements that effectively require or are intended to compel X to redeem the stock, and calling the stock for $100 per share would not reduce the yield of the preferred stock. Therefore, the $60 per share call premium is not treated as a constructive distribution to the shareholders of the preferred stock under paragraph (b) of this section.

Example 5. (i) Facts—(A) Corporation Y is a domestic corporation with only common stock outstanding. On January 1, 1996, Y issues 100 shares of its 10% preferred stock to a holder. The holder is unrelated to Y both before and after the stock issuance. The issue price of the preferred stock is $100 per share. The preferred stock is—

(1) Callable at the option of Y on or before January 1, 2001, at a price of $105 per share plus any accrued but unpaid dividends; and

(2) Mandatorily redeemable on January 1, 2006, at a price of $100 per share plus any accrued but unpaid dividends.

(B) The preferred stock provides that if Y fails to exercise its option to call the preferred stock on or before January 1, 2001, the holder will be entitled to appoint a majority of Y's directors. Based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date, Y is likely to have the legal and financial capacity to exercise its right to redeem. There are no other facts and circumstances as of the issue date that would affect whether Y will call the preferred stock on or before January 1, 2001.

(ii) Analysis. Under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies because, by virtue of the change of control provision and the absence of any contrary facts, it is more likely than not that Y will exercise its option to call the preferred stock on or before January 1, 2001. The safe harbor rule of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section does not apply because the provision that failure to call will cause the holder to gain control of the corporation is a plan, arrangement, or agreement that effectively requires or is intended to compel Y to redeem the preferred stock. Under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, the constructive distribution occurs over the period ending on January 1, 2001. Redemption is most likely to occur on that date, because that is the date on which the corporation minimizes the rate of return to the holder while preventing the holder from gaining control. The de minimis exception of paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply because the $5 per share difference between the redemption price and the issue price exceeds the amount determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3) (5×.0025×$105 = $1.31). Accordingly, $5 per share, the difference between the redemption price and the issue price, is treated as a constructive distribution received by the holder on an economic accrual basis over the five-year period ending on January 1, 2001, under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a).

Example 6. Corporation A, a publicly held company whose stock is traded on a securities exchange (or in the over-the-counter market) has two classes of stock outstanding, common and preferred. The preferred stock is nonvoting and nonconvertible, limited and preferred as to dividends, and has a fixed liquidation preference. There are no dividend arrearages. At the time of issue of the preferred stock, there was no plan or prearrangement by which it was to be exchanged for common stock. In order to retire the preferred stock, corporation A recapitalizes in a transaction to which section 368(a)(1)(E) applies and the preferred stock is exchanged for common stock. The transaction is not deemed to be a distribution under section 305(c) and sections 305(b) and 301 do not apply to the transaction. The same result would follow if the preferred stock was exchanged in any reorganization described in section 368(a)(1) for a new preferred stock having substantially the same market value and having no greater call price or liquidation preference than the old preferred stock, whether the new preferred stock has voting rights or is convertible into common stock of corporation A at a fixed ratio subject to change solely to take account of stock dividends, stock splits, or similar transactions with respect to the stock into which the preferred stock is convertible.
Example 7. (i) Facts—(A) Corporation Z is a domestic corporation with only common stock outstanding. On January 1, 1996, Z issues 100 shares of its 10% preferred stock to C, an individual unrelated to Z both before and after the stock issuance. The issue price of the preferred stock is $100 per share. The preferred stock is—

(1) Not callable for a period of 5 years from the issue date;

(2) Callable at the option of Z on January 1, 2001, at a price of $110 per share plus any accrued but unpaid dividends;

(3) Callable at the option of Z on July 1, 2002, at a price of $120 per share plus any accrued but unpaid dividends; and

(4) Mandatorily redeemable on January 1, 2004, at a price of $150 per share plus any accrued but unpaid dividends.

(B) There are no other plans, arrangements, or agreements between Z and C concerning redemption of the stock. Moreover, there are no other facts and circumstances as of the issue date that would affect whether Z will call the preferred stock on either January 1, 2001, or July 1, 2002.

(ii) Analysis. This stock is described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section because it is mandatorily redeemable. It is also potentially described in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section because it is callable at the option of the issuer. The safe harbor rule of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section does not apply to the option to call on January 1, 2001, because the call would reduce the yield of the stock when compared to the yield produced by the January 1, 2004, mandatory redemption feature. Moreover, absent any other facts indicating a contrary result, the fact that redemption on January 1, 2001, would produce the lowest yield indicates that redemption is most likely to occur on that date. Under paragraph (b)(4) of this section, paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies with respect to the issuer's right to call on January 1, 2001, because redemption is most likely to occur on January 1, 2001, for $110 per share. The de minimis exception of paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply because the $10 per share difference between the redemption price payable in 2001 and the issue price exceeds the amount determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3) (5×.0025×$110=$1.38). Accordingly, $10 per share, the difference between the redemption price and the issue price, is treated as a constructive distribution received by the holder on an economic accrual basis over the five-year period ending January 1, 2001, under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a).

(iii) Coordination rules—(A) If Z does not exercise its option to call the preferred stock on January 1, 2001, paragraph (b)(4) of this section provides that the principles of paragraph (b) of this section must be applied to determine if any remaining constructive distribution occurs. Under paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (b)(4) of this section, paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies because, absent any other facts indicating a contrary result, the fact that redemption on July 1, 2002, would produce a lower yield than the yield produced by the mandatory redemption feature indicates that redemption on that date is most likely to occur. The safe harbor rule of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section does not apply to the option to call on July 1, 2002, because, as of January 1, 2001, a call by Z on July 1, 2002, for $120 would reduce the yield of the stock. The de minimis exception of paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply because the $10 per share difference between the redemption price and the issue price (revised as of the missed call date as provided by paragraph (b)(4) of this section) exceeds the amount determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3) (1×.0025×$120=$.30). Accordingly, the $10 per share of additional redemption premium that is payable on July 1, 2002, is treated as a constructive distribution received by the holder on an economic accrual basis over the period between January 1, 2001, and July 1, 2002, under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a).

(B) If Z does not exercise its second option to call the preferred stock on July 1, 2002, then the $30 additional redemption premium that is payable on January 1, 2004, is treated as a constructive distribution under paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(1) of this section. The de minimis exception of paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply because the $30 per share difference between the redemption price and the issue price (revised as of the second missed call date) exceeds the amount determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3) (1×.0025×$150=$.38). The holder is treated as receiving the constructive distribution on an economic accrual basis over the period between July 1, 2002, and January 1, 2004, under principles similar to the principles of section 1272(a).

Example 8. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of Example 7, except that, based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date (including an expected lack of funds on the part of Z), it is unlikely that Z will exercise the right to redeem on either January 1, 2001, or July 1, 2002.

(ii) Analysis. The safe harbor rule of paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section does not apply to the option to call on either January 1, 2001, or July 1, 2002, because each call would reduce the yield of the stock. Under paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section, neither option to call is more likely than not to occur, because, based on all of the facts and circumstances as of the issue date (including an expected lack of funds on the part of Z), it is not more likely than not that Z will exercise either option. However, the $50 per share redemption premium that is payable on January 1, 2004, is treated as a constructive distribution under paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section, regardless of whether Z is anticipated to have sufficient funds to redeem on that date, because Z is required to redeem the stock on that date. The de minimis exception of paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply because the $50 per share difference between the redemption price and the issue price exceeds the amount determined under the principles of section 1273(a)(3)(8×.0025×$150=$3).

Example 9. Corporation Q is organized with 10,000 shares of class A stock and 1,000 shares of class B stock. The terms of the class B stock require that the class B have a preference of $5 per share with respect to dividends and $100 per share with respect to liquidation. In addition, upon a distribution of $10 per share to the class A stock, class B participates equally in any additional dividends. The terms also provide that upon liquidation the class B stock participates equally after the class A stock receives $100 per share. Corporation Q has no accumulated earnings and profits. In 1971 it earned $10,000, the highest earnings in its history. The corporation is in an industry in which it is reasonable to anticipate a growth in earnings of 5 percent per year. In 1971 the book value of corporation Q's assets totalled $100,000. In that year the corporation paid a dividend of $5 per share to the class B stock and $.50 per share to the class A. In 1972 the corporation had no earnings and in lieu of a $5 dividend distributed one share of class B stock for each outstanding share of class B. No distribution was made to the class A stock. Since, in 1972, it was not reasonable to anticipate that the class B stock would participate in the current and anticipated earnings and growth of the corporation beyond its preferred interest, the class B stock is preferred stock and the distribution of class B shares to the class B shareholders is a distribution to which sections 305(b)(4) and 301 apply.
Example 10. Corporation P is organized with 10,000 shares of class A stock and 1,000 shares of class B stock. The terms of the class B stock require that the class B have a preference of $5 per share with respect to dividends and $100 per share with respect to liquidation. In addition, upon a distribution of $5 per share to the class A stock, class B participates equally in any additional dividends. The terms also provide that upon liquidation the class B stock participates equally after the class A receives $100 per share. Corporation P has accumulated earnings and profits of $100,000. In 1971 it earned $75,000. The corporation is in an industry in which it is reasonable to anticipate a growth in earnings of 10 percent per year. In 1971 the book value of corporation P's assets totalled $5 million. In that year the corporation paid a dividend of $5 per share to the class B stock, $5 per share to the class A stock, and it distributed an additional $1 per share to both class A and class B stock. In 1972 the corporation had earnings of $82,500. In that year it paid a dividend of $5 per share to the class B stock and $5 per share to the class A stock. In addition, the corporation declared stock dividends of one share of class B stock for every 10 outstanding shares of class B and one share of class A stock for every 10 outstanding shares of class A. Since, in 1972, it was reasonable to anticipate that both the class B stock and the class A stock would participate in the current and anticipated earnings and growth of the corporation beyond their preferred interests, neither class is preferred stock and the stock dividends are not distributions to which section 305(b)(4) applies.

(e) Effective date. The rules of paragraph (b) of this section and Examples 4, 5, 7, and 8 of paragraph (d) of this section apply to stock issued on or after December 20, 1995. For rules applicable to previously issued stock, see §1.305-5 (b) and (d) Examples (4), (5), and (7) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised April 1, 1995). Although the rules of paragraph (b) of this section and the revised examples do not apply to stock issued before December 20, 1995, the rules of sections 305(c)(1), (2), and (3) apply to stock described therein issued on or after October 10, 1990, except as provided in section 11322(b)(2) of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508 Stat.). Moreover, except as provided in section 11322(b)(2) of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-508 Stat.), with respect to stock issued on or after October 10, 1990, and issued before December 20, 1995, the economic accrual rule of section 305(c)(3) will apply to the entire call premium on stock that is not described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section if the premium is considered to be unreasonable under the principles of §1.305-5(b) (as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 edition revised April 1, 1995). A call premium described in the preceding sentence will be accrued over the period of time during which the preferred stock cannot be called for redemption.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18536, July 12, 1973, as amended by T.D. 7329, 39 FR 36860, Oct. 15, 1974; T.D. 8643, 60 FR 66136, Dec. 21, 1995]

§1.305-6   Distributions of convertible preferred.

(a) In general. (1) Under section 305(b)(5), a distribution by a corporation of its convertible preferred stock or rights to acquire such stock made or considered as made with respect to its stock is treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies unless the corporation establishes that such distribution will not result in a disproportionate distribution as described in §1.305-3.

(2) The distribution of convertible preferred stock is likely to result in a disproportionate distribution when both of the following conditions exist: (i) The conversion right must be exercised within a relatively short period of time after the date of distribution of the stock; and (ii) taking into account such factors as the dividend rate, the redemption provisions, the marketability of the convertible stock, and the conversion price, it may be anticipated that some shareholders will exercise their conversion rights and some will not. On the other hand, where the conversion right may be exercised over a period of many years and the dividend rate is consistent with market conditions at the time of distribution of the stock, there is no basis for predicting at what time and the extent to which the stock will be converted and it is unlikely that a disproportionate distribution will result.

(b) Examples. The application of section 305(b)(5) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation Z is organized with one class of stock, class A common. During the year the corporation declares a dividend on the class A stock payable in newly authorized class B preferred stock which is convertible into class A stock for a period of 20 years from the date of issuance. Assuming dividend rates are normal in light of existing conditions so that there is no basis for predicting the extent to which the stock will be converted, the circumstances will ordinarily be sufficient to establish that a disproportionate distribution will not result since it is impossible to predict the extent to which the class B stock will be converted into class A stock. Accordingly, the distribution of class B stock is not one to which section 301 applies.
Example 2. Corporation X is organized with one class of stock, class A common. During the year the corporation declares a dividend on the class A stock payable in newly authorized redeemable class C preferred stock which is convertible into class A common stock no later than 4 months from the date of distribution at a price slightly higher than the market price of class A stock on the date of distribution. By prearrangement with corporation X, corporation Y, an insurance company, agrees to purchase class C stock from any shareholder who does not wish to convert. By reason of this prearrangement, it is anticipated that the shareholders will either sell the class C stock to the insurance company (which expects to retain the shares for investment purposes) or will convert. As a result, some of the shareholders exercise their conversion privilege and receive additional shares of class A stock, while other shareholders sell their class C stock to corporation Y and receive cash. The distribution is a distribution to which section 301 applies since it results in the receipt of property by some shareholders and an increase in the proportionate interests of other shareholders.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18538, July 12, 1973]

§1.305-7   Certain transactions treated as distributions.

(a) In general. Under section 305(c), a change in conversion ratio, a change in redemption price, a difference between redemption price and issue price, a redemption which is treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies, or any transaction (including a recapitalization) having a similar effect on the interest of any shareholder may be treated as a distribution with respect to any shareholder whose proportionate interest in the earnings and profits or assets of the corporation is increased by such change, difference, redemption, or similar transaction. In general, such change, difference, redemption, or similar transaction will be treated as a distribution to which sections 305(b) and 301 apply where—

(1) The proportionate interest of any shareholder in the earnings and profits or assets of the corporation deemed to have made such distribution is increased by such change, difference, redemption, or similar transaction; and

(2) Such distribution has the result described in paragraph (2), (3), (4), or (5) of section 305(b).

Where such change, difference, redemption, or similar transaction is treated as a distribution under the provisions of this section, such distribution will be deemed made with respect to any shareholder whose interest in the earnings and profits or assets of the distributing corporation is increased thereby. Such distribution will be deemed to be a distribution of the stock of such corporation made by the corporation to such shareholder with respect to his stock. Depending upon the facts presented, the distribution may be deemed to be made in common or preferred stock. For example, where a redemption premium exists with respect to a class of preferred stock under the circumstances described in §1.305-5(b) and the other requirements of this section are also met, the distribution will be deemed made with respect to such preferred stock, in stock of the same class. Accordingly, the preferred shareholders are considered under sections 305(b)(4) and 305(c) to have received a distribution of preferred stock to which section 301 applies. See the examples in §§1.305-3(e) and 1.305-5(d) for further illustrations of the application of section 305(c).

(b) Antidilution provisions. (1) For purposes of applying section 305(c) in conjunction with section 305(b), a change in the conversion ratio or conversion price of convertible preferred stock (or securities), or in the exercise price of rights or warrants, made pursuant to a bona fide, reasonable, adjustment formula (including, but not limited to, either the so-called “market price” or “conversion price” type of formulas) which has the effect of preventing dilution of the interest of the holders of such stock (or securities) will not be considered to result in a deemed distribution of stock. An adjustment in the conversion ratio or price to compensate for cash or property distributions to other shareholders that are taxable under section 301, 356(a)(2), 871(a)(1)(A), 881(a)(1), 852(b), or 857(b) will not be considered as made pursuant to a bona fide adjustment formula.

(2) The principles of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. (i) Corporation U has two classes of stock outstanding, class A and class B. Each class B share is convertible into class A stock. In accordance with a bonafide, reasonable, antidilution provision, the conversion price is adjusted if the corporation transfers class A stock to anyone for a consideration that is below the conversion price.

(ii) The corporation sells class A stock to the public at the current market price but below the conversion price. Pursuant to the antidilution provision, the conversion price is adjusted downward. Such a change in conversion price will not be deemed to be a distribution under section 305(c) for the purposes of section 305(b).

(c) Recapitalizations. (1) A recapitalization (whether or not an isolated transaction) will be deemed to result in a distribution to which section 305(c) and this section apply if—

(i) It is pursuant to a plan to periodically increase a shareholder's proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation, or

(ii) A shareholder owning preferred stock with dividends in arrears exchanges his stock for other stock and, as a result, increases his proportionate interest in the assets or earnings and profits of the corporation. An increase in a preferred shareholder's proportionate interest occurs in any case where the fair market value or the liquidation preference, whichever is greater, of the stock received in the exchange (determined immediately following the recapitalization), exceeds the issue price of the preferred stock surrendered.

(2) In a case to which subparagraph (1)(ii) of this paragraph applies, the amount of the distribution deemed under section 305(c) to result from the recapitalization is the lesser of (i) the amount by which the fair market value or the liquidation preference, whichever is greater, of the stock received in the exchange (determined immediately following the recapitalization) exceeds the issue price of the preferred stock surrendered, or (ii) the amount of the dividends in arrears.

(3) For purposes of applying subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph with respect to stock issued before July 12, 1973, the term issue price of the preferred stock surrendered shall mean the greater of the issue price or the liquidation preference (not including dividends in arrears) of the stock surrendered.

(4) For an illustration of the application of this paragraph, see Example (12) of §1.305-3(e) and Examples (1), (2), (3), and (6) of §1.305-5(d).

(5) For rules relating to redemption premiums on preferred stock, see §1.305-5(b).

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18538, July 12, 1973, as amended by T.D. 8643, 60 FR 66138, Dec. 21, 1995]

§1.305-8   Effective dates.

(a) In general. Section 421(b) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 615) provides as follows:

(b) Effective dates. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendment made by subsection (a) shall apply with respect to distributions (or deemed distributions) made after January 10, 1969, in taxable years ending after such date.

(2)(A) Section 305(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as added by subsection (a) shall not apply to a distribution (or deemed distribution) of stock made before January 1, 1991, with respect to stock (i) outstanding on January 10, 1969, (ii) issued pursuant to a contract binding on January 10, 1969, on the distributing corporation, (iii) which is additional stock of that class of stock which (as of January 10, 1969) had the largest fair market value of all classes of stock of the corporation (taking into account only stock outstanding on January 10, 1969, or issued pursuant to a contract binding on January 10, 1969), (iv) described in subparagraph (c)(iii), or (v) issued in a prior distribution described in clause (i), (ii), (iii), or (iv).

(B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply only if—

(i) The stock as to which there is a receipt of property was outstanding on January 10, 1969 (or was issued pursuant to a contract binding on January 10, 1969, on the distributing corporation), and

(ii) If such stock and any stock described in subparagraph (A)(i) were also outstanding on January 10, 1968, a distribution of property was made on or before January 10, 1969, with respect to such stock, and a distribution of stock was made on or before January 10, 1969, with respect to such stock described in subparagraph (A)(i).

(C) Subparagraph (A) shall cease to apply when at any time after October 9, 1969, the distributing corporation issues any of its stock (other than in a distribution of stock with respect to stock of the same class) which is not—

(i) Nonconvertible preferred stock,

(ii) Additional stock of that class of stock which meets the requirements of subparagraph (A)(iii), or

(iii) Preferred stock which is convertible into stock which meets the requirements of subparagraph (A)(iii) at a fixed conversion ratio which takes account of all stock dividends and stock splits with respect to the stock into which such convertible stock is convertible.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term stock includes rights to acquire such stock.

(3) In cases to which Treasury Decision 6990 (promulgated January 10, 1969) would not have applied, in applying paragraphs (1) and (2) April 22, 1969, shall be substituted for January 10, 1969.

(4) Section 305(b)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as added by subsection (a)) shall not apply to any distribution (or deemed distribution) with respect to preferred stock (including any increase in the conversation ratio of convertible stock) made before January 1, 1991, pursuant to the terms relating to the issuance of such stock which were in effect on January 10, 1969.

(5) With respect to distributions made or considered as made after January 10, 1969, in taxable years ending after such date, to the extent that the amendment made by subsection (a) does not apply by reason of paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of this subsection, section 305 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (as in effect before the amendment made by subsection (a)) shall continue to apply.

(b) Rules of application. (1) The rules contained in section 421(b)(2) of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 615), hereinafter called “the Act”, shall apply with respect to the application of section 305(b)(2), section 305(b)(3), and section 305(b)(5). Thus, for example, section 305(b)(5) of the Code will not apply to a distribution of convertible preferred stock made before January 1, 1991, with respect to stock outstanding on January 10, 1969 (or which was issued pursuant to a contract binding on the distributing corporation on January 10, 1969), provided the distribution is pursuant to the terms relating to the issuance of such stock which were in effect on January 10, 1969.

(2)(i) For purposes of section 421(b)(2)(A), (B)(i), and (C) of the Act, stock is considered as outstanding on January 10, 1969, if it could be acquired on such date or some future date by the exercise of a right or conversion privilege in existence on such date (including a right or conversion privilege with respect to stock issued pursuant to a contract binding, on January 10, 1969, on the distributing corporation). Thus, if on January 10, 1969, corporation X has outstanding 1,000 shares of class A common stock and 3,000 shares of class B common stock which are convertible on a one-to-one basis into class A stock, corporation X is considered for purposes of section 421(b)(2)(A), (B)(i), and (C) of the Act to have outstanding on January 10, 1969, 4,000 shares of class A stock (1,000 shares actually outstanding and 3,000 shares that could be acquired by the exercise of the conversion privilege contained in the class B stock) and 3,000 shares of class B stock.

(ii) For the purposes of section 421(b)(2)(A) (other than for the purpose of determining under section 421(b)(2)(A)(iii) that class of stock which as of January 10, 1969, had the largest fair market value of all classes of stock of the corporation), (B)(i), and (C) of the Act, stock will be considered as outstanding on January 10, 1969, if it is issued pursuant to a conversion privilege contained in stock issued, mediately or immediately, as a stock dividend with respect to stock outstanding on January 10, 1969.

(3) If, after applying subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the class of stock which as of January 10, 1969, had the largest fair market value of all classes of stock of the corporation is a class of stock which is convertible into another class of nonconvertible stock, then for purposes of section 421(b)(2)(C)(ii) of the Act stock issued upon conversion of any such convertible stock (whether or not outstanding on January 10, 1969) into stock of such other class shall be deemed to be stock which meets the requirements of section 421(b)(2)(A)(iii) of the Act.

(4) For purposes of section 421(b) of the Act, stock of a corporation held in its treasury will not be considered as outstanding and a distribution of such stock will be considered to be an issuance of such stock on the date of distribution. Stock of a parent corporation held by its subsidiary is not considered treasury stock.

(5) The following stock shall not be taken into account for purposes of applying section 421(b)(2)(B)(i) of the Act: (i) Stock issued after January 10, 1969, and before October 10, 1969 (other than stock which was issued pursuant to a contract binding on January 10, 1969, on the distributing corporation); (ii) stock described in section 421(b)(2)(C)(i), (ii), or (iii) of the Act; and (iii) stock issued, mediately or immediately, as a stock dividend with respect to stock of the same class outstanding on January 10, 1969. For example, if on June 1, 1970, corporation Y issues additional stock of that class of stock which as of January 10, 1969, had the largest fair market value of all classes of stock of the corporation, such additional stock will not be taken into account for the purpose of meeting the requirement under section 421(b)(2)(B)(i) of the Act that the stock as to which there is a receipt of property must have been outstanding on January 10, 1969, and thus subparagraph (A) of section 421(b)(2) of the Act will not, where otherwise applicable, cease to apply.

(6) Section 421(b)(2)(A) of the Act, if otherwise applicable, will not cease to apply if the distributing corporation issues after October 9, 1969, securities which are convertible into stock that meets the requirements of section 421(b)(2)(A)(iii) of the Act at a fixed conversion ratio which takes account of all stock dividends and stock splits with respect to the stock into which the securities are convertible.

(7) Under section 421(b)(4) of the Act, section 305(b)(4) does not apply to any distribution (or deemed distribution) by a corporation with respect to preferred stock made before January 1, 1991, if such distribution is pursuant to the terms relating to the issuance of such stock which were in effect on January 10, 1969. For example, if as of January 10, 1969, a corporation had followed the practice of paying stock dividends on preferred stock (or of periodically increasing the conversion ratio of convertible preferred stock) or if the preferred stock provided for a redemption price in excess of the issue price, then section 305(b)(4) would not apply to any distribution of stock made (or which would be considered made if section 305(b)(4) applied) before January 1, 1991, pursuant to such practice.

(8) If section 421(b)(2) is not applicable and, for that reason, a distribution (or deemed distribution) is treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies by virtue of the application of section 305(b)(2), (b)(3), or (b)(5), it is irrelevant that, by reason of the application of section 421(b)(4) of such Act, section 305(b)(4) is not applicable to the distribution.

[T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18539, July 12, 1973]

§1.306-1   General.

(a) Section 306 provides, in general, that the proceeds from the sale or redemption of certain stock (referred to as “section 306 stock”) shall be treated either as ordinary income or as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies. Section 306 stock is defined in section 306(c) and is usually preferred stock received either as a nontaxable dividend or in a transaction in which no gain or loss is recognized. Section 306(b) lists certain circumstances in which the special rules of section 306(a) shall not apply.

(b)(1) If a shareholder sells or otherwise disposes of section 306 stock (other than by redemption or within the exceptions listed in section 306(b)), the entire proceeds received from such disposition shall be treated as ordinary income to the extent that the fair market value of the stock sold, on the date distributed to the shareholder, would have been a dividend to such shareholder had the distributing corporation distributed cash in lieu of stock. Any excess of the amount received over the sum of the amount treated as ordinary income plus the adjusted basis of the stock disposed of, shall be treated as gain from the sale of a capital asset or noncapital asset as the case may be. No loss shall be recognized. No reduction of earnings and profits results from any disposition of stock other than a redemption. The term disposition under section 306(a)(1) includes, among other things, pledges of stock under certain circumstances, particularly where the pledgee can look only to the stock itself as its security.

(2) Section 306(a)(1) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On December 15, 1954, A and B owned equally all of the stock of Corporation X which files its income tax return on a calendar year basis. On that date Corporation X distributed pro rata 100 shares of preferred stock as a dividend on its outstanding common stock. On December 15, 1954, the preferred stock had a fair market value of $10,000. On December 31, 1954, the earnings and profits of Corporation X were $20,000. The 50 shares of preferred stock so distributed to A had an allocated basis to him of $10 per share or a total of $500 for the 50 shares. Such shares had a fair market value of $5,000 when issued. A sold the 50 shares of preferred stock on July 1, 1955, for $6,000. Of this amount $5,000 will be treated as ordinary income; $500 ($6,000 minus $5,500) will be treated as gain from the sale of a capital or noncapital asset as the case may be.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A sold his 50 shares of preferred stock for $5,100. Of this amount $5,000 will be treated as ordinary income. No loss will be allowed. There will be added back to the basis of the common stock of Corporation X with respect to which the preferred stock was distributed, $400, the allocated basis of $500 reduced by the $100 received.
Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A sold 25 of his shares of preferred stock for $2,600. Of this amount $2,500 will be treated as ordinary income. No loss will be allowed. There will be added back to the basis of the common stock of Corporation X with respect to which the preferred stock was distributed, $150, the allocated basis of $250 reduced by the $100 received.

(c) The entire amount received by a shareholder from the redemption of section 306 stock shall be treated as a distribution of property under section 301. See also section 303 (relating to distribution in redemption of stock to pay death taxes).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7556, 43 FR 34128, Aug. 3, 1978]

§1.306-2   Exception.

(a) If a shareholder terminates his entire stock interest in a corporation—

(1) By a sale or other disposition within the requirements of section 306(b)(1)(A), or

(2) By redemption under section 302(b)(3) (through the application of section 306(b)(1)(B)),

the amount received from such disposition shall be treated as an amount received in part or full payment for the stock sold or redeemed. In the case of a sale, only the stock interest need be terminated. In determining whether an entire stock interest has been terminated under section 306(b)(1)(A), all of the provisions of section 318(a) (relating to constructive ownership of stock) shall be applicable. In determining whether a shareholder has terminated his entire interest in a corporation by a redemption of his stock under section 302(b)(3), all of the provisions of section 318(a) shall be applicable unless the shareholder meets the requirements of section 302(c)(2) (relating to termination of all interest in the corporation). If the requirements of section 302(c)(2) are met, section 318(a)(1) (relating to members of a family) shall be inapplicable. Under all circumstances paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (5) of section 318(a) shall be applicable.

(b) Section 306(a) does not apply to—

(1) Redemptions of section 306 stock pursuant to a partial or complete liquidation of a corporation to which part II (section 331 and following), subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code applies,

(2) Exchanges of section 306 stock solely for stock in connection with a reorganization or in an exchange under section 351, 355, or section 1036 (relating to exchanges of stock for stock in the same corporation) to the extent that gain or loss is not recognized to the shareholder as the result of the exchange of the stock (see paragraph (d) of §1.306-3 relative to the receipt of other property), and

(3) A disposition or redemption, if it is established to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the distribution, and the disposition or redemption, was not in pursuance of a plan having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax. However, in the case of a prior or simultaneous disposition (or redemption) of the stock with respect to which the section 306 stock disposed of (or redeemed) was issued, it is not necessary to establish that the distribution was not in pursuance of such a plan. For example, in the absence of such a plan and of any other facts the first sentence of this subparagraph would be applicable to the case of dividends and isolated dispositions of section 306 stock by minority shareholders. Similarly, in the absence of such a plan and of any other facts, if a shareholder received a distribution of 100 shares of section 306 stock on his holdings of 100 shares of voting common stock in a corporation and sells his voting common stock before he disposes of his section 306 stock, the subsequent disposition of his section 306 stock would not ordinarily be considered a disposition one of the principal purposes of which is the avoidance of Federal income tax.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11998, Aug. 23, 1968]

§1.306-3   Section 306 stock defined.

(a) For the purpose of subchapter C, chapter 1 of the code, the term section 306 stock means stock which meets the requirements of section 306(c)(1). Any class of stock distributed to a shareholder in a transaction in which no amount is includible in the income of the shareholder or no gain or loss is recognized may be section 306 stock, if a distribution of money by the distributing corporation in lieu of such stock would have been a dividend in whole or in part. However, except as provided in section 306(g), if no part of a distribution of money by the distributing corporation in lieu of such stock would have been a dividend, the stock distributed will not constitute section 306 stock.

(b) For the purpose of section 306, rights to acquire stock shall be treated as stock. Such rights shall not be section 306 stock if no part of the distribution would have been a dividend if money had been distributed in lieu of the rights. When stock is acquired by the exercise of rights which are treated at section 306 stock, the stock acquired is section 306 stock. Upon the disposition of such stock (other than by redemption or within the exceptions listed in section 306(b)), the proceeds received from the disposition shall be treated as ordinary income to the extent that the fair market value of the stock rights, on the date distributed to the shareholder, would have been a dividend to the shareholder had the distributing corporation distributed cash in lieu of stock rights. Any excess of the amount realized over the sum of the amount treated as ordinary income plus the adjusted basis of the stock, shall be treated as gain from the sale of the stock.

(c) Section 306(c)(1)(A) provides that section 306 stock is any stock (other than common issued with respect to common) distributed to the shareholder selling or otherwise disposing thereof if, under section 305(a) (relating to distributions of stock and stock rights) any part of the distribution was not included in the gross income of the distributee.

(d) Section 306(c)(1)(B) includes in the definition of section 306 stock any stock except common stock, which is received by a shareholder in connection with a reorganization under section 368 or in a distribution or exchange under section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) provided the effect of the transaction is substantially the same as the receipt of a stock dividend, or the stock is received in exchange for section 306 stock. If, in a transaction to which section 356 is applicable, a shareholder exchanges section 306 stock for stock and money or other property, the entire amount of such money and of the fair market value of the other property (not limited to the gain recognized) shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies. Common stock received in exchange for section 306 stock in a recapitalization shall not be considered section 306 stock. Ordinarily, section 306 stock includes stock which is not common stock received in pursuance of a plan of reorganization (within the meaning of section 368(a)) or received in a distribution or exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies if cash received in lieu of such stock would have been treated as a dividend under section 356(a)(2) or would have been treated as a distribution to which section 301 applies by virtue of section 356(b) or section 302(d). The application of the preceding sentence is illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation A, having only common stock outstanding, is merged in a statutory merger (qualifying as a reorganization under section 368(a)) with Corporation B. Pursuant to such merger, the shareholders of Corporation A received both common and preferred stock in Corporation B. The preferred stock received by such shareholders is section 306 stock.
Example 2. X and Y each own one-half of the 2,000 outstanding shares of preferred stock and one-half of the 2,000 outstanding shares of common stock of Corporation C. Pursuant to a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(E) (recapitalization) each shareholder exchanges his preferred stock for preferred stock of a new issue which is not substantially different from the preferred stock previously held. Unless the preferred stock exchanged was itself section 306 stock the preferred stock received is not section 306 stock.

(e) Section 306(c)(1)(C) includes in the definition of section 306 stock any stock (except as provided in section 306(c)(1)(B)) the basis of which in the hands of the person disposing of such stock, is determined by reference to section 306 stock held by such shareholder or any other person. Under this paragraph common stock can be section 306 stock. Thus, if a person owning section 306 stock in Corporation A transfers it to Corporation B which is controlled by him in exchange for common stock of Corporation B in a transaction to which section 351 is applicable, the common stock so received by him would be section 306 stock and subject to the provisions of section 306(a) on its disposition. In addition, the section 306 stock transferred is section 306 stock in the hands of Corporation B, the transferee. Section 306 stock transferred by gift remains section 306 stock in the hands of the donee. Stock received in exchange for section 306 stock under section 1036(a) (relating to exchange of stock for stock in the same corporation) or under so much of section 1031(b) as relates to section 1036(a) becomes section 306 stock and acquires, for purposes of section 306, the characteristics of the section 306 stock exchanged. The entire amount of the fair market value of the other property received in such transaction shall be considered as received upon a disposition (other than a redemption) to which section 306(a) applies. Section 306 stock ceases to be so classified if the basis of such stock is determined by reference to its fair market value on the date of the decedent-stockholder's death or the optional valuation date under section 1014.

(f) If section 306 stock which was distributed with respect to common stock is exchanged for common stock in the same corporation (whether or not such exchange is pursuant to a conversion privilege contained in section 306 stock), such common stock shall not be section 306 stock. This paragraph applies to exchanges not coming within the purview of section 306(c)(1)(B). Common stock which is convertible into stock other than common stock or into property, shall not be considered common stock. It is immaterial whether the conversion privilege is contained in the stock or in some type of collateral agreement.

(g) If there is a substantial change in the terms and conditions of any stock, then, for the purpose of this section—

(1) The fair market value of such stock shall be the fair market value at the time of distribution or the fair market value at the time of such change, whichever is higher;

(2) Such stock's ratable share of the amount which would have been a dividend if money had been distributed in lieu of stock shall be determined by reference to the time of distribution or by reference to the time of such change, whichever ratable share is higher; and

(3) Section 306(c)(2) shall be inapplicable if there would have been a dividend to any extent if money had been distributed in lieu of the stock either at the time of the distribution or at the time of such change.

(h) When section 306 stock is disposed of, the amount treated under section 306(a)(1)(A) as ordinary income, for the purposes of part I, subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code, be treated as derived from the same source as would have been the source if money had been received from the corporation as a dividend at the time of the distribution of such stock. If the amount is determined to be derived from sources within the United States, the amount shall be considered to be fixed or determinable annual or periodic gains, profits, and income within the meaning of section 871(a) or section 881(a), relating, respectively, to the tax on nonresident alien individuals and on foreign corporations not engaged in business in the United States.

(i) Section 306 shall be inapplicable to stock received before June 22, 1954, and to stock received on or after June 22, 1954, in transactions subject to the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7281, 38 FR 18540, July 12, 1973; T.D. 7556, 43 FR 34128, Aug. 3, 1978]

§1.307-1   General.

(a) If a shareholder receives stock or stock rights as a distribution on stock previously held and under section 305 such distribution is not includible in gross income then, except as provided in section 307(b) and §1.307-2, the basis of the stock with respect to which the distribution was made shall be allocated between the old and new stocks or rights in proportion to the fair market values of each on the date of distribution. If a shareholder receives stock or stock rights as a distribution on stock previously held and pursuant to section 305 part of the distribution is not includible in gross income, then (except as provided in section 307(b) and §1.307-2) the basis of the stock with respect to which the distribution is made shall be allocated between (1) the old stock and (2) that part of the new stock or rights which is not includible in gross income, in proportion to the fair market values of each on the date of distribution. The date of distribution in each case shall be the date the stock or the rights are distributed to the stockholder and not the record date. The general rule will apply with respect to stock rights only if such rights are exercised or sold.

(b) The application of paragraph (a) of this section is illustrated by the following example:

Example. A taxpayer in 1947 purchased 100 shares of common stock at $100 per share and in 1954 by reason of the ownership of such stock acquired 100 rights entitling him to subscribe to 100 additional shares of such stock at $90 a share. Immediately after the issuance of the rights, each of the shares of stock in respect of which the rights were acquired had a fair market value, ex-rights, of $110 and the rights had a fair market value of $19 each. The basis of the rights and the common stock for the purpose of determining the basis for gain or loss on a subsequent sale or exercise of the rights or a sale of the old stock is computed as follows:

100 (shares)×$100=$10,000, cost of old stock (stock in respect of which the rights were acquired).

100 (shares)×$110=$11,000, market value of old stock.

100 (rights)×$19=$1,900, market value of rights.

11,000/12,900 of $10,000=$8,527.13, cost of old stock apportioned to such stock.

1,900/12,900 of $10,000=$1,472.87, cost of old stock apportioned to rights.

If the rights are sold, the basis for determining gain or loss will be $14.7287 per right. If the rights are exercised, the basis of the new stock acquired will be the subscription price paid therefor ($90) plus the basis of the rights exercised ($14.7287 each) or $104.7287 per share. The remaining basis of the old stock for the purpose of determining gain or loss on a subsequent sale will be $85.2713 per share.

§1.307-2   Exception.

The basis of rights to buy stock which are excluded from gross income under section 305(a), shall be zero if the fair market value of such rights on the date of distribution is less than 15 percent of the fair market value of the old stock on that date, unless the shareholder elects to allocate part of the basis of the old stock to the rights as provided in paragraph (a) of §1.307-1. The election shall be made by a shareholder with respect to all the rights received by him in a particular distribution in respect of all the stock of the same class owned by him in the issuing corporation at the time of such distribution. Such election to allocate basis to rights shall be in the form of a statement attached to the shareholder's return for the year in which the rights are received. This election, once made, shall be irrevocable with respect to the rights for which the election was made. Any shareholder making such an election shall retain a copy of the election and of the tax return with which it was filed, in order to substantiate the use of an allocated basis upon a subsequent disposition of the stock acquired by exercise.

effects on corporation

§1.312-1   Adjustment to earnings and profits reflecting distributions by corporations.

(a) In general, on the distribution of property by a corporation with respect to its stock, its earnings, and profits (to the extent thereof) shall be decreased by—

(1) The amount of money,

(2) The principal amount of the obligations of such corporation issued in such distribution, and

(3) The adjusted basis of other property.

For special rule with respect to distributions to which section 312(e) applies, see §1.312-5.

(b) The adjustment provided in section 312(a)(3) and paragraph (a)(3) of this section with respect to a distribution of property (other than money or its own obligations) shall be made notwithstanding the fact that such property has appreciated or depreciated in value since acquisition.

(c) The application of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation A distributes to its sole shareholder property with a value of $10,000 and a basis of $5,000. It has $12,500 in earnings and profits. The reduction in earnings and profits by reason of such distribution is $5,000. Such is the reduction even though the amount of $10,000 is includible in the income of the shareholder (other than a corporation) as a dividend.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example (1) above except that the property has a basis of $15,000 and the earnings and profits of the corporation are $20,000. The reduction in earnings and profits is $15,000. Such is the reduction even though only the amount of $10,000 is includible in the income of the shareholder as a dividend.

(d) In the case of a distribution of stock or rights to acquire stock a portion of which is includible in income by reason of section 305(b), the earnings and profits shall be reduced by the fair market value of such portion. No reduction shall be made if a distribution of stock or rights to acquire stock is not includible in income under the provisions of section 305.

(e) No adjustment shall be made in the amount of the earnings and profits of the issuing corporation upon a disposition of section 306 stock unless such disposition is a redemption.

§1.312-2   Distribution of inventory assets.

Section 312(b) provides for the increase and the decrease of the earnings and profits of a corporation which distributes, with respect to its stock, inventory assets as defined in section 312(b)(2), where the fair market value of such assets exceeds their adjusted basis. The rules provided in section 312(b) (relating to distributions of certain inventory assets) shall be applicable without regard to the method used in computing inventories for the purpose of the computation of taxable income. Section 312(b) does not apply to distributions described in section 312(e).

§1.312-3   Liabilities.

The amount of any reductions in earnings and profits described in section 312 (a) or (b) shall be (a) reduced by the amount of any liability to which the property distributed was subject and by the amount of any other liability of the corporation assumed by the shareholder in connection with such distribution, and (b) increased by the amount of gain recognized to the corporation under section 311 (b), (c), or (d), or under section 341(f), 617(d), 1245(a), 1250(a), 1251(c), 1252(a), or 1254(a).

[T.D. 7209, 37 FR 20804, Oct. 5, 1972, as amended by T.D. 8586, 60 FR 2500, Jan. 10, 1995]

§1.312-4   Examples of adjustments provided in section 312(c).

The adjustments provided in section 312(c) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. On December 2, 1954, Corporation X distributed to its sole shareholder, A, an individual, as a dividend in kind a vacant lot which was not an inventory asset. On that date, the lot had a fair market value of $5,000 and was subject to a mortgage of $2,000. The adjusted basis of the lot was $3,100. The amount of the earnings and profits was $10,000. The amount of the dividend received by A is $3,000 ($5,000, the fair market value, less $2,000, the amount of the mortgage) and the reduction in the earnings and profits of Corporation X is $1,100 ($3,100, the basis, less $2,000, the amount of mortgage).
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example (1) above with the exception that the amount of the mortgage to which the property was subject was $4,000. The amount of the dividend received by A is $1,000, and there is no reduction in the earnings and profits of the corporation as a result of the distribution (disregarding such reduction as may result from an increase in tax to Corporation X because, of gain resulting from the distribution). There is a gain of $900 recognized to Corporation X, the difference between the basis of the property ($3,100) and the amount of the mortgage ($4,000), under section 311(c) and an increase in earnings and profits of $900.
Example 3. Corporation A, having accumulated earnings and profits of $100,000, distributed in kind to its shareholders, not in liquidation, inventory assets which had a basis to it on the “Lifo” method (section 472) of $46,000 and on the basis of cost or market (section 471) of $50,000. The inventory had a fair market value of $55,000 and was subject to a liability of $35,000. This distribution results in a net decrease in earnings and profits of Corporation A of $11,000, (without regard to any tax on Corporation A) computed as follows:
“Fifo” basis of inventory$50,000
Less: “Lifo” basis of inventory46,000
Gain recognized—addition to earnings and profits (section 311(b))$4,000
Adjustment to earnings and profits required by section 312(b)(1)(A):
Fair market value of inventory$55,000
Less: “Lifo” basis plus adjustment under section 311(b)50,0005,000
         Total increase in earnings and profits9,000
Decrease in earnings and profits—under section 312(b)(1)(B)(i)$55,000
Less: Liability assumed35,000
Net amount of distribution (decrease in earnings)20,000
         Net decrease in earnings and profits11,000

§1.312-5   Special rule for partial liquidations and certain redemptions.

The part of the distribution properly chargeable to capital account within the provisions of section 312(e) shall not be considered a distribution of earnings and profits within the meaning of section 301 for the purpose of determining taxability of subsequent distributions by the corporation.

§1.312-6   Earnings and profits.

(a) In determining the amount of earnings and profits (whether of the taxable year, or accumulated since February 28, 1913, or accumulated before March 1, 1913) due consideration must be given to the facts, and, while mere bookkeeping entries increasing or decreasing surplus will not be conclusive, the amount of the earnings and profits in any case will be dependent upon the method of accounting properly employed in computing taxable income (or net income, as the case may be). For instance, a corporation keeping its books and filing its income tax returns under subchapter E, chapter 1 of the Code, on the cash receipts and disbursements basis may not use the accrual basis in determining earnings and profits; a corporation computing income on the installment basis as provided in section 453 shall, with respect to the installment transactions, compute earnings and profits on such basis; and an insurance company subject to taxation under section 831 shall exclude from earnings and profits that portion of any premium which is unearned under the provisions of section 832(b)(4) and which is segregated accordingly in the unearned premium reserve.

(b) Among the items entering into the computation of corporate earnings and profits for a particular period are all income exempted by statute, income not taxable by the Federal Government under the Constitution, as well as all items includible in gross income under section 61 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts. Gains and losses within the purview of section 1002 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue acts are brought into the earnings and profits at the time and to the extent such gains and losses are recognized under that section. Interest on State bonds and certain other obligations, although not taxable when received by a corporation, is taxable to the same extent as other dividends when distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends.

(c)(1) In the case of a corporation in which depletion or depreciation is a factor in the determination of income, the only depletion or depreciation deductions to be considered in the computation of the total earnings and profits are those based on cost or other basis without regard to March 1, 1913, value. In computing the earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, the only depletion or depreciation deductions to be considered are those based on (i) cost or other basis, if the depletable or depreciable asset was acquired subsequent to February 28, 1913, or (ii) adjusted cost or March 1, 1913, value, whichever is higher, if acquired before March 1, 1913. Thus, discovery or percentage depletion under all revenue acts for mines and oil and gas wells is not to be taken into consideration in computing the earnings and profits of a corporation. Similarly, where the basis of property in the hands of a corporation is a substituted basis, such basis, and not the fair market value of the property at the time of the acquisition by the corporation, is the basis for computing depletion and depreciation for the purpose of determining earnings and profits of the corporation.

(2) The application of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. Oil producing property which A had acquired in 1949 at a cost of $28,000 was transferred to Corporation Y in December 1951, in exchange for all of its capital stock. The fair market value of the stock and of the property as of the date of the transfer was $247,000. Corporation Y, after four years' operation, effected in 1955 a cash distribution to A in the amount of $165,000. In determining the extent to which the earnings and profits of Corporation Y available for dividend distributions have been increased as the result of production and sale of oil, the depletion to be taken into account is to be computed upon the basis of $28,000 established in the nontaxable exchange in 1951 regardless of the fair market value of the property or of the stock issued in exchange therefor.

(d) A loss sustained for a year before the taxable year does not affect the earnings and profits of the taxable year. However, in determining the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, the excess of a loss sustained for a year subsequent to February 28, 1913, over the undistributed earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, and before the year for which the loss was sustained, reduces surplus as of March 1, 1913, to the extent of such excess. If the surplus as of March 1, 1913, was sufficient to absorb such excess, distributions to shareholders after the year of the loss are out of earnings and profits accumulated since the year of the loss to the extent of such earnings.

(e) With respect to the effect on the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, of distributions made on or after January 1, 1916, and before August 6, 1917, out of earnings or profits accumulated before March 1, 1913, which distributions were specifically declared to be out of earnings and profits accumulated before March 1, 1913, see section 31(b) of the Revenue Act of 1916, as added by section 1211 of the Revenue Act of 1917 (40 Stat. 336).

§1.312-7   Effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized after February 28, 1913.

(a) In order to determine the effect on earnings and profits of gain or loss realized from the sale or other disposition (after February 28, 1913) of property by a corporation, section 312(f)(1) prescribed certain rules for—

(1) The computation of the total earnings and profits of the corporation of most frequent application in determining invested capital; and

(2) The computation of earnings and profits of the corporation for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, of most frequent application in determining the source of dividend distributions.

Such rules are applicable whenever under any provision of subtitle A of the Code it is necessary to compute either the total earnings and profits of the corporation or the earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913. For example, since the earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, or the earnings and profits of the taxable year, are earnings and profits for a period beginning after February 28, 1913, the determination of either must be in accordance with the regulations prescribed by this section for the ascertainment of earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913. Under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, such gain or loss is determined by using the adjusted basis (under the law applicable to the year in which the sale or other disposition was made) for determining gain, but disregarding value as of March 1, 1913. Under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, there is used such adjusted basis for determining gain, giving effect to the value as of March 1, 1913, whenever applicable. In both cases the rules are the same as those governing depreciation and depletion in computing earnings and profits (see §1.312-6). Under both subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, the adjusted basis is subject to the limitations of the third sentence of section 312(f)(1) requiring the use of adjustments proper in determining earnings and profits. The proper adjustments may differ under section 312(f)(1)(A) and (B) depending upon the basis to which the adjustments are to be made. If the application of section 312(f)(1)(B) results in a loss and if the application of section 312(f)(1)(A) to the same transaction reaches a different result, then the loss under section 312(f)(1)(B) will be subject to the adjustment thereto required by section 312(g)(2). (See §1.312-9.)

(b)(1) The gain or loss so realized increases or decreases the earnings and profits to, but not beyond, the extent to which such gain or loss was recognized in computing taxable income (or net income, as the case may be) under the law applicable to the year in which such sale or disposition was made. As used in this paragraph, the term “recognized” has reference to that kind of realized gain or loss which is recognized for income tax purposes by the statute applicable to the year in which the gain or loss was realized. For example, see section 356. A loss (other than a wash sale loss with respect to which a deduction is disallowed under the provisions of section 1091 or corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws) may be recognized though not allowed as a deduction (by reason, for example, of the operation of sections 267 and 1211 and corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws) but the mere fact that it is not allowed does not prevent decrease in earnings and profits by the amount of such disallowed loss. Wash sale losses, however, disallowed under section 1091 and corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws, are deemed nonrecognized losses and do not reduce earnings or profits. The recognized gain or loss for the purpose of computing earnings and profits is determined by applying the recognition provisions to the realized gain or loss computed under the provisions of section 312(f)(1) as distinguished from the realized gain or loss used in computing taxable income (or net income, as the case may be).

(2) The application of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X on January 1, 1952, owned stock in Corporation Y which it had acquired from Corporation Y in December 1951, in an exchange transaction in which no gain or loss was recognized. The adjusted basis to Corporation X of the property exchanged by it for the stock in Corporation Y was $30,000. The fair market value of the stock in Corporation Y when received by Corporation X was $930,000. On April 9, 1955, Corporation X made a cash distribution of $900,000 and, except for the possible effect of the transaction in 1951, had no earnings or profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, and had no earnings or profits for the taxable year. The amount of $900,000 representing the excess of the fair market value of the stock of Corporation Y over the adjusted basis of the property exchanged therefor was not recognized gain to Corporation X under the provisions of section 112 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939. Accordingly, the earnings and profits of Corporation X are not increased by $900,000, the amount of the gain realized but not recognized in the exchange, and the distribution was not a taxable dividend. The basis in the hands of Corporation Y of the property acquired by it from Corporation X is $30,000. If such property is thereafter sold by Corporation Y, gain or loss will be computed on such basis of $30,000, and earnings and profits will be increased or decreased accordingly.
Example 2. On January 2, 1910, Corporation M acquired nondepreciable property at a cost of $1,000. On March 1, 1913, the fair market value of such property in the hands of Corporation M was $2,200. On December 31, 1952, Corporation M transfers such property to Corporation N in exchange for $1,900 in cash and all Corporation N's stock, which has a fair market value of $1,100. For the purpose of computing the total earnings and profits of Corporation M, the gain on such transaction is $2,000 (the sum of $1,900 in cash and stock worth $1,100 minus $1,000, the adjusted basis for computing gain, determined without regard to March 1, 1913, value), $1,900 of which is recognized under section 356, since this was the amount of money received, although for the purpose of computing net income the gain is only $800 (the sum of $1,900 in cash and stock worth $1,100, minus $2,200, the adjusted basis for computing gain determined by giving effect to March 1, 1913, value). Such earnings and profits will therefore be increased by only $800 as a reputing the earnings and profits of Corporation M for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, however, the gain arising from the transaction, like the taxable gain, is only $800, all of which is recognized under section 112(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, the money received being in excess of such amount. Such earnings and profits will therefore be increased by only $800 as a result of the transaction. For increase in that part of the earnings and profits consisting of increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after March 1, 1913, see §1.312-9.
Example 3. On July 31, 1955, Corporation R owned oil-producing property acquired after February 28, 1913, at a cost of $200,000, but having an adjusted basis (by reason of taking percentage depletion) of $100,000 for determining gain. However, the adjusted basis of such property to be used in computing gain or loss for the purpose of earnings and profits is, because of the provisions of the third sentence of section 312(f)(1), $150,000. On such day Corporation R transferred such property to Corporation S in exchange for $25,000 in cash and all of the stock of Corporation S, which had a fair market value of $100,000. For the purpose of computing taxable income, Corporation R has realized a gain of $25,000 as a result of this transaction, all of which is recognized under section 356. For the purpose of computing earnings and profits, however, Corporation R has realized a loss of $25,000, none of which is recognized owing to the provisions of section 356(c). The earnings and profits of Corporation R are therefore neither increased nor decreased as a result of the transaction. The adjusted basis of the Corporation S stock in the hands of Corporation R for purposes of computing earnings and profits, however, will be $125,000 (though only $100,000 for the purpose of computing taxable income), computed as follows:
Basis of property transferred$200,000
Less money received on exchange25,000
Plus gain or minus loss recognized on exchangeNone
         Basis of stock175,000
Less adjustments (same as those used in determining adjusted basis of property transferred)50,000
         Adjusted basis of stock125,000

If, therefore, Corporation R should subsequently sell the Corporation S stock for $100,000, a loss of $25,000 will again be realized for the purpose of computing earnings and profits, all of which will be recognized and will be applied to decrease the earnings and profits of Corporation R.

(c)(1) The third sentence of section 312(f)(1) provides for cases in which the adjustments, prescribed in section 1016, to the basis indicated in section 312(f)(1)(A) or (B), as the case may be, differ from the adjustments to such basis proper for the purpose of determining earnings or profits. The adjustments provided by such third sentence reflect the treatment provided by §§1.312-6 and 1.312-15 relative to cases where the deductions for depletion and depreciation in computing taxable income (or net income, as the case may be) differ from the deductions proper for the purpose of computing earnings and profits.

(2) The effect of the third sentence of section 312(f)(1) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X purchased on January 2, 1931, an oil lease at a cost of $10,000. The lease was operated only for the years 1931 and 1932. The deduction for depletion in each of the years 1931 and 1932 amounted to $2,750, of which amount $1,750 represented percentage depletion in excess of depletion based on cost. The lease was sold in 1955 for $15,000. Under section 1016(a)(2), in determining the gain or loss from the sale of the property, the basis must be adjusted for cost depletion of $1,000 in 1931 and percentage depletion of $2,750 in 1932. However, the adjustment of such basis, proper for the determination of earnings and profits, is $1,000 for each year, or $2,000. Hence, the cost is to be adjusted only to the extent of $2,000, leaving an adjusted basis of $8,000 and the earnings and profits will be increased by $7,000, and not by $8,750. The difference of $1,750 is equal to the amount by which the percentage depletion for the year 1932 ($2,750) exceeds the depletion on cost for that year ($1,000) and has already been applied in the computation of earnings and profits for the year 1932 by taking into account only $1,000 instead of $2,750 for depletion in the computation of such earnings and profits. (See §1.316-1.)
Example 2. If, in Example (1), above, the property, instead of being sold, is exchanged in a transaction described in section 1031 for like property having a fair market value of $7,750 and cash of $7,250, then the increase in earnings and profits amounts to $7,000, that is, $15,000 ($7,750 plus $7,250) minus the basis of $8,000. However, in computing taxable income of Corporation X, the gain is $8,750, that is, $15,000 minus $6,250 ($10,000 less depletion of $3,750), of which only $7,250 is recognized because the recognized gain cannot exceed the sum of money received in the transaction. See section 1031(b) and the corresponding provisions of prior revenue laws. If, however, the cash received was only $2,250 and the value of the property received was $12,750, then the increase in earnings and profits would be $2,250, that amount being the gain recognized under section 1031.
Example 3. On January 1, 1973, corporation X purchased for $10,000 a depreciable asset with an estimated useful life of 20 years and no salvage value. In computing depreciation on the asset, corporation X used the declining balance method with a rate twice the straight line rate. On December 31, 1976, the asset was sold for $9,000. Under section 1016(a)(2), the basis of the asset is adjusted for depreciation allowed for the years 1973 through 1976, or a total of $3,439. Thus, X realizes a gain of $2,439 (the excess of the amount realized, $9,000, over the adjusted basis, $6,561). However, the proper adjustment to basis for the purpose of determining earnings and profits is only $2,000, i.e., the total amount which, under §1.312-15, was applied in the computation of earnings and profits for the years 1973-76. Hence, upon sale of the asset, earnings and profits are increased by only $1,000, i.e., the excess of the amount realized, $9,000, over the adjusted basis for earnings and profits purposes, $8,000.

(d) For adjustment and allocation of the earnings and profits of the transferor as between the transferor and the transferee in cases where the transfer of property by one corporation to another corporation results in the nonrecognition in whole or in part of gain or loss, see §1.312-10; and see section 381 for earnings and profits of successor corporations in certain transactions.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 7221, 37 FR 24746, Nov. 21, 1972]

§1.312-8   Effect on earnings and profits of receipt of tax-free distributions requiring adjustment or allocation of basis of stock.

(a) In order to determine the effect on earnings and profits, where a corporation receives (after February 28, 1913) from a second corporation a distribution which (under the law applicable to the year in which the distribution was made) was not a taxable dividend to the shareholders of the second corporation, section 312(f) prescribes certain rules. It provides that the amount of such distribution shall not increase the earnings and profits of the first or receiving corporation in the following cases: (1) No such increase shall be made in respect of the part of such distribution which (under the law applicable to the year in which the distribution was made) is directly applied in reduction of the basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made and (2) no such increase shall be made if (under the law applicable to the year in which the distribution was made) the distribution causes the basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made to be allocated between such stock and the property received (or such basis would but for section 307(b) be so allocated). Where, therefore, the law (applicable to the year in which the distribution was made, as, for example, a distribution in 1934 from earnings and profits accumulated before March 1, 1913) requires that the amount of such distribution shall be applied against and reduce the basis of the stock with respect to which the distribution was made, there is no increase in the earnings and profits by reason of the receipt of such distribution. Similarly, where there is received by a corporation a distribution from another corporation in the form of a stock dividend and the law applicable to the year in which such distribution was made requires the allocation, as between the old stock and the stock received as a dividend, of the basis of the old stock (or such basis would but for section 307(b) be so allocated), then there is no increase in the earnings and profits by reason of the receipt of such stock dividend even though such stock dividend constitutes income within the meaning of the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution.

(b) The principles set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X in 1955 distributed to Corporation Y, one of its shareholders, $10,000 which was out of earnings or profits accumulated before March 1, 1913, and did not exceed the adjusted basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made. This amount of $10,000 was, therefore, a tax-free distribution and under the provisions of section 301(c)(2) must be applied against and reduce the adjusted basis of the stock in respect of which the distribution was made. The earnings and profits of Corporation Y are not increased by reason of the receipt of this distribution.
Example 2. Corporation Z in 1955 had outstanding common and preferred stock of which Corporation Y held 100 shares of the common and no preferred. The stock had a cost basis to Corporation Y of $100 per share, or a total cost of $10,000. In December of that year it received a dividend of 100 shares of the preferred stock of Corporation Z. Such distribution is a stock dividend which, under section 305, was not taxable and was accordingly not included in the gross income of Corporation Y. The original cost of $10,000 is allocated to the 200 shares of Corporation Z none of which has been sold or otherwise disposed of by Corporation Y. See section 307 and §1.307-1. The earnings and profits of Corporation Y are not increased by reason of the receipt of such stock dividend.

§1.312-9   Adjustments to earnings and profits reflecting increase in value accrued before March 1, 1913.

(a) In order to determine, for the purpose of ascertaining the source of dividend distributions, that part of the earnings and profits which is represented by increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913, section 312(g) prescribes certain rules.

(b)(1) Section 312(g)(1) sets forth the general rule with respect to computing the increase to be made in that part of the earnings and profits consisting of increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913.

(2) The effect of section 312(g)(1) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation X acquired nondepreciable property before March 1, 1913, at a cost of $10,000. Its fair market value as of March 1, 1913, was $12,000 and it was sold in 1955 for $15,000. The increase in earnings and profits based on the value as of March 1, 1913, representing earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, is $3,000. If the basis is determined without regard to the value as of March 1, 1913, there would be an increase in earnings and profits of $5,000. The difference of $2,000 ($5,000 minus $3,000) represents the increase to be made in that part of the earnings and profits of Corporation X consisting of the increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913.
Example 2. Corporation Y acquired depreciable property in 1908 at a cost of $100,000. Assuming no additions or betterments, and that the depreciation sustained before March 1, 1913, was $10,000, the adjusted cost as of that date was $90,000. Its fair market value as of March 1, 1913, was $94,000 and on February 28, 1955, it was sold for $25,000. For the purpose of determining gain from the sale, the basis of the property is the fair market value of $94,000 as of March 1, 1913, adjusted for depreciation for the period subsequent to February 28, 1913, computed on such fair market value. If the amount of the depreciation deduction allowed after February 28, 1913, and properly allowable for each of such years to the date of the sale in 1955 is the aggregate sum of $81,467, the adjusted basis for determining gain in 1955 ($94,000 less $81,467) is $12,533 and the gain would be $12,467 ($25,000 less $12,533). The increase in earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, by reason of the sale, based on the value as of March 1, 1913, adjusted for depreciation is $12,467. If the depreciation since February 28, 1913, had been based on the adjusted cost of $90,000 ($100,000 less $10,000) instead of the March 1, 1913, value of $94,000, the depreciation sustained from that date to the date of sale would have been $78,000 instead of $81,467 and the actual gain on the sale based on the cost of $100,000 adjusted by depreciation on such cost to $12,000 ($100,000 reduced by the sum of $10,000 and $78,000) would be $13,000 ($25,000 less $12,000). If the adjusted basis of the property was determined without regard to the value as of March 1, 1913, there would be an increase in earnings and profits of $13,000. The difference of $533 ($13,000 minus $12,467) represents the increase to be made in that part of the earnings and profits of Corporation Y consisting of the increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913 (assuming that the proper increase in such surplus had been made each year for the difference between depreciation based on cost and the depreciation based on March 1, 1913, value). Thus, the total increase in that part of earnings and profits consisting of the increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913, is $4,000 ($94,000 less $90,000).

(c)(1) Section 312(g)(2) is an exception to the general rule in section 312(g)(1) and also operates as a limitation on the application of section 312(f). It provides that, if the application of section 312(f)(1)(B) to a sale or other disposition after February 28, 1913, results in a loss which is to be applied in decrease of earnings and profits for any period beginning after February 28, 1913, then, notwithstanding section 312(f) and in lieu of the rule provided in section 312(g)(1), the amount of such loss so to be applied shall be reduced by the amount, if any, by which the adjusted basis of the property used in determining the loss, exceeds the adjusted basis computed without regard to the fair market value of the property on March 1, 1913. If the amount so applied in reduction of the loss exceeds such loss, the excess over such loss shall increase that part of the earnings and profits consisting of increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after March 1, 1913.

(2) The application of section 312(g)(2) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Corporation Y acquired nondepreciable property before March 1, 1913, at a cost of $8,000. Its fair market value as of March 1, 1913, was $13,000, and it was sold in 1955 for $10,000. Under section 312(f)(1)(B) the adjusted basis would be $13,000 and there would be a loss of $3,000. The application of section 312(f)(1)(B) would result in a loss from the sale in 1955 to be applied in decrease of earnings and profits for that year. Section 312(g)(2), however, applies and the loss of $3,000 is reduced by the amount by which the adjusted basis of $13,000 exceeds the cost of $8,000 (the adjusted basis computed without regard to the value on March 1, 1913), namely $5,000. The amount of the loss is, accordingly, reduced from $3,000 to zero and there is no decrease in earnings and profits of Corporation Y for the year 1955 as a result of the sale. The amount applied in reduction of the decrease, namely, $5,000, exceeds $3,000. Accordingly, as a result of the sale the excess of $2,000 increases that part of the earnings and profits of Corporation Y consisting of increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after March 1, 1913.
Example 2. Corporation Z acquired nondepreciable property before March 1, 1913, at a cost of $10,000. Its fair market value as of March 1, 1913, was $12,000, and it was sold in 1955 for $8,000. Under section 312(f)(1)(B) the adjusted basis would be $12,000 and there would be a loss of $4,000. The application of section 312(f)(1)(B) would result in a loss from the sale in 1955 to be applied in decrease of earnings and profits for that year. Section 312(g)(2), however, applies and the loss of $4,000 is reduced by the amount by which the adjusted basis of $12,000 exceeds the cost of $10,000 (the adjusted basis computed without regard to the value on March 1, 1913), namely, $2,000. The amount of the loss is, accordingly, reduced from $4,000 to $2,000 and the decrease in earnings and profits of Corporation Z for the year 1955 as a result of the sale is $2,000 instead of $4,000. The amount applied in reduction of the decrease, namely, $2,000, does not exceed $4,000. Accordingly, as a result of the sale there is no increase in that part of the earnings and profits of Corporation Z consisting of increase in value of property accrued before, but realized on or after, March 1, 1913.

§1.312-10   Allocation of earnings in certain corporate separations.

(a) If one corporation transfers part of its assets constituting an active trade or business to another corporation in a transaction to which section 368(a)(1)(4) applies and immediately thereafter the stock and securities of the controlled corporation are distributed in a distribution or exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies, the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation immediately before the transaction shall be allocated between the distributing corporation and the controlled corporation. In the case of a newly created controlled corporation, such allocation generally shall be made in proportion to the fair market value of the business or businesses (and interests in any other properties) retained by the distributing corporation and the business or businesses (and interests in any other properties) of the controlled corporation immediately after the transaction. In a proper case, allocation shall be made between the distributing corporation and the controlled corporation in proportion to the net basis of the assets transferred and of the assets retained or by such other method as may be appropriate under the facts and circumstances of the case. The term net basis means the basis of the assets less liabilities assumed or liabilities to which such assets are subject. The part of the earnings and profits of the taxable year of the distributing corporation in which the transaction occurs allocable to the controlled corporation shall be included in the computation of the earnings and profits of the first taxable year of the controlled corporation ending after the date of the transaction.

(b) If a distribution or exchange to which section 355 applies (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) is not in pursuance of a plan meeting the requirements of a reorganization as defined in section 368(a)(1)(D), the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation shall be decreased by the lesser of the following amounts:

(1) The amount by which the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation would have been decreased if it had transferred the stock of the controlled corporation to a new corporation in a reorganization to which section 368(a)(1)(D) applied and immediately thereafter distributed the stock of such new corporation or,

(2) The net worth of the controlled corporation. (For this purpose the term net worth means the sum of the basis of all of the properties plus cash minus all liabilities.)

If the earnings and profits of the controlled corporation immediately before the transaction are less than the amount of the decrease in earnings and profits of the distributing corporation (including a case in which the controlled corporation has a deficit) the earnings and profits of the controlled corporation, after the transaction, shall be equal to the amount of such decrease. If the earnings and profits of the controlled corporation immediately before the transaction are more than the amount of the decrease in the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation, they shall remain unchanged.

(c) In no case shall any part of a deficit of a distributing corporation within the meaning of section 355 be allocated to a controlled corporation.

§1.312-11   Effect on earnings and profits of certain other tax-free exchanges, tax-free distributions, and tax-free transfers from one corporation to another.

(a) In a transfer described in section 381(a), the acquiring corporation, as defined in §1.381(a)-1(b)(2), and only that corporation, succeeds to the earnings and profits of the distributor or transferor corporation (within the meaning of §1.381(a)-1(a)). Except as provided in §1.312-10, in all other cases in which property is transferred from one corporation to another, no allocation of the earnings and profits of the transferor is made to the transferee.

(b) The general rule provided in section 316 that every distribution is made out of earnings or profits to the extent thereof and from the most recently accumulated earnings or profits does not apply to:

(1) The distribution, in pursuance of a plan of reorganization, by or on behalf of a corporation a party to the reorganization, or in a transaction subject to section 355, to its shareholders—

(i) Of stock or securities in such corporation or in another corporation a party to the reorganization in any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1934, without the surrender by the distributees of stock or securities in such corporation (see section 112(g) of the Revenue Act of 1932 (47 Stat. 197)); or

(ii) Of stock (other than preferred stock) in another corporation which is a party to the reorganization without the surrender by the distributees of stock in the distributing corporation if the distribution occurs after October 20, 1951, and is subject to section 112(b)(11) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939; or

(iii) Of stock or securities in such corporation or in another corporation a party to the reorganization in any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1939, or on or after such date, in exchange for its stock or securities in a transaction to which section 112(b)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 was applicable; or

(iv) Of stock or securities in such corporation or in another corporation in exchange for its stock or securities in a transaction subject to section 354 or 355,

if no gain to the distributees from the receipt of such stock or securities was recognized by law.

(2) The distribution in any taxable year (beginning before January 1, 1939, or on or after such date) of stock or securities, or other property or money, to a corporation in complete liquidation of another corporation, under the circumstances described in section 112(b)(6) of the Revenue Act of 1936 (49 Stat. 1679), the Revenue Act of 1938 (52 Stat. 485), of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, or section 332 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.

(3) The distribution in any taxable year (beginning after December 31, 1938), of stock or securities, or other property or money, in the case of an exchange or distribution described in section 371 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or in section 1081 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (relating to exchanges and distributions in obedience to orders of the Securities and Exchange Commission), if no gain to the distributee from the receipt of such stock, securities, or other property or money was recognized by law.

(4) A stock dividend which was not subject to tax in the hands of the distributee because either it did not constitute income to him within the meaning of the sixteenth amendment to the Constitution or because exempt to him under section 115(f) of the Revenue Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 712) or a corresponding provision of a prior Revenue Act, or section 305 of the Code.

(5) The distribution, in a taxable year of the distributee beginning after December 31, 1931, by or on behalf of an insolvent corporation, in connection with a section 112(b)(10) reorganization under the Internal Revenue Code of 1939, or in a transaction subject to section 371 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, of stock or securities in a corporation organized or made use of to effectuate the plan of reorganization, if under section 112(e) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 or section 371 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 no gain to the distributee from the receipt of such stock or securities was recognized by law.

(c) A distribution described in paragraph (b) of this section does not diminish the earnings or profits of any corporation. In such cases, the earnings or profits remain intact and available for distribution as dividends by the corporation making such distribution, or by another corporation to which the earnings or profits are transferred upon such reorganization or other exchange. In the case, however, of amounts distributed in liquidation (other than a taxfree liquidation or reorganization described in paragraph (b)(1), (2), (3), or (5) of this section) the earnings or profits of the corporation making the distribution are diminished by the portion of such distribution properly chargeable to earnings or profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, after first deducting from the amount of such distribution the portion thereof allocable to capital account.

(d) For the purposes of this section, the terms reorganization and party to the reorganization shall, for any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1934, have the meanings assigned to such terms in section 112 of the Revenue Act of 1932 (47 Stat. 196); for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1933, and before January 1, 1936, have the meanings assigned to such terms in section 112 of the Revenue Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 704); for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1935, and before January 1, 1938, have the meanings assigned to such terms in section 112 of the Revenue Act of 1936 (49 Stat. 1678); for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1937, and before January 1, 1939, have the meanings assigned to such terms in section 112 of the Revenue Act of 1938 (52 Stat. 485); and for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1938, and ending before June 22, 1954, providing no election is made under section 393(b)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, have the meanings assigned to such terms in section 112(g)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939.

(e) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (a) of this section applies to transactions occurring on or after November 10, 2014.

[ T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR 14021, Dec. 31, 1960, as amended by T.D. 9700, 79 FR 66617, Nov. 10, 2014]

§1.312-12   Distributions of proceeds of loans guaranteed by the United States.

(a) The provisions of section 312(j) are applicable with respect to a loan, any portion of which is guaranteed by an agency of the United States Government without regard to the percentage of such loan subject to such guarantee.

(b) The application of section 312(j) is illustrated by the following example:

Example. Corporation A borrowed $1,000,000 for the purpose of construction of an apartment house, the cost and adjusted basis of which was $900,000. This loan was guaranteed by an agency of the United States Government. One year after such loan was made and after the completion of construction of the building (but before such corporation had received any income) it distributed $100,000 cash to its shareholders. The earnings and profits of the taxable year of such corporation are increased (pursuant to section 312(j)) by $100,000 immediately prior to such distribution and are decreased by $100,000 immediately after such distribution. Such decrease, however, does not reduce the earnings and profits below zero. Two years later, it has no accumulated earnings and has earnings of the taxable year of $100,000. Before it has made any payments on the loan, it distributes $200,000 to its shareholders. The earnings and profits of the taxable year of the corporation ($100,000) are increased by $100,000, the excess of the amount of the guaranteed loan over the adjusted basis of the apartment house (calculated without adjustment for depreciation). The entire amount of each distribution is treated as a distribution out of earnings and profits and, accordingly, as a taxable dividend.

§1.312-15   Effect of depreciation on earnings and profits.

(a) Depreciation for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972—(1) In general. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph and paragraph (c) of this section, for purposes of computing the earnings and profits of a corporation (including a real estate investment trust as defined in section 856) for any taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972, the allowance for depreciation (and amortization, if any) shall be deemed to be the amount which would be allowable for such year if the straight line method of depreciation had been used for all property for which depreciation is allowable for each taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972. Thus, for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972, in determining the earnings and profits of a corporation, depreciation must be computed under the straight line method, notwithstanding that in determining taxable income the corporation uses an accelerated method of depreciation described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of section 312(m)(2) or elects to amortize the basis of property under section 169, 184, 187, or 188, or any similar provision. See §1.168(k)-1(f)(7) with respect to the treatment of the additional first year depreciation deduction allowable under section 168(k) for qualified property or 50-percent bonus depreciation property, and §1.1400L(b)-1(f)(7) with respect to the treatment of the additional first year depreciation deduction allowable under section 1400L(b) for qualified New York Liberty Zone property, for purposes of computing the earnings and profits of a corporation.

(2) Exception. (i) If, for any taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972, a method of depreciation is used by a corporation in computing taxable income which the Secretary or his delegate has determined results in a reasonable allowance under section 167(a) and which is not a declining balance method of depreciation (described in §1.167(b)-2), the sum of the years-digits method (described in §1.167(b)-3), or any other method allowed solely by reason of the application of subsection (b)(4) or (j)(1)(C) of section 167, then the adjustment to earnings and profits for depreciation for such year shall be determined under the method so used (in lieu of the straight line method).

(ii) The Commissioner has determined that the “unit of production” (see §1.167(b)-0(b)), and the “machine hour” methods of depreciation, when properly used under appropriate circumstances, meet the requirements of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph. Thus, the adjustment to earnings and profits for depreciation (for the taxable year for which either of such methods is properly used under appropriate circumstances) shall be determined under whichever of such methods is used to compute taxable income.

(3) Determinations under straight line method. (i) In the case of property with respect to which an allowance for depreciation is claimed in computing taxable income, the determination of the amount which would be allowable under the straight line method shall be based on the manner in which the corporation computes depreciation in determining taxable income. Thus, if an election under §1.167(a)-11 is in effect with respect to the property, the amount of depreciation which would be allowable under the straight line method shall be determined under §1.167(a)-11(g)(3). On the other hand, if property is not depreciated under the provisions of §1.167(a)-11, the amount of depreciation which would be allowable under the straight line method shall be determined under §1.167(b)-1. Any election made under section 167(f), with respect to reducing the amount of salvage value taken into account in computing the depreciation allowance for certain property, or any convention adopted under §1.167(a)-10(b) or §1.167(a)-11(c)(2), with respect to additions and retirements from multiple asset accounts, which is used in computing depreciation for taxable income shall be used in computing depreciation for earnings and profits purposes.

(ii) In the case of property with respect to which an election to amortize is in effect under section 169, 184, 187, or 188, or any similar provision, the amount which would be allowable under the straight line method of depreciation shall be determined under the provisions of §1.167(b)-1. Thus, the cost or other basis of the property, less its estimated salvage value, is to be deducted in equal annual amounts over the period of the estimated useful life of the property. In computing the amount of depreciation for earnings and profits purposes, a taxpayer may utilize the provisions of section 167(f) (relating to the reduction in the amount of salvage value taken into account in computing the depreciation allowance for certain property) and any convention which could have been adopted for such property under §1.167(a)-10(b) (relating to additions and retirements from multiple asset accounts).

(b) Transitional rules—(1) Depreciation. If, for the taxable year which includes June 30, 1972, (i) the allowance for depreciation of any property is computed under a method other than the straight line method or a method described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and (ii) paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies to such property for the first taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972, then adjustments to earnings and profits for depreciation of such property for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972, shall be determined as if the corporation changed to the straight line method with respect to such property as of the first day of the first taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972. Thus, if an election under §1.167 (a)-11 is in effect with respect to the property, the change shall be made under the provisions of §1.167(a)-11(c)(1)(iii), except that no statement setting forth the vintage accounts for which the change is made shall be furnished with the income tax return of the year of change if the change is only for purposes of computing earnings and profits. In all other cases, the unrecovered cost or other basis of the property (less a reasonable estimate for salvage) as of such first day shall be recovered through equal annual allowances over the estimated remaining useful life determined in accordance with the circumstances existing at that time. See paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section for rules relating to the applicability of section 167(f) in determining salvage value.

(2) Amortization. If, for the taxable year which includes June 30, 1972, the basis of any property is amortized under section 169, 184, 187, or 188, or any similar provision, then adjustments to earnings and profits for depreciation or amortization of such property for taxable years beginning after June 30, 1972, shall be determined as if the unrecovered cost or other basis of the property (less a reasonable estimate for salvage) as of the first day of the first taxable year beginning after June 30, 1972, were recovered through equal annual allowances over the estimated remaining useful life of the property determined in accordance with the circumstances existing at that time. See paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section for rules relating to the applicability of section 167(f).

(c) Certain foreign corporations. Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section shall not apply in computing the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation for any taxable year for which less than 20 percent of the gross income from all sources of such corporation is derived from sources within the United States.

(d) Books and records. Wherever different methods of depreciation are used for taxable income and earnings and profits purposes, records shall be maintained which show the depreciation taken for earnings and profits purposes each year and which will allow computation of the adjusted basis of the property in each account using the depreciation taken for earnings and profits purposes.

[T.D. 7221, 37 FR 24746, Nov. 21, 1972, as amended by T.D. 9283, 71 FR 51746, Aug. 31, 2006]

definitions; constructive ownership of stock

§1.316-1   Dividends.

(a)(1) The term dividend for the purpose of subtitle A of the Code (except when used in subchapter L, chapter 1 of the Code, in any case where the reference is to dividends and similar distributions of insurance companies paid to policyholders as such) comprises any distribution of property as defined in section 317 in the ordinary course of business, even though extraordinary in amount, made by a domestic or foreign corporation to its shareholders out of either—

(i) Earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, or

(ii) Earnings and profits of the taxable year computed without regard to the amount of the earnings and profits (whether of such year or accumulated since February 28, 1913) at the time the distribution was made.

The earnings and profits of the taxable year shall be computed as of the close of such year, without diminution by reason of any distributions made during the taxable year. For the purpose of determining whether a distribution constitutes a dividend, it is unnecessary to ascertain the amount of the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, if the earnings and profits of the taxable year are equal to or in excess of the total amount of the distributions made within such year.

(2) Where a corporation distributes property to its shareholders on or after June 22, 1954, the amount of the distribution which is a dividend to them may not exceed the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation.

(3) The rule of (2) above may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. X and Y, individuals, each own one-half of the stock of Corporation A which has earnings and profits of $10,000. Corporation A distributes property having a basis of $6,000 and a fair market value of $16,000 to its shareholders, each shareholder receiving property with a basis of $3,000 and with a fair market value of $8,000 in a distribution to which section 301 applies. The amount taxable to each shareholder as a dividend under section 301(c) is $5,000.

(b)(1) In the case of a corporation which, under the law applicable to the taxable year in which a distribution is made, is a personal holding company or which, for the taxable year in respect of which a distribution is made under section 563 (relating to dividends paid within 212 months after the close of the taxable year), or section 547 (relating to deficiency dividends), or corresponding provisions of a prior income tax law, was under the applicable law a personal holding company, the term dividend, in addition to the meaning set forth in the first sentence of section 316, also means a distribution to its shareholders as follows: A distribution within a taxable year of the corporation, or of a shareholder, is a dividend to the extent of the corporation's undistributed personal holding company income (determined under section 545 without regard to distributions under section 316(b)(2)) for the taxable year in which, or, in the case of a distribution under section 563 or section 547, the taxable year in respect of which, the distribution was made. This subparagraph does not apply to distributions in partial or complete liquidation of a personal holding company. In the case of certain complete liquidations of a personal holding company see subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(2) In the case of a corporation which, under the law applicable to the taxable year in which a distribution is made, is a personal holding company or which, for the taxable year in respect of which a distribution is made under section 563, or section 547, or corresponding provisions of a prior income tax law, was under the applicable law a personal holding company, the term dividend, in addition to the meaning set forth in the first sentence of section 316, also means, in the case of a complete liquidation occurring within 24 months after the adoption of a plan of liquidation, a distribution of property to its shareholders within such period, but—

(i) Only to the extent of the amounts distributed to distributees other than corporate shareholders, and

(ii) Only to the extent that the corporation designates such amounts as a dividend distribution and duly notifies such distributees in accordance with subparagraph (5) of this paragraph, but

(iii) Not in excess of the sum of such distributees' allocable share of the undistributed personal holding company income for such year (determined under section 545 without regard to sections 562(b) and 316(b)(2)(B)).

Section 316(b)(2)(B) and this subparagraph apply only to distributions made in any taxable year of the distributing corporation beginning after December 31, 1963. The amount designated with respect to a noncorporate distributee may not exceed the amount actually distributed to such distributee. For purposes of determining a noncorporate distributee's gain or loss on liquidation, amounts distributed in complete liquidation to such distributee during a taxable year are reduced by the amounts designated as a dividend with respect to such distributee for such year. For purposes of section 333(e)(1), a shareholder's ratable share of the earnings and profits of the corporation accumulated after February 28, 1913, shall be reduced by the amounts designated as a dividend with respect to such shareholder (even though such designated amounts are distributed during the 1-month period referred to in section 333).

(3) For purposes of subparagraph (2)(iii) of this paragraph—

(i) Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income for the taxable year in which, or in respect of which, the distribution was made (computed without regard to sections 562(b) and 316(b)(2)(B)) shall be determined by multiplying such undistributed personal holding company income by the ratio which the aggregate value of the stock held by all noncorporate shareholders immediately before the record date of the last liquidating distribution in such year bears to the total value of all stock outstanding on such date. For rules applicable in a case where the distributing corporation has more than one class of stock, see subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) If more than one liquidating distribution was made during the year, and if, after the record date of the first distribution but before the record date of the last distribution, there was a change in the relative shareholdings as between noncorporate shareholders and corporate shareholders, then the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income for the taxable year in which, or in respect of which, the distributions were made (computed without regard to sections 562(b) and 316(b)(2)(B)) shall be determined as follows:

(a) First, allocate the corporation's undistributed personal holding company income among the distributions made during the taxable year by reference to the ratio which the aggregate amount of each distribution bears to the total amount of all distributions during such year;

(b) Second, determine the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the corporation's undistributed personal holding company income for each distribution by multiplying the amount determined under (a) of this subdivision (ii) for each distribution by the ratio which the aggregate value of the stock held by all noncorporate shareholders immediately before the record date of such distribution bears to the total value of all stock outstanding on such date; and

(c) Last, determine the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the corporation's undistributed personal holding company income for all such distributions.

For rules applicable in a case where the distributing corporation has more than one class of stock, see subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph.

(iii) Where the distributing corporation has more than one class of stock—

(a) The undistributed personal holding company income for the taxable year in which, or in respect of which the distribution was made shall be treated as a fund from which dividends may properly be paid and shall be allocated between or among the classes of stock in a manner consistent with the dividend rights of such classes under local law and the pertinent governing instruments, such as, for example, the distributing corporation's articles or certificate of incorporation and bylaws;

(b) The noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the undistributed personal holding company income for each class of stock shall be determined separately in accordance with the rules set forth in subdivisions (i) or (ii) of this subparagraph, as if each class of stock were the only class of stock outstanding; and

(c) The sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the undistributed personal holding company income for the taxable year in which, or in respect of which, the distribution was made shall be the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the undistributed personal holding company income for all classes of stock.

(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, in any case where the record date of a liquidating distribution cannot be ascertained, the record date of the distribution shall be the date on which the liquidating distribution was actually made.

(4) The amount designated as a dividend to a noncorporate distributee for any taxable year of the distributing corporation may not exceed an amount equal to the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income (as determined under subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) for such year multiplied by the ratio which the aggregate value of the stock held by such distributee immediately before the record date of the liquidating distribution or, if the record date cannot be ascertained, immediately before the date on which the liquidating distribution was actually made, bears to the aggregate value of stock outstanding held by all noncorporate distributees on such date. In any case where more than one liquidating distribution is made during the taxable year, the aggregate amount which may be designated as a dividend to a noncorporate distributee for such year may not exceed the aggregate of the amounts determined by applying the principle of the preceding sentence to the amounts determined under subparagraphs (3)(ii)(a) and (b) of this paragraph for each distribution. Where the distributing corporation has more than one class of stock, the limitation on the amount which may be designated as a dividend to a noncorporate distributee for any taxable year shall be determined by applying the rules of this subparagraph separately with respect to the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of the undistributed personal holding company income for each class of stock (as determined under subparagraphs (3)(iii)(a) and (b) of this paragraph).

(5) A corporation may designate as a dividend to a shareholder all or part of a distribution in complete liquidation described in section 316(b)(2)(B) of this paragraph by:

(i) Claiming a dividends paid deduction for such amount in its return for the year in which, or in respect of which, the distribution is made,

(ii) Including such amount as a dividend in Form 1099 filed in respect of such shareholder pursuant to section 6042(a) and the regulations thereunder and in a written statement of dividend payments furnished to such shareholder pursuant to section 6042(c) and §1.6042-4, and

(iii) Indicating on the written statement of dividend payments furnished to such shareholder the amount included in such statement which is designated as a dividend under section 316(b)(2)(B) and this paragraph.

If a corporation complies with the procedure prescribed in the preceding sentence, it satisfies both the designation and notification requirements of section 316(b)(2)(B)(ii) and paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. An amount designated as a dividend shall not be included as a distribution in liquidation on Form 1099L filed pursuant to §1.6043-2 (relating to returns of information respecting distributions in liquidation). If a corporation designates a dividend in accordance with this subparagraph, it shall attach to the return in which it claims a deduction for such designated dividend a schedule indicating all facts necessary to determine the sum of the noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income (determined in accordance with subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) for the year in which, or in respect of which, the distribution is made.

(c) Except as provided in section 316(b)(1), the term dividend includes any distribution of property to shareholders to the extent made out of accumulated or current earnings and profits. See, however, section 331 (relating to distributions in complete or partial liquidation), section 301(e) (relating to distributions by personal service corporations), section 302(b) (relating to redemptions treated as amounts received from the sale or exchange of stock), and section 303 (relating to distributions in redemption of stock to pay death taxes). See also section 305(b) for certain distributions of stock or stock rights treated as distributions of property.

(d) In the case of a corporation which, under the law applicable to the taxable year in respect of which a distribution is made under section 860 (relating to deficiency dividends), was a regulated investment company (within the meaning of section 851), or a real estate investment trust (within the meaning of section 856), the term dividend, in addition to the meaning set forth in paragraphs (a) and (b) of section 316, means a distribution of property to its shareholders which constitutes a “deficiency dividend” as defined in section 860(f).

(e) The application of section 316 may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. At the beginning of the calendar year 1955, Corporation M had an operating deficit of $200,000 and the earnings and profits for the year amounted to $100,000. Beginning on March 16, 1955, the corporation made quarterly distributions of $25,000 during the taxable year to its shareholders. Each distribution is a taxable dividend in full, irrespective of the actual or the pro rata amount of the earnings and profits on hand at any of the dates of distribution, since the total distributions made during the year ($100,000) did not exceed the total earnings and profits of the year ($100,000).
Example 2. At the beginning of the calendar year 1955, Corporation N, a personal holding company, had no accumulated earnings and profits. During that year it made no earnings and profits but, due to the disallowance of certain deductions, its undistributed personal holding company income (determined under section 545 without regard to distributions under section 316(b)(2)) was $16,000. It distributed to shareholders on December 15, 1955, $15,000, and on February 1, 1956, $1,000, the latter amount being claimed as a deduction under section 563 in its personal holding company schedule for 1955 filed with its return for 1955 on March 15, 1956. Both distributions are taxable dividends in full, since they do not exceed the undistributed personal holding company income (determined without regard to such distributions) for 1955, the taxable year in which the distribution of $15,000 was made and with respect to which the distribution of $1,000 was made. It is immaterial whether Corporation N is a personal holding company for the taxable year 1956 or whether it had any income for that year.
Example 3. In 1959, a deficiency in personal holding company tax was established against Corporation O for the taxable year 1955 in the amount of $35,500 based on an undistributed personal holding company income of $42,000. Corporation O complied with the provisions of section 547 and in December 1959 distributed $42,000 to its stockholders as “deficiency dividends.” The distribution of $42,000 is a taxable dividend since it does not exceed $42,000 (the undistributed personal holding company income for 1955, the taxable year with respect to which the distribution was made). It is immaterial whether Corporation O is a personal holding company for the taxable year 1959 or whether it had any income for that year.
Example 4. At the beginning of the taxable year 1955, Corporation P, a personal holding company, had a deficit in earnings and profits of $200,000. During that year it made earnings and profits of $90,000. For that year, however, it had an undistributed personal holding income (determined under section 545 without regard to distributions under section 316(b)(2)) of $80,000. During such taxable year it distributed to its shareholders $100,000. The distribution of $100,000 is a taxable dividend to the extent of $90,000 since its earnings and profits for that year, $90,000, exceed $80,000, the undistributed personal holding company income determined without regard to such distribution.
Example 5. Corporation O, a calendar year taxpayer, is completely liquidated on December 31, 1964, pursuant to a plan of liquidation adopted July 1, 1964. No distributions in liquidation were made pursuant to the plan of liquidation adopted July 1, 1964, until the distribution in complete liquidation on December 31, 1964. Corporation O has undistributed personal holding company income of $300,000 for the year 1964 (computed without regard to section 562(b) or section 316(b)(2)(B)). On December 31, 1964, immediately before the record date of the distribution in complete liquidation, individual A owns 200 shares of Corporation O's outstanding stock and Corporation P owns the remaining 100 shares of outstanding stock. All shares are equal in value. The noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income for 1964 is $200,000

200 shares÷300 shares×$300,000.

If at least $200,000 is distributed to A in the liquidation, then Corporation O may designate $200,000 to A as a dividend in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section, and, if such amount is designated, then A must treat $200,000 as a dividend to which section 301 applies. For an example of the treatment of the distribution to Corporation P see paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of §1.562-1.

Example 6. Corporation Q, a calendar year taxpayer, is completely liquidated on December 31, 1964, pursuant to a plan of liquidation adopted July 1, 1964. No distributions in liquidation were made pursuant to the plan of liquidation adopted July 1, 1964, until the distribution in complete liquidation on December 31, 1964. Corporation Q has undistributed personal holding company income of $40,000 for the year 1964 (computed without regard to section 562(b) or section 316(b)(2)(B)). On December 31, 1964, immediately before the record date of the distribution in complete liquidation, Corporation Q has outstanding 300 shares of common stock and 100 shares of noncumulative preferred stock. Corporation Q's articles of incorporation provide that the preferred stock is entitled to dividends of $10 per share per year. Of Corporation Q's stock, individual B owns 200 shares of the common stock and 50 shares of the preferred stock, and Corporation R owns all remaining shares. All of the common shares are equal in value, and all of the preferred shares are equal in value. No dividends had been paid on the preferred stock during the year 1964. Of the $40,000 of undistributed personal holding company income, $1,000 must be allocated to the preferred stock because of the rights of the holders of such stock, under Q's articles of incorporation, to receive that amount in dividends for the year 1964. The noncorporate distributees' allocable share of undistributed personal holding company income for 1964 is $26,500.

50 preferred shares÷100 preferred shares×$1,000+200 common shares ÷ 300 common shares×$39,000

If at least $26,500 is distributed to B in the liquidation, then corporation Q may designate $26,500 to B as a dividend in accordance with paragraph (b)(5) of this section, and, if such amount is designated, then B must treat $26,500 as a dividend to which section 301 applies.

Example 7. In 1979, a deficiency of $46,000 in the tax on real estate investment trust taxable income is established against corporation R for the taxable year 1977, based on an increase in real estate investment trust taxable income of $100,000. Corporation R complied with the provisions of section 860 and in December 1979 distributed to its stockholders $100,000, which qualified as “deficiency dividends” under section 860. The distribution of $100,000 is a taxable dividend. It is immaterial whether corporation R is a real estate investment trust for the taxable year 1979 or whether it had accumulated or current earnings and profits in 1979. See section 316(b)(3).

(Sec. 860(l) (92 Stat. 2849, 26 U.S.C. 860(l)); sec. 860(g) (92 Stat. 2850, 26 U.S.C. 860(g)); and sec. 7805 (68A Stat. 917, 26 U.S.C. 7805))

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6625, 27 FR 12541, Dec. 19, 1962; T.D. 6949, 33 FR 5519, Apr. 9, 1968; T.D. 7767, 46 FR 11264, Feb. 6, 1981; T.D. 7936, 49 FR 2105, Jan. 18, 1984]

§1.316-2   Sources of distribution in general.

(a) For the purpose of income taxation every distribution made by a corporation is made out of earnings and profits to the extent thereof and from the most recently accumulated earnings and profits. In determining the source of a distribution, consideration should be given first, to the earnings and profits of the taxable year; second, to the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, only in the case where, and to the extent that, the distributions made during the taxable year are not regarded as out of the earnings and profits of that year; third, to the earnings and profits accumulated before March 1, 1913, only after all the earnings and profits of the taxable year and all the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, have been distributed; and, fourth, to sources other than earnings and profits only after the earnings and profits have been distributed.

(b) If the earnings and profits of the taxable year (computed as of the close of the year without diminution by reason of any distributions made during the year and without regard to the amount of earnings and profits at the time of the distribution) are sufficient in amount to cover all the distributions made during that year, then each distribution is a taxable dividend. See §1.316-1. If the distributions made during the taxable year consist only of money and exceed the earnings and profits of such year, then that proportion of each distribution which the total of the earnings and profits of the year bears to the total distributions made during the year shall be regarded as out of the earnings and profits of that year. The portion of each such distribution which is not regarded as out of earnings and profits of the taxable year shall be considered a taxable dividend to the extent of the earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, and available on the date of the distribution. In any case in which it is necessary to determine the amount of earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913, and the actual earnings and profits to the date of a distribution within any taxable year (whether beginning before January 1, 1936, or, in the case of an operating deficit, on or after that date) cannot be shown, the earnings and profits for the year (or accounting period, if less than a year) in which the distribution was made shall be prorated to the date of the distribution not counting the date on which the distribution was made.

(c) The provisions of the section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. At the beginning of the calendar year 1955, Corporation M had $12,000 in earnings and profits accumulated since February 28, 1913. Its earnings and profits for 1955 amounted to $30,000. During the year it made quarterly cash distributions of $15,000 each. Of each of the four distributions made, $7,500 (that portion of $15,000 which the amount of $30,000, the total earnings and profits of the taxable year, bears to $60,000, the total distributions made during the year) was paid out of the earnings and profits of the taxable year; and of the first and second distributions, $7,500 and $4,500, respectively, were paid out of the earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913, and before the taxable year, as follows:
Distributions during 1955Portion out of earnings and profits of the taxable yearPortion out of earnings accumulated since Feb. 28, 1913, and before the taxable yearTaxable amt. of each distribution
DateAmount
March 10$15,000$7,500$7,500$15,000
June 1015,0007,5004,50012,000
September 1015,0007,5007,500
December 1015,0007,5007,500
Total amount taxable as dividends42,000

(d) Any distribution by a corporation out of earnings and profits accumulated before March 1, 1913, or out of increase in value of property accrued before March 1, 1913 (whether or not realized by sale or other disposition, and, if realized, whether before, on, or after March 1, 1913), is not a dividend within the meaning of subtitle A of the Code.

(e) A reserve set up out of gross income by a corporation and maintained for the purpose of making good any loss of capital assets on account of depletion or depreciation is not a part of surplus out of which ordinary dividends may be paid. A distribution made from a depletion or a depreciation reserve based upon the cost or other basis of the property will not be considered as having been paid out of earnings and profits, but the amount thereof shall be applied against and reduce the cost or other basis of the stock upon which declared. If such a distribution is in excess of the basis, the excess shall be taxed as a gain from the sale or other disposition of property as provided in section 301(c)(3)(A). A distribution from a depletion reserve based upon discovery value to the extent that such reserve represents the excess of the discovery value over the cost or other basis for determining gain or loss, is, when received by the shareholders, taxable as an ordinary dividend. The amount by which a corporation's percentage depletion allowance for any year exceeds depletion sustained on cost or other basis, that is, determined without regard to discovery or percentage depletion allowances for the year of distribution or prior years, constitutes a part of the corporation's “earnings and profits accumulated after February 28, 1913,” within the meaning of section 316, and, upon distribution to shareholders, is taxable to them as a dividend. A distribution made from that portion of a depletion reserve based upon a valuation as of March 1, 1913, which is in excess of the depletion reserve based upon cost, will not be considered as having been paid out of earnings and profits, but the amount of the distribution shall be applied against and reduce the cost or other basis of the stock upon which declared. See section 301. No distribution, however, can be made from such a reserve until all the earnings and profits of the corporation have first been distributed.

§1.317-1   Property defined.

The term property, for purposes of part 1, subchapter C, chapter 1 of the Code, means any property (including money, securities, and indebtedness to the corporation) other than stock, or rights to acquire stock, in the corporation making the distribution.

§1.318-1   Constructive ownership of stock; introduction.

(a) For the purposes of certain provisions of chapter 1 of the Code, section 318(a) provides that stock owned by a taxpayer includes stock constructively owned by such taxpayer under the rules set forth in such section. An individual is considered to own the stock owned, directly or indirectly, by or for his spouse (other than a spouse who is legally separated from the individual under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance), and by or for his children, grandchildren, and parents. Under section 318(a)(2) and (3), constructive ownership rules are established for partnerships and partners, estates and beneficiaries, trusts and beneficiaries, and corporations and stockholders. If any person has an option to acquire stock, such stock is considered as owned by such person. The term option includes an option to acquire such an option and each of a series of such options.

(b) In applying section 318(a) to determine the stock ownership of any person for any one purpose—

(1) A corporation shall not be considered to own its own stock by reason of section 318(a)(3)(C);

(2) In any case in which an amount of stock owned by any person may be included in the computation more than one time, such stock shall be included only once, in the manner in which it will impute to the person concerned the largest total stock ownership; and

(3) In determining the 50-percent requirement of section 318(a)(2)(C) and (3)(C), all of the stock owned actually and constructively by the person concerned shall be aggregated.

[T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11999, Aug. 23, 1968]

§1.318-2   Application of general rules.

(a) The application of paragraph (b) of §1.318-1 may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. H, an individual, owns all of the stock of corporation A. Corporation A is not considered to own the stock owned by H in corporation A.
Example 2. H, an individual, his wife, W, and his son, S, each own one-third of the stock of the Green Corporation. For purposes of determining the amount of stock owned by H, W, or S for purposes of section 318(a)(2)(C) and (3)(C), the amount of stock held by the other members of the family shall be added pursuant to paragraph (b)(3) of §1.318-1 in applying the 50-percent requirement of such section. H, W, or S, as the case may be, is for this purpose deemed to own 100 percent of the stock of the Green Corporation.

(b) The application of section 318(a)(1), relating to members of a family, may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. An individual, H, his wife, W, his son, S, and his grandson (S's son), G, own the 100 outstanding shares of stock of a corporation, each owning 25 shares. H, W, and S are each considered as owning 100 shares. G is considered as owning only 50 shares, that is, his own and his father's.

(c) The application of section 318(a)(2) and (3), relating to partnerships, trusts and corporations, may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, an individual, has a 50 percent interest in a partnership. The partnership owns 50 of the 100 outstanding shares of stock of a corporation, the remaining 50 shares being owned by A. The partnership is considered as owning 100 shares. A is considered as owning 75 shares.
Example 2. A testamentary trust owns 25 of the outstanding 100 shares of stock of a corporation. A, an individual, who holds a vested remainder in the trust having a value, computed actuarially equal to 4 percent of the value of the trust property, owns the remaining 75 shares. Since the interest of A in the trust is a vested interest rather than a contingent interest (whether or not remote), the trust is considered as owning 100 shares. A is considered as owning 76 shares.
Example 3. The facts are the same as in (2), above, except that A's interest in the trust is a contingent remainder. A is considered as owning 76 shares. However, since A's interest in the trust is a remote contingent interest, the trust is not considered as owning any of the shares owned by A.
Example 4. A and B, unrelated individuals, own 70 percent and 30 percent, respectively, in value of the stock of Corporation M. Corporation M owns 50 of the 100 outstanding shares of stock of Corporation O, the remaining 50 shares being owned by A. Corporation M is considered as owning 100 shares of Corporation O, and A is considered as owning 85 shares.
Example 5. A and B, unrelated individuals, own 70 percent and 30 percent, respectively, of the stock of corporation M. A, B, and corporation M all own stock of corporation O. Since B owns less than 50 percent in value of the stock of corporation M, neither B nor corporation M constructively owns the stock of corporation O owned by the other. However, for purposes of certain sections of the Code, such as sections 304 and 856(d), the 50-percent limitation of section 318(a)(2)(C) and (3)(C) is disregarded or is reduced to less than 30 percent. For such purposes, B constructively owns his proportionate share of the stock of corporation O owned directly by corporation M, and corporation M constructively owns the stock of corporation O owned by B.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11999, Aug. 23, 1968]

§1.318-3   Estates, trusts, and options.

(a) For the purpose of applying section 318(a), relating to estates, property of a decedent shall be considered as owned by his estate if such property is subject to administration by the executor or administrator for the purpose of paying claims against the estate and expenses of administration notwithstanding that, under local law, legal title to such property vests in the decedent's heirs, legatees or devisees immediately upon death. The term beneficiary includes any person entitled to receive property of a decedent pursuant to a will or pursuant to laws of descent and distribution. A person shall no longer be considered a beneficiary of an estate when all the property to which he is entitled has been received by him, when he no longer has a claim against the estate arising out of having been a beneficiary, and when there is only a remote possibility that it will be necessary for the estate to seek the return of property or to seek payment from him by contribution or otherwise to satisfy claims against the estate or expenses of administration. When, pursuant to the preceding sentence, a person ceases to be a beneficiary, stock owned by him shall not thereafter be considered owned by the estate, and stock owned by the estate shall not thereafter be considered owned by him. The application of section 318(a) relating to estates may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. (a) A decedent's estate owns 50 of the 100 outstanding shares of stock of corporation X. The remaining shares are owned by three unrelated individuals, A, B, and C, who together own the entire interest in the estate. A owns 12 shares of stock of corporation X directly and is entitled to 50 percent of the estate. B owns 18 shares directly and has a life estate in the remaining 50 percent of the estate. C owns 20 shares directly and also owns the remainder interest after B's life estate.

(b) If section 318(a)(5)(C) applies (see paragraph (c)(3) of §1.318-4), the stock of corporation X is considered to be owned as follows: the estate is considered as owning 80 shares, 50 shares directly, 12 shares constructively through A, and 18 shares constructively through B; A is considered as owning 37 shares, 12 shares directly, and 25 shares constructively (50 percent of the 50 shares owned directly by the estate); B is considered as owning 43 shares, 18 shares directly and 25 shares constructively (50 percent of the 50 shares owned directly by the estate); C is considered as owning 20 shares directly and no shares constructively. C is not considered a beneficiary of the estate under section 318(a) since he has no direct present interest in the property held by the estate nor in the income produced by such property.

(c) If section 318(a)(5)(C) does not apply, A is considered as owning nine additional shares (50 percent of the 18 shares owned constructively by the estate through B), and B is considered as owning six additional shares (50 percent of the 12 shares owned constructively by the estate through A).

Example 2. Under the will of A, Blackacre is left to B for life, remainder to C, an unrelated individual. The residue of the estate consisting of stock of a corporation is left to D. B and D are beneficiaries of the estate under section 318(a). C is not considered a beneficiary since he has no direct present interest in Blackacre nor in the income produced by such property. The stock owned by the estate is considered as owned proportionately by B and D.

(b) For the purpose of section 318(a)(2)(B) stock owned by a trust will be considered as being owned by its beneficiaries only to the extent of the interest of such beneficiaries in the trust. Accordingly, the interest of income beneficiaries, remainder beneficiaries, and other beneficiaries will be computed on an actuarial basis. Thus, if a trust owns 100 percent of the stock of Corporation A, and if, on an actuarial basis, W's life interest in the trust is 15 percent, Y's life interest is 25 percent, and Z's remainder interest is 60 percent, under this provision W will be considered to be the owner of 15 percent of the stock of Corporation A, Y will be considered to be the owner of 25 percent of such stock, and Z will be considered to be the owner of 60 percent of such stock. The factors and methods prescribed in §20.2031-7 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations) for use in ascertaining the value of an interest in property for estate tax purposes shall be used in determining a beneficiary's actuarial interest in a trust for purposes of this section. See §20.2031-7 of this chapter (Estate Tax Regulations) for examples illustrating the use of these factors and methods.

(c) The application of section 318(a) relating to options may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A and B, unrelated individuals, own all of the 100 outstanding shares of stock of a corporation, each owning 50 shares. A has an option to acquire 25 of B's shares and has an option to acquire a further option to acquire the remaining 25 of B's shares. A is considered as owning the entire 100 shares of stock of the corporation.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11999, Aug. 23, 1968]

§1.318-4   Constructive ownership as actual ownership; exceptions.

(a) In general. Section 318(a)(5)(A) provides that, except as provided in section 318(a)(5) (B) and (C), stock constructively owned by a person by reason of the application of section 318(a) (1), (2), (3), or (4) shall be considered as actually owned by such person for purposes of applying section 318(a) (1), (2), (3), and (4). For example, if a trust owns 50 percent of the stock of corporation X, stock of corporation Y owned by corporation X which is attributed to the trust may be further attributed to the beneficiaries of the trust.

(b) Constructive family ownership. Section 318(a)(5)(B) provides that stock constructively owned by an individual by reason of ownership by a member of his family shall not be considered as owned by him for purposes of making another family member the constructive owner of such stock under section 318(a)(1). For example, if F and his two sons, A and B, each own one-third of the stock of a corporation, under section 318(a)(1), A is treated as owning constructively the stock owned by his father but is not treated as owning the stock owned by B. Section 318(a)(5)(B) prevents the attribution of the stock of one brother through the father to the other brother, an attribution beyond the scope of section 318(a)(1) directly.

(c) Reattribution. (1) Section 318(a)(5)(C) provides that stock constructively owned by a partnership, estate, trust, or corporation by reason of the application of section 318(a)(3) shall not be considered as owned by it for purposes of applying section 318(a)(2) in order to make another the constructive owner of such stock. For example, if two unrelated individuals are beneficiaries of the same trust, stock held by one which is attributed to the trust under section 318(a)(3) is not reattributed from the trust to the other beneficiary. However, stock constructively owned by reason of section 318(a)(2) may be reattributed under section 318(a)(3). Thus, for example, if all the stock of corporations X and Y is owned by A, stock of corporation Z held by X is attributed to Y through A.

(2) Section 318(a)(5)(C) does not prevent reattribution under section 318(a)(2) of stock constructively owned by an entity under section 318(a)(3) if the stock is also constructively owned by the entity under section 318(a)(4). For example, if individuals A and B are beneficiaries of a trust and the trust has an option to buy stock from A, B is considered under section 318(a)(2)(B) as owning a proportionate part of such stock.

(3) Section 318(a)(5)(C) is effective on and after August 31, 1964, except that for purposes of sections 302 and 304 it does not apply with respect to distributions in payment for stock acquisitions or redemptions if such acquisitions or redemptions occurred before August 31, 1964.

[T.D. 6969, 33 FR 11999, Aug. 23, 1968]

Corporate Liquidations

effects on recipients

§1.331-1   Corporate liquidations.

(a) In general. Section 331 contains rules governing the extent to which gain or loss is recognized to a shareholder receiving a distribution in complete or partial liquidation of a corporation. Under section 331(a)(1), it is provided that amounts distributed in complete liquidation of a corporation shall be treated as in full payment in exchange for the stock. Under section 331(a)(2), it is provided that amounts distributed in partial liquidation of a corporation shall be treated as in full or part payment in exchange for the stock. For this purpose, the term partial liquidation shall have the meaning ascribed in section 346. If section 331 is applicable to the distribution of property by a corporation, section 301 (relating to the effects on a shareholder of distributions of property) has no application other than to a distribution in complete liquidation to which section 316(b)(2)(B) applies. See paragraph (b)(2) of §1.316-1.

(b) Gain or loss. The gain or loss to a shareholder from a distribution in partial or complete liquidation is to be determined under section 1001 by comparing the amount of the distribution with the cost or other basis of the stock. The gain or loss will be recognized to the extent provided in section 1002 and will be subject to the provisions of parts I, II, and III (section 1201 and following), subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code.

(c) Recharacterization. A liquidation which is followed by a transfer to another corporation of all or part of the assets of the liquidating corporation or which is preceded by such a transfer may, however, have the effect of the distribution of a dividend or of a transaction in which no loss is recognized and gain is recognized only to the extent of “other property.” See sections 301 and 356.

(d) Reporting requirement—(1) General rule. Every significant holder that transfers stock to the issuing corporation in exchange for property from such corporation must include on or with such holder's return for the year of such exchange the statement described in paragraph (d)(2) of this section unless—

(i) The property is part of a distribution made pursuant to a corporate resolution reciting that the distribution is made in complete liquidation of the corporation; and

(ii) The issuing corporation is completely liquidated and dissolved within one year after the distribution.

(2) Statement. If required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section, a significant holder must include on or with such holder's return a statement entitled, “STATEMENT PURSUANT TO §1.331-1(d) BY [INSERT NAME AND TAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF TAXPAYER], A SIGNIFICANT HOLDER OF THE STOCK OF [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF ISSUING CORPORATION].” If a significant holder is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957), each United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) with respect thereto must include this statement on or with its return. The statement must include—

(i) The fair market value and basis of the stock transferred by the significant holder to the issuing corporation; and

(ii) A description of the property received by the significant holder from the issuing corporation.

(3) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i) Significant holder means any person that, immediately before the exchange—

(A) Owned at least five percent (by vote or value) of the total outstanding stock of the issuing corporation if the stock owned by such person is publicly traded; or

(B) Owned at least one percent (by vote or value) of the total outstanding stock of the issuing corporation if the stock owned by such person is not publicly traded.

(ii) Publicly traded stock means stock that is listed on—

(A) A national securities exchange registered under section 6 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78f); or

(B) An interdealer quotation system sponsored by a national securities association registered under section 15A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (15 U.S.C. 78o-3).

(iii) Issuing corporation means the corporation that issued the shares of stock, some or all of which were transferred by a significant holder to such corporation in the exchange described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(4) Cross reference. See section 6043 of the Code for requirements relating to a return by a liquidating corporation.

(e) Example. The provisions of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A, an individual who makes his income tax returns on the calendar year basis, owns 20 shares of stock of the P Corporation, a domestic corporation, 10 shares of which were acquired in 1951 at a cost of $1,500 and the remainder of 10 shares in December 1954 at a cost of $2,900. He receives in April 1955 a distribution of $250 per share in complete liquidation, or $2,500 on the 10 shares acquired in 1951, and $2,500 on the 10 shares acquired in December 1954. The gain of $1,000 on the shares acquired in 1951 is a long-term capital gain to be treated as provided in parts I, II, and III (section 1201 and following), subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code. The loss of $400 on the shares acquired in 1954 is a short-term capital loss to be treated as provided in parts I, II, and III (section 1201 and following), subchapter P, chapter 1 of the Code.

(f) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d) of this section applies to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (d) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.331-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6949, 33 FR 5521, Apr. 9, 1968; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30594, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32797, June 14, 2007]

§1.332-1   Distributions in liquidation of subsidiary corporation; general.

Under the general rule prescribed by section 331 for the treatment of distributions in liquidation of a corporation, amounts received by one corporation in complete liquidation of another corporation are treated as in full payment in exchange for stock in such other corporation, and gain or loss from the receipt of such amounts is to be determined as provided in section 1001. Section 332 excepts from the general rule property received, under certain specifically described circumstances, by one corporation as a distribution in complete liquidation of the stock of another corporation and provides for the nonrecognition of gain or loss in those cases which meet the statutory requirements. Section 367 places a limitation on the application of section 332 in the case of foreign corporations. See section 334(b) for the basis for determining gain or loss from the subsequent sale of property received upon complete liquidations such as described in this section. See section 453(d)(4)(A) relative to distribution of installment obligations by subsidiary.

§1.332-2   Requirements for nonrecognition of gain or loss.

(a) The nonrecognition of gain or loss is limited to the receipt of such property by a corporation which is the actual owner of stock (in the liquidating corporation) possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and the owner of at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock (except nonvoting stock which is limited and preferred as to dividends). The recipient corporation must have been the owner of the specified amount of such stock on the date of the adoption of the plan of liquidation and have continued so to be at all times until the receipt of the property. If the recipient corporation does not continue qualified with respect to the ownership of stock of the liquidating corporation and if the failure to continue qualified occurs at any time prior to the completion of the transfer of all the property, the provisions for the nonrecognition of gain or loss do not apply to any distribution received under the plan.

(b) Section 332 applies only to those cases in which the recipient corporation receives at least partial payment for the stock which it owns in the liquidating corporation. If section 332 is not applicable, see section 165(g) relative to allowance of losses on worthless securities.

(c) To constitute a distribution in complete liquidation within the meaning of section 332, the distribution must be (1) made by the liquidating corporation in complete cancellation or redemption of all of its stock in accordance with a plan of liquidation, or (2) one of a series of distributions in complete cancellation or redemption of all its stock in accordance with a plan of liquidation. Where there is more than one distribution, it is essential that a status of liquidation exist at the time the first distribution is made under the plan and that such status continue until the liquidation is completed. Liquidation is completed when the liquidating corporation and the receiver or trustees in liquidation are finally divested of all the property (both tangible and intangible). A status of liquidation exists when the corporation ceases to be a going concern and its activities are merely for the purpose of winding up its affairs, paying its debts, and distributing any remaining balance to its shareholders. A liquidation may be completed prior to the actual dissolution of the liquidating corporation. However, legal dissolution of the corporation is not required. Nor will the mere retention of a nominal amount of assets for the sole purpose of preserving the corporation's legal existence disqualify the transaction. (See 26 CFR (1939) 39.22(a)-20 (Regulations 118).)

(d) If a transaction constitutes a distribution in complete liquidation within the meaning of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and satisfies the requirements of section 332, it is not material that it is otherwise described under the local law. If a liquidating corporation distributes all of its property in complete liquidation and if pursuant to the plan for such complete liquidation a corporation owning the specified amount of stock in the liquidating corporation receives property constituting amounts distributed in complete liquidation within the meaning of the Code and also receives other property attributable to shares not owned by it, the transfer of the property to the recipient corporation shall not be treated, by reason of the receipt of such other property, as not being a distribution (or one of a series of distributions) in complete cancellation or redemption of all of the stock of the liquidating corporation within the meaning of section 332, even though for purposes of those provisions relating to corporate reorganizations the amount received by the recipient corporation in excess of its ratable share is regarded as acquired upon the issuance of its stock or securities in a tax-free exchange as described in section 361 and the cancellation or redemption of the stock not owned by the recipient corporation is treated as occurring as a result of a taxfree exchange described in section 354.

(e) The application of these rules may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. On September 1, 1954, the M Corporation had outstanding capital stock consisting of 3,000 shares of common stock, par value $100 a share, and 1,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $100 a share, which preferred stock was limited and preferred as to dividends and had no voting rights. On that date, and thereafter until the date of dissolution of the M Corporation, the O Corporation owned 2,500 shares of common stock of the M Corporation. By statutory merger consummated on October 1, 1954, pursuant to a plan of liquidation adopted on September 1, 1954, the M Corporation was merged into the O Corporation, the O Corporation under the plan issuing stock which was received by the other holders of the stock of the M Corporation. The receipt by the O Corporation of the properties of the M Corporation is a distribution received by the O Corporation in complete liquidation of the M Corporation within the meaning of section 332, and no gain or loss is recognized as the result of the receipt of such properties.

§1.332-3   Liquidations completed within one taxable year.

If in a liquidation completed within one taxable year pursuant to a plan of complete liquidation, distributions in complete liquidation are received by a corporation which owns the specified amount of stock in the liquidating corporation and which continues qualified with respect to the ownership of such stock until the transfer of all the property within such year is completed (see paragraph (a) of §1.332-2), then no gain or loss shall be recognized with respect to the distributions received by the recipient corporation. In such case no waiver or bond is required of the recipient corporation under section 332.

§1.332-4   Liquidations covering more than one taxable year.

(a) If the plan of liquidation is consummated by a series of distributions extending over a period of more than one taxable year, the nonrecognition of gain or loss with respect to the distributions in liquidation shall, in addition to the requirements of §1.332-2, be subject to the following requirements:

(1) In order for the distribution in liquidation to be brought within the exception provided in section 332 to the general rule for computing gain or loss with respect to amounts received in liquidation of a corporation, the entire property of the corporation shall be transferred in accordance with a plan of liquidation, which plan shall include a statement showing the period within which the transfer of the property of the liquidating corporation to the recipient corporation is to be completed. The transfer of all the property under the liquidation must be completed within three years from the close of the taxable year during which is made the first of the series of distributions under the plan.

(2) For each of the taxable years which falls wholly or partly within the period of liquidation, the recipient corporation shall, at the time of filing its return, file with the district director of internal revenue a waiver of the statute of limitations on assessment. The waiver shall be executed on such form as may be prescribed by the Commissioner and shall extend the period of assessment of all income and profits taxes for each such year to a date not earlier than one year after the last date of the period for assessment of such taxes for the last taxable year in which the transfer of the property of such liquidating corporation to the controlling corporation may be completed in accordance with section 332. Such waiver shall also contain such other terms with respect to assessment as may be considered by the Commissioner to be necessary to insure the assessment and collection of the correct tax liability for each year within the period of liquidation.

(3) For each of the taxable years which falls wholly or partly within the period of liquidation, the recipient corporation may be required to file a bond, the amount of which shall be fixed by the district director. The bond shall contain all terms specified by the Commissioner, including provisions unequivocally assuring prompt payment of the excess of income and profits taxes (plus penalty, if any, and interest) as computed by the district director without regard to the provisions of sections 332 and 334(b) over such taxes computed with regard to such provisions, regardless of whether such excess may or may not be made the subject of a notice of deficiency under section 6212 and regardless of whether it may or may not be assessed. Any bond required under section 332 shall have such surety or sureties as the Commissioner may require. However, see 6 U.S.C. 15, providing that where a bond is required by law or regulations, in lieu of surety or sureties there may be deposited bonds or notes of the United States. Only surety companies holding certificates of authority from the Secretary as acceptable sureties on Federal bonds will be approved as sureties. The bonds shall be executed in triplicate so that the Commissioner, the taxpayer, and the surety or the depositary may each have a copy. On and after September 1, 1953, the functions of the Commissioner with respect to such bonds shall be performed by the district director for the internal revenue district in which the return was filed and any bond filed on or after such date shall be filed with such district director.

(b) Pending the completion of the liquidation, if there is a compliance with paragraph (a) (1), (2), and (3) of this section and §1.332-2 with respect to the nonrecognition of gain or loss, the income and profits tax liability of the recipient corporation for each of the years covered in whole or in part by the liquidation shall be determined without the recognition of any gain or loss on account of the receipt of the distributions in liquidation. In such determination, the basis of the property or properties received by the recipient corporation shall be determined in accordance with section 334(b). However, if the transfer of the property is not completed within the three-year period allowed by section 332 or if the recipient corporation does not continue qualified with respect to the ownership of stock of the liquidating corporation as required by that section, gain or loss shall be recognized with respect to each distribution and the tax liability for each of the years covered in whole or in part by the liquidation shall be recomputed without regard to the provisions of section 332 or section 334(b) and the amount of any additional tax due upon such recomputation shall be promptly paid.

§1.332-5   Distributions in liquidation as affecting minority interests.

Upon the liquidation of a corporation in pursuance of a plan of complete liquidation, the gain or loss of minority shareholders shall be determined without regard to section 332, since it does not apply to that part of distributions in liquidation received by minority shareholders.

§1.332-6   Records to be kept and information to be filed with return.

(a) Statement filed by recipient corporation. If any recipient corporation received a liquidating distribution from the liquidating corporation pursuant to a plan (whether or not that recipient corporation has received or will receive other such distributions from the liquidating corporation in other tax years as part of the same plan) during the current tax year, such recipient corporation must include a statement entitled, “STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 332 BY [INSERT NAME AND EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (IF ANY) OF TAXPAYER], A CORPORATION RECEIVING A LIQUIDATING DISTRIBUTION,” on or with its return for such year. If any recipient corporation is a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957), each United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) with respect thereto must include this statement on or with its return. The statement must include—

(1) The name and employer identification number (if any) of the liquidating corporation;

(2) The date(s) of all distribution(s) (whether or not pursuant to the plan) by the liquidating corporation during the current tax year;

(3) The aggregate fair market value and basis, determined immediately before the liquidation, of all of the assets of the liquidating corporation that have been or will be transferred to any recipient corporation;

(4) The date and control number of any private letter ruling(s) issued by the Internal Revenue Service in connection with the liquidation;

(5) The following representation: THE PLAN OF COMPLETE LIQUIDATION WAS ADOPTED ON [INSERT DATE (mm/dd/yyyy)]; and

(6) A representation by such recipient corporation either that—

(i) THE LIQUIDATION WAS COMPLETED ON [INSERT DATE (mm/dd/yyyy)]; or

(ii) THE LIQUIDATION IS NOT COMPLETE AND THE TAXPAYER HAS TIMELY FILED [INSERT EITHER FORM 952, “Consent To Extend the Time to Assess Tax Under Section 332(b),” OR NUMBER AND NAME OF THE SUCCESSOR FORM].

(b) Filings by the liquidating corporation. The liquidating corporation must timely file Form 966, “Corporate Dissolution or Liquidation,” (or its successor form) and its final Federal corporate income tax return. See also section 6043 of the Code.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Plan means the plan of complete liquidation within the meaning of section 332.

(2) Recipient corporation means the corporation described in section 332(b)(1).

(3) Liquidating corporation means the corporation that makes a distribution of property to a recipient corporation pursuant to the plan.

(4) Liquidating distribution means a distribution of property made by the liquidating corporation to a recipient corporation pursuant to the plan.

(d) Substantiation information. Under §1.6001-1(e), taxpayers are required to retain their permanent records and make such records available to any authorized Internal Revenue Service officers and employees. In connection with a liquidation described in this section, these records should specifically include information regarding the amount, basis, and fair market value of all distributed property, and relevant facts regarding any liabilities assumed or extinguished as part of such liquidation.

(e) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.332-6 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32797, June 14, 2007]

§1.332-7   Indebtedness of subsidiary to parent.

If section 332(a) is applicable to the receipt of the subsidiary's property in complete liquidation, then no gain or loss shall be recognized to the subsidiary upon the transfer of such properties even though some of the properties are transferred in satisfaction of the subsidiary's indebtedness to its parent. However, any gain or loss realized by the parent corporation on such satisfaction of indebtedness, shall be recognized to the parent corporation at the time of the liquidation. For example, if the parent corporation purchased its subsidiary's bonds at a discount and upon liquidation of the subsidiary the parent corporation receives payment for the face amount of such bonds, gain shall be recognized to the parent corporation. Such gain shall be measured by the difference between the cost or other basis of the bonds to the parent and the amount received in payment of the bonds.

§1.334-1   Basis of property received in liquidations.

(a) In general. Section 334 sets forth rules prescribing the basis of property received in a distribution in partial or complete liquidation of a corporation. The general rule of section 334 is set forth in section 334(a) to the effect that if property is received in a distribution in partial or complete liquidation and if gain or loss is recognized on the receipt of such property, then the basis of the property in the hands of the distributee shall be the fair market value of such property at the time of the distribution. Such general rule has no application to a liquidation to which section 332 or section 333 applies. See section 334 (b) and (c).

(b) Transferor's basis. Unless section 334(b)(2) and subsection (c) of this section apply, property received by a parent corporation in a complete liquidation to which section 332 is applicable shall, under section 334(b)(1), have the same basis in the hands of the parent as its adjusted basis in the hands of the subsidiary. The rule stated above is applicable even though the subsidiary was indebted to the parent on the date the plan of liquidation was adopted and part of such property was received in satisfaction of such indebtedness in a transfer to which section 332(c) is applicable. See §1.460-4(k)(3)(iv)(B)(2) for rules relating to adjustments to the basis of certain contracts accounted for using a long-term contract method of accounting that are acquired in certain liquidations described in section 332.

[T.D. 7231, 37 FR 28287, Dec. 22, 1972, as amended at T.D. 8474, 58 FR 25557, Apr. 27, 1993; T.D. 8995, 67 FR 34605, May 15, 2002]

§1.336-0   Table of contents.

This section lists captions contained in §§1.336-1, 1.336-2, 1.336-3, 1.336-4, and 1.336-5.

§1.336-1   General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.

(a) Overview.

(1) In general.

(2) Consistency rules.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Seller.

(2) Purchaser.

(3) Target; S corporation target; old target; new target.

(4) S corporation shareholders.

(5) Disposed of; disposition.

(i) In general.

(ii) Exception for disposition of stock in certain section 355 transactions.

(iii) Transactions with related persons.

(iv) No consideration paid.

(v) Disposed of stock reacquired by certain persons.

(6) Qualified stock disposition.

(i) In general.

(ii) Overlap with qualified stock purchase.

(A) In general.

(B) Exception.

(7) 12-month disposition period.

(8) Disposition date.

(9) Disposition date assets.

(10) Domestic corporation.

(11) Section 336(e) election.

(12) Related persons.

(13) Liquidation.

(14) Deemed asset disposition.

(15) Deemed disposition tax consequences.

(16) 80-percent purchaser.

(17) Recently disposed stock.

(18) Nonrecently disposed stock.

(c) Nomenclature.

§1.336-2   Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election.

(a) Availability of election.

(b) Deemed transaction.

(1) Dispositions not described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2).

(i) Old target—deemed asset disposition.

(A) In general.

(B) Gains and losses.

(1) Gains.

(2) Losses.

(i) In general.

(ii) Stock distributions.

(iii) Amount and allocation of disallowed loss.

(iv) Tiered targets.

(3) Examples.

(C) Tiered targets.

(ii) New target—deemed purchase.

(iii) Old target and seller—deemed liquidation.

(A) In general.

(B) Tiered targets.

(iv) Seller—distribution of target stock.

(v) Seller—retention of target stock.

(2) Dispositions described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2).

(i) Old target—deemed asset disposition.

(A) In general.

(1) Old target not deemed to liquidate.

(2) Exception.

(B) Gains and losses.

(1) Gains.

(2) Losses.

(i) In general.

(ii) Stock distributions.

(iii) Amount and allocation of disallowed loss.

(iv) Tiered targets.

(3) Examples.

(C) Tiered targets.

(ii) Old target—deemed purchase.

(A) In general.

(B) Tiered targets.

(C) Application of section 197(f)(9), section 1091, and other provisions to old target.

(iii) Seller—distribution of target stock.

(A) In general.

(B) Tiered targets.

(iv) Seller—retention of target stock.

(v) Qualification under section 355.

(vi) Earnings and profits.

(c) Purchaser.

(d) Minority shareholders.

(1) In general.

(2) Sale, exchange, or distribution of target stock by a minority shareholder.

(3) Retention of target stock by a minority shareholder.

(e) Treatment consistent with an actual asset disposition.

(f) Treatment of target under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(g) Special rules.

(1) Target as two corporations.

(2) Treatment of members of a consolidated group.

(3) International provisions.

(i) Source and foreign tax credit.

(ii) Allocation of foreign taxes.

(A) General rule.

(B) Taxes imposed on partnerships and disregarded entities.

(iii) Disallowance of foreign tax credits under section 901(m).

(h) Making the section 336(e) election.

(1) Consolidated group.

(2) Non-consolidated/non-S corporation target.

(3) S corporation target.

(4) Tiered targets.

(5) Section 336(e) election statement.

(i) In general.

(ii) Target subsidiaries.

(6) Contents of section 336(e) election statement.

(7) Asset Allocation Statement.

(8) Examples.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Protective section 336(e) election.

(k) Examples.

§1.336-3   Aggregate deemed asset disposition price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset disposition.

(a) Scope.

(b) Determination of ADADP.

(1) General rule.

(2) Time and amount of ADADP.

(i) Original determination.

(ii) Redetermination of ADADP.

(c) Grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of target.

(1) Determination of amount.

(2) Example.

(d) Liabilities of old target.

(1) In general.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities.

(e) Deemed disposition tax consequences.

(f) Other rules apply in determining ADADP.

(g) Examples.

§1.336-4   Adjusted grossed-up basis.

(a) Scope.

(b) Modifications to the principles in §1.338-5.

(1) Purchasing corporation; purchaser.

(2) Acquisition date; disposition date.

(3) Section 338 election; section 338(h)(10) election; section 336(e) election.

(4) New target; old target.

(5) Recently purchased stock; recently disposed stock.

(6) Nonrecently purchased stock; nonrecently disposed stock.

(c) Gain recognition election.

(1) In general.

(2) 80-percent purchaser.

(3) Non-80-percent purchaser.

(4) Gain recognition election statement.

(d) Examples.

§1.336-5   Effective/applicability date.

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013]

§1.336-1   General principles, nomenclature, and definitions for a section 336(e) election.

(a) Overview—(1) In general. Section 336(e) authorizes the promulgation of regulations under which, in certain circumstances, a sale, exchange, or distribution of the stock of a corporation may be treated as an asset sale. This section and §§1.336-2 through 1.336-5 provide the rules for and consequences of making such election. This section provides the definitions and nomenclature. Generally, except to the extent inconsistent with section 336(e), the results of section 336(e) should coincide with those of section 338(h)(10). Accordingly, to the extent not inconsistent with section 336(e) or these regulations, the principles of section 338 and the regulations under section 338 apply for purposes of these regulations. For example, §1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(8), concerning the availability of the section 453 installment method, may apply with respect to section 336(e).

(2) Consistency rules. In general, the principles of §1.338-8, concerning asset and stock consistency, apply with respect to section 336(e). However, for this purpose, the application of §1.338-8(b)(1) is modified such that §1.338-8(b)(1)(iii) applies to an asset if the asset is owned, immediately after its acquisition and on the disposition date, by a person or by a related person (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(12)) to a person that acquires, by sale, exchange, distribution, or any combination thereof, five percent or more, by value, of the stock of target in the qualified stock disposition.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of §§1.336-1 through 1.336-5 (except as otherwise provided):

(1) Seller. The term seller means any domestic corporation that makes a qualified stock disposition of stock of another corporation. Seller includes both a transferor and a distributor of target stock. Generally, all members of a consolidated group that dispose of target stock are treated as a single seller. See §1.336-2(g)(2).

(2) Purchaser. The term purchaser means one or more persons that acquire or receive the stock of another corporation in a qualified stock disposition. A purchaser includes both a transferee and a distributee of target stock.

(3) Target; S corporation target; old target; new target. The term target means any domestic corporation the stock of which is sold, exchanged, or distributed in a qualified stock disposition. An S corporation target is a target that is an S corporation immediately before the disposition date; any other target is a non-S corporation target. Except as the context otherwise requires, a reference to target includes a reference to an S corporation target. In the case of a transaction not described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), old target refers to target for periods ending on or before the close of target's disposition date and new target refers to target for subsequent periods. In the case of a transaction described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), old target refers to target for periods ending on or before the disposition date as well as for subsequent periods.

(4) S corporation shareholders. S corporation shareholders are the S corporation target's shareholders. Unless otherwise provided, a reference to S corporation shareholders refers both to S corporation shareholders who dispose of and those who do not dispose of their S corporation target stock.

(5) Disposed of; disposition—(i) In general. The term disposed of refers to a transfer of stock in a disposition. The term disposition means any sale, exchange, or distribution of stock, but only if—

(A) The basis of the stock in the hands of the purchaser is not determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such stock in the hands of the person from whom the stock is acquired or under section 1014(a) (relating to property acquired from a decedent);

(B) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(5)(ii) of this section, the stock is not sold, exchanged, or distributed in a transaction to which section 351, 354, 355, or 356 applies and is not sold, exchanged, or distributed in any transaction described in regulations in which the transferor does not recognize the entire amount of the gain or loss realized in the transaction; and

(C) The stock is not sold, exchanged, or distributed to a related person.

(ii) Exception for disposition of stock in certain section 355 transactions. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(5)(i)(B) of this section, a distribution of stock to a person who is not a related person in a transaction in which the full amount of stock gain would be recognized pursuant to section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2) shall be considered a disposition.

(iii) Transactions with related persons. In determining whether stock is sold, exchanged, or distributed to a related person, the principles of section 338(h)(3)(C) and §1.338-3(b)(3) shall apply.

(iv) No consideration paid. Stock in target may be considered disposed of if, under general principles of tax law, seller is considered to sell, exchange, or distribute stock of target notwithstanding that no amount may be paid for (or allocated to) the stock.

(v) Disposed of stock reacquired by certain persons. Stock disposed of by seller to another person under this section that is reacquired by seller or a member of seller's consolidated group during the 12-month disposition period shall not be considered as disposed of. Similarly, stock disposed of by an S corporation shareholder to another person under this section that is reacquired by the S corporation shareholder or by a person related (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(12) of this section) to the S corporation shareholder during the 12-month disposition period shall not be considered as disposed of.

(6) Qualified stock disposition—(i) In general. The term qualified stock disposition means any transaction or series of transactions in which stock meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) of a domestic corporation is either sold, exchanged, or distributed, or any combination thereof, by another domestic corporation or by the S corporation shareholders in a disposition, within the meaning of paragraph (b)(5) of this section, during the 12-month disposition period.

(ii) Overlap with qualified stock purchase—(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(B) of this section, a transaction satisfying the definition of a qualified stock disposition under paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, which also qualifies as a qualified stock purchase (as defined in section 338(d)(3)), will not be treated as a qualified stock disposition.

(B) Exception. If, as a result of the deemed sale of old target's assets pursuant to a section 336(e) election, there would be, but for paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(A) of this section, a qualified stock disposition of the stock of a subsidiary of target, then paragraph (b)(6)(ii)(A) shall not apply to the disposition of the stock of the subsidiary.

(7) 12-month disposition period. The term 12-month disposition period means the 12-month period beginning with the date of the first sale, exchange, or distribution of stock included in a qualified stock disposition.

(8) Disposition date. The term disposition date means, with respect to any corporation, the first day on which there is a qualified stock disposition with respect to the stock of such corporation.

(9) Disposition date assets. Disposition date assets are the assets of target held at the beginning of the day after the disposition date (but see §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the disposition date)).

(10) Domestic corporation. The term domestic corporation has the same meaning as in §1.338-2(c)(9).

(11) Section 336(e) election. A section 336(e) election is an election to apply section 336(e) to target. A section 336(e) election is made by making an election for target under §1.336-2(h).

(12) Related persons. Two persons are related if stock of a corporation owned by one of the persons would be attributed under section 318(a), other than section 318(a)(4), to the other. However, neither section 318(a)(2)(A) nor section 318(a)(3)(A) apply to attribute stock ownership from a partnership to a partner, or from a partner to a partnership, if such partner owns, directly or indirectly, interests representing less than five percent of the value of the partnership.

(13) Liquidation. Any reference to a liquidation is treated as a reference to the transfer described in §1.336-2(b)(1)(iii) notwithstanding its ultimate characterization for Federal income tax purposes.

(14) Deemed asset disposition. The deemed sale of old target's assets is, without regard to its characterization for Federal income tax purposes, referred to as the deemed asset disposition.

(15) Deemed disposition tax consequences. Deemed disposition tax consequences refers to, in the aggregate, the Federal income tax consequences (generally, the income, gain, deduction, and loss) of the deemed asset disposition. Deemed disposition tax consequences also refers to the Federal income tax consequences of the transfer of a particular asset in the deemed asset disposition.

(16) 80-percent purchaser. An 80-percent purchaser is any purchaser that, after application of the attribution rules of section 318(a), other than section 318(a)(4), owns 80 percent or more of the voting power or value of target stock.

(17) Recently disposed stock. The term recently disposed stock means any stock in target that is not held by seller, a member of seller's consolidated group, or an S corporation shareholder immediately after the close of the disposition date and that was disposed of by seller, a member of seller's consolidated group, or an S corporation shareholder during the 12-month disposition period.

(18) Nonrecently disposed stock. The term nonrecently disposed stock means stock in target that is held on the disposition date by a purchaser or a person related (as described in §1.336-1(b)(12)) to the purchaser who owns, on the disposition date, with the application of section 318(a), other than section 318(a)(4), at least 10 percent of the total voting power or value of the stock of target and that is not recently disposed stock.

(c) Nomenclature. For purposes of §§1.336-1 through 1.336-5, except as otherwise provided, Parent, Seller, Target, Sub, S Corporation Target, and Target Subsidiary are domestic corporations and A, B, C, and D are individuals, none of whom are related to Parent, Seller, Target, Sub, S Corporation Target, Target Subsidiary, or each other.

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013]

§1.336-2   Availability, mechanics, and consequences of section 336(e) election.

(a) Availability of election. A section 336(e) election is available if seller or S corporation shareholder(s) dispose of stock of another corporation (target) in a qualified stock disposition (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6)). A section 336(e) election is irrevocable. A section 336(e) election is not available for transactions described in section 336(e) that do not constitute qualified stock dispositions.

(b) Deemed transaction—(1) Dispositions not described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2)—(i) Old target—deemed asset disposition—(A) In general. This paragraph (b)(1) provides the Federal income tax consequences of a section 336(e) election made with respect to a qualified stock disposition not described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). For the Federal income tax consequences of a section 336(e) election made with respect to a qualified stock disposition described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), see paragraph (b)(2) of this section. In general, if a section 336(e) election is made, seller (or S corporation shareholders) are treated as not having sold, exchanged, or distributed the stock disposed of in the qualified stock disposition. Instead, old target is treated as selling its assets to an unrelated person in a single transaction at the close of the disposition date (but before the deemed liquidation described in paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section) in exchange for the aggregate deemed asset disposition price (ADADP) as determined under §1.336-3. ADADP is allocated among the disposition date assets in the same manner as the aggregate deemed sale price (ADSP) is allocated under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 in order to determine the amount realized from each of the sold assets. Old target realizes the deemed disposition tax consequences from the deemed asset disposition before the close of the disposition date while old target is owned by seller or the S corporation shareholders. If old target is an S corporation target, old target's S election continues in effect through the close of the disposition date (including the time of the deemed asset disposition and the deemed liquidation) notwithstanding section 1362(d)(2)(B). Also, if old target is an S corporation target (but not a qualified subchapter S subsidiary), any direct or indirect subsidiaries of old target that old target has elected to treat as qualified subchapter S subsidiaries under section 1361(b)(3) remain qualified subchapter S subsidiaries through the close of the disposition date.

(B) Gains and losses—(1) Gains. Except as provided in §1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(8) (regarding the installment method), old target shall recognize all of the gains realized on the deemed asset disposition.

(2) Losses—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(B)(2)(ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section, old target shall recognize all of the losses realized on the deemed asset disposition.

(ii) Stock distributions. Notwithstanding paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(A) and (b)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, for purposes of determining the amount of target's losses that are disallowed on the deemed asset disposition, seller is still treated as selling, exchanging, or distributing its target stock disposed of in the 12-month disposition period. If target's losses realized on the deemed sale of all of its assets exceed target's gains realized (a net loss), the portion of such net loss attributable to a distribution of target stock during the 12-month disposition period is disallowed. The total amount of disallowed loss and the allocation of disallowed loss is determined in the manner provided in paragraphs (b)(1)(i)(B)(2)(iii) and (iv) of this section.

(iii) Amount and allocation of disallowed loss. The total disallowed loss pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B)(2)(ii) of this section shall be determined by multiplying the net loss realized on the deemed asset disposition by the disallowed loss fraction. The numerator of the disallowed loss fraction is the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, distributed by seller during the 12-month disposition period, whether or not a part of the qualified stock disposition (for example, stock distributed to a related person), and the denominator of the disallowed loss fraction is the sum of the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, disposed of by sale or exchange in the qualified stock disposition during the 12-month disposition period and the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, distributed by seller during the 12-month disposition period, whether or not a part of the qualified stock disposition. The amount of the disallowed loss allocated to each asset disposed of in the deemed asset disposition is determined by multiplying the total amount of the disallowed loss by the loss allocation fraction. The numerator of the loss allocation fraction is the amount of loss realized with respect to the asset and the denominator of the loss allocation fraction is the sum of the amount of losses realized with respect to each loss asset disposed of in the deemed asset disposition. To the extent old target's losses from the deemed asset disposition are not disallowed under this paragraph, such losses may be disallowed under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or general principles of tax law, in the same manner as if such assets were actually sold to an unrelated person.

(iv) Tiered targets. If an asset of target is the stock of a subsidiary corporation of target for which a section 336(e) election is made, any gain or loss realized on the deemed sale of the stock of the subsidiary corporation is disregarded in determining the amount of disallowed loss. For purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition by a subsidiary of target for which a section 336(e) election is made, the amount of subsidiary stock deemed sold in the deemed asset disposition of target's assets multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to the corporation that is deemed to have disposed of stock of the subsidiary is considered to have been distributed. In determining the disallowed loss fraction with respect to the deemed asset disposition of any subsidiary of target, disregard any sale, exchange, or distribution of its stock that was made after the disposition date if such stock was included in the deemed asset disposition of the corporation deemed to have disposed of the subsidiary stock.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B).

Example 1. (i) Facts. Parent owns 60 of the 100 outstanding shares of the common stock of Seller, Seller's only class of stock outstanding. The remaining 40 shares of the common stock of Seller are held by shareholders unrelated to Seller or each other. Seller owns 95 of the 100 outstanding shares of Target common stock, and all 100 shares of Target preferred stock that is described in section 1504(a)(4). The remaining 5 shares of Target common stock are owned by A. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 72 shares of Target common stock to B for $3,520. On July 1 of Year 1, Seller distributes 12 shares of Target common stock to Parent and 8 shares to its unrelated shareholders in a distribution described in section 301. Seller retains 3 shares of Target common stock and all 100 shares of Target preferred stock immediately after July 1. The value of Target common stock on July 1 is $60 per share. The value of Target preferred stock on July 1 is $36 per share. Target has three assets, Asset 1, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $1,776 and a fair market value of $2,000, Asset 2, a Class V asset, with a basis of $2,600 and a fair market value of $2,750, and Asset 3, a Class V asset, with a basis of $3,900 and a fair market value of $3,850. Seller incurred no selling costs on the sale of the 72 shares of Target common stock to B. Target has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences—Deemed Asset Sale. Because at least 80 percent ((72 + 8)/100) of Target stock, other than stock described in section 1504(a)(4), was disposed of (within the meaning of §1.336-1(b)(5)) by Seller during the 12-month disposition period, a qualified stock disposition occurred. July 1 of Year 1, the first day on which there was a qualified stock disposition with respect to Target stock, is the disposition date. Accordingly, pursuant to the section 336(e) election, for Federal income tax purposes, Seller generally is not treated as selling the 72 shares of Target common stock sold to B or distributing the 8 shares of Target common stock distributed to its unrelated shareholders. However, Seller is still treated as distributing the 12 shares of Target common stock distributed to Parent because Seller and Parent are related persons within the meaning of §1.336-1(b)(12) and accordingly the 12 shares are not part of the qualified stock disposition. Target is treated as if, on July 1, it sold all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP, $8,000, which is allocated $2,000 to Asset 1, $2,500 to Asset 2, and $3,500 to Asset 3 (see Example 1 of §1.336-3(g) for the determination and allocation of ADADP).

(iii) Consequences—Amount and Allocation of Disallowed Loss. Old Target realized a net loss of $276 on the deemed asset disposition ($224 gain realized on Asset 1, $100 loss realized on Asset 2, and $400 loss realized on Asset 3). However, 20 shares of Target common stock were distributed by Seller during the 12-month disposition period (8 shares distributed to Seller's unrelated shareholders in the qualified stock disposition plus 12 shares distributed to Parent that were not part of the qualified stock disposition). Therefore, because there was a net loss realized on the deemed asset disposition and a portion of the stock of Target was distributed during the 12-month disposition period, a portion of the loss on the deemed sale of each of Target's loss assets is disallowed. The total amount of disallowed loss equals $60 ($276 net loss realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 1, 2, and 3 multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction, the numerator of which is $1,200, the value on July 1, the disposition date, of the 20 shares of Target common stock distributed during the 12-month disposition period, and the denominator of which is $5,520, the sum of $4,320, the value on July 1 of the 72 shares of Target common stock sold to B and $1,200, the value on July 1 of the 20 shares of Target common stock distributed during the 12-month disposition period). The portion of the disallowed loss allocated to Asset 2 is $12 ($60 total disallowed loss multiplied by the loss allocation fraction, the numerator of which is $100, the loss realized on the deemed disposition of Asset 2 and the denominator of which is $500, the sum of the losses realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 2 and 3). The portion of the disallowed loss allocated to Asset 3 is $48 ($60 total disallowed loss multiplied by the loss allocation fraction, the numerator of which is $400, the loss realized on the deemed disposition of Asset 3 and the denominator of which is $500, the sum of the losses realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 2 and 3). Accordingly, Old Target recognizes $224 of gain on Asset 1, recognizes $88 of loss on Asset 2 (realized loss of $100 less allocated disallowed loss of $12), and recognizes $352 of loss on Asset 3 (realized loss of $400 less allocated disallowed loss of $48) or a recognized net loss of $216 on the deemed asset disposition.

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that Asset 2 is the stock of Target Subsidiary, a corporation of which Target owns 100 of the 110 shares of common stock, the only outstanding class of Target Subsidiary stock. The remaining 10 shares of Target Subsidiary stock are owned by D. The value of Target Subsidiary stock on July 1 is $27.50 per share. Target Subsidiary has two assets, Asset 4, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $800 and a fair market value of $1,000, and Asset 5, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $2,200 and a fair market value of $2,025. Target Subsidiary has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election with respect to Target Subsidiary is also made.

(ii) Consequences—Target. The ADADP on the deemed sale of Target's assets is determined and allocated in the same manner as in Example 1. However, Target's loss realized on the deemed sale of Target Subsidiary is disregarded in determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition of Target's assets. Thus, the net loss is only $176 ($224 gain realized on Asset 1 and $400 loss realized on Asset 3), and the amount of disallowed loss equals $38.26 ($176 net loss multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock, $1,200/$5,520). The entire disallowed loss is allocated to Asset 3.

(iii) Consequences—Target Subsidiary. The deemed sale of the stock of Target Subsidiary is disregarded and instead Target Subsidiary is deemed to sell all of its assets to an unrelated person. The ADADP on the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary is $2,750, which is allocated $909 to Asset 4 and $1,841 to Asset 5 (see Example 2 of §1.336-3(g) for the determination and allocation of ADADP). Old Target Subsidiary realized $109 of gain on Asset 4 and realized $359 of loss on Asset 5 in the deemed asset disposition. Although Old Target Subsidiary realized a net loss of $250 on the deemed asset disposition ($109 gain on Asset 4 and $359 loss on Asset 5), a portion of this net loss is disallowed because a portion of Target stock was distributed during the 12-month disposition period. For purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed sale of the assets of Target Subsidiary, the portion of the 100 shares of Target Subsidiary stock deemed sold by Target pursuant to the section 336(e) election for Target Subsidiary multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock is treated as having been distributed. Thus, for purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary's assets, 21.74 shares of Target Subsidiary stock (100 shares of Target Subsidiary stock owned by Target multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock, $1,200/$5,520) are treated as having been distributed by Target during the 12-month disposition period. The total amount of disallowed loss with respect to the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary's assets equals $54 ($250 net loss realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 4 and 5 multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target Subsidiary, the numerator of which is $598, the value on July 1, the disposition date, of the 21.74 shares of Target Subsidiary stock deemed distributed during the 12-month disposition period (21.74 shares × $27.50) and the denominator of which is $2,750 (the sum of $2,152, the value on July 1 of the 78.26 shares of Target Subsidiary stock deemed sold in the qualified stock disposition pursuant to the section 336(e) election for Target Subsidiary (78.26 shares × $27.50) and $598, the value on July 1 of the 21.74 shares of Target Subsidiary stock deemed distributed during the 12-month disposition period)). (The 10 shares of Target Subsidiary owned by D are not part of the qualified stock disposition and therefore are not included in the denominator of the disallowed loss fraction.) All of the disallowed loss is allocated to Asset 5, the only loss asset. Accordingly, Old Target Subsidiary recognizes $109 of gain on Asset 4 and recognizes $305 of loss on Asset 5 (realized loss of $359 less disallowed loss of $54) or a net loss of $196 on the deemed asset disposition.

Example 3. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 2 except that on August 1 of Year 1, Target sells 50 of its shares of Target Subsidiary stock and distributes the remaining 50 shares.

(ii) Consequences. Because the 100 shares of Target Subsidiary stock that were sold and distributed on August 1 were deemed disposed of on July 1 in the deemed asset disposition of Target, the August 1 sale and distribution of Target Subsidiary stock are disregarded in determining the amount of disallowed loss. Accordingly, the consequences are the same as in Example 2.

(C) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections, the deemed asset disposition of a higher-tier subsidiary is considered to precede the deemed asset disposition of a lower-subsidiary.

(ii) New target—deemed purchase. New target is treated as acquiring all of its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction at the close of the disposition date (but before the deemed liquidation) in exchange for an amount equal to the adjusted grossed-up basis (AGUB) as determined under §1.336-4. New target allocates the consideration deemed paid in the transaction in the same manner as new target would under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 in order to determine the basis in each of the purchased assets. If new target qualifies as a small business corporation within the meaning of section 1361(b) and wants to be an S corporation, a new election under section 1362(a) must be made. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section (deemed liquidation of old target), new target remains liable for the tax liabilities of old target (including the tax liability for the deemed disposition tax consequences). For example, new target remains liable for the tax liabilities of the members of any consolidated group that are attributable to taxable years in which those corporations and old target joined in the same consolidated return. See §1.1502-6(a).

(iii) Old target and seller—deemed liquidation—(A) In general. If old target is an S corporation, S corporation shareholders (whether or not they sell or exchange their stock) take their pro rata share of the deemed disposition tax consequences into account under section 1366 and increase or decrease their basis in target stock under section 1367. Old target and seller (or S corporation shareholders) are treated as if, before the close of the disposition date, after the deemed asset disposition described in paragraph (b)(1)(i)(A) of this section, and while target is owned by seller or S corporation shareholders, old target transferred all of the consideration deemed received from new target in the deemed asset disposition to seller or S corporation shareholders, any S corporation election for old target terminated, and old target ceased to exist. The transfer from old target to seller or S corporation shareholders is characterized for Federal income tax purposes in the same manner as if the parties had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur because of this section and taking into account other transactions that actually occurred or are deemed to occur. For example, the transfer may be treated as a distribution in pursuance of a plan of reorganization, a distribution in complete cancellation or redemption of all of its stock, one of a series of distributions in complete cancellation or redemption of all of its stock in accordance with a plan of liquidation, or part of a circular flow of cash. In most cases, the transfer will be treated as a distribution in complete liquidation to which sections 331 or 332 and sections 336 or 337 apply.

(B) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections, the deemed liquidation of a lower-tier subsidiary corporation is considered to precede the deemed liquidation of a higher-tier subsidiary.

(iv) Seller—distribution of target stock. In the case of a distribution of target stock in a qualified stock disposition, seller (the distributor) is deemed to purchase from an unrelated person, on the disposition date, immediately after the deemed liquidation of old target, the amount of stock distributed in the qualified stock disposition (new target stock) and to have distributed such new target stock to its shareholders. Seller recognizes no gain or loss on the distribution of such stock.

(v) Seller—retention of target stock. If seller or an S corporation shareholder retains any target stock after the disposition date, seller or the S corporation shareholder is treated as purchasing the stock so retained from an unrelated person (new target stock) on the day after the disposition date for its fair market value. The holding period for the retained stock starts on the day after the disposition date. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1)(v), the fair market value of all of the target stock equals the grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of target (see §1.336-3(c)).

(2) Dispositions described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2)—(i) Old target—deemed asset disposition—(A) In general. This paragraph (b)(2) provides the Federal income tax consequences of a section 336(e) election made with respect to a qualified stock disposition resulting, in whole or in part, from a disposition described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). Old target is treated as selling its assets to an unrelated person in a single transaction at the close of the disposition date in exchange for the ADADP as determined under §1.336-3. ADADP is allocated among the disposition date assets in the same manner as ADSP is allocated under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 in order to determine the amount realized from each of the sold assets. Old target realizes the deemed disposition tax consequences from the deemed asset disposition before the close of the disposition date while old target is owned by seller.

(1) Old target not deemed to liquidate. In general, unlike a section 338(h)(10) election or a section 336(e) election made with respect to a qualified stock disposition not described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), old target is not deemed to liquidate after the deemed asset disposition.

(2) Exception. If an election is made under §1.1502-13(f)(5)(ii)(E), then solely for purposes of §1.1502-13(f)(5)(ii)(C), immediately after the deemed asset disposition of old target, old target is deemed to liquidate into seller.

(B) Gains and losses—(1) Gains. Except as provided in §1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(8) (regarding the installment method), old target shall recognize all of the gains realized on the deemed asset disposition.

(2) Losses—(i) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B)(2)(ii), (iii), and (iv) of this section, old target shall recognize all of the losses realized on the deemed asset disposition.

(ii) Stock distributions. If target's losses realized on the deemed sale of all of its assets exceed target's gains realized (a net loss), the portion of such net loss attributable to a distribution of target stock during the 12-month disposition period is disallowed. The total amount of disallowed loss and the allocation of disallowed loss is determined in the manner provided in paragraphs (b)(2)(i)(B)(2)(iii) and (iv) of this section.

(iii) Amount and allocation of disallowed loss. The total disallowed loss pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B)(2)(ii) of this section shall be determined by multiplying the net loss realized on the deemed asset disposition by the disallowed loss fraction. The numerator of the disallowed loss fraction is the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, distributed by seller during the 12-month disposition period, whether or not a part of the qualified stock disposition (for example, stock distributed to a related person), and the denominator of the disallowed loss fraction is the sum of the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, disposed of by sale or exchange in the qualified stock disposition during the 12-month disposition period and the value of target stock, determined on the disposition date, distributed by seller during the 12-month disposition period, whether or not a part of the qualified stock disposition. The amount of the disallowed loss allocated to each asset disposed of in the deemed asset disposition is determined by multiplying the total amount of the disallowed loss by the loss allocation fraction. The numerator of the loss allocation fraction is the amount of loss realized with respect to the asset and the denominator of the loss allocation fraction is the sum of the amount of losses realized with respect to each loss asset disposed of in the deemed asset disposition. To the extent old target's losses from the deemed asset disposition are not disallowed under this paragraph, such losses may be disallowed under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or general principles of tax law, in the same manner as if such assets were actually sold to an unrelated person.

(iv) Tiered targets. If an asset of target is the stock of a subsidiary corporation of target for which a section 336(e) election is made, any gain or loss realized on the deemed sale of the stock of the subsidiary corporation is disregarded in determining the amount of disallowed loss. For purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition by a subsidiary of target for which a section 336(e) election is made, see paragraph (b)(1)(i)(B)(2) of this section.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(2)(i)(B).

Example 1. (i) Facts. Seller owns 90 of the 100 outstanding shares of Target common stock, the only class of Target stock outstanding. The remaining 10 shares of Target common stock are owned by C. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 10 shares of Target common stock to D for $910. On July 1, in an unrelated transaction, Seller distributes its remaining 80 shares of Target common stock to its unrelated shareholders in a distribution described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). On July 1, the value of Target common stock is $100 per share. Target has three assets, Asset 1 with a basis of $1,220, Asset 2 with a basis of $3,675, and Asset 3 with a basis of $5,725. Seller incurred no selling costs on the sale of the 10 shares of Target common stock to D. Target has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. Because at least 80 percent of Target stock ((10 + 80)/100) was disposed of (within the meaning of §1.336-1(b)(5)) by Seller during the 12-month disposition period, a qualified stock disposition occurred. July 1 of Year 1, the first day on which there was a qualified stock disposition with respect to Target, is the disposition date. Accordingly, pursuant to the section 336(e) election, for Federal income tax purposes, Target is treated as if, on July 1, it sold all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP, $9,900, as determined under §1.336-3. Assume that the ADADP is allocated $2,000 to Asset 1, $3,300 to Asset 2, and $4,600 to Asset 3 under §1.336-3. Old Target realized a net loss of $720 on the deemed asset disposition ($780 gain realized on Asset 1, $375 loss realized on Asset 2, and $1,125 loss realized on Asset 3). However, because a portion of Target stock was distributed during the 12-month disposition period and there was a net loss on the deemed asset disposition, a portion of the loss on each of the loss assets is disallowed. The total amount of disallowed loss equals $640 ($720 net loss realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 1, 2, and 3 multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction, the numerator of which is $8,000, the value on July 1, the disposition date, of the 80 shares of Target common stock distributed by Seller during the 12-month disposition period, and the denominator of which is $9,000, the sum of $1,000, the value on July 1 of the 10 shares of Target common stock sold to D, and $8,000, the value on July 1 of the 80 shares of Target common stock distributed by Seller during the 12-month disposition period). The portion of the disallowed loss allocated to Asset 2 is $160 ($640 total disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition multiplied by the loss allocation fraction, the numerator of which is $375, the loss realized on the deemed disposition of Asset 2, and the denominator of which is $1,500, the sum of the losses realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 2 and 3). The portion of the disallowed loss allocated to Asset 3 is $480 ($640 total disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition multiplied by the loss allocation fraction, the numerator of which is $1,125, the loss realized on the deemed disposition of Asset 3, and the denominator of which is $1,500, the sum of the losses realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 2 and 3). Accordingly, Old Target recognizes $780 of gain on Asset 1, recognizes $215 of loss on Asset 2 (realized loss of $375 less allocated disallowed loss of $160), and recognizes $645 of loss on Asset 3 (realized loss of $1,125 less allocated disallowed loss of $480) or a recognized net loss of $80 on the deemed asset disposition.

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that Asset 2 is 100 shares of common stock of Target Subsidiary, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Target. The value of Target Subsidiary common stock on July 1 is $40 per share. Target Subsidiary has two assets, Asset 4 with a basis of $500 and Asset 5 with a basis of $3,000. Target Subsidiary has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election is also made with respect to Target Subsidiary.

(ii) Consequences—Target. The ADADP on the deemed sale of Target's assets is determined and allocated in the same manner as in Example 1. However, Old Target's loss realized on the deemed sale of Target Subsidiary is disregarded in determining the amount of the disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition of Old Target's assets. Thus, the realized net loss is only $345 ($780 gain on Asset 1 and $1,125 loss on Asset 3), and the amount of disallowed loss equals $307, the $345 realized net loss multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock, $8,000/$9,000. The entire disallowed loss is allocated to Asset 3. Accordingly, Old Target recognizes $780 of gain on Asset 1 and recognizes $818 of loss on Asset 3 (realized loss of $1,125 less allocated disallowed loss of $307) or a recognized net loss of $38 on the deemed asset disposition.

(iii) Consequences—Target Subsidiary. Because the deemed sale of Target Subsidiary is not a transaction described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), the tax consequences of the deemed sale of Target Subsidiary are determined under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and not this paragraph (b)(2). The deemed sale of the stock of Target Subsidiary is disregarded and instead Target Subsidiary is deemed to sell all of its assets to an unrelated person. The ADADP on the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary as determined under §1.336-3 is $3,300. Assume that the ADADP is allocated $900 to Asset 4 and $2,400 to Asset 5 under §1.336-3. Old Target Subsidiary realized a net loss of $200 on the deemed asset disposition ($400 gain realized on Asset 4 and $600 loss realized on Asset 5). However, because a portion of Target stock was distributed during the 12-month disposition period, for purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed sale of the assets of Target Subsidiary, the portion of the 100 shares of Target Subsidiary stock deemed sold pursuant to the section 336(e) election for Target Subsidiary multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock are treated as having been distributed. Thus, for purposes of determining the amount of disallowed loss on the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary's assets, 88.89 shares of Target Subsidiary common stock (100 shares owned by Target multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target stock, $8,000/$9,000) are treated as distributed during the 12-month disposition period. The total amount of disallowed loss with respect to the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary's assets equals $177.78 ($200 net loss realized on the deemed disposition of Assets 4 and 5 multiplied by the disallowed loss fraction with respect to Target Subsidiary, the numerator of which is $3,556, the value on July 1, the disposition date, of the 88.89 shares of Target Subsidiary common stock deemed distributed during the 12-month disposition period (88.89 shares × $40) and the denominator of which is $4,000 (the sum of $444, the value on July 1 of the 11.11 shares of Target Subsidiary common stock deemed sold in the qualified stock disposition pursuant to the section 336(e) election for Target Subsidiary (11.11 shares × $40) and $3,556, the value on July 1 of the 88.89 shares of Target Subsidiary common stock deemed distributed during the 12-month disposition period)). All of the disallowed loss is allocated to Asset 5, the only loss asset. Accordingly, Old Target Subsidiary recognizes $400 of gain on Asset 4 and recognizes $422.22 of loss on Asset 5 (realized loss of $600 less allocated disallowed loss of $177.78) or a recognized net loss of $22.22 on the deemed asset disposition.

(C) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections, the deemed asset disposition of a higher-tier subsidiary is considered to precede the deemed asset disposition of a lower-tier subsidiary.

(ii) Old target—deemed purchase—(A) In general. Immediately after the deemed asset disposition described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, old target is treated as acquiring all of its assets from an unrelated person in a single, separate transaction at the close of the disposition date (but before the distribution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section) in exchange for an amount equal to the AGUB as determined under §1.336-4. Old target allocates the consideration deemed paid in the transaction in the same manner as new target would under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 in order to determine the basis in each of the purchased assets.

(B) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections with respect to a qualified stock disposition described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), old target's deemed purchase of all its assets is considered to precede the deemed asset disposition of a lower-tier subsidiary.

(C) Application of section 197(f)(9), section 1091, and other provisions to old target. Solely for purposes of section 197(f)(9), section 1091, and any other provision designated in the Internal Revenue Bulletin by the Internal Revenue Service (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter), old target, in its capacity as seller of assets in the deemed asset disposition described in paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A) of this section, shall be treated as a separate and distinct taxpayer from, and unrelated to, old target in its capacity as acquirer of assets in the deemed purchase described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section and for subsequent periods.

(iii) Seller—distribution of target stock—(A) In general. Immediately after old target's deemed purchase of its assets described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, seller is treated as distributing the stock of old target actually distributed to its shareholders in the qualified stock disposition. No gain or loss is recognized by seller on the distribution. Additionally, if stock of target is sold, exchanged, or distributed outside of the section 355 transaction but still as part of a qualified stock disposition described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), no gain or loss is recognized by seller on such sale, exchange, or distribution.

(B) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections with respect to a qualified stock disposition described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), the Federal income tax consequences of the section 336(e) election for a subsidiary of target shall be determined under paragraph (b)(1) of this section unless the stock of the subsidiary of target is actually disposed of in a qualified stock disposition described, in whole or in part, in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). The deemed liquidation of a lower-tier subsidiary pursuant to paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section is considered to precede the deemed liquidation of a higher-tier subsidiary. The deemed liquidation of the highest tier subsidiary of target is considered to precede the distribution of old target stock described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A) of this section.

(iv) Seller—retention of target stock. If seller retains any target stock after the disposition date, seller is treated as having disposed of the old target stock so retained, on the disposition date, in a transaction in which no gain or loss is recognized, and then, on the day after the disposition date, purchasing the stock so retained from an unrelated person for its fair market value. The holding period for the retained stock starts on the day after the disposition date. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv), the fair market value of all of the target stock equals the grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of target (see §1.336-3(c)).

(v) Qualification under section 355. Old target's deemed sale of all its assets to an unrelated person and old target's deemed purchase of all its assets from an unrelated person will not cause the distribution of old target to fail to satisfy the requirements of section 355. Similarly, any deemed transactions under paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section that a subsidiary of target is treated as engaging in will not cause the distribution of old target to fail to satisfy the requirements of section 355. For purposes of applying section 355(a)(1)(D), seller is treated as having disposed of any stock disposed of in the qualified stock disposition on the date seller actually sold, exchanged, or distributed such stock. Further, seller's deemed disposition of retained old target stock under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section is disregarded for purposes of applying section 355(a)(1)(D).

(vi) Earnings and profits. The earnings and profits of seller and target shall be determined pursuant to §1.312-10 and, if applicable, §1.1502-33(e). For this purpose, target will not be treated as a newly created controlled corporation and any increase or decrease in target's earnings and profits pursuant to the deemed asset disposition will increase or decrease, as the case may be, target's earnings and profits immediately before the allocation described in §1.312-10.

(c) Purchaser. Generally, the making of a section 336(e) election will not affect the Federal income tax consequences to which purchaser would have been subject with respect to the acquisition of target stock if a section 336(e) election was not made. Thus, notwithstanding §§1.336-2(b)(1)(i)(A), 1.336-2(b)(1)(iv), and 1.336-2(b)(2)(iii)(A), purchaser will still be treated as having purchased, received in an exchange, or received in a distribution, the stock of target so acquired on the date actually acquired. However, see section 1223(1)(B) with respect to the holding period for stock acquired pursuant to a distribution qualifying under section 355 (or so much of section 356 that relates to section 355). The Federal income tax consequences of the deemed asset disposition and liquidation of target may affect purchaser's consequences. For example, if seller distributes the stock of target to its shareholders in a qualified stock disposition for which a section 336(e) election is made, any increase in seller's earnings and profits as a result of old target's deemed asset disposition and liquidation into seller may increase the amount of a distribution to the shareholders constituting a dividend under section 301(c)(1).

(d) Minority shareholders—(1) In general. This paragraph (d) describes the treatment of shareholders of old target other than seller, a member of seller's consolidated group, and S corporation shareholders (whether or not they sell or exchange their stock of target). A shareholder to which this paragraph (d) applies is referred to as a minority shareholder.

(2) Sale, exchange, or distribution of target stock by a minority shareholder. A minority shareholder recognizes gain or loss (as permitted under the general principles of tax law) on its sale, exchange, or distribution of target stock.

(3) Retention of target stock by a minority shareholder. A minority shareholder who retains its target stock does not recognize gain or loss under this section with respect to its shares of target stock. The minority shareholder's basis and holding period for that target stock are not affected by the section 336(e) election. Notwithstanding this treatment of the minority shareholder, if a section 336(e) election is made, target will still be treated as disposing of all of its assets in the deemed asset disposition.

(e) Treatment consistent with an actual asset disposition. Except as otherwise provided, no provision in this section shall produce a Federal income tax result under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code that would not occur if the parties had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur because of this section, taking into account other transactions that actually occurred or are deemed to occur. See §1.338-1(a)(2) regarding the application of other rules of law.

(f) Treatment of target under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. The provisions §1.338-1(b) apply with respect to the treatment of new target after a section 336(e) election, treating any reference to section 338 or 338(h)(10) as a reference to section 336(e).

(g) Special rules—(1) Target as two corporations. Although target is a single corporation under corporate law, if a section 336(e) election is made, then, except with respect to a distribution described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2) and as provided in §1.338-1(b)(2), two separate corporations, old target and new target, generally are considered to exist for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2) Treatment of members of a consolidated group. For purposes of §§1.336-1 through 1.336-5, all members of seller's consolidated group are treated as a single seller, regardless of which member or members actually dispose of any stock. Accordingly, any dispositions of stock made by members of the same consolidated group shall be treated as made by one corporation, and any stock owned by members of the same consolidated group and not disposed of will be treated as stock retained by seller.

(3) International provisions—(i) Source and foreign tax credit. The principles of section 338(h)(16) apply to section 336(e) elections for targets with foreign operations to ensure that the source and foreign tax credit limitation are properly determined.

(ii) Allocation of foreign taxes—(A) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(B) of this section, if a section 336(e) election is made for target and target's taxable year under foreign law (if any) does not close at the end of the disposition date, foreign tax paid or accrued by new target with respect to such foreign taxable year is allocated between old target and new target. If there is more than one section 336(e) election with respect to target during target's foreign taxable year, foreign tax paid or accrued with respect to that foreign taxable year is allocated among all old targets and new targets. The allocation is made based on the respective portions of the taxable income (as determined under foreign law) for the foreign taxable year that are attributable under the principles of §1.1502-76(b) to the period of existence of each old target and new target during the foreign taxable year.

(B) Taxes imposed on partnerships and disregarded entities. If a section 336(e) election is made for target and target holds an interest in a disregarded entity or partnership, the rules of §1.901-2(f)(4) apply to determine the person who is considered for U.S. Federal income tax purposes to pay foreign tax imposed at the entity level on the income of the disregarded entity or partnership.

(iii) Disallowance of foreign tax credits under section 901(m). For rules that may apply to disallow foreign tax credits with respect to income not subject to United States taxation by reason of a covered asset acquisition, see section 901(m).

(h) Making the section 336(e) election—(1) Consolidated group. If seller(s) and target are members of the same consolidated group, a section 336(e) election is made by completing the following requirements:

(i) Seller(s) and target must enter into a written, binding agreement, on or before the due date (including extensions) of the consolidated group's consolidated Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the disposition date, to make a section 336(e) election;

(ii) The common parent of the consolidated group must retain a copy of the written agreement;

(iii) The common parent of the consolidated group must attach the section 336(e) election statement, described in paragraphs (h)(5) and (6) of this section, to the group's timely filed (including extensions) consolidated Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the disposition date; and

(iv) The common parent of the consolidated group must provide a copy of the section 336(e) election statement to target on or before the due date (including extensions) of the consolidated group's consolidated Federal income tax return.

(2) Non-consolidated/non-S corporation target. If target is neither a member of the same consolidated group as seller nor an S corporation, a section 336(e) election is made by completing the following requirements:

(i) Seller and target must enter into a written, binding agreement, on or before the due date (including extensions) of seller's or target's Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the disposition date, whichever is earlier, to make a section 336(e) election;

(ii) Seller and target each must retain a copy of the written agreement; and

(iii) Seller and target each must attach the section 336(e) election statement, described in paragraphs (h)(5) and (6) of this section, to its timely filed (including extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the disposition date. However, seller's section 336(e) election statement may disregard paragraph (h)(6)(xii) of this section (concerning a gain recognition election).

(3) S corporation target. A section 336(e) election for an S corporation target is made by completing the following requirements:

(i) All of the S corporation shareholders, including those who do not dispose of any stock in the qualified stock disposition, and the S corporation target must enter into a written, binding agreement, on or before the due date (including extensions) of the Federal income tax return of the S corporation target for the taxable year that includes the disposition date, to make a section 336(e) election;

(ii) S corporation target must retain a copy of the written agreement; and

(iii) S corporation target must attach the section 336(e) election statement, described in paragraphs (h)(5) and (6) of this section, to its timely filed (including extensions) Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes the disposition date.

(4) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making section 336(e) elections, in order to make a section 336(e) election for a lower-tier target (target subsidiary), the requirements described in paragraph (h)(1) or (h)(2), of this section, whichever is applicable to the qualified stock disposition of target subsidiary, must be satisfied. The written agreement described in paragraph (h)(1) or (h)(2) of this section for the section 336(e) election with respect to target subsidiary may be either a separate written agreement between target subsidiary and the corporation deemed to dispose of the stock of target subsidiary or may be included in the written agreement between seller(s) (or the S corporation shareholders) and target.

(5) Section 336(e) election statement—(i) In general. The section 336(e) election statement must be entitled “THIS IS AN ELECTION UNDER SECTION 336(e) TO TREAT THE DISPOSITION OF THE STOCK OF [insert name and employer identification number of target] AS A DEEMED SALE OF SUCH CORPORATION'S ASSETS.” The section 336(e) election statement must include the information described in paragraph (h)(6) of this section. The relevant information for each S corporation shareholder and, notwithstanding paragraph (g)(2) of this section, each consolidated group member that disposes of or retains target stock must be set forth individually, not in the aggregate.

(ii) Target subsidiaries. In the case of a section 336(e) election for a target subsidiary, a separate statement must be filed for each target subsidiary. In preparing the section 336(e) election statement with respect to a target subsidiary, any reference to seller in paragraph (h)(6) of this section should be considered a reference to the corporation deemed to dispose of the stock of the target subsidiary and any reference to target in paragraphs (h)(5)(i) and (h)(6) of this section should be considered a reference to the target subsidiary.

(6) Contents of section 336(e) election statement. The section 336(e) election statement must include:

(i) The name, address, taxpayer identifying number (TIN), taxable year, and state of incorporation (if any) of the seller(s) or the S corporation shareholder(s);

(ii) The name, address, employer identification number (EIN), taxable year, and state of incorporation of the common parent, if any, of seller(s);

(iii) The name, address, EIN, taxable year, and state of incorporation of target;

(iv) The name, address, TIN, taxable year, and state of incorporation (if any) of any 80-percent purchaser;

(v) The name, address, TIN, taxable year, and state of incorporation (if any) of any purchaser that holds nonrecently disposed stock within the meaning of §1.336-1(b)(18);

(vi) The disposition date;

(vii) The percentage of target stock that was disposed of by each seller or S corporation shareholder in the qualified stock disposition;

(viii) The percentage of target stock that was disposed of by each seller or S corporation shareholder in the qualified stock disposition on or before the disposition date;

(ix) A statement regarding whether target realized a net loss on the deemed asset disposition;

(x) If target realized a net loss on the deemed asset disposition, a statement regarding whether any stock of target or that of any higher-tier corporation up through the highest-tier corporation for which a section 336(e) election was made by any seller(s) or S corporation shareholder(s) was distributed during the 12-month disposition period. If so, also provide a statement regarding whether any stock of target or that of any higher-tier corporation up through the highest-tier corporation for which a section 336(e) election was made was actually sold or exchanged (rather than deemed sold in a deemed asset disposition) by any seller(s) or S corporation shareholder(s) in a qualified stock disposition;

(xi) The percentage of target stock that was retained by each seller or S corporation shareholder after the disposition date;

(xii) The name, address, and TIN of any purchaser that made a gain recognition election pursuant to §1.336-4(c). A copy of the gain recognition election statement must be retained by the filer of the section 336(e) election statement designated as the appropriate party in §1.336-4(c)(3); and

(xiii) A statement that each of the seller(s) or S corporation shareholder(s) (as applicable) and target have executed a written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election.

(7) Asset Allocation Statement. Old target and new target must report information concerning the deemed sale of target's assets on Form 8883, “Asset Allocation Statement Under Section 338,” (making appropriate adjustments to report the results of the section 336(e) election), or on any successor form prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service, in accordance with forms, instructions, or other appropriate guidance provided by the Internal Revenue Service. In addition, in the case of a section 336(e) election as the result of a transaction described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), old target should file two Forms 8883, (or successor forms), one in its capacity as the seller of the assets in the deemed asset disposition described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section and one in its capacity as the purchaser of the assets in the deemed purchase described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section.

(8) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of paragraph (h) of this section.

Example 1. (i) Facts. Seller owns all of the stock of Target and Target owns all of the stock of Target Subsidiary. Seller is the common parent of a consolidated group that includes Target. However, Target Subsidiary is not included in the consolidated group pursuant to section 1504(a)(3). On Date 1, Seller sells 80 percent of its Target stock to A and distributes the remaining 20 percent of Target stock to Seller's unrelated shareholders.

(ii) Making of election for Target. Because Seller and Target are members of a consolidated group, in order to make a section 336(e) election for the qualified stock disposition of Target, the requirements of paragraph (h)(1) of this section must be satisfied. On or before the due date of Seller group's consolidated Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, Seller and Target must enter into a written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election; Seller must retain a copy of the written agreement; Seller must attach the section 336(e) election statement to the group's timely filed consolidated return for the taxable year that includes Date 1, and Seller must provide a copy of the section 336(e) election statement to Target on or before the due date (including extensions) of the consolidated return.

(iii) Making of election for Target Subsidiary. Because Target and Target Subsidiary do not join in the filing of a consolidated Federal income tax return and Target Subsidiary is not an S corporation, in order to make a section 336(e) election for the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary, the requirements of paragraph (h)(2) of this section must be satisfied. On or before the due date of Seller group's consolidated Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, or Target Subsidiary's Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, whichever is earlier, either Target Subsidiary must join in the written agreement described in paragraph (ii) of this Example 1 to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary or Target and Target Subsidiary must enter into a separate written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary; Seller (as agent of the consolidated group that includes Target) and Target Subsidiary each must retain a copy of the written agreement; and Seller (as agent of the consolidated group that includes Target) and Target Subsidiary each must attach the section 336(e) election statement with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary to its timely filed Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes Date 1. In preparing the section 336(e) election statement, paragraph (i) of the statement should include the relevant information for Target, paragraph (ii) of the statement should include the relevant information for Seller, paragraph (iii) of the statement should include the relevant information for Target Subsidiary, paragraphs (vii) through (xi) of the statement should provide information for both Seller's actual sale and distribution of Target stock as well as information for Target's deemed sale of Target Subsidiary stock, and paragraph (xiii) of the statement should include a statement that Seller, Target, and Target Subsidiary, or Target and Target Subsidiary, whichever is appropriate, have executed a written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary.

Example 2. (i) Facts. A and B each own 45 percent and C owns the remaining 10 percent of the stock of S Corporation Target, an S corporation. S Corporation Target owns 80 percent of the stock of Target Subsidiary and D owns the remaining 20 percent. On Date 1, A and B each sell all of their S Corporation Target stock to an unrelated individual. C retains his 10 percent of the stock of S Corporation Target.

(ii) Making of election for S Corporation Target. Because S Corporation Target is an S Corporation Target, in order to make a section 336(e) election for the qualified stock disposition of S Corporation Target, the requirements of paragraph (h)(3) of this section must be satisfied. On or before the due date of S Corporation Target's Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, A, B, C, and S Corporation Target must enter into a written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election; S Corporation Target must retain a copy of the written agreement; and S Corporation Target must attach the section 336(e) election statement to its timely filed Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes Date 1.

(iii) Making of election for Target Subsidiary. Because Target Subsidiary is neither a member of the same consolidated group as S Corporation Target nor is an S corporation, in order to make a section 336(e) election for the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary, the requirements of paragraph (h)(2) of this section must be satisfied. On or before the due date of S Corporation Target's Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, or Target Subsidiary's Federal income tax return that includes Date 1, whichever is earlier, either Target Subsidiary must join in the written agreement described in paragraph (ii) of this Example 2 to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary or S Corporation Target and Target Subsidiary must enter into a separate written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary; S Corporation Target and Target Subsidiary each must retain a copy of the written agreement; and S Corporation Target and Target Subsidiary each must attach the section 336(e) election statement to its timely filed Federal income tax return for the taxable year that includes Date 1. In preparing the section 336(e) election statement, paragraph (i) of the statement should include the relevant information for S Corporation Target, paragraph (iii) of the statement should include the relevant information for Target Subsidiary, paragraphs (vii) through (xi) of the statement should provide information for both A's and B's actual sale and C's actual retention of S Corporation Target stock as well as information for S Corporation Target's deemed sale of Target Subsidiary stock, and paragraph (xiii) of the statement should include a statement that A, B, C, S Corporation Target, and Target Subsidiary, or S Corporation Target and Target Subsidiary, whichever is appropriate, have executed a written, binding agreement to make a section 336(e) election with respect to the qualified stock disposition of Target Subsidiary.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Protective section 336(e) election. Taxpayers may make a protective election under section 336(e) in connection with a transaction. Such an election will have no effect if the transaction does not constitute a qualified stock disposition, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6), but will otherwise be binding and irrevocable.

(k) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section.

Example 1. Sale of 100 percent of Target stock. (i) Facts. Parent owns all 100 shares of Target's only class of stock. Target's only assets are two parcels of land. Parcel 1 has a basis of $5,000 and Parcel 2 has a basis of $4,000. Target has no liabilities. On July 1 of Year 1, Parent sells all 100 shares of Target stock to A for $100 per share. Parent incurs no selling costs and A incurs no acquisition costs. On July 1, the value of Parcel 1 is $7,000 and the value of Parcel 2 is $3,000. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. The sale of Target stock constitutes a qualified stock disposition. July 1 of Year 1 is the disposition date. Accordingly, pursuant to the section 336(e) election, for Federal income tax purposes, rather than treating Parent as selling the stock of Target to A, the following events are deemed to occur. Target is treated as if, on July 1, it sold all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP of $10,000, which is allocated $7,000 to Parcel 1 and $3,000 to Parcel 2 (see §§1.336-3 and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of ADADP). Target recognizes gain of $2,000 on Parcel 1 and loss of $1,000 on Parcel 2. New Target is then treated as acquiring all its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction in exchange for the amount of the AGUB of $10,000, which is allocated $7,000 to Parcel 1 and $3,000 to Parcel 2 (see §§1.336-4, 1.338-5, and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of AGUB). Old Target is treated as liquidating into Parent immediately thereafter, distributing the $10,000 deemed received in exchange for Parcel 1 and Parcel 2 in a transaction qualifying under section 332. Parent recognizes no gain or loss on the liquidation. A's basis in New Target stock is $100 per share, the amount paid for the stock.

Example 2. Sale of 80 percent of Target stock. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that Parent only sells 80 shares of its Target stock to A and retains the other 20 shares.

(ii) Consequences. The results are the same as in Example 1 except that Parent also is treated as purchasing from an unrelated person on July 2, the day after the disposition date, the 20 shares of Target stock (New Target stock) not sold to A, for their fair market value as determined under §1.336-2(b)(1)(v) of $2,000 ($100 per share).

Example 3. Distribution of 100 percent of Target stock. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that instead of on July 1 Parent selling 100 shares of Target stock to A, Parent distributes 100 shares to its shareholders, all of whom are unrelated to Parent, in a transaction that does not qualify under section 355. The value of Target stock on July 1 is $100 per share.

(ii) Consequences. The distribution of Target stock constitutes a qualified stock disposition. July 1 of Year 1 is the disposition date. Accordingly, pursuant to the section 336(e) election, for Federal income tax purposes, rather than treating Parent as distributing the stock of Target to its shareholders, the following events are deemed to occur. Target is treated as if, on July 1, it sold all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP of $10,000, which is allocated $7,000 to Parcel 1 and $3,000 to Parcel 2 (see §§1.336-3 and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of ADADP). Target recognizes gain of $2,000 on Parcel 1 and loss of $1,000 on Parcel 2. Because Target's losses realized on the deemed asset disposition do not exceed Target's gains realized on the deemed asset disposition, Target can recognize all of the losses from the deemed asset disposition (see §1.336-2(b)(1)(i)(B)). New Target is then treated as acquiring all its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction in exchange for the amount of the AGUB of $10,000, which is allocated $7,000 to Parcel 1 and $3,000 to Parcel 2 (see §§1.336-4, 1.338-5, and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of AGUB). Old Target is treated as liquidating into Parent immediately thereafter, distributing the $10,000 deemed received in exchange for Parcel 1 and Parcel 2 in a transaction qualifying under section 332. Parent recognizes no gain or loss on the liquidation. On July 1, immediately after the deemed liquidation of Target, Parent is deemed to purchase from an unrelated person 100 shares of New Target stock and distribute those New Target shares to its shareholders. Parent recognizes no gain or loss on the deemed distribution of the shares under §1.336-2(b)(1)(iv). The shareholders receive New Target stock as a distribution pursuant to section 301 and their basis in New Target stock received is its fair market value pursuant to section 301(d).

Example 4. Distribution of 80 percent of Target stock. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 3 except that Parent distributes only 80 shares of Target stock to its shareholders and retains the other 20 shares.

(ii) Consequences. The results are the same as in Example 3 except that Parent is treated as purchasing on July 1 only 80 shares of New Target stock and as distributing only 80 shares of New Target stock to its shareholders and then as purchasing (and retaining) on July 2, the day after the disposition date, 20 shares of New Target stock at their fair market value as determined under §1.336-2(b)(1)(v), $2,000 ($100 per share).

Example 5. Part sale, part distribution. (i) Facts. Parent owns all 100 shares of Target's only class of stock. Target has two assets, both of which are buildings used in its business. Building 1 has a basis of $6,000 and Building 2 has a basis of $5,100. Target has no liabilities. On January 1 of Year 1, Parent sells 50 shares of Target to A for $88 per share. Parent incurred no selling costs with respect to the sale of Target stock and A incurred no acquisition costs with respect to the purchase. On July 1 of Year 1, when the value of Target stock is $120 per share, Parent distributes 30 shares of Target to Parent's unrelated shareholders. Parent retains the remaining 20 shares. On July 1, the value of Building 1 is $7,800 and the value of Building 2 is $4,200. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. Because the sale of the 50 shares and the distribution of the 30 shares occurred within a 12-month disposition period, the 80 shares of Target stock sold and distributed were disposed of in a qualified stock disposition. July 1 of Year 1 is the disposition date. On July 1, Target is treated as if it sold its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP, $10,000 ($8,000 ((50 shares × $88) + (30 shares × $120))/.80 ($9,600 (80 shares × $120)/$12,000 (100 shares × $120))), which is allocated to Buildings 1 and 2 in proportion to their fair market values, $6,500 to Building 1 and $3,500 to Building 2 (see §§1.336-3 and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of ADADP). Target realizes a gain of $500 on the deemed sale of Building 1 ($6,500-$6,000). Target realizes a loss of $1,600 on the deemed sale of Building 2 ($3,500-$5,100). Target recognizes all of its gains on the deemed asset disposition. However, because 30 shares of Target stock were distributed during the 12-month disposition period and there was a net loss of $1,100 realized on the deemed disposition of Buildings 1 and 2, $413 of the loss on the deemed sale is disallowed (see §1.336-2(b)(1)(i)(B)(2) for the determination of the disallowed loss amount). New Target is then treated as acquiring all its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction in exchange for the amount of the AGUB, $10,000 ($8,000 ((50 shares × $88) + (30 shares × $120)) × 1.25 ((100-0)/80)), which is allocated to Buildings 1 and 2 in proportion to their fair market values, $6,500 to Building 1 and $3,500 to Building 2 (see §§1.336-4, 1.338-5, and 1.338-6 for determination of amount and allocation of AGUB). Old Target is treated as liquidating into Parent immediately after the deemed asset disposition, distributing the $10,000 deemed received in exchange for its assets in a transaction qualifying under section 332. Parent recognizes no gain or loss on the liquidation. Parent is then deemed to purchase 30 shares of New Target stock from an unrelated person on July 1, and to distribute those 30 New Target shares to its shareholders. Parent recognizes no gain or loss on the deemed distribution of the 30 shares under §1.336-2(b)(1)(iv). Parent is then deemed to purchase (and retain) on July 2, the day after the disposition date, 20 shares of New Target stock at their fair market value as determined under §1.336-2(b)(1)(v), $2,000 ($100 per share (20 shares multiplied by $100 fair market value per share ($10,000 grossed-up amount realized on the sale and distribution of 80 shares of target stock divided by 100 shares)). A is treated as having purchased the 50 shares of New Target stock on January 1 of Year 1 at a cost of $88 per share, the same as if no section 336(e) election had been made. Parent's shareholders are treated as receiving New Target stock on July 1 of Year 1 as a distribution pursuant to section 301 and their basis in New Target stock received is $120 per share, its fair market value, pursuant to section 301(d), the same as if no section 336(e) election had been made.

Example 6. Sale of Target stock by consolidated group members. (i) Facts. Parent owns all of the stock of Sub and 50 of the 100 outstanding shares of Target stock. Sub owns the remaining 50 shares of Target stock. Target's assets have an aggregate basis of $9,000. Target has no liabilities. Parent, Sub, and Target file a consolidated Federal income tax return. On February 1 of Year 1, Parent sells 30 shares of its Target stock to A for $2,400. On March 1 of Year 1, Sub sells all 50 shares of its Target stock to B for $5,600. Neither Parent nor Sub incurred any selling costs. Neither A nor B incurred any acquisition costs. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. Because Parent and Sub are members of the same consolidated group, their sale of Target stock is treated as made by one seller (see paragraph (g)(2) of this section), and the sales of Target stock constitute a qualified stock disposition. March 1 of Year 1 is the disposition date. For Federal income tax purposes, Parent and Sub are not treated as selling the stock of Target to A and B, respectively. Instead, the following events are deemed to occur. Old Target is treated as if, on March 1, it sold all its assets to unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP, $10,000 (see §1.336-3 for determination of ADADP), recognizing a net gain of $1,000. New Target is then treated as acquiring all its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction in exchange for the amount of the AGUB, $10,000 (see §§1.336-4 and 1.338-5 for the determination of AGUB). Old Target is treated as liquidating into Parent and Sub immediately thereafter, distributing the $10,000 deemed received in exchange for its assets in a transaction qualifying under section 332 (see §1.1502-34). Neither Parent nor Sub recognizes gain or loss on the liquidation. Parent is then treated as purchasing from an unrelated person on March 2, the day after the disposition date, the 20 shares of Target stock (New Target stock) retained for their fair market value as determined under §1.336-2(b)(1)(v), $2,000 ($100 per share). A is treated as having purchased 30 shares of New Target stock on February 1 of Year 1 at a cost of $2,400 ($80 per share), the same as if no section 336(e) election had been made. B is treated as having purchased 50 shares of New Target stock on March 1 of Year 1 at a cost of $5,600 ($112 per share), the same as if no section 336(e) election had been made.

Example 7. Sale of Target stock by non-consolidated group members. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 6 except that Parent, Sub, and Target do not join in the filing of a consolidated Federal income tax return.

(ii) Consequences. Because Parent and Sub do not join in the filing of a consolidated Federal income tax return and no single seller sells, exchanges, or distributes Target stock meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2), the transaction does not constitute a qualified stock disposition. The section 336(e) election made with respect to the disposition of Target stock has no effect.

Example 8. Distribution of 80 percent of Target stock in complete redemption of a greater-than-50-percent shareholder. (i) Facts. A and B own 51 and 49 shares, respectively, of Seller's only class of stock. Seller owns all 100 shares of Target's only class of stock. Seller distributes 80 shares of Target stock to A in complete redemption of A's 51 shares of Seller in a transaction that does not qualify under section 355. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. Prior to the redemption, Seller and A would be related persons because, under section 318(a)(2)(C), any stock of a corporation that is owned by Seller would be attributed to A because A owns 50 percent or more of the value of the stock of Seller. However, for purposes of §§1.336-1 through 1.336-5, the determination of whether Seller and A are related is made immediately after the redemption of A's stock. See §§1.336-1(b)(5)(iii) and 1.338-3(b)(3)(ii)(A). After the redemption, A no longer owns any stock of Seller. Accordingly, A and Seller are not related persons, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(12), and the distribution of Target stock constitutes a qualified stock disposition. For Federal income tax purposes, rather than Seller distributing the stock of Target to A, the following is deemed to occur. Old Target is treated as if it sold its assets to an unrelated person. New Target is then treated as acquiring all its assets from an unrelated person in a single transaction. Immediately thereafter, Old Target is treated as liquidating into Seller in a transaction qualifying under section 332. Seller recognizes no gain or loss on the liquidation. Seller is then treated as purchasing 80 shares of New Target stock from an unrelated person and then distributing the 80 shares of New Target stock to A in exchange for A's 51 shares of Seller stock. Seller recognizes no gain or loss on the distribution of New Target stock pursuant to §1.336-2(b)(1)(iv). Seller is then treated as purchasing from an unrelated person on the day after the disposition date the 20 shares of Target stock (New Target stock) retained for their fair market value as determined under §1.336-2(b)(1)(v). The Federal income tax consequences to A are the same as if no section 336(e) election had been made.

Example 9. Pro-rata distribution of 80 percent of Target stock. (i) Facts. A and B own 60 and 40 shares, respectively, of Seller's only class of stock. Seller owns all 100 shares of Target's only class of stock. Seller distributes 48 shares of Target stock to A and 32 shares of Target stock to B in a transaction that does not qualify under section 355. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Consequences. Any stock of a corporation that is owned by Seller would be attributed to A under section 318(a)(2)(C) because, after the distribution, A owns 50 percent or more of the value of the stock of Seller. Therefore, after the distribution, A and Seller are related persons, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(12), and the distribution of Target stock to A is not a disposition. Because only 32 percent of Target stock was sold, exchanged, or distributed to unrelated persons, there has not been a qualified stock disposition. Accordingly, the section 336(e) election made with respect to the distribution of Target stock has no effect.

(h) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section is applicable to any qualified stock purchase or qualified stock disposition (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6)) for which the acquisition date or disposition date (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(8)), respectively, is on or after May 15, 2013.

(h) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section is applicable to any qualified stock purchase or qualified stock disposition (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6)) for which the acquisition date or disposition date (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(8)), respectively, is on or after May 15, 2013.

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013; 78 FR 53027, Aug. 28, 2013]

§1.336-3   Aggregate deemed asset disposition price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset disposition.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 336(e) to determine the aggregate deemed asset disposition price (ADADP) for Target. ADADP is the amount for which old Target is deemed to have sold all of its assets in the deemed asset disposition. ADADP is allocated among Target's assets in the same manner as the aggregate deemed sale price (ADSP) is allocated under §1.338-6 to determine the amount for which each asset is deemed to have been sold. If a subsequent increase or decrease is required under general principles of tax law with respect to an element of ADADP, the redetermined ADADP is allocated among Target's assets in the same manner as redetermined ADSP is allocated under §1.338-7.

(b) Determination of ADADP—(1) General rule. ADADP is the sum of—

(i) The grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target; and

(ii) The liabilities of old Target.

(2) Time and amount of ADADP—(i) Original determination. ADADP is initially determined at the beginning of the day after the disposition date of Target. General principles of tax law apply in determining the timing and amount of the elements of ADADP.

(ii) Redetermination of ADADP. ADADP is redetermined at such time and in such amount as an increase or decrease would be required, under general principles of tax law, for the elements of ADADP. For example, ADADP is redetermined because of an increase or decrease in the amount realized on the sale or exchange of recently disposed stock of Target or because liabilities not originally taken into account in determining ADADP are subsequently taken into account. Increases or decreases with respect to the elements of ADADP result in the reallocation of ADADP among Target's assets in the same manner as ADSP under §1.338-7.

(c) Grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of Target—(1) Determination of amount. The grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of Target is an amount equal to—

(i) The sum of —

(A) With respect to recently disposed of stock of Target that is not distributed in the qualified stock disposition, the amount realized on the sale or exchange of such recently disposed stock of Target, determined as if seller or S corporation shareholders were required to use old Target's accounting methods and characteristics and the installment method were not available and determined without regard to the selling costs taken into account under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section, and

(B) With respect to recently disposed of stock of Target that is distributed in the qualified stock disposition, the fair market value of such recently disposed stock of Target determined on the date of each distribution;

(ii) Divided by the percentage of Target stock (by value, determined on the disposition date) attributable to the recently disposed stock;

(iii) Less the selling costs incurred by seller or S corporation shareholders in connection with the sale or exchange of recently disposed stock that reduce its amount realized on the sale or exchange of the stock (for example, brokerage commissions and any similar costs to sell the stock).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (c):

Example. Target has two classes of stock outstanding, voting common stock and preferred stock described in section 1504(a)(4). Seller owns all 100 shares of each class of stock. On March 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 10 shares of Target voting common stock to A for $75. On April 1 of Year 2, Seller distributes 15 shares of Target voting common stock with a fair market value of $120 to B. On May 1 of Year 2, Seller distributes 10 shares of Target voting common stock with a fair market value of $110 to C. On July 1 of Year 2, Seller sells 55 shares of Target voting common stock to D for $550. On July 1 of Year 2, the fair market value of all the Target voting common stock is $1,000 ($10 per share) and the fair market value of all the preferred stock is $600 ($6 per share). Seller incurs $20 of selling costs with respect to the sale to A and $60 of selling costs with respect to the sale to D. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target is calculated as follows: The sum of the amount realized on the sale or exchange of recently disposed stock sold or exchanged (without regard to selling costs) and the fair market value of the recently disposed stock distributed is $780 ($120 + $110 + $550) (the 10 shares sold to A on March 1 of Year 1 is not recently disposed stock because it was not disposed of during the 12-month disposition period). The percentage of Target stock by value on the disposition date attributable to recently disposed stock equals 50% ($800 (80 shares of recently disposed stock × $10, the fair market value of each share of Target common stock on the disposition date)/$1,600 ($1,000 (the total value of Target's common stock on the disposition date) + $600 (the total value of Target's preferred stock on the disposition date))). The grossed-up amount realized equals $1,500 (($780/.50)−$60 selling costs).

(d) Liabilities of old Target—(1) In general. In general, the liabilities of old Target are measured as of the beginning of the day after the disposition date. However, if a Target for which a section 336(e) election is made engages in a transaction outside the ordinary course of business on the disposition date after the event resulting in the qualified stock disposition of Target or a higher-tier corporation, Target and all persons related thereto (either before or after the qualified stock disposition) under section 267(b) or section 707 must treat the transaction for all Federal income tax purposes as occurring at the beginning of the day following the transaction and after the deemed disposition by old Target. In order to be taken into account in ADADP, a liability must be a liability of Target that is properly taken into account in amount realized under general principles of tax law that would apply if old Target had sold its assets to an unrelated person for consideration that included the discharge of its liabilities. See §1.1001-2(a). Such liabilities may include liabilities for the tax consequences resulting from the deemed asset disposition.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities. The time for taking into account liabilities of old Target in determining ADADP and the amount of the liabilities taken into account is determined as if old Target had sold its assets to an unrelated person for consideration that included the discharge of the liabilities by the unrelated person. For example, if no amount of a Target liability is properly taken into account in amount realized as of the beginning of the day after the disposition date, the liability is not initially taken into account in determining ADADP, but it may be taken into account at some later date.

(e) Deemed disposition tax consequences. Gain or loss on each asset in the deemed asset disposition is computed by reference to the ADADP allocated to that asset. ADADP is allocated in the same manner as is ADSP under §1.338-6. Although deemed disposition tax consequences may increase or decrease ADADP by creating or reducing a tax liability, the amount of the tax liability itself may be a function of the size of the deemed disposition tax consequences. Thus, these determinations may require trial and error computations.

(f) Other rules apply in determining ADADP. ADADP may not be applied in such a way as to contravene other applicable rules. For example, a capital loss cannot be applied to reduce ordinary income in calculating the tax liability on the deemed asset disposition for purposes of determining ADADP.

(g) Examples. The following examples illustrate this section.

Example 1. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 of §1.336-2(b)(1)(i)(B)(3), that is, Parent owns 60 of the 100 outstanding shares of the common stock of Seller, Seller's only class of stock outstanding. The remaining 40 shares of the common stock of Seller are held by shareholders unrelated to Seller or each other. Seller owns 95 of the 100 outstanding shares of Target common stock, and all 100 shares of Target preferred stock that is described in section 1504(a)(4). The remaining 5 shares of Target common stock are owned by A. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 72 shares of Target common stock to B for $3,520. On July 1 of Year 1, Seller distributes 12 shares of Target common stock to Parent and 8 shares to its unrelated shareholders in a distribution described in section 301. Seller retains 3 shares of Target common stock and all 100 shares of Target preferred stock immediately after July 1. The value of Target common stock on July 1 is $60 per share. The value of Target preferred stock on July 1 is $36 per share. Target has three assets, Asset 1, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $1,776 and a fair market value of $2,000, Asset 2, a Class V asset, with a basis of $2,600 and a fair market value of $2,750, and Asset 3, a Class V asset, with a basis of $3,900 and a fair market value of $3,850. Seller incurred no selling costs on the sale of the 72 shares of Target common stock to B. Target has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Determination of ADADP. The ADADP on the deemed asset disposition of Target is determined as follows. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target is $8,000, the sum of $3,520, the amount realized on the sale to B of the 72 shares of Target common stock and $480, the fair market value on the date distributed of the 8 shares of Target common stock distributed to Seller's unrelated shareholders in the qualified stock disposition, divided by .50, the percentage of Target stock by value, determined on the disposition date, attributable to the recently disposed stock ($4,800 (80 shares of Target common stock disposed of in the qualified stock disposition × $60, the value of a share of Target common stock on the disposition date) divided by $9,600 ((100, the total number of shares of Target common stock × $60, the value of a share of Target common stock on the disposition date) + (100, the total number of shares of Target preferred stock × $36, the value of a share of Target preferred stock on the disposition date))), minus $0, Seller's selling costs in connection with the sale of the 72 shares of Target common stock sold to B. The $8,000 grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target is then added to the liabilities of Old Target, $0, to arrive at the ADADP, $8,000.

(iii) Allocation of ADADP. The ADADP of $8,000 is allocated first to Asset 1, the Class IV asset, but not in excess of Asset 1's fair market value, $2,000. The remaining ADADP of $6,000 is allocated between Assets 2 and 3, both Class V assets, in proportion to their fair market values, but not in excess of their fair market values. Because the total fair market value of Assets 2 and 3, $6,600, exceeds the ADADP remaining after allocation of a portion of the ADADP to Asset 1, the $6,000 remaining ADADP is allocated to Assets 2 and 3 in proportion to their respective fair market values. Accordingly, $2,500 is allocated to Asset 2 ($6,000 × ($2,750/($2,750 + $3,850))) and $3,500 is allocated to Asset 3 ($6,000 × ($3,850/($2,750 + $3,850))).

Example 2. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that Asset 2 is the stock of Target Subsidiary, a corporation of which Target owns 100 of the 110 shares of common stock, the only outstanding class of Target Subsidiary stock. The remaining 10 shares of Target Subsidiary stock are owned by D. The value of Target Subsidiary stock on July 1 is $27.50 per share. Target Subsidiary has two assets, Asset 4, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $800 and a fair market value of $1,000, and Asset 5, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $2,200 and a fair market value of $2,025. Target Subsidiary has no liabilities. A section 336(e) election with respect to Target Subsidiary is also made.

(ii) Determination of ADADP. The ADADP on the deemed asset disposition of Target Subsidiary is determined as follows. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target Subsidiary is $2,750, ($2,500 ADADP allocable to Asset 2, the 100 shares of the stock of Target Subsidiary owned by Target, divided by .909, the percentage of Target Subsidiary stock by value, determined on the disposition date, attributable to the recently disposed stock ($2,750 (100 shares of the stock of Target Subsidiary deemed disposed in the qualified stock disposition × $27.50, the value of a share of Target Subsidiary stock on the disposition date) divided by $3,025 (110, the total number of shares of Target Subsidiary stock × $27.50, the value of a share of Target Subsidiary stock on the disposition date)), minus $0, Seller's selling costs in connection with the deemed sale of the 100 shares of Target Subsidiary stock). The $2,750 grossed-up amount realized on the sale, exchange, or distribution of recently disposed stock of Target Subsidiary is then added to the liabilities of Old Target Subsidiary, $0, to arrive at the ADADP of Target Subsidiary, $2,750.

(iii) Allocation of ADADP. Because Assets 4 and 5 are each assets of the same class, and the total fair market value of Assets 4 and 5 exceeds the $2,750 ADADP of Target Subsidiary, the $2,750 ADADP is allocated to Assets 4 and 5 in proportion to their respective fair market values. Accordingly, $909 is allocated to Asset 4 ($2,750 × ($1,000/($1,000 + $2,025))) and $1,841 is allocated to Asset 5 ($2,750 × ($2,025/($1,000 + $2,025))).

Example 3. (i) Seller owns all 100 of the outstanding shares of the common stock of Target, the only class of Target stock outstanding. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 10 shares of Target stock to A for $6,000 ($600 per share). On August 1 of Year 1, Seller distributes the remaining 90 shares of Target stock to its unrelated shareholders in a transaction described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). The value of Target stock on August 1 is $560 per share. Target has two assets, Asset 1, which is stock in trade of Target, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $15,000 and a value of $50,000, and Asset 2, which is stock in a publicly traded, unrelated corporation, a Class II asset, with a basis of $38,000 and a value of $16,000. Target has no liabilities other than any liabilities for Federal tax on account of the deemed asset disposition. Assume Target's Federal tax rate for any gain or income on the deemed asset disposition is 34 percent. Seller had no selling costs in connection with its sale of the 10 shares of Target stock. A section 336(e) election is made.

(ii) Because at least 80 percent of Target stock was disposed of (within the meaning of §1.336-1(b)(5)) by Seller during the 12-month disposition period, a qualified stock disposition occurred. August 1 of Year 1 is the disposition date. Accordingly, pursuant to the section 336(e) election, for Federal income tax purposes, Target is treated as if, on August 1, it sold all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for the ADADP.

(iii) Under these facts, although a portion of the qualified stock disposition was the result of a stock distribution, because the grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of Target, $56,400 (($6,000 + ($560 × 90))/1) exceeds Target's total basis in its assets, none of the losses realized on the deemed asset disposition are disallowed under §1.336-2(b)(2)(i)(B)(2). Because the grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of Target exceeds the value of Asset 2, the ADADP allocated to Asset 2 equals the value of Asset 2, $16,000, and Target realizes a $22,000 loss on the deemed disposition of Asset 2. None of this loss is disallowed under section 1091. See §1.336-2(b)(2)(ii)(C). Accordingly, Target recognizes a $22,000 loss on the deemed disposition of Asset 2.

(iv) The ADADP allocated to Asset 1 is determined as follows (for purposes of this Example 3, TotADADP is the total ADADP for the deemed asset disposition, A1ADADP is the tentative amount of the total ADADP allocated to Asset 1, A2ADADP is the amount of the total ADADP allocated to Asset 2, G is the grossed-up amount realized on the disposition of recently disposed stock of Target, L is Target's liabilities other than Target's tax liability for the deemed disposition tax consequences, TR is the applicable tax rate, and B1 is the adjusted basis of Asset 1 and B2 is the adjusted basis of Asset 2):

TotADADP = G + L + (TR × (TotADADP−B1−B2))

A1ADADP = TotADADP−A2ADADP

A2ADADP = $16,000

A1ADADP = TotADADP−$16,000

G = ($6,000 + ($560 × 90))/1

G = $56,400

TotADADP = $56,400 + 0 + (.34 × (TotADADP−$15,000−$38,000))

TotADADP = $56,400 + .34TotADADP−$18,020

.66TotADADP = $38,380

TotADADP = $58,152

A1ADADP = $42,152

(v) Because A1ADADP, $42,152, does not exceed the value of Asset 1, $50,000, the entire A1ADADP is allocated to Asset 1. Old Target thus realizes and recognizes a gain of $27,152 on the deemed disposition of Asset 1 ($42,152−$15,000).

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013]

§1.336-4   Adjusted grossed-up basis.

(a) Scope. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section or as the context otherwise requires, the principles of paragraphs (b) through (g) of §1.338-5 apply in determining the adjusted grossed-up basis (AGUB) for target and the consequences of a gain recognition election. AGUB is the amount for which new target is deemed to have purchased all of its assets in the deemed purchase under §1.336-2(b)(1)(ii) or the amount for which old target is deemed to have purchased all of its assets in the deemed purchase under §1.336-2(b)(2)(ii). AGUB is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-6 to determine the price at which the assets are deemed to have been purchased. If a subsequent increase or decrease with respect to an element of AGUB is required under general principles of tax law, redetermined AGUB is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-7.

(b) Modifications to the principles in §1.338-5. Solely for purposes of applying §§1.336-1 through 1.336-4, the principles of §1.338-5 are modified as follows—

(1) Purchasing corporation; purchaser. Any reference to the purchasing corporation shall be treated as a reference to a purchaser, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(2).

(2) Acquisition date; disposition date. Any reference to the acquisition date shall be treated as a reference to the disposition date, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(8).

(3) Section 338 election; section 338(h)(10) election; section 336(e) election. Any reference to a section 338 election or a section 338(h)(10) election shall be treated as a reference to a section 336(e) election, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(11).

(4) New target; old target. In the case of a disposition described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2), any reference to new target shall be treated as a reference to old target in its capacity as the purchaser of assets pursuant to the section 336(e) election.

(5) Recently purchased stock; recently disposed stock. Any reference to recently purchased stock shall be treated as a reference to recently disposed stock, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(17). In the case of a distribution of stock, for purposes of determining the purchaser's grossed-up basis of recently disposed stock, the purchaser's basis in recently disposed stock shall be deemed to be such stock's fair market value on the date it was acquired.

(6) Nonrecently purchased stock; nonrecently disposed stock. Any reference to nonrecently purchased stock shall be treated as a reference to nonrecently disposed stock, as defined in §1.336-1(b)(18).

(c) Gain recognition election—(1) In general. Any holder of nonrecently disposed stock of target may make a gain recognition election. The gain recognition election is irrevocable. Each owner of nonrecently disposed stock determines its basis amount, and therefore the gain recognized pursuant to the gain recognition election, by applying §§1.338-5(c) and 1.338-5(d)(3)(ii) by reference to its own recently disposed stock and nonrecently disposed stock, and not by reference to all recently disposed stock and nonrecently disposed stock.

(2) 80-percent purchaser. If a section 336(e) election is made for target, any 80-percent purchaser and all persons related to the 80-percent purchaser are automatically deemed to have made a gain recognition election for its nonrecently disposed target stock.

(3) Non-80-percent purchaser. If not automatically deemed made under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, a gain recognition election is made by a non-80-percent purchaser providing, on or before the due date for filing the section 336(e) election statement by the appropriate party, a gain recognition election statement, as described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section, to the appropriate party. If seller and target are members of the same consolidated group, seller is the appropriate party and the common parent of the consolidated group must retain the gain recognition election statement. If seller and target are members of the same affiliated group but do not join in the filing of a consolidated Federal income tax return, or if target is an S corporation, target is the appropriate party and target must retain the gain recognition election statement. If a non-80-percent purchaser makes a gain recognition election, all related persons to the non-80-percent purchaser must also make a gain recognition election. Otherwise, the gain recognition election for the non-80-percent purchaser will have no effect.

(4) Gain recognition election statement. A gain recognition election statement must include the following declarations (or substantially similar declarations):

(i) [Insert name, address, and taxpayer identifying number of person for whom gain recognition election is actually being made] has elected to recognize gain under §1.336-4(c) with respect to [his, hers, or its] nonrecently disposed stock.

(ii) [Insert name of person for whom gain recognition election is actually being made] agrees to report any gain under the gain recognition election on [his, hers, or its] Federal income tax return (including an amended return, if necessary) for the taxable year that includes the disposition date of [insert name and employer identification number of target].

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section.

Example 1. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller owns 85 shares of Target stock, A owns 8 shares, B owns 4 shares, and C owns the remaining 3 shares. Each of A's 8 shares, B's 4 shares, and C's 3 shares have a $5 basis. Assume that Target has no liabilities. On July 1 of Year 2, Seller sells 70 shares of Target stock to A for $10 per share. On September 1 of Year 2, Seller sells 5 shares of Target stock to B and 5 shares of Target stock to C for $14 per share. A section 336(e) election is made. A does not make a gain recognition election. A incurs $25 of acquisition costs and B and C each incur $10 of acquisition costs in connection with their respective Year 2 purchases. These costs are capitalized in the basis of Target stock. September 1 of Year 2 is the disposition date. Because A owns at least 10 percent of Target stock on September 1, the disposition date, and A's original 8 shares of Target stock owned on January 1 of Year 1 were not disposed of in the qualified stock disposition, A's original 8 shares of Target stock are nonrecently disposed stock. Although B's original 4 shares and C's original 3 shares were not disposed of in the qualified stock disposition, because neither B nor C owns, with the application of section 318(a), other than section 318(a)(4), at least 10 percent of the total voting power or value of Target stock on the disposition date, their original shares are not nonrecently disposed stock. The grossed-up basis of recently disposed Target stock is $1,011, determined as follows: The purchasers' (A, B, and C) aggregate basis in the recently disposed target stock, determined without regard to acquisition costs, is $840 ((70 × $10) + (5 × $14) + (5 × $14)). This amount is multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is 100 minus 8, the percentage of Target stock that is nonrecently disposed stock, and the denominator of which is 80, the percentage of Target stock attributable to recently disposed stock ($840 × 92/80 = $966). This amount is then increased by the $45 of acquisition costs incurred by A, B, and C to arrive at the $1,011 grossed-up basis of recently disposed Target stock ($966 + $45 = $1,011). New Target's AGUB is $1,051, the sum of $1,011, the grossed-up basis of recently disposed Target stock and $40 (8 × $5), A's basis in his nonrecently disposed Target stock.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that A makes a gain recognition election. Pursuant to the gain recognition election, A is treated as if he sold on September 1 of Year 2, the disposition date, his 8 shares of nonrecently disposed Target stock for the basis amount, and A's basis in nonrecently disposed target stock immediately after the deemed sale is the basis amount. A's basis amount equals his basis in his recently disposed Target stock without regard to acquisition costs, $700 (70 × $10), multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is 100 minus 8, the percentage of Target stock, by value, determined on the disposition date, which is A's nonrecently disposed Target stock, and the denominator of which is 70, the percentage of Target stock, by value, determined on the disposition date, which is A's recently disposed stock, which is then multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is 8, the percentage of Target stock, by value, determined on the disposition date, attributable to A's nonrecently disposed Target stock and the denominator of which is 100 minus the numerator amount. Accordingly, A's basis amount is $80 ($700 × 92/70 × 8/92). A therefore recognizes gain of $40 under the gain recognition election ($80 basis amount minus A's $40 basis in his nonrecently disposed stock prior to the gain recognition election). New Target's AGUB is $1,091, the sum of $1,011, the grossed-up basis of all recently disposed Target stock and $80, A's basis in his nonrecently disposed Target stock pursuant to the gain recognition election.
Example 3. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 3 of §1.336-3(g), that is, Seller owns all 100 of the outstanding shares of the common stock of Target, the only class of Target stock outstanding. On January 1 of Year 1, Seller sells 10 shares of Target stock to A for $6,000 ($600 per share). On August 1 of Year 1, Seller distributes the remaining 90 shares of Target stock to its unrelated shareholders in a transaction described in section 355(d)(2) or (e)(2). The value of Target stock on August 1 is $560 per share. Target has two assets, Asset 1, which is stock in trade of Target, a Class IV asset, with a basis of $15,000 and a value of $50,000, and Asset 2, which is stock in a publicly traded, unrelated corporation, a Class II asset, with a basis of $38,000 and a value of $16,000. Target has no liabilities other than any liabilities for Federal tax on account of the deemed asset disposition. Assume Target's Federal tax rate for any gain or income on the deemed asset disposition is 34 percent. Seller had no selling costs in connection with its sale of the 10 shares of Target stock. A section 336(e) election is made. In addition, A incurred $100 of acquisition costs with respect to the purchase of the 10 shares of Target stock. Target's AGUB in the assets deemed acquired pursuant to §1.336-2(b)(2)(ii)(B) is determined as follows (for purposes of this Example 3, GRD is the grossed-up basis of recently disposed stock, BND is the basis in nonrecently disposed stock, TotL is Target's total liabilities, including Target's tax liability, and X is the A's total acquisition costs):

AGUB = GRD + BND + TotL

GRD = ($6,000 + ($560 × 90)) × ((100 − 0)/100) + X

GRD = ($6,000 + $50,400) × (100/100) + $100

GRD = $56,500

BND = $0

TotL = .34 × ($27,152 (Target's gain recognized on deemed disposition of Asset 1) − $22,000 (Target's loss recognized on deemed disposition of Asset 2)) (see Example 3 of §1.336-3(g) for determination of Target's gain and loss recognized on deemed disposition of Assets 1 and 2)

TotL = $1,752

AGUB = $56,500 + $0 + $1,752

AGUB = $58,252

(ii) The AGUB allocated to Asset 2 is $16,000, the value of Asset 2. Because the excess of the total AGUB, $58,252, over the portion of the AGUB allocated to Asset 2, $16,000, does not exceed the value of Asset 1, the AGUB allocated to Asset 1 is such excess, $42,252.

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013]

§1.336-5   Effective/applicability date.

The provisions of §§1.336-1 through 1.336-4 apply to any qualified stock disposition for which the disposition date is on or after May 15, 2013.

[T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28474, May 15, 2013]

effects on corporation

§1.337(d)-1   Transitional loss limitation rule.

(a) Loss limitation rule for transitional subsidiary—(1) General rule. No deduction is allowed for any loss recognized by a member of a consolidated group with respect to the disposition of stock of a transitional subsidiary. However, for transactions involving loss shares of subsidiary stock occurring on or after September 17, 2008, see §1.1502-36. Further, this section does not apply to a transaction that is subject to §1.1502-36.

(2) Allowable loss—(i) In general. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to the extent the taxpayer establishes that the loss is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain by any transitional subsidiary on the disposition of an asset (including stock and securities) after January 6, 1987.

(ii) Statement of allowable loss. Paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section applies only if a separate statement entitled “Allowable Loss Under §1.337(d)-1(a)” is filed with the taxpayer's return for the year of the stock disposition. If the separate statement is required to be filed with a return the due date (including extensions) of which is before January 16, 1991, or with a return due (including extensions) after January 15, 1991 but filed before that date, the statement may be filed with an amended return for the year of the disposition or with the taxpayer's first subsequent return the due date (including extensions) of which is after January 15, 1991.

(iii) Contents of statement. The statement required under paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section must contain—

(A) The name and employer identification number (E.I.N.) of the transitional subsidiary.

(B) The basis of the stock of the transitional subsidiary immediately before the disposition.

(C) The amount realized on the disposition.

(D) The amount of the deduction not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (a)(2).

(E) The amount of loss disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(3) Coordination with loss deferral and other disallowance rules. (i) For purposes of this section, the rules of §1.1502-20(a)(3) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(ii) Other loss deferral rules. If paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies to a loss subject to deferral or disallowance under any other provision of the Code or the regulations, the other provision applies to the loss only to the extent it is not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1).

(4) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(i) The definitions in §1.1502-1 apply.

(ii) Transitional subsidiary means any corporation that became a subsidiary of the group (whether or not the group was a consolidated group) after January 6, 1987. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a subsidiary is not a transitional subsidiary if the subsidiary (and each predecessor) was a member of the group at all times after the subsidiary's (and each predecessor's) organization.

(iii) Built-in gain of a transitional subsidiary means gain attributable, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, to any excess of value over basis, determined immediately before the transitional subsidiary became a subsidiary, with respect to any asset owned directly or indirectly by the transitional subsidiary at that time.

(iv) Disposition means any event in which gain or loss is recognized, in whole or in part.

(v) Value means fair market value.

(5) Examples. For purposes of the examples in this section, unless otherwise stated, the group files consolidated returns on a calendar year basis, the facts set forth the only corporate activity, and all sales and purchases are with unrelated buyers or sellers. The basis of each asset is the same determining earnings and profits adjustments and taxable income. Tax liability and its effect on basis, value, and earnings and profits are disregarded. Investment adjustment system means the rules of §1.1502-32. The principles of this paragraph (a) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Loss attributable to recognized built-in gain. (i) P buys all the stock of T for $100 on February 1, 1987, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has an asset with a value of $100 and basis of $0. T sells the asset in 1989 and recognizes $100 of built-in gain on the sale (i.e., the asset's value exceeded its basis by $100 at the time T became a member of the P group). Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock increases to $200. P sells all the stock of T on December 31, 1989, and recognizes a loss of $100. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, no deduction is allowed to P for the $100 loss.

(ii) Assume that, after T sells its asset but before P sells the T stock, T issues additional stock to unrelated persons and ceases to be a member of the P group. P then sells all its stock of T in 1997. Although T ceases to be a subsidiary within the meaning of §1.1502-1, T continues to be a transitional subsidiary within the meaning of this section. Consequently, under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, no deduction is allowed to P for its $100 loss.

Example 2. Loss attributable to post-acquisition loss. P buys all the stock of T for $100 on February 1, 1987, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has $50 cash and an asset with $50 of built-in gain. During 1988, T retains the asset but loses $40 of the cash. The P group is unable to use the loss, and the loss becomes a net operating loss carryover attributable to T. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the stock of T remains $100. P sells all the stock of T on December 31, 1988, for $60 and recognizes a $40 loss. Under paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, P establishes that it did not dispose of the built-in gain asset. None of P's loss is disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) if P satisfies the requirements of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section.
Example 3. Stacking rules—postacquisition loss offsets postacquisition gain. (i) P buys all the stock of T for $100 on February 1, 1987, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has 2 assets. Asset 1 has a basis and value of $50, and asset 2 has a basis of $0 and a value of $50. During 1989, asset 1 declines in value to $0, and T sells asset 2 for $50, and reinvests the proceeds in asset 3. The value of asset 3 appreciates to $90. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the stock of T increases from $100 to $150 as a result of the gain recognized on the sale of asset 2 but is unaffected by the unrealized post-acquisition decline in the value of asset 1. On December 31, 1989, P sells all the stock of T for $90 and recognizes a $60 loss.

(ii) Although T incurred a $50 post-acquisition loss of built-in gain because of the decline in the value of asset 1, T also recognized $50 of built-in gain. Under paragraph (a)(2) of this section, any loss on the sale of stock is treated first as attributable to recognized built-in gain. Thus, for purposes of determining under paragraph (a)(2) of this section whether P's $60 loss on the disposition of the T stock is attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset, T's unrealized post-acquisition gain of $40 offsets $40 of the $50 of unrealized post-acquisition loss. Therefore, $50 of the $60 loss is attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset and is disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

Example 4. Stacking rules—built-in loss offsets built-in gain. (i) P buys all the stock of T for $50 on February 1, 1987, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has 2 assets. Asset 1 has a basis of $50 and a value of $0, and asset 2 has a basis of $0 and a value of $50. During 1989, T sells asset 1 for $0 and asset 2 for $50, and reinvests the $50 proceeds in asset 3. The value of asset 3 declines to $40. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the stock of T remains $50 as a result of the offsetting gain and loss recognized on the sale of assets 1 and 2 and is unaffected by the unrealized post-acquisition decline in the value of asset 3. On December 31, 1989, P sells all the stock of T for $40 and recognizes a $10 loss.

(ii) Although T recognized a $50 built-in gain on the sale of asset 2, T also recognized a $50 built-in loss on the sale of asset 1. For purposes of determining under paragraph (a)(2) of this section whether P's $10 loss on the disposition of the T stock is attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset, T's recognized built-in gain is offset by its recognized built-in loss. Thus none of P's $10 loss is attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset.

(iii) The result would be the same if, instead of a $50 built-in loss in asset 2, T has a $50 net operating loss carryover when P buys the T stock, and the net operating loss carryover is used to offset the built-in gain.

Example 5. Outside basis partially corresponds to inside basis. (i) Individual A owns all the stock of T, for which A has a basis of $60. On February 1, 1987, T owns 1 asset with a basis of $0 and a value of $100, P acquires all the stock of T from A in an exchange to which section 351(a) applies, and T becomes a member of the P group. P has a carryover basis of $60 in the T stock. During 1988, T sells the asset and recognizes $100 of gain. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock increases from $60 to $160. T reinvests the $100 proceeds in another asset, which declines in value to $90. On January 1, 1989, P sells all the stock of T for $90 and recognizes a loss of $70.

(ii) Although P's basis in the T stock was increased by $100 as a result of the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of T's asset, only $60 of the $70 loss on the sale of the stock is attributable under paragraph (a)(2) of this section to the recognition of built-in gain from the disposition of the asset. (Had T's asset not declined in value to $90, the T stock would have been sold for $100, and a $60 loss would have been attributable to the recognition of the built-in gain.) Therefore, $60 of the $70 loss is disallowed under paragraph (a)(2), and $10 is not disallowed if P satisfies the requirements of paragraph (a)(2). If P had sold the stock of T for $95 because T's other assets had unrealized appreciation of $5, $60 of the $65 loss would still be attributable to T's recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of assets.

Example 6. Creeping acquisition. P owns 60 percent of the stock of S on January 6, 1987. On February 1, 1987, P buys an additional 20 percent of the stock of S, and S becomes a member of the P group. P sells all the S stock on March 1, 1989 and recognizes a loss of $100. All 80 percent of the stock of S owned by P is subject to the rules of this section and, under paragraph (a) (1) and (2) of this section, P is not allowed to deduct the $100 loss, except to the extent P establishes the loss is not attributable to the recognition by S of built-in gain on the disposition of assets.
Example 7. Effect of post-acquisition appreciation. P buys all the stock of T for $100, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has an asset with a basis of $0 and a value of $100. T sells the asset for $100. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock increases to $200. T reinvests the proceeds of the sale in an asset that appreciates in value to $180. Five years after the sale, P sells all the stock of T for $180 and recognizes a $20 loss. Under paragraph (a)(1) of this section, no deduction is allowed to P for the $20 loss.
Example 8. Deferred loss and recognized gain. (i) P is the common parent of a consolidated group, S is a wholly owned subsidiary of P, and T is a wholly owned subsidiary of S. S purchased all of the T stock on February 1, 1987 for $100, and T has an asset with a basis of $40 and a value of $100. T sells the asset for $100, recognizing $60 of gain. Under the investment adjustment system, S's basis in the T stock increases from $100 to $160. S sells its T stock to P for $100 in a deferred intercompany transaction, recognizing a $60 loss that is deferred under section 267(f) and §1.1502-13. P subsequently sells all the stock of T for $100 to X, a member of the same controlled group (as defined in section 267(f)) as P but not a member of the P consolidated group.

(ii) Under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the application of paragraph (a)(1) of this section to S's $60 loss is deferred, because S's loss is deferred under section 267(f) and §1.1502-13. Although P's sale of the T stock to X would cause S's deferred loss to be taken into account under §1.1502-13, §1.267(f)-1 provides that the loss is not taken into account because X is a member of the same controlled group as P and S. Nevertheless, under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, because the T stock ceases to be owned by a member of the P consolidated group, S's deferred loss is disallowed immediately before the sale and is never taken into account under section 267(f).

(b) Indirect disposition of transitional subsidiary—(1) Loss limitation rule for transitional parent. No deduction is allowed for any loss recognized by a member of a consolidated group with respect to the disposition of stock of a transitional parent.

(2) Allowable loss—(i) In general. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply to the extent the taxpayer establishes that the loss exceeds the amount that would be disallowed under paragraph (a) of this section if each highest tier transitional subsidiary's stock in which the transitional parent has a direct or indirect interest had been sold immediately before the disposition of the transitional parent's stock. In applying the preceding sentence, appropriate adjustments shall be made to take into account circumstances where less than all the stock of a transitional parent owned by members of a consolidated group is disposed of in the same transaction, or the stock of a transitional subsidiary or a transitional parent is directly owned by more than 1 member.

(ii) Statement of allowable loss. Paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section applies only if a separate statement entitled “Allowable Loss Under Section 1.337(d)-1(b)” is filed with the taxpayer's return for the year of the stock disposition. If the separate statement is required to be filed with a return the due date (including extensions) of which is before January 16, 1991, or with a return due (including extensions) after January 15, 1991 but filed before that date, the statement may be filed with an amended return for the year of the disposition or with the taxpayer's first subsequent return the due date (including extensions) of which is after January 15, 1991.

(iii) Contents of statement. The statement required under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section must contain—

(A) The name and employer identification number (E.I.N.) of the transitional parent.

(B) The basis of the stock of the transitional parent immediately before the disposition.

(C) The amount realized on the disposition.

(D) The amount of the deduction not disallowed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (b)(2).

(E) The amount of loss disallowed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(3) Coordination with loss deferral and other disallowance rules. (i) For purposes of this section, the rules of §1.1502-20(a)(3) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(ii) Other loss deferral rules. If paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies to a loss subject to deferral or disallowance under any other provision of the Code or the regulations, the other provision applies to the loss only to the extent it is not disallowed under paragraph (b)(1).

(4) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(i) Transitional parent means any subsidiary, other than a transitional subsidiary, that owned at any time after January 6, 1987, a direct or indirect interest in the stock of a corporation that is a transitional subsidiary.

(ii) Highest tier transitional subsidiary means the transitional subsidiary (or subsidiaries) in which the transitional parent has a direct or indirect interest and that is the highest transitional subsidiary (or subsidiaries) in a chain of members.

(5) Examples. The principles of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Ownership of chain of transitional subsidiaries. (i) P forms S with $200 on January 1, 1985, and S becomes a member of the P group. On February 1, 1987, S buys all the stock of T, and T buys all the stock of T1, and both T and T1 become members of the P group. On January 1, 1988, P sells all the stock of S and recognizes a $90 loss on the sale.

(ii) Under paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, both T and T1 are transitional subsidiaries, because they became members of the P group after January 6, 1987. Under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, S is a transitional parent, because it owns a direct interest in stock of transitional subsidiaries and is not itself a transitional subsidiary.

(iii) Under paragraph (b) (1) and (2) of this section, because S is a transitional parent, no deduction is allowed to P for its $90 loss except to the extent the loss exceeds the amount of S's loss that would have been disallowed if S had sold all the stock of T, S's highest tier transitional subsidiary, immediately before P's sale of all the S stock. Assume all the T stock would have been sold for a $90 loss and that all the loss would be attributable to the recognition of built-in gain from the disposition of assets. Because in that case $90 of loss would be disallowed, all of P's loss on the sale of the S stock is disallowed under paragraph (b).

Example 2. Ownership of brother-sister transitional subsidiaries. (i) P forms S with $200 on January 1, 1985, and S becomes a member of the P group. On February 1, 1987, S buys all the stock of both T and T1, and T and T1 become members of the P group. On January 1, 1988, P sells all the stock of S and recognizes a $90 loss on the sale.

(ii) Under paragraph (b) (1) and (2) of this section, no deduction is allowed to P for its $90 loss except to the extent P establishes that the loss exceeds the amount of S's stock losses that would be disallowed if S sold all the stock of T and T1, S's highest tier transitional subsidiaries, immediately before P's sale of all the S stock. Assume that all the T stock would have been sold for a $50 loss, all the T1 stock of a $40 loss, and that the entire amount of each loss would be attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of assets. Because $90 of loss would be disallowed with respect to the sale of S's T and T1 stock, P's $90 loss on the sale of all the S stock is disallowed under paragraph (b).

(c) Successors—(1) General rule. This section applies, to the extent necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section, to—

(i) Any property owned by a member or former member, the basis of which is determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis in a subsidiary's stock, and

(ii) Any property owned by any other person whose basis in the property is determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to a member's (or former member's) basis in a subsidiary's stock.

(2) Examples. The principles of this paragraph (c) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Merger into grandfathered subsidiary. P, the common parent of a group, owns all the stock of T, a transitional subsidiary. On January 1, 1989, T merges into S, a wholly owned subsidiary of P that is not a transitional subsidiary. Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, all the stock of S is treated as stock of a transitional subsidiary. As a result, no deduction is allowed for any loss recognized by P on the disposition of any S stock, except to the extent the P group establishes under paragraph (a)(2) that the loss is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of assets of T.
Example 2. Nonrecognition exchange of transitional stock. (i) P, the common parent of a group, owns all the stock of T, a transitional subsidiary. On January 1, 1989, P transfers the stock of T to X, a corporation that is not a member of the P group, in exchange for 20 percent of its stock in a transaction to which section 351(a) applies. T and X file separate returns.

(ii) Under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, all the stock of X owned by P is treated as stock of a transitional subsidiary because P's basis for the X stock is determined by reference to its basis for the T stock. As a result, no deduction is allowed to P for any loss recognized on the disposition of the X stock, except to the extent permitted under paragraph (a) of this section.

(iii) Under paragraph (c)(1), X is treated as a member subject to paragraph (a) of this section with respect to the T stock because X's basis for the stock is determined by reference to P's basis for the stock. Moreover, all of the T stock owned by X continues to be stock of a transitional subsidiary. As a result, no deduction is allowed to X for any loss recognized on the disposition of any T stock, except to the extent permitted under paragraph (a) of this section.

(d) Investment adjustments and earnings and profits—(1) In general. For purposes of determining investment adjustments under §1.1502-32 and earnings and profits under §1.1502-33(c) with respect to a member of a consolidated group that owns stock in a subsidiary, any deduction that is disallowed under this section is treated as a loss arising and absorbed by the member in the tax year in which the disallowance occurs.

(2) Example. (i) In 1986, P forms S with a contribution of $100, and S becomes a member of the P group. On February 1, 1987, S buys all the stock of T for $100. T has an asset with a basis of $0 and a value of $100. In 1988, T sells the asset for $100. Under the investment adjustment system, S's basis in the T stock increases to adjustment system, S's basis in the T stock increases to $200, P's basis in the S stock increases to $200, and P's earnings and profits and S's earnings and profits increase by $100. In 1989, S sells all of the T stock for $100, and S's recognized loss of $100 is disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(ii) Under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, S's earnings and profits for 1989 are reduced by $100, the amount of the loss disallowed under paragraph (a)(1). As a result, P's basis in the S stock is reduced from $200 to $100 under the investment adjustment system. P's earnings and profits for 1989 are correspondingly reduced by $100.

(e) Effective dates—(1) General rule. This section applies with respect to dispositions after January 6, 1987. For dispositions on or after November 19, 1990, however, this section applies only if the stock was deconsolidated (as that term is defined in §1.337(d)-2(b)(2)) before November 19, 1990, and only to the extent the disposition is not subject to §1.337(d)-2 or §1.1502-20.

(2) Binding contract rule. For purposes of this paragraph (e), if a corporation became a subsidiary pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before January 6, 1987, and in continuous effect until the corporation became a subsidiary, or a disposition was pursuant to a binding written contract entered into before March 9, 1990, and in continuous effect until the disposition, the date the contract became binding shall be treated as the date the corporation became a subsidiary or as the date of disposition.

(3) Application of §1.1502-20T to certain transactions—(i) In general. If a group files the certification described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, it may apply §1.1502-20T (as contained in the CFR edition revised as of April 1, 1990), to all of its members with respect to all dispositions and deconsolidations by the certifying group to which §1.1502-20T otherwise applied by its terms occurring—

(A) On or after March 9, 1990 (but only if not pursuant to a binding contract described in §1.337(d)-1T(e)(2) (as contained in the CFR edition revised as of April 1, 1990) that was entered into before March 9, 1990); and

(B) Before November 19, 1990 (or thereafter, if pursuant to a binding contract described in §1.1502-20T(g)(3) that was entered into on or after March 9, 1990 and before November 19, 1990).

The certification under this paragraph (e)(3)(i) with respect to the application of §1.1502-20T to any transaction described in this paragraph (e)(3)(i) may not be withdrawn and, if the certification is filed, §1.1502-20T must be applied to all such transactions on all returns (including amended returns) on which such transactions are included.

(ii) Time and manner of filing certification. The certification described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section must be made in a separate statement entitled “[insert name and employer identification number of common parent] hereby certifies under §1.337(d)-1 (e)(3) that the group of which it is the common parent is applying §1.1502-20T to all transactions to which that section otherwise applied by it terms.” The statement must be signed by the common parent and filed with the group's income tax return for the taxable year of the first disposition or deconsolidation to which the certification applies. If the separate statement required under this paragraph (e)(3) is to be filed with a return the due date (including extensions) of which is before November 16, 1991, the statement may be filed with an amended return for the year of the disposition or deconsolidation that is filed within 180 days after September 13, 1991. Any other filings required under §1.1502-20T, such as the statement required under §1.1502-20T(f)(5), may be made with the amended return, regardless of whether §1.1502-20T permits such filing by amended return.

[T.D. 8319, 55 FR 49031, Nov. 26, 1990, as amended by T.D. 8364, 56 FR 47389, Sept. 19, 1991; 57 FR 53550, Nov. 12, 1992; T.D. 8560, 59 FR 41674, 41675, Aug. 15, 1994; T.D. 8597, 60 FR 36679, July 18, 1995; T.D. 9424, 73 FR 53947, Sept. 17, 2008]

§1.337(d)-1T   [Reserved]

§1.337(d)-2   Loss limitation rules.

(a) Loss disallowance—(1) General rule. No deduction is allowed for any loss recognized by a member of a consolidated group with respect to the disposition of stock of a subsidiary. However, for transactions involving loss shares of subsidiary stock occurring on or after September 17, 2008, see §1.1502-36. Further, this section does not apply to a transaction that is subject to §1.1502-36.

(2) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i) The definitions in §1.1502-1 apply.

(ii) Disposition means any event in which gain or loss is recognized, in whole or in part.

(3) Coordination with loss deferral and other disallowance rules. For purposes of this section, the rules of §1.1502-20(a)(3) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(4) Netting. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to loss with respect to the disposition of stock of a subsidiary, to the extent that, as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement, gain is taken into account by members with respect to stock of the same subsidiary having the same material terms. If the gain to which this paragraph applies is less than the amount of the loss with respect to the disposition of the subsidiary's stock, the gain is applied to offset loss with respect to each share disposed of as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement in proportion to the amount of the loss deduction that would have been disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section with respect to such share before the application of this paragraph (a)(4). If the same item of gain could be taken into account more than once in limiting the application of paragraphs (a)(1) and (b)(1) of this section, the item is taken into account only once.

(b) Basis reduction on deconsolidation—(1) General rule. If the basis of a member of a consolidated group in a share of stock of a subsidiary exceeds its value immediately before a deconsolidation of the share, the basis of the share is reduced at that time to an amount equal to its value. If both a disposition and a deconsolidation occur with respect to a share in the same transaction, paragraph (a) of this section applies and, to the extent necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section, this paragraph (b) applies following the application of paragraph (a) of this section.

(2) Deconsolidation. Deconsolidation means any event that causes a share of stock of a subsidiary that remains outstanding to be no longer owned by a member of any consolidated group of which the subsidiary is also a member.

(3) Value. Value means fair market value.

(4) Netting. Paragraph (b)(1) of this section does not apply to reduce the basis of stock of a subsidiary, to the extent that, as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement, gain is taken into account by members with respect to stock of the same subsidiary having the same material terms. If the gain to which this paragraph applies is less than the amount of basis reduction with respect to shares of the subsidiary's stock, the gain is applied to offset basis reduction with respect to each share deconsolidated as a consequence of the same plan or arrangement in proportion to the amount of the reduction that would have been required under paragraph (b)(1) of this section with respect to such share before the application of this paragraph (b)(4).

(c) Allowable loss—(1) Application. This paragraph (c) applies with respect to stock of a subsidiary only if a separate statement entitled §1.337(d)-2(c) statement is included with the return in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(2) General rule. Loss is not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section and basis is not reduced under paragraph (b)(1) of this section to the extent the taxpayer establishes that the loss or basis is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain, net of directly related expenses, on the disposition of an asset (including stock and securities). Loss or basis may be attributable to the recognition of built-in gain on the disposition of an asset by a prior group. For purposes of this section, gain recognized on the disposition of an asset is built-in gain to the extent attributable, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, to any excess of value over basis that is reflected, before the disposition of the asset, in the basis of the share, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, after applying section 1503(e) and other applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and regulations. Federal income taxes may be directly related to built-in gain recognized on the disposition of an asset only to the extent of the excess (if any) of the group's income tax liability actually imposed under Subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code for the taxable year of the disposition of the asset over the group's income tax liability for the taxable year redetermined by not taking into account the built-in gain recognized on the disposition of the asset. For this purpose, the group's income tax liability actually imposed and its redetermined income tax liability are determined without taking into account the foreign tax credit under section 27(a) of the Internal Revenue Code.

(3) Contents of statement and time of filing. The statement required under paragraph (c)(1) of this section must be included with or as part of the taxpayer's return for the year of the disposition or deconsolidation and must contain—

(i) The name and employer identification number (E.I.N.) of the subsidiary; and

(ii) The amount of the loss not disallowed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (c) and the amount of basis not reduced under paragraph (b)(1) of this section by reason of this paragraph (c).

(4) Example. The principles of paragraphs (a), (b), and (c) of this section are illustrated by the examples in §§1.337(d)-1(a)(5) and 1.1502-20(a)(5) (other than Examples 3, 4, and 5) and (b), with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20, and by the following example. For purposes of the examples in this section, unless otherwise stated, the group files consolidated returns on a calendar year basis, the facts set forth the only corporate activity, and all sales and purchases are with unrelated buyers or sellers. The basis of each asset is the same for determining earnings and profits adjustments and taxable income. Tax liability and its effect on basis, value, and earnings and profits are disregarded. Investment adjustment system means the rules of §1.1502-32. The example reads as follows:

Example. Loss offsetting built-in gain in a prior group. (i) P buys all the stock of T for $50 in Year 1, and T becomes a member of the P group. T has 2 assets. Asset 1 has a basis of $50 and a value of $0, and asset 2 has a basis of $0 and a value of $50. T sells asset 2 during Year 3 for $50 and recognizes a $50 gain. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock increased to $100 as a result of the recognition of gain. In Year 5, all of the stock of P is acquired by the P1 group, and the former members of the P group become members of the P1 group. T then sells asset 1 for $0, and recognizes a $50 loss. Under the investment adjustment system, P's basis in the T stock decreases to $50 as a result of the loss. T's assets decline in value from $50 to $40. P then sells all the stock of T for $40 and recognizes a $10 loss.

(ii) P's basis in the T stock reflects both T's unrecognized gain and unrecognized loss with respect to its assets. The gain T recognizes on the disposition of asset 2 is built-in gain with respect to both the P and P1 groups for purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. In addition, the loss T recognizes on the disposition of asset 1 is built-in loss with respect to the P and P1 groups for purposes of paragraph (c)(2) of this section. T's recognition of the built-in loss while a member of the P1 group offsets the effect on T's stock basis of T's recognition of the built-in gain while a member of the P group. Thus, P's $10 loss on the sale of the T stock is not attributable to the recognition of built-in gain, and the loss is therefore not disallowed under paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(iii) The result would be the same if, instead of having a $50 built-in loss in asset 1 when it becomes a member of the P group, T has a $50 net operating loss carryover and the carryover is used by the P group.

(d) Successors. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of §1.1502-20(d) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(e) Anti-avoidance rules. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of §1.1502-20(e) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(f) Investment adjustments. For purposes of this section, the rules and examples of §1.1502-20(f) apply, with appropriate adjustments to reflect differences between the approach of this section and that of §1.1502-20.

(g) Effective dates. This section applies with respect to dispositions and deconsolidations on or after March 3, 2005. In addition, this section applies to dispositions and deconsolidations for which an election is made under §1.1502-20(i)(2) to determine allowable loss under this section. If loss is recognized because stock of a subsidiary became worthless, the disposition with respect to the stock is treated as occurring on the date the stock became worthless. For dispositions and deconsolidations after March 6, 2002 and before March 3, 2005, see §1.337(d)-2T as contained in the 26 CFR part 1 in effect on March 2, 2005.

[70 FR 10322, Mar. 3, 2005, as amended by T.D. 9424, 73 FR 53947, Sept. 17, 2008]

§1.337(d)-4   Taxable to tax-exempt.

(a) Gain or loss recognition—(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if a taxable corporation transfers all or substantially all of its assets to one or more tax-exempt entities, the taxable corporation must recognize gain or loss immediately before the transfer as if the assets transferred were sold at their fair market values. But see section 267 and paragraph (d) of this section concerning limitations on the recognition of loss.

(2) Change in corporation's tax status treated as asset transfer. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(3) and (b) of this section, a taxable corporation's change in status to a tax-exempt entity will be treated as if it transferred all of its assets to a tax-exempt entity immediately before the change in status becomes effective in a transaction to which paragraph (a)(1) of this section applies. For example, if a State, a political subdivision thereof, or an entity any portion of whose income is excluded from gross income under section 115, acquires the stock of a taxable corporation and thereafter any of the taxable corporation's income is excluded from gross income under section 115, the taxable corporation will be treated as if it transferred all of its assets to a tax-exempt entity immediately before the stock acquisition.

(3) Exceptions for certain changes in status—(i) To whom available. Paragraph (a)(2) of this section does not apply to the following corporations—

(A) A corporation previously tax-exempt under section 501(a) which regains its tax-exempt status under section 501(a) within three years from the later of a final adverse adjudication on the corporation's tax exempt status, or the filing by the corporation, or by the Secretary or his delegate under section 6020(b), of a federal income tax return of the type filed by a taxable corporation;

(B) A corporation previously tax-exempt under section 501(a) or that applied for but did not receive recognition of exemption under section 501(a) before January 15, 1997, if such corporation is tax-exempt under section 501(a) within three years from January 28, 1999;

(C) A newly formed corporation that is tax-exempt under section 501(a) (other than an organization described in section 501(c)(7)) within three taxable years from the end of the taxable year in which it was formed;

(D) A newly formed corporation that is tax-exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(7) within seven taxable years from the end of the taxable year in which it was formed;

(E) A corporation previously tax-exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(12), which, in a given taxable year or years prior to again becoming tax-exempt, is a taxable corporation solely because less than 85 percent of its income consists of amounts collected from members for the sole purpose of meeting losses and expenses; if, in a taxable year, such a corporation would be a taxable corporation even if 85 percent or more of its income consists of amounts collected from members for the sole purpose of meeting losses and expenses (a non-85 percent violation), paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A) of this section shall apply as if the corporation became a taxable corporation in its first taxable year that a non-85 percent violation occurred; or

(F) A corporation previously taxable that becomes tax-exempt under section 501(a) as an organization described in section 501(c)(15) if during each taxable year in which it is described in section 501(c)(15) the organization is the subject of a court supervised rehabilitation, conservatorship, liquidation, or similar state proceeding; if such a corporation continues to be described in section 501(c)(15) in a taxable year when it is no longer the subject of a court supervised rehabilitation, conservatorship, liquidation, or similar state proceeding, paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall apply as if the corporation first became tax-exempt for such taxable year.

(ii) Application for recognition. An organization is deemed to have or regain tax-exempt status within one of the periods described in paragraph (a)(3)(i)(A), (B), (C), or (D) of this section if it files an application for recognition of exemption with the Commissioner within the applicable period and the application either results in a determination by the Commissioner or a final adjudication that the organization is tax-exempt under section 501(a) during any part of the applicable period. The preceding sentence does not require the filing of an application for recognition of exemption by any organization not otherwise required, such as by §§1.501(a)-1, 1.505(c)-1T, and 1.508-1(a), to apply for recognition of exemption.

(iii) Anti-abuse rule. This paragraph (a)(3) does not apply to a corporation that, with a principal purpose of avoiding the application of paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, acquires all or substantially all of the assets of another taxable corporation and then changes its status to that of a tax-exempt entity.

(4) Related transactions. This section applies to any series of related transactions having an effect similar to any of the transactions to which this section applies.

(b) Exceptions. Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to—

(1) Any assets transferred to a tax-exempt entity to the extent that the assets are used in an activity the income from which is subject to tax under section 511(a) (referred to hereinafter as a “section 511(a) activity”). However, if assets used to any extent in a section 511(a) activity are disposed of by the tax-exempt entity, then, notwithstanding any other provision of law (except section 1031 or section 1033), any gain (not in excess of the amount not recognized by reason of the preceding sentence) shall be included in the tax-exempt entity's unrelated business taxable income. To the extent that the tax-exempt entity ceases to use the assets in a section 511(a) activity, the entity will be treated for purposes of this paragraph (b)(1) as having disposed of the assets on the date of the cessation for their fair market value. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section and this paragraph (b)(1)—

(i) If during the first taxable year following the transfer of an asset or the corporation's change to tax-exempt status the asset will be used by the tax-exempt entity partly or wholly in a section 511(a) activity, the taxable corporation will recognize an amount of gain or loss that bears the same ratio to the asset's built-in gain or loss as 100 percent reduced by the percentage of use for such taxable year in the section 511(a) activity bears to 100 percent. For purposes of determining the gain or loss, if any, to be recognized, the taxable corporation may rely on a written representation from the tax-exempt entity estimating the percentage of the asset's anticipated use in a section 511(a) activity for such taxable year, using a reasonable method of allocation, unless the taxable corporation has reason to believe that the tax-exempt entity's representation is not made in good faith;

(ii) If for any taxable year the percentage of an asset's use in a section 511(a) activity decreases from the estimate used in computing gain or loss recognized under paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, adjusted for any decreases taken into account under this paragraph (b)(1)(ii) in prior taxable years, the tax-exempt entity shall recognize an amount of gain or loss that bears the same ratio to the asset's built-in gain or loss as the percentage point decrease in use in the section 511(a) activity for the taxable year bears to 100 percent;

(iii) If property on which all or a portion of the gain or loss is not recognized by reason of the first sentence of paragraph (b)(1) of this section is disposed of in a transaction that qualifies for nonrecognition treatment under section 1031 or section 1033, the tax-exempt entity must treat the replacement property as remaining subject to paragraph (b)(1) of this section to the extent that the exchanged or involuntarily converted property was so subject;

(iv) The tax-exempt entity must use the same reasonable method of allocation for determining the percentage that it uses the assets in a section 511(a) activity as it uses for other tax purposes, such as determining the amount of depreciation deductions. The tax-exempt entity also must use this same reasonable method of allocation for each taxable year that it holds the assets; and

(v) An asset's built-in gain or loss is the amount that would be recognized under paragraph (a)(1) of this section except for this paragraph (b)(1);

(2) Any transfer of assets to the extent gain or loss otherwise is recognized by the taxable corporation on the transfer. See, for example, sections 336, 337(b)(2), 367, and 1001;

(3) Any transfer of assets to the extent the transaction qualifies for nonrecognition treatment under section 1031 or section 1033; or

(4) Any forfeiture of a taxable corporation's assets in a criminal or civil action to the United States, the government of a possession of the United States, a state, the District of Columbia, the government of a foreign country, or a political subdivision of any of the foregoing; or any expropriation of a taxable corporation's assets by the government of a foreign country.

(c) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(1) Taxable corporation. A taxable corporation is any corporation that is not a tax-exempt entity as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(2) Tax-exempt entity. A tax-exempt entity is—

(i) Any entity that is exempt from tax under section 501(a) or section 529;

(ii) A charitable remainder annuity trust or charitable remainder unitrust as defined in section 664(d);

(iii) The United States, the government of a possession of the United States, a state, the District of Columbia, the government of a foreign country, or a political subdivision of any of the foregoing;

(iv) An Indian Tribal Government as defined in section 7701(a)(40), a subdivision of an Indian Tribal Government determined in accordance with section 7871(d), or an agency or instrumentality of an Indian Tribal Government or subdivision thereof;

(v) An Indian Tribal Corporation organized under section 17 of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, 25 U.S.C. 477, or section 3 of the Oklahoma Welfare Act, 25 U.S.C. 503;

(vi) An international organization as defined in section 7701(a)(18);

(vii) An entity any portion of whose income is excluded under section 115; or

(viii) An entity that would not be taxable under the Internal Revenue Code for reasons substantially similar to those applicable to any entity listed in this paragraph (c)(2) unless otherwise explicitly made exempt from the application of this section by statute or by action of the Commissioner.

(3) Substantially all. The term substantially all has the same meaning as under section 368(a)(1)(C).

(d) Loss limitation rule. For purposes of determining the amount of gain or loss recognized by a taxable corporation on the transfer of its assets to a tax-exempt entity under paragraph (a) of this section, if assets are acquired by the taxable corporation in a transaction to which section 351 applied or as a contribution to capital, or assets are distributed from the taxable corporation to a shareholder or another member of the taxable corporation's affiliated group, and in either case such acquisition or distribution is made as part of a plan a principal purpose of which is to recognize loss by the taxable corporation on the transfer of such assets to the tax-exempt entity, the losses recognized by the taxable corporation on such assets transferred to the tax-exempt entity will be disallowed. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the principles of section 336(d)(2) apply.

(e) Effective date. This section is applicable to transfers of assets as described in paragraph (a) of this section occurring after January 28, 1999, unless the transfer is pursuant to a written agreement which is (subject to customary conditions) binding on or before January 28, 1999.

[T.D. 8802, 63 FR 71594, Dec. 29, 1998]

§1.337(d)-5   Old transitional rules imposing tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT

(a) Treatment of C corporations—(1) Scope. This section applies to the net built-in gain of C corporation assets that become assets of a RIC or REIT by—

(i) The qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT; or

(ii) The transfer of assets of a C corporation to a RIC or REIT in a transaction in which the basis of such assets are determined by reference to the C corporation's basis (a carryover basis).

(2) Net built-in gain. Net built-in gain is the excess of aggregate gains (including items of income) over aggregate losses.

(3) General rule. Unless an election is made pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section, the C corporation will be treated, for all purposes including recognition of net built-in gain, as if it had sold all of its assets at their respective fair market values on the deemed liquidation date described in paragraph (a)(7) of this section and immediately liquidated.

(4) Loss. Paragraph (a)(3) of this section shall not apply if its application would result in the recognition of net built-in loss.

(5) Basis adjustment. If a corporation is subject to corporate-level tax under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, the bases of the assets in the hands of the RIC or REIT will be adjusted to reflect the recognized net built-in gain. This adjustment is made by taking the C corporation's basis in each asset, and, as appropriate, increasing it by the amount of any built-in gain attributable to that asset, or decreasing it by the amount of any built-in loss attributable to that asset.

(6) Exception—(i) In general. Paragraph (a)(3) of this section does not apply to any C corporation that—

(A) Immediately prior to qualifying to be taxed as a RIC was subject to tax as a C corporation for a period not exceeding one taxable year; and

(B) Immediately prior to being subject to tax as a C corporation was subject to the RIC tax provisions for a period of at least one taxable year.

(ii) Additional requirement. The exception described in paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section applies only to assets acquired by the corporation during the year when it was subject to tax as a C corporation in a transaction that does not result in its basis in the asset being determined by reference to a corporate transferor's basis.

(7) Deemed liquidation date—(i) Conversions. In the case of a C corporation that qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT, the deemed liquidation date is the last day of its last taxable year before the taxable year in which it qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT.

(ii) Carryover basis transfers. In the case of a C corporation that transfers property to a RIC or REIT in a carryover basis transaction, the deemed liquidation date is the day before the date of the transfer.

(b) Section 1374 treatment—(1) In general. Paragraph (a) of this section will not apply if the transferee RIC or REIT elects (as described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section) to be subject to the rules of section 1374, and the regulations thereunder. The electing RIC or REIT will be subject to corporate-level taxation on the built-in gain recognized during the 10-year period on assets formerly held by the transferor C corporation. The built-in gains of electing RICs and REITs, and the corporate-level tax imposed on such gains, are subject to rules similar to the rules relating to net income from foreclosure property of REITs. See sections 857(a)(1)(A)(ii), and 857(b)(2)(B), (D), and (E). An election made under this paragraph (b) shall be irrevocable.

(2) Ten-year recognition period. In the case of a C corporation that qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT, the 10-year recognition period described in section 1374(d)(7) begins on the first day of the RIC's or REIT's taxable year for which the corporation qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT. In the case of a C corporation that transfers property to a RIC or REIT in a carryover basis transaction, the 10-year recognition period begins on the day the assets are acquired by the RIC or REIT.

(3) Making the election. A RIC or REIT validly makes a section 1374 election with the following statement: “[Insert name and employer identification number of electing RIC or REIT] elects under paragraph (b) of this section to be subject to the rules of section 1374 and the regulations thereunder with respect to its assets which formerly were held by a C corporation, [insert name and employer identification number of the C corporation, if different from name and employer identification number of RIC or REIT].” This statement must be signed by an official authorized to sign the income tax return of the RIC or REIT and attached to the RIC's or REIT's Federal income tax return for the first taxable year in which the assets of the C corporation become assets of the RIC or REIT.

(c) Special rule. In cases where the first taxable year in which the assets of the C corporation become assets of the RIC or REIT ends after June 10, 1987 but before March 8, 2000, the section 1374 election may be filed with the first Federal income tax return filed by the RIC or REIT after March 8, 2000.

(d) Effective date. In the case of carryover basis transactions involving the transfer of property of a C corporation to a RIC or REIT, the regulations apply to transactions occurring on or after June 10, 1987, and before January 2, 2002. In the case of a C corporation that qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT, the regulations apply to such qualifications that are effective for taxable years beginning on or after June 10, 1987, and before January 2, 2002. However, RICs and REITs that are subject to section 1374 treatment under this section may not rely on paragraph (b)(1) of this section, but must apply paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(2)(i), (c)(2)(ii), and (c)(3) of §1.337(d)-6, with respect to built-in gains and losses recognized in taxable years beginning on or after January 2, 2002. In lieu of applying this section, taxpayers may rely on §1.337(d)-6 to determine the tax consequences (for all taxable years) of any conversion transaction. For transactions and qualifications that occur on or after January 2, 2002, see §1.337(d)-7.

[T.D. 8872, 65 FR 5776, Feb. 7, 2000, as amended by T.D. 8975, 67 FR 12, Jan. 2, 2002. Redesignated and amended by T.D. 9047, 68 FR 12819, Mar. 19, 2003]

§1.337(d)-6   New transitional rules imposing tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT.

(a) General rule—(1) Property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. If property owned by a C corporation (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) becomes the property of a RIC or REIT (the converted property) in a conversion transaction (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section), then deemed sale treatment will apply as described in paragraph (b) of this section, unless the RIC or REIT elects section 1374 treatment with respect to the conversion transaction as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. See paragraph (d) of this section for exceptions to this paragraph (a).

(2) Definitions—(i) C corporation. For purposes of this section, the term C corporation has the meaning provided in section 1361(a)(2) except that the term does not include a RIC or REIT.

(ii) Conversion transaction. For purposes of this section, the term conversion transaction means the qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT or the transfer of property owned by a C corporation to a RIC or REIT.

(b) Deemed sale treatment—(1) In general. If property owned by a C corporation becomes the property of a RIC or REIT in a conversion transaction, then the C corporation recognizes gain and loss as if it sold the converted property to an unrelated party at fair market value on the deemed sale date (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section). This paragraph (b) does not apply if its application would result in the recognition of a net loss. For this purpose, net loss is the excess of aggregate losses over aggregate gains (including items of income), without regard to character.

(2) Basis adjustment. If a corporation recognizes a net gain under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, then the converted property has a basis in the hands of the RIC or REIT equal to the fair market value of such property on the deemed sale date.

(3) Deemed sale date—(i) RIC or REIT qualifications. If the conversion transaction is a qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT, then the deemed sale date is the end of the last day of the C corporation's last taxable year before the first taxable year in which it qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT.

(ii) Other conversion transactions. If the conversion transaction is a transfer of property owned by a C corporation to a RIC or REIT, then the deemed sale date is the end of the day before the day of the transfer.

(4) Example. The rules of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. Deemed sale treatment on merger into RIC. (i) X, a calendar-year taxpayer, has qualified as a RIC since January 1, 1991. On May 31, 1994, Y, a C corporation and calendar-year taxpayer, transfers all of its property to X in a transaction that qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(C). X does not elect section 1374 treatment under paragraph (c) of this section and chooses not to rely on §1.337(d)-5. As a result of the transfer, Y is subject to deemed sale treatment under this paragraph (b) on its tax return for the short taxable year ending May 31, 1994. On May 31, 1994, Y's only assets are Capital Asset, which has a fair market value of $100,000 and a basis of $40,000 as of the end of May 30, 1994, and $50,000 cash. Y also has an unrestricted net operating loss carryforward of $12,000 and accumulated earnings and profits of $50,000. Y has no taxable income for the short taxable year ending May 31, 1994, other than gain recognized under this paragraph (b). In 1997, X sells Capital Asset for $110,000. Assume the applicable corporate tax rate is 35%.

(ii) Under this paragraph (b), Y is treated as if it sold the converted property (Capital Asset and $50,000 cash) at fair market value on May 30, 1994, recognizing $60,000 of gain ($150,000 amount realized—$90,000 basis). Y must report the gain on its tax return for the short taxable year ending May 31, 1994. Y may offset this gain with its $12,000 net operating loss carryforward and will pay tax of $16,800 (35% of $48,000).

(iii) Under section 381, X succeeds to Y's accumulated earnings and profits. Y's accumulated earnings and profits of $50,000 increase by $60,000 and decrease by $16,800 as a result of the deemed sale. Thus, the aggregate amount of subchapter C earnings and profits that must be distributed to satisfy section 852(a)(2)(B) is $93,200 ($50,000 + $60,000 − $16,800). X's basis in Capital Asset is $100,000. On X's sale of Capital Asset in 1997, X recognizes $10,000 of gain, which is taken into account in computing X's net capital gain for purposes of section 852(b)(3).

(c) Election of section 1374 treatment—(1) In general—(i) Property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply if the RIC or REIT that was formerly a C corporation or that acquired property from a C corporation makes the election described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section. A RIC or REIT that makes such an election will be subject to tax on the net built-in gain in the converted property under the rules of section 1374 and the regulations thereunder, as modified by this paragraph (c), as if the RIC or REIT were an S corporation.

(ii) Property subject to the rules of section 1374 owned by a RIC, REIT, or S corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. If property subject to the rules of section 1374 owned by a RIC, a REIT, or an S corporation (the predecessor) becomes the property of a RIC or REIT (the successor) in a continuation transaction, the rules of section 1374 apply to the successor to the same extent that the predecessor was subject to the rules of section 1374 with respect to such property, and the 10-year recognition period of the successor with respect to such property is reduced by the portion of the 10-year recognition period of the predecessor that expired before the date of the continuation transaction. For this purpose, a continuation transaction means the qualification of the predecessor as a RIC or REIT or the transfer of property from the predecessor to the successor in a transaction in which the successor's basis in the transferred property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the predecessor's basis in that property.

(2) Modification of section 1374 treatment—(i) Net recognized built-in gain for REITs—(A) Prelimitation amount. The prelimitation amount determined as provided in §1.1374-2(a)(1) is reduced by the portion of such amount, if any, that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(4), (5), (6), or (7). For this purpose, the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed as follows:

(1) Where the tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed by reference to section 857(b)(5)(A), the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is the tax imposed by section 857(b)(5) multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount of recognized built-in gain (without regard to recognized built-in loss and recognized built-in gain from prohibited transactions) that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(2) and the denominator of which is the gross income (without regard to gross income from prohibited transactions) of the REIT that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(2).

(2) Where the tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed by reference to section 857(b)(5)(B), the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is the tax imposed by section 857(b)(5) multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount of recognized built-in gain (without regard to recognized built-in loss and recognized built-in gain from prohibited transactions) that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(3) and the denominator of which is the gross income (without regard to gross income from prohibited transactions) of the REIT that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(3).

(B) Taxable income limitation. The taxable income limitation determined as provided in §1.1374-2(a)(2) is reduced by an amount equal to the tax imposed under sections 857(b)(5), (6), and (7).

(ii) Loss carryforwards, credits and credit carryforwards—(A) Loss carryforwards. Consistent with paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, net operating loss carryforwards and capital loss carryforwards arising in taxable years for which the corporation that generated the loss was not subject to subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code are allowed as a deduction against net recognized built-in gain to the extent allowed under section 1374 and the regulations thereunder. Such loss carryforwards must be used as a deduction against net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year to the greatest extent possible before such losses can be used to reduce other investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b) or other real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b) for that taxable year.

(B) Credits and credit carryforwards. Consistent with paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, minimum tax credits and business credit carryforwards arising in taxable years for which the corporation that generated the credit was not subject to subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code are allowed to reduce the tax imposed on net recognized built-in gain under this paragraph (c) to the extent allowed under section 1374 and the regulations thereunder. Such credits and credit carryforwards must be used to reduce the tax imposed under this paragraph (c) on net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year to the greatest extent possible before such credits and credit carryforwards can be used to reduce the tax, if any, on other investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b) or on other real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b) for that taxable year.

(iii) 10-year recognition period. In the case of a conversion transaction that is a qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT, the 10-year recognition period described in section 1374(d)(7) begins on the first day of the RIC's or REIT's first taxable year. In the case of other conversion transactions, the 10-year recognition period begins on the day the property is acquired by the RIC or REIT.

(3) Coordination with subchapter M rules—(i) Recognized built-in gains and losses subject to subchapter M. Recognized built-in gains and losses of a RIC or REIT are included in computing investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b)(2), real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b)(2), capital gains for purposes of sections 852(b)(3) and 857(b)(3), gross income derived from sources within any foreign country or possession of the United States for purposes of section 853, and the dividends paid deduction for purposes of sections 852(b)(2)(D), 852(b)(3)(A), 857(b)(2)(B), and 857(b)(3)(A). In computing such income and deduction items, capital loss carryforwards and net operating loss carryforwards that are used by the RIC or REIT to reduce recognized built-in gains are allowed as a deduction, but only to the extent that they are otherwise allowable as a deduction against such income under the Internal Revenue Code (including section 852(b)(2)(B)).

(ii) Treatment of tax imposed. The amount of tax imposed under this paragraph (c) on net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year is treated as a loss sustained by the RIC or the REIT during such taxable year. The character of the loss is determined by allocating the tax proportionately (based on recognized built-in gain) among the items of recognized built-in gain included in net recognized built-in gain. With respect to RICs, the tax imposed under this paragraph (c) on net recognized built-in gain is treated as attributable to the portion of the RIC's taxable year occurring after October 31.

(4) Making the section 1374 election—(i) In general. A RIC or REIT makes a section 1374 election with the following statement: “[Insert name and employer identification number of electing RIC or REIT] elects under §1.337-6(c) to be subject to the rules of section 1374 and the regulations thereunder with respect to its property that formerly was held by a C corporation, [insert name and employer identification number of the C corporation, if different from name and employer identification number of the RIC or REIT].” However, a RIC or REIT need not file an election under this paragraph (c), but will be deemed to have made such an election if it can demonstrate that it informed the Internal Revenue Service prior to January 2, 2002 of its intent to make a section 1374 election. An election under this paragraph (c) is irrevocable.

(ii) Time for making the election. An election under this paragraph (c) may be filed by the RIC or REIT with any Federal income tax return filed by the RIC or REIT on or before September 15, 2003, provided that the RIC or REIT has reported consistently with such election for all periods.

(5) Example. The rules of this paragraph (c) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. Section 1374 treatment on REIT election. (i) X, a C corporation that is a calendar-year taxpayer, elects to be taxed as a REIT on its 1994 tax return, which it files on March 15, 1995. As a result, X is a REIT for its 1994 taxable year and would be subject to deemed sale treatment under paragraph (b) of this section but for X's timely election of section 1374 treatment under this paragraph (c). X chooses not to rely on §1.337(d)-5. As of the beginning of the 1994 taxable year, X's property consisted of Real Property, which is not section 1221(a)(1) property and which had a fair market value of $100,000 and an adjusted basis of $80,000, and $25,000 cash. X also had accumulated earnings and profits of $25,000, unrestricted capital loss carryforwards of $3,000, and unrestricted business credit carryforwards of $2,000. On July 1, 1997, X sells Real Property for $110,000. For its 1997 taxable year, X has no other income or deduction items. Assume the highest corporate tax rate is 35%.

(ii) Upon its election to be taxed as a REIT, X retains its $80,000 basis in Real Property and its $25,000 accumulated earnings and profits. X retains its $3,000 of capital loss carryforwards and its $2,000 of business credit carryforwards. To satisfy section 857(a)(2)(B), X must distribute $25,000, an amount equal to its earnings and profits accumulated in non-REIT years, to its shareholders by the end of its 1994 taxable year.

(iii) Upon X's sale of Real Property in 1997, X recognizes gain of $30,000 ($110,000—$80,000). X's recognized built-in gain for purposes of applying section 1374 is $20,000 ($100,000 fair market value as of the beginning of X's first taxable year as a REIT—$80,000 basis). Because X's $30,000 of net income for the 1997 taxable year exceeds the net recognized built-in gain of $20,000, the taxable income limitation does not apply. X, therefore, has $20,000 net recognized built-in gain for the year. Assuming that X has not used its $3,000 of capital loss carryforwards in a prior taxable year and that their use is allowed under section 1374(b)(2) and §1.1374-5, X is allowed a $3,000 deduction against the $20,000 net recognized built-in gain. X would owe tax of $5,950 (35% of $17,000) on its net recognized built-in gain, except that X may use its $2,000 of business credit carryforwards to reduce this tax, assuming that X has not used the credit carryforwards in a prior taxable year and that their use is allowed under section 1374(b)(3) and §1.1374-6. Thus, X owes tax of $3,950 under this paragraph (c).

(iv) For purposes of subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, X's earnings and profits for the year increase by $26,050 ($30,000 capital gain on the sale of Real Property—$3,950 tax under this paragraph (c)). For purposes of section 857(b)(2) and (b)(3), X's net capital gain for the year is $23,050 ($30,000 capital gain reduced by $3,000 capital loss carryforward and further reduced by $3,950 tax).

(d) Exceptions—(1) Gain otherwise recognized. Paragraph (a) of this section does not apply to any conversion transaction to the extent that gain or loss otherwise is recognized on such conversion transaction. See, for example, sections 336, 351(b), 351(e), 356, 357(c), 367, 368(a)(2)(F), and 1001.

(2) Re-election of RIC or REIT status—(i) Generally. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to any corporation that—

(A) Immediately prior to qualifying to be taxed as a RIC or REIT was subject to tax as a C corporation for a period not exceeding two taxable years; and

(B) Immediately prior to being subject to tax as a C corporation was subject to tax as a RIC or REIT for a period of at least one taxable year.

(ii) Property acquired from another corporation while a C corporation. The exception described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section does not apply to property acquired by the corporation while it was subject to tax as a C corporation from any person in a transaction that results in the acquirer's basis in the property being determined by reference to a C corporation's basis in the property.

(iii) RICs and REITs previously subject to section 1374 treatment. If the RIC or REIT had property subject to paragraph (c) of this section before the RIC or REIT became subject to tax as a C corporation as described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, then paragraph (c) of this section applies to the RIC or REIT upon its requalification as a RIC or REIT, except that the 10-year recognition period with respect to such property is reduced by the portion of the 10-year recognition period that expired before the RIC or REIT became subject to tax as a C corporation and by the period of time that the corporation was subject to tax as a C corporation.

(e) Effective date. This section applies to conversion transactions that occur on or after June 10, 1987, and before January 2, 2002. In lieu of applying this section, taxpayers generally may apply §1.337(d)-5 to determine the tax consequences (for all taxable years) of any conversion transaction that occurs on or after June 10, 1987 and before January 2, 2002, except that RICs and REITs that are subject to section 1374 treatment with respect to a conversion transaction may not rely on §1.337(d)-5(b)(1), but must apply paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(2)(i), (c)(2)(ii), and (c)(3) of this section, with respect to built-in gains and losses recognized in taxable years beginning on or after January 2, 2002. Taxpayers are not prevented from relying on §1.337(d)-5 merely because they elect section 1374 treatment in the manner described in paragraph (c)(4) of this section instead of in the manner described in §1.337(d)-5(b)(3) and (c). For conversion transactions that occur on or after January 2, 2002, see §1.337(d)-7.

[T.D. 9047, 68 FR 12820, Mar. 18, 2003]

§1.337(d)-7   Tax on property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT.

(a) General rule—(1) Property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. If property owned by a C corporation (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) becomes the property of a RIC or REIT (the converted property) in a conversion transaction (as defined in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section), then section 1374 treatment will apply as described in paragraph (b) of this section, unless the C corporation elects deemed sale treatment with respect to the conversion transaction as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. See paragraph (d) of this section for exceptions to this paragraph (a).

(2) Definitions. For purposes of this section:

(i) C corporation. The term C corporation has the meaning provided in section 1361(a)(2) except that the term does not include a RIC or a REIT.

(ii) Conversion transaction. The term conversion transaction means the qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT or the transfer of property owned by a C corporation to a RIC or REIT.

(iii) RIC. The term RIC means a regulated investment company within the meaning of section 851(a).

(iv) REIT. The term REIT means a real estate investment trust within the meaning of section 856(a).

(v) S corporation. The term S corporation has the meaning provided in section 1361(a)(1).

(b) Section 1374 treatment—(1) In general—(i) Property owned by a C corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. If property owned by a C corporation becomes the property of a RIC or REIT in a conversion transaction, then the RIC or REIT will be subject to tax on the net built-in gain in the converted property under the rules of section 1374 and the regulations thereunder, as modified by this paragraph (b), as if the RIC or REIT were an S corporation.

(ii) Property subject to the rules of section 1374 owned by a RIC, REIT, or S corporation that becomes property of a RIC or REIT. If property subject to the rules of section 1374 owned by a RIC, a REIT, or an S corporation (the predecessor) becomes the property of a RIC or REIT (the successor) in a continuation transaction, the rules of section 1374 apply to the successor to the same extent that the predecessor was subject to the rules of section 1374 with respect to such property, and the 10-year recognition period of the successor with respect to such property is reduced by the portion of the 10-year recognition period of the predecessor that expired before the date of the continuation transaction. For this purpose, a continuation transaction means the qualification of the predecessor as a RIC or REIT or the transfer of property from the predecessor to the successor in a transaction in which the successor's basis in the transferred property is determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the predecessor's basis in that property.

(2) Modification of section 1374 treatment—(i) Net recognized built-in gain for REITs—(A) Prelimitation amount. The prelimitation amount determined as provided in §1.1374-2(a)(1) is reduced by the portion of such amount, if any, that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(4), (5), (6), or (7). For this purpose, the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed as follows:

(1) Where the tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed by reference to section 857(b)(5)(A), the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is the tax imposed by section 857(b)(5) multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount of recognized built-in gain (without regard to recognized built-in loss and recognized built-in gain from prohibited transactions) that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(2) and the denominator of which is the gross income (without regard to gross income from prohibited transactions) of the REIT that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(2).

(2) Where the tax under section 857(b)(5) is computed by reference to section 857(b)(5)(B), the amount of a REIT's recognized built-in gain that is subject to tax under section 857(b)(5) is the tax imposed by section 857(b)(5) multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the amount of recognized built-in gain (without regard to recognized built-in loss and recognized built-in gain from prohibited transactions) that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(3) and the denominator of which is the gross income (without regard to gross income from prohibited transactions) of the REIT that is not derived from sources referred to in section 856(c)(3).

(B) Taxable income limitation. The taxable income limitation determined as provided in §1.1374-2(a)(2) is reduced by an amount equal to the tax imposed under section 857(b)(5), (6), and (7).

(ii) Loss carryforwards, credits and credit carryforwards—(A) Loss carryforwards. Consistent with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, net operating loss carryforwards and capital loss carryforwards arising in taxable years for which the corporation that generated the loss was not subject to subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code are allowed as a deduction against net recognized built-in gain to the extent allowed under section 1374 and the regulations thereunder. Such loss carryforwards must be used as a deduction against net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year to the greatest extent possible before such losses can be used to reduce other investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b) or other real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b) for that taxable year.

(B) Credits and credit carryforwards. Consistent with paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section, minimum tax credits and business credit carryforwards arising in taxable years for which the corporation that generated the credit was not subject to subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code are allowed to reduce the tax imposed on net recognized built-in gain under this paragraph (b) to the extent allowed under section 1374 and the regulations thereunder. Such credits and credit carryforwards must be used to reduce the tax imposed under this paragraph (b) on net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year to the greatest extent possible before such credits and credit carryforwards can be used to reduce the tax, if any, on other investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b) or on other real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b) for that taxable year.

(iii) 10-year recognition period. In the case of a conversion transaction that is a qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT, the 10-year recognition period described in section 1374(d)(7) begins on the first day of the RIC's or REIT's first taxable year. In the case of other conversion transactions, the 10-year recognition period begins on the day the property is acquired by the RIC or REIT.

(3) Coordination with subchapter M rules—(i) Recognized built-in gains and losses subject to subchapter M. Recognized built-in gains and losses of a RIC or REIT are included in computing investment company taxable income for purposes of section 852(b)(2), real estate investment trust taxable income for purposes of section 857(b)(2), capital gains for purposes of sections 852(b)(3) and 857(b)(3), gross income derived from sources within any foreign country or possession of the United States for purposes of section 853, and the dividends paid deduction for purposes of sections 852(b)(2)(D), 852(b)(3)(A), 857(b)(2)(B), and 857(b)(3)(A). In computing such income and deduction items, capital loss carryforwards and net operating loss carryforwards that are used by the RIC or REIT to reduce recognized built-in gains are allowed as a deduction, but only to the extent that they are otherwise allowable as a deduction against such income under the Internal Revenue Code (including section 852(b)(2)(B)).

(ii) Treatment of tax imposed. The amount of tax imposed under this paragraph (b) on net recognized built-in gain for a taxable year is treated as a loss sustained by the RIC or the REIT during such taxable year. The character of the loss is determined by allocating the tax proportionately (based on recognized built-in gain) among the items of recognized built-in gain included in net recognized built-in gain. With respect to RICs, the tax imposed under this paragraph (b) on net recognized built-in gain is treated as attributable to the portion of the RIC's taxable year occurring after October 31.

(4) Example. The rules of this paragraph (b) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. Section 1374 treatment on REIT election. (i) X, a C corporation that is a calendar-year taxpayer, elects to be taxed as a REIT on its 2004 tax return, which it files on March 15, 2005. As a result, X is a REIT for its 2004 taxable year and is subject to section 1374 treatment under this paragraph (b). X does not elect deemed sale treatment under paragraph (c) of this section. As of the beginning of the 2004 taxable year, X's property consisted of Real Property, which is not section 1221(a)(1) property and which had a fair market value of $100,000 and an adjusted basis of $80,000, and $25,000 cash. X also had accumulated earnings and profits of $25,000, unrestricted capital loss carryforwards of $3,000, and unrestricted business credit carryforwards of $2,000. On July 1, 2007, X sells Real Property for $110,000. For its 2007 taxable year, X has no other income or deduction items. Assume the highest corporate tax rate is 35%.

(ii) Upon its election to be taxed as a REIT, X retains its $80,000 basis in Real Property and its $25,000 accumulated earnings and profits. X retains its $3,000 of capital loss carryforwards and its $2,000 of business credit carryforwards. To satisfy section 857(a)(2)(B), X must distribute $25,000, an amount equal to its earnings and profits accumulated in non-REIT years, to its shareholders by the end of its 2004 taxable year.

(iii) Upon X's sale of Real Property in 2007, X recognizes gain of $30,000 ($110,000—$80,000). X's recognized built-in gain for purposes of applying section 1374 is $20,000 ($100,000 fair market value as of the beginning of X's first taxable year as a REIT—$80,000 basis). Because X's $30,000 of net income for the 2007 taxable year exceeds the net recognized built-in gain of $20,000, the taxable income limitation does not apply. X, therefore, has $20,000 net recognized built-in gain for the year. Assuming that X has not used its $3,000 of capital loss carryforwards in a prior taxable year and that their use is allowed under section 1374(b)(2) and §1.1374-5, X is allowed a $3,000 deduction against the $20,000 net recognized built-in gain. X would owe tax of $5,950 (35% of $17,000) on its net recognized built-in gain, except that X may use its $2,000 of business credit carryforwards to reduce the tax, assuming that X has not used the credit carryforwards in a prior taxable year and that their use is allowed under section 1374(b)(3) and §1.1374-6. Thus, X owes tax of $3,950 under this paragraph (b).

(iv) For purposes of subchapter M of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code, X's earnings and profits for the year increase by $26,050 ($30,000 capital gain on the sale of Real Property—$3,950 tax under this paragraph (b)). For purposes of section 857(b)(2) and (b)(3), X's net capital gain for the year is $23,050 ($30,000 capital gain reduced by $3,000 capital loss carryforward and further reduced by $3,950 tax).

(c) Election of deemed sale treatment—(1) In general. Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply if the C corporation that qualifies as a RIC or REIT or transfers property to a RIC or REIT makes the election described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section. A C corporation that makes such an election recognizes gain and loss as if it sold the converted property to an unrelated party at fair market value on the deemed sale date (as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section). See paragraph (c)(4) of this section concerning limitations on the use of loss in computing gain. This paragraph (c) does not apply if its application would result in the recognition of a net loss. For this purpose, net loss is the excess of aggregate losses over aggregate gains (including items of income), without regard to character.

(2) Basis adjustment. If a corporation recognizes a net gain under paragraph (c)(1) of this section, then the converted property has a basis in the hands of the RIC or REIT equal to the fair market value of such property on the deemed sale date.

(3) Deemed sale date—(i) RIC or REIT qualifications. If the conversion transaction is a qualification of a C corporation as a RIC or REIT, then the deemed sale date is the end of the last day of the C corporation's last taxable year before the first taxable year in which it qualifies to be taxed as a RIC or REIT.

(ii) Other conversion transactions. If the conversion transaction is a transfer of property owned by a C corporation to a RIC or REIT, then the deemed sale date is the end of the day before the day of the transfer.

(4) Anti-stuffing rule. A C corporation must disregard converted property in computing gain or loss recognized on the conversion transaction under this paragraph (c), if—

(i) The converted property was acquired by the C corporation in a transaction to which section 351 applied or as a contribution to capital;

(ii) Such converted property had an adjusted basis immediately after its acquisition by the C corporation in excess of its fair market value on the date of acquisition; and

(iii) The acquisition of such converted property by the C corporation was part of a plan a principal purpose of which was to reduce gain recognized by the C corporation in connection with the conversion transaction. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(4), the principles of section 336(d)(2) apply.

(5) Making the deemed sale election. A C corporation (or a partnership to which the principles of this section apply under paragraph (e) of this section) makes the deemed sale election with the following statement: “[Insert name and employer identification number of electing corporation or partnership] elects deemed sale treatment under §1.337(d)-7(c) with respect to its property that was converted to property of, or transferred to, a RIC or REIT, [insert name and employer identification number of the RIC or REIT, if different from the name and employer identification number of the C corporation or partnership].” This statement must be attached to the Federal income tax return of the C corporation or partnership for the taxable year in which the deemed sale occurs. An election under this paragraph (c) is irrevocable.

(6) Examples. The rules of this paragraph (c) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Deemed sale treatment on merger into RIC. (i) X, a calendar-year taxpayer, has qualified as a RIC since January 1, 2001. On May 31, 2004, Y, a C corporation and calendar-year taxpayer, transfers all of its property to X in a transaction that qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(C). As a result of the transfer, Y would be subject to section 1374 treatment under paragraph (b) of this section but for its timely election of deemed sale treatment under this paragraph (c). As a result of such election, Y is subject to deemed sale treatment on its tax return for the short taxable year ending May 31, 2004. On May 31, 2004, Y's only assets are Capital Asset, which has a fair market value of $100,000 and a basis of $40,000 as of the end of May 30, 2004, and $50,000 cash. Y also has an unrestricted net operating loss carryforward of $12,000 and accumulated earnings and profits of $50,000. Y has no taxable income for the short taxable year ending May 31, 2004, other than gain recognized under this paragraph (c). In 2007, X sells Capital Asset for $110,000. Assume the applicable corporate tax rate is 35%.

(ii) Under this paragraph (c), Y is treated as if it sold the converted property (Capital Asset and $50,000 cash) at fair market value on May 30, 2004, recognizing $60,000 of gain ($150,000 amount realized—$90,000 basis). Y must report the gain on its tax return for the short taxable year ending May 31, 2004. Y may offset this gain with its $12,000 net operating loss carryforward and will pay tax of $16,800 (35% of $48,000).

(iii) Under section 381, X succeeds to Y's accumulated earnings and profits. Y's accumulated earnings and profits of $50,000 increase by $60,000 and decrease by $16,800 as a result of the deemed sale. Thus, the aggregate amount of subchapter C earnings and profits that must be distributed to satisfy section 852(a)(2)(B) is $93,200 ($50,000 + $60,000−$16,800). X's basis in Capital Asset is $100,000. On X's sale of Capital Asset in 2007, X recognizes $10,000 of gain which is taken into account in computing X's net capital gain for purposes of section 852(b)(3).

Example 2. Loss limitation. (i) Assume the facts are the same as those described in Example 1, but that, prior to the reorganization, a shareholder of Y contributed to Y a capital asset, Capital Asset 2, which has a fair market value of $10,000 and a basis of $20,000, in a section 351 transaction.

(ii) Assuming that Y's acquisition of Capital Asset 2 was made pursuant to a plan a principal purpose of which was to reduce the amount of gain that Y would recognize in connection with the conversion transaction, Capital Asset 2 would be disregarded in computing the amount of Y's net gain on the conversion transaction.

(d) Exceptions—(1) Gain otherwise recognized. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to any conversion transaction to the extent that gain or loss otherwise is recognized on such conversion transaction by the C corporation that either qualifies as a RIC or a REIT or that transfers property to a RIC or REIT. See, for example, sections 311(b), 336(a), 351(b), 351(e), 356, 357(c), 367, 368(a)(2)(F), 1001, 1031(b), and 1033(a)(2).

(2) Re-election of RIC or REIT status—(i) Generally. Except as provided in paragraphs (d)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section, paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to any corporation that—

(A) Immediately prior to qualifying to be taxed as a RIC or REIT was subject to tax as a C corporation for a period not exceeding two taxable years; and

(B) Immediately prior to being subject to tax as a C corporation was subject to tax as a RIC or REIT for a period of at least one taxable year.

(ii) Property acquired from another corporation while a C corporation. The exception described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section does not apply to property acquired by the corporation while it was subject to tax as a C corporation from any person in a transaction that results in the acquirer's basis in the property being determined by reference to a C corporation's basis in the property.

(iii) RICs and REITs previously subject to section 1374 treatment. If the RIC or REIT had property subject to paragraph (b) of this section before the RIC or REIT became subject to tax as a C corporation as described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, then paragraph (b) of this section applies to the RIC or REIT upon its requalification as a RIC or REIT, except that the 10-year recognition period with respect to such property is reduced by the portion of the 10-year recognition period that expired before the RIC or REIT became subject to tax as a C corporation and by the period of time that the corporation was subject to tax as a C corporation.

(3) Special rules for like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions—(i) In general. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to a conversion transaction to the extent that a C corporation transfers property with a built-in gain to a RIC or REIT, and the C corporation's gain is not recognized by reason of either section 1031 or 1033.

(ii) Clarification regarding exchanged property previously subject to section 1374 treatment. Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, if, in a transaction described in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section, a RIC or REIT surrenders property that was subject to section 1374 treatment immediately prior to the transaction, the rules of section 1374(d)(6) will apply to continue section 1374 treatment to the replacement property acquired by the RIC or REIT in the transaction.

(iii) Examples. The rules of this paragraph (d)(3) are illustrated by the following examples. In each of the examples, X is a REIT, Y is a C corporation, and X and Y are not related.

Example 1. Section 1031(a) exchange. (i) Facts. X owned a building that it leased for commercial use (Property A). Y owned a building leased for commercial use (Property B). On January 1, Year 3, Y transferred Property B to X in exchange for Property A in a nonrecognition transaction under section 1031(a). Immediately before the exchange, Properties A and B each had a value of $100, X had an adjusted basis of $60 in Property A, Y had an adjusted basis of $70 in Property B, and X was not subject to section 1374 treatment with respect to Property A.

(ii) Analysis. The transfer of property (Property B) by Y (a C corporation) to X (a REIT) is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. The conversion transaction is a nonrecognition transaction under section 1031(a) as to Y; thus, Y does not recognize any of its $30 gain. Therefore, the conversion transaction is not subject to paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.

Example 2. Section 1031(a) exchange of section 1374 property. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that X had acquired Property A in a conversion transaction in Year 2, and immediately before the Year 3 exchange X was subject to section 1374 treatment with respect to $25 of net built-in gain in Property A.

(ii) Analysis. The Year 3 transfer of Property B by Y to X is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. The conversion transaction is a nonrecognition transaction under section 1031(a) as to Y; thus, Y does not recognize any of its $30 gain. Therefore, the Year 3 transfer is not subject to paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section. However, X had been subject to section 1374 treatment with respect to $25 of net built-in gain in Property A immediately before the Year 3 transfer, and X's basis in Property B is determined (in whole or in part) by reference to its adjusted basis in Property A. Accordingly, the rules of section 1374(d)(6) apply and X is subject to section 1374 treatment on Property B with respect to the $25 net built-in gain. See paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section.

Example 3. Section 1031(b) exchange. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that immediately before the Year 3 exchange Property A had a value of $92, and X transferred Property A and $8 to Y in exchange for Property B in a nonrecognition transaction under section 1031(b).

(ii) Analysis. The transfer of Property B by Y to X is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. Pursuant to section 1031(b), Y recognizes $8 of its gain. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to the transaction to the extent of the $8 gain recognized by Y by reason of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, or to the extent of the $22 gain realized but not recognized by Y by reason of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.

Example 4. Section 1033(a) involuntary conversion of property held by a C corporation transferor. (i) Facts. Y owned uninsured, improved property (Property 1) that was involuntarily converted (within the meaning of section 1033(a)) in a fire. Y sold Property 1 for $100 to X, which owned an adjacent property and wanted Property 1 for use as a parking lot. Y had a $70 basis in Property 1 immediately before the sale. Y elected to defer gain recognition under section 1033(a)(2), and purchased qualifying replacement property (Property 2) for $100 from an unrelated party prior to the expiration of the period described in section 1033(a)(2)(B).

(ii) Analysis. The transfer of Property 1 by Y to X is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. The conversion transaction (combined with Y's purchase of Property 2) is a nonrecognition transaction under section 1033(a) as to Y; thus, Y does not recognize any of its $30 gain. Therefore, the conversion transaction is not subject to paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section.

Example 5. Section 1033(a) involuntary conversion of property held by a REIT. (i) Facts. X owned property (Property 1). On January 1, Year 2, Property 1 had a fair market value of $100 and a basis of $70, and X was not subject to section 1374 treatment with respect to Property 1. On that date, when Property 1 was under a threat of condemnation, X sold Property 1 to an unrelated party for $100 (First Transaction). X elected to defer gain recognition under section 1033(a)(2), and purchased qualifying replacement property (Property 2) for $100 from Y (Second Transaction) prior to the expiration of the period described in section 1033(a)(2)(B).

(ii) Analysis. The transfer of Property 2 by Y to X in the Second Transaction is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section. The Second Transaction (combined with the First Transaction) is a nonrecognition transaction under section 1033(a) as to X, but not as to Y. Assume no nonrecognition provision applied to Y; thus, Y recognized gain or loss on its sale of Property 2 in the Second Transaction, and the Second Transaction is not subject to paragraph (a)(1) of this section by reason of paragraph (d)(1) of this section.

(4) Special rule if C corporation is a tax-exempt entity. Paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to a conversion transaction in which the C corporation that owned the converted property is a tax-exempt entity described in §1.337(d)-4(c)(2) to the extent that gain (if any) would not be subject to tax under Title 26 of the United States Code if a deemed sale election under paragraph (c)(5) of this section were made.

(e) Special rule for partnerships—(1) In general. The principles of this section apply to property transferred by a partnership to a RIC or REIT to the extent of any gain or loss in the converted property that would be allocated directly or indirectly, through one or more partnerships, to a C corporation if the partnership sold the converted property to an unrelated party at fair market value on the deemed sale date (as defined in paragraph (c)(3) of this section). If the partnership were to elect deemed sale treatment under paragraph (c) of this section in lieu of section 1374 treatment under paragraph (b) of this section with respect to such transfer, then any net gain recognized by the partnership on the deemed sale must be allocated to the C corporation partner, but does not increase the capital account of any partner. Any adjustment to the partnership's basis in the RIC or REIT stock as a result of deemed sale treatment under paragraph (c) of this section shall constitute an adjustment to the basis of that stock with respect to the C corporation partner only. The principles of section 743 apply to such basis adjustment.

(2) Example; Transfer by partnership of property to REIT. (i) Facts. PRS, a partnership for Federal income tax purposes, has three partners: TE, a C corporation (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) that is also a tax-exempt entity (within the meaning of §1.337(d)-4(c)(2)), owns 50 percent of the capital and profits of PRS; A, an individual, owns 30 percent of the capital and profits of PRS; and Y, a C corporation (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section), owns the remaining 20 percent. PRS owns a building that it leases for commercial use (Property 1). On January 1, Year 2, when PRS has an adjusted basis in Property 1 of $100 and Property 1 has a fair market value of $500, PRS transfers Property 1 to X, a REIT, in exchange for stock of X in an exchange described in section 351. PRS does not elect deemed sale treatment under paragraph (c) of this section. TE would not be subject to tax with respect to any gain that would be allocated to it if PRS had sold Property 1 to an unrelated party at fair market value.

(ii) Analysis. The transfer of Property 1 by PRS to X is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section to the extent of any gain or loss that would be allocated to any C corporation partner if PRS sold Property 1 at fair market value to an unrelated party on the deemed sale date. TE and Y are C corporations, but A is not a C corporation within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section. Therefore, the transfer of Property 1 by PRS to X is a conversion transaction within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section to the extent of the gain in Property 1 that would be allocated to TE and Y. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(4) of this section, paragraph (a)(1) of this section does not apply to the extent of the gain that would be allocated to TE if PRS had sold Property 1 to an unrelated party at fair market value on the deemed sale date. If PRS were to sell Property 1 to an unrelated party at fair market value on the deemed sale date, PRS would allocate $80 of built-in gain to Y. Thus, X is subject to section 1374 treatment on Property 1 with respect to $80 of built-in gain.

(f) Effective/Applicability date—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (f)(2) of this section, this section applies to conversion transactions that occur on or after January 2, 2002. For conversion transactions that occurred on or after June 10, 1987, and before January 2, 2002, see §§1.337(d)-5 and 1.337(d)-6.

(2) Special rule. Paragraphs (a)(2), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), and (e) of this section apply to conversion transactions that occur on or after August 2, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply paragraphs (a)(2), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), and (e) of this section to conversion transactions that occurred before August 2, 2013. For conversion transactions that occurred on or after January 2, 2002 and before August 2, 2013, see §1.337(d)-7 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2013.

[T.D. 9047, 68 FR 12822, Mar. 18, 2003, as amended by T.D. 9626, 78 FR 46806, Aug. 2, 2013]

§1.338-0   Outline of topics.

This section lists the captions contained in the regulations under section 338 as follows:

§1.338-1   General principles; status of old target and new target.

(a) In general.

(1) Deemed transaction.

(2) Application of other rules of law.

(3) Overview.

(b) Treatment of target under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(1) General rule for subtitle A.

(2) Exceptions for subtitle A.

(3) General rule for other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(c) Anti-abuse rule.

(1) In general.

(2) Examples.

(d) Next day rule for post-closing transactions.

(e) Effective/applicability date.

§1.338-2   Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

(a) Scope.

(b) Nomenclature.

(c) Definitions.

(1) Acquisition date.

(2) Acquisition date assets.

(3) Affiliated group.

(4) Common parent.

(5) Consistency period.

(6) Deemed asset sale.

(7) Deemed sale tax consequences.

(8) Deemed sale return.

(9) Domestic corporation.

(10) Old target's final return.

(11) Purchasing corporation.

(12) Qualified stock purchase.

(13) Related persons.

(14) Section 338 election.

(15) Section 338(h)(10) election.

(16) Selling group.

(17) Target; old target; new target.

(18) Target affiliate.

(19) 12-month acquisition period.

(d) Time and manner of making election.

(e) Special rules for foreign corporations or DISCs.

(1) Elections by certain foreign purchasing corporations.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Qualifying foreign purchasing corporation.

(iii) Qualifying foreign target.

(iv) Triggering event.

(v) Subject to United States tax.

(2) Acquisition period.

(3) Statement of section 338 may be filed by United States shareholders in certain cases.

(4) Notice requirement for U.S. persons holding stock in foreign target.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Limitation.

(iii) Form of notice.

(iv) Timing of notice.

(v) Consequence of failure to comply.

(vi) Good faith effort to comply.

§1.338-3   Qualification for the section 338 election.

(a) Scope.

(b) Rules relating to qualified stock purchases.

(1) Purchasing corporation requirement.

(2) Purchase.

(3) Acquisitions of stock from related corporations.

(i) In general.

(ii) Time for testing relationship.

(iii) Cases where section 338(h)(3)(C) applies—acquisitions treated as purchases.

(iv) Examples.

(4) Acquisition date for tiered targets.

(i) Stock sold in deemed asset sale.

(ii) Examples.

(5) Effect of redemptions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Redemptions from persons unrelated to the purchasing corporation.

(iii) Redemptions from the purchasing corporation or related persons during 12-month acquisition period.

(A) General rule.

(B) Exception for certain redemptions from related corporations.

(iv) Examples.

(c) Effect of post-acquisition events on eligibility for section 338 election.

(1) Post-acquisition elimination of target.

(2) Post-acquisition elimination of the purchasing corporation.

(d) Consequences of post-acquisition elimination of target where section 338 election not made.

(1) Scope.

(2) Continuity of interest.

(3) Control requirement.

(4) Solely for voting stock requirement.

(5) Example.

§1.338-4   Aggregate deemed sale price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset sale.

(a) Scope.

(b) Determination of ADSP.

(1) General rule.

(2) Time and amount of ADSP.

(i) Original determination.

(ii) Redetermination of ADSP.

(iii) Example.

(c) Grossed-up amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock.

(1) Determination of amount.

(2) Example.

(d) Liabilities of old target.

(1) In general.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities.

(e) Deemed sale tax consequences.

(f) Other rules apply in determining ADSP.

(g) Examples.

(h) Deemed sale of target affiliate stock.

(1) Scope.

(2) In general.

(3) Deemed sale of foreign target affiliate by a domestic target.

(4) Deemed sale producing effectively connected income.

(5) Deemed sale of insurance company target affiliate electing under section 953(d).

(6) Deemed sale of DISC target affiliate.

(7) Anti-stuffing rule.

(8) Examples.

§1.338-5   Adjusted grossed-up basis.

(a) Scope.

(b) Determination of AGUB.

(1) General rule.

(2) Time and amount of AGUB.

(i) Original determination.

(ii) Redetermination of AGUB.

(iii) Examples.

(c) Grossed-up basis of recently purchased stock.

(d) Basis of nonrecently purchased stock; gain recognition election.

(1) No gain recognition election.

(2) Procedure for making gain recognition election.

(3) Effect of gain recognition election.

(i) In general.

(ii) Basis amount.

(iii) Losses not recognized.

(iv) Stock subject to election.

(e) Liabilities of new target.

(1) In general.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities.

(3) Interaction with deemed sale tax consequences.

(f) Adjustments by the Internal Revenue Service.

(g) Examples.

(h) Effective/applicability date.

§1.338-6   Allocation of ADSP and AGUB among target assets.

(a) Scope.

(1) In general.

(2) Fair market value.

(i) In general.

(ii) Transaction costs.

(iii) Internal Revenue Service authority.

(b) General rule for allocating ADSP and AGUB.

(1) Reduction in the amount of consideration for Class I assets.

(2) Other assets.

(i) In general.

(ii) Class II assets.

(iii) Class III assets.

(iv) Class IV assets.

(v) Class V assets.

(vi) Class VI assets.

(vii) Class VII assets.

(3) Other items designated by the Internal Revenue Service.

(c) Certain limitations and other rules for allocation to an asset.

(1) Allocation not to exceed fair market value.

(2) Allocation subject to other rules.

(3) Special rule for allocating AGUB when purchasing corporation has nonrecently purchased stock.

(i) Scope.

(ii) Determination of hypothetical purchase price.

(iii) Allocation of AGUB.

(4) Liabilities taken into account in determining amount realized on subsequent disposition.

(5) Allocation to certain nuclear decommissioning funds.

(d) Examples.

§1.338-7   Allocation of redetermined ADSP and AGUB among target assets.

(a) Scope.

(b) Allocation of redetermined ADSP and AGUB.

(c) Special rules for ADSP.

(1) Increases or decreases in deemed sale tax consequences taxable notwithstanding old target ceases to exist.

(2) Procedure for transactions in which section 338(h)(10) is not elected.

(i) Deemed sale tax consequences included in new target's return.

(ii) Carryovers and carrybacks.

(A) Loss carryovers to new target taxable years.

(B) Loss carrybacks to taxable years of old target.

(C) Credit carryovers and carrybacks.

(3) Procedure for transactions in which section 338(h)(10) is elected.

(d) Special rules for AGUB.

(1) Effect of disposition or depreciation of acquisition date assets.

(2) Section 38 property.

(e) Examples.

§1.338-8   Asset and stock consistency.

(a) Introduction.

(1) Overview.

(2) General application.

(3) Extension of the general rules.

(4) Application where certain dividends are paid.

(5) Application to foreign target affiliates.

(6) Stock consistency.

(b) Consistency for direct acquisitions.

(1) General rule.

(2) Section 338(h)(10) elections.

(c) Gain from disposition reflected in basis of target stock.

(1) General rule.

(2) Gain not reflected if section 338 election made for target.

(3) Gain reflected by reason of distributions.

(4) Controlled foreign corporations.

(5) Gain recognized outside the consolidated group.

(d) Basis of acquired assets.

(1) Carryover basis rule.

(2) Exceptions to carryover basis rule for certain assets.

(3) Exception to carryover basis rule for de minimis assets.

(4) Mitigation rule.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Time for transfer.

(e) Examples.

(1) In general.

(2) Direct acquisitions.

(f) Extension of consistency to indirect acquisitions.

(1) Introduction.

(2) General rule.

(3) Basis of acquired assets.

(4) Examples.

(g) Extension of consistency if dividends qualifying for 100 percent dividends received deduction are paid.

(1) General rule for direct acquisitions from target.

(2) Other direct acquisitions having same effect.

(3) Indirect acquisitions.

(4) Examples.

(h) Consistency for target affiliates that are controlled foreign corporations.

(1) In general.

(2) Income or gain resulting from asset dispositions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Basis of controlled foreign corporation stock.

(iii) Operating rule.

(iv) Increase in asset or stock basis.

(3) Stock issued by target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation.

(4) Certain distributions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Basis of controlled foreign corporation stock.

(iii) Increase in asset or stock basis.

(5) Examples.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Anti-avoidance rules.

(1) Extension of consistency period.

(2) Qualified stock purchase and 12-month acquisition period.

(3) Acquisitions by conduits.

(i) Asset ownership.

(A) General rule.

(B) Application of carryover basis rule.

(ii) Stock acquisitions.

(A) Purchase by conduit.

(B) Purchase of conduit by corporation.

(C) Purchase of conduit by conduit.

(4) Conduit.

(5) Existence of arrangement.

(6) Predecessor and successor.

(i) Persons.

(ii) Assets.

(7) Examples.

§1.338-9   International aspects of section 338.

(a) Scope.

(b) Application of section 338 to foreign targets.

(1) In general.

(2) Ownership of FT stock on the acquisition date.

(3) Carryover FT stock.

(i) Definition.

(ii) Carryover of earnings and profits.

(iii) Cap on carryover of earnings and profits.

(iv) Post-acquisition date distribution of old FT earnings and profits.

(v) Old FT earnings and profits unaffected by post-acquisition date deficits.

(vi) Character of FT stock as carryover FT stock eliminated upon disposition.

(4) Passive foreign investment company stock.

(c) Dividend treatment under section 1248(e).

(d) Allocation of foreign taxes.

(e) Operation of section 338(h)(16). [Reserved]

(f) Examples.

§1.338-10   Filing of returns.

(a) Returns including tax liability from deemed asset sale.

(1) In general.

(2) Old target's final taxable year otherwise included in consolidated return of selling group.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Separate taxable year.

(iii) Carryover and carryback of tax attributes.

(iv) Old target is a component member of purchasing corporation's controlled group.

(3) Old target is an S corporation.

(4) Combined deemed sale return.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Gain and loss offsets.

(iii) Procedure for filing a combined return.

(iv) Consequences of filing a combined return.

(5) Deemed sale excluded from purchasing corporation's consolidated return.

(6) Due date for old target's final return.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Application of §1.1502-76(c).

(A) In general.

(B) Deemed extension.

(C) Erroneous filing of deemed sale return.

(D) Erroneous filing of return for regular tax year.

(E) Last date for payment of tax.

(7) Examples.

(b) Waiver.

(1) Certain additions to tax.

(2) Notification.

(3) Elections or other actions required to be specified on a timely filed return.

(i) In general.

(ii) New target in purchasing corporation's consolidated return.

(4) Examples.

(c) Effective/applicability date.

§1.338-11   Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets.

(a) In general.

(b) Computation of ADSP and AGUB.

(1) Reserves taken into account as a liability.

(2) Allocation of ADSP and AGUB to specific insurance contracts.

(c) Application of assumption reinsurance principles.

(1) In general.

(2) Reinsurance premium.

(3) Ceding commission.

(4) Examples.

(d) Reserve increases by new target after the deemed asset sale.

(1) In general.

(2) Exceptions.

(3) Amount of additional premium.

(i) In general.

(ii) Increases in unpaid loss reserves.

(iii) Increases in other reserves.

(4) Limitation on additional premium.

(5) Treatment of additional premium under section 848.

(6) Examples.

(7) Effective/applicability date.

(i) In general.

(ii) Application to pre-effective date increases to reserves.

(e) Effect of section 338 election on section 846(e) election.

(1) In general.

(2) Revocation of existing section 846(e) election.

(f) Effect of section 338 election on old target's capitalization amounts under section 848.

(1) Determination of net consideration for specified insurance contracts.

(2) Determination of capitalization amount.

(3) Section 381 transactions.

(g) Effect of section 338 election on policyholders surplus account.

(h) Effect of section 338 election on section 847 special estimated tax payments.

§1.338-11T   Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets (temporary).

(a) through (c) [Reserved]

(d) Reserve increases by new target after the deemed asset sale.

(1) In general.

(2) Exceptions.

(3) Amount of additional premium.

(i) In general.

(ii) Increases in unpaid loss reserves.

(iii) Increases in other reserves.

(4) Limitation on additional premium.

(5) Treatment of additional premium under section 848.

(6) Examples.

(7) Effective dates.

(i) In general.

(ii) Application to pre-effective date increases to reserves.

(e) Effect of section 338 election on section 846(e) election.

(1) In general.

(2) Revocation of existing section 846(e) election.

(f) through (h) [Reserved]

§1.338(h)(10)-1   Deemed asset sale and liquidation.

(a) Scope.

(b) Definitions.

(1) Consolidated target.

(2) Selling consolidated group.

(3) Selling affiliate; affiliated target.

(4) S corporation target.

(5) S corporation shareholders.

(6) Liquidation.

(c) Section 338(h)(10) election.

(1) In general.

(2) Simultaneous joint election requirement.

(3) Irrevocability.

(4) Effect of invalid election.

(d) Certain consequences of section 338(h)(10) election.

(1) P.

(2) New T.

(3) Old T—deemed sale.

(i) In general.

(ii) Tiered targets.

(4) Old T and selling consolidated group, selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders—deemed liquidation; tax characterization.

(i) In general.

(ii) Tiered targets.

(5) Selling consolidated group, selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders.

(i) In general.

(ii) Basis and holding period of T stock not acquired.

(iii) T stock sale.

(6) Nonselling minority shareholders other than nonselling S corporation shareholders.

(i) In general.

(ii) T stock sale.

(iii) T stock not acquired.

(7) Consolidated return of selling consolidated group.

(8) Availability of the section 453 installment method.

(i) In deemed asset sale.

(ii) In deemed liquidation.

(9) Treatment consistent with an actual asset sale.

(e) Examples.

(f) Inapplicability of provisions.

(g) Required information.

§1.338(i)-1   >Effective dates.

(a) In general.

(b) Section 338(h)(10) elections for S corporation targets.

(c) Section 338 elections for insurance company targets.

(1) In general.

(2) New target election for retroactive election.

(i) Availability of election.

(ii) Time and manner of making the election for new target.

(3) Old target election for retroactive election.

(i) Availability of election.

(ii) Time and manner of making the election for old target.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9158, 70 FR 55741, Sept. 16, 2004; T.D. 9257, 71 FR 17999, Apr. 10, 2006; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30595, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9358, 72 FR 51705, Sept. 11, 2007; T.D. 9377, 73 FR 3871, Jan. 23, 2008; T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28489, May 15, 2013]

§1.338-1   General principles; status of old target and new target.

(a) In general—(1) Deemed transaction. Elections are available under section 338 when a purchasing corporation acquires the stock of another corporation (the target) in a qualified stock purchase. One type of election, under section 338(g), is available to the purchasing corporation. Another type of election, under section 338(h)(10), is, in more limited circumstances, available jointly to the purchasing corporation and the sellers of the stock. (Rules concerning eligibility for these elections are contained in §§1.338-2, 1.338-3, and 1.338(h)(10)-1.) However, if, as a result of the deemed purchase of old target's assets pursuant to a section 336(e) election, there would be both a qualified stock purchase and a qualified stock disposition (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6)) of the stock of a subsidiary of target, neither a section 338(g) election nor a section 338(h)(10) election may be made with respect to the qualified stock purchase of the subsidiary. Instead, a section 336(e) election may be made with respect to such purchase. See §1.336-1(b)(6)(ii). Although target is a single corporation under corporate law, if a section 338 election is made, then two separate corporations, old target and new target, generally are considered to exist for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code. Old target is treated as transferring all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for consideration that includes the discharge of its liabilities (see §1.1001-2(a)), and new target is treated as acquiring all of its assets from an unrelated person in exchange for consideration that includes the assumption of those liabilities. (Such transaction is, without regard to its characterization for Federal income tax purposes, referred to as the deemed asset sale and the income tax consequences thereof as the deemed sale tax consequences.) If a section 338(h)(10) election is made, old target is deemed to liquidate following the deemed asset sale.

(2) Application of other rules of law. Other rules of law apply to determine the tax consequences to the parties as if they had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur under section 338 and the regulations thereunder except to the extent otherwise provided in those regulations. See also §1.338-6(c)(2). Other rules of law may characterize the transaction as something other than or in addition to a sale and purchase of assets; however, the transaction between old and new target must be a taxable transaction. For example, if the target is an insurance company for which a section 338 election is made, the deemed asset sale results in an assumption reinsurance transaction for the insurance contracts deemed transferred from old target to new target. See, generally, §1.817-4(d), and for special rules regarding the acquisition of insurance company targets, §1.338-11. See also §1.367(a)-8(k)(13) for a rule applicable to gain recognition agreements (filed under §§1.367(a)-3(b)(1)(ii) and 1.367(a)-8) and deemed asset sales as a result of an election under section 338(g).

(3) Overview. Definitions and special nomenclature and rules for making the section 338 election are provided in §1.338-2. Qualification for the section 338 election is addressed in §1.338-3. The amount for which old target is treated as selling all of its assets (the aggregate deemed sale price, or ADSP) is addressed in §1.338-4. The amount for which new target is deemed to have purchased all its assets (the adjusted grossed-up basis, or AGUB) is addressed in §1.338-5. Section 1.338-6 addresses allocation both of ADSP among the assets old target is deemed to have sold and of AGUB among the assets new target is deemed to have purchased. Section 1.338-7 addresses allocation of ADSP or AGUB when those amounts subsequently change. Asset and stock consistency are addressed in §1.338-8. International aspects of section 338 are covered in §1.338-9. Rules for the filing of returns are provided in §1.338-10. Section 1.338-11 provides special rules for insurance company targets. Eligibility for and treatment of section 338(h)(10) elections is addressed in §1.338(h)(10)-1.

(b) Treatment of target under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code—(1) General rule for subtitle A. Except as provided in this section, new target is treated as a new corporation that is unrelated to old target for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code. Thus—

(i) New target is not considered related to old target for purposes of section 168 and may make new elections under section 168 without taking into account the elections made by old target; and

(ii) New target may adopt, without obtaining prior approval from the Commissioner, any taxable year that meets the requirements of section 441 and any method of accounting that meets the requirements of section 446. Notwithstanding §1.441-1T(b)(2), a new target may adopt a taxable year on or before the last day for making the election under section 338 by filing its first return for the desired taxable year on or before that date.

(2) Exceptions for subtitle A. New target and old target are treated as the same corporation for purposes of—

(i) The rules applicable to employee benefit plans (including those plans described in sections 79, 104, 105, 106, 125, 127, 129, 132, 137, and 220), qualified pension, profit-sharing, stock bonus and annuity plans (sections 401(a) and 403(a)), simplified employee pensions (section 408(k)), tax qualified stock option plans (sections 422 and 423), welfare benefit funds (sections 419, 419A, 512(a)(3), and 4976), and voluntary employee benefit associations (section 501(c)(9) and the regulations thereunder);

(ii) Sections 1311 through 1314 (relating to the mitigation of the effect of limitations), if a section 338(h)(10) election is not made for target;

(iii) Section 108(e)(5) (relating to the reduction of purchase money debt);

(iv) Section 45A (relating to the Indian Employment Credit), section 51 (relating to the Work Opportunity Credit), section 51A (relating to the Welfare to Work Credit), and section 1396 (relating to the Empowerment Zone Act);

(v) Sections 401(h) and 420 (relating to medical benefits for retirees);

(vi) Section 414 (relating to definitions and special rules); and

(vii) Section 846(e) (relating to an election to use an insurance company's historical loss payment pattern).

(viii) Any other provision designated in the Internal Revenue Bulletin by the Internal Revenue Service. See §601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter. See, for example, §1.1001-3(e)(4)(i)(F) providing that an election under section 338 does not result in the substitution of a new obligor on target's debt. See also, for example, §1.1502-77(c)(8), providing that an election under section 338 does not result in a deemed termination of target's existence for purposes of the rules applicable to the agent for a consolidated group.

(3) General rule for other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Except as provided in the regulations under section 338 or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin by the Internal Revenue Service (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii) of this chapter), new target is treated as a continuation of old target for purposes other than subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code. For example—

(i) New target is liable for old target's Federal income tax liabilities, including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences and those tax liabilities of the other members of any consolidated group that included old target that are attributable to taxable years in which those corporations and old target joined in the same consolidated return (see §1.1502-6(a));

(ii) Wages earned by the employees of old target are considered wages earned by such employees from new target for purposes of sections 3101 and 3111 (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) and section 3301 (Federal Unemployment Tax Act); and

(iii) Old target and new target must use the same employer identification number.

(c) Anti-abuse rule—(1) In general. The rules of this paragraph (c) apply for purposes of applying the regulations under sections 336(e), 338, and 1060. The Commissioner is authorized to treat any property (including cash) transferred by old target in connection with the transactions resulting in the application of the residual method (and not held by target at the close of the acquisition date) as, nonetheless, property of target at the close of the acquisition date if the property so transferred is, within 24 months after the deemed asset sale, owned by new target, or is owned, directly or indirectly, by a member of the affiliated group of which new target is a member and continues after the acquisition date to be held or used primarily in connection with one or more of the activities of new target. In addition, the Commissioner is authorized to treat any property (including cash) transferred to old target in connection with the transactions resulting in the application of the residual method (and held by target at the close of the acquisition date) as, nonetheless, not being property of target at the close of the acquisition date if the property so transferred is, within 24 months after the deemed asset sale, not owned by new target but owned, directly or indirectly, by a member of the affiliated group of which new target is a member, or owned by new target but held or used primarily in connection with an activity conducted, directly or indirectly, by another member of the affiliated group of which new target is a member in combination with other property retained by or acquired, directly or indirectly, from the transferor of the property (or a member of the same affiliated group) to old target. For purposes of this paragraph (c)(1), an interest in an entity is considered held or used in connection with an activity if property of the entity is so held or used. The authority of the Commissioner under this paragraph (c)(1) includes the making of any appropriate correlative adjustments (avoiding, to the extent possible, the duplication or omission of any item of income, gain, loss, deduction, or basis).

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (c):

Example 1. Prior to a qualified stock purchase under section 338, target transfers one of its assets to a related party. The purchasing corporation then purchases the target stock and also purchases the transferred asset from the related party. After its purchase of target, the purchasing corporation and target are members of the same affiliated group. A section 338 election is made. Under an arrangement with the purchaser, the separately transferred asset is used primarily in connection with target's activities. Applying the anti-abuse rule of this paragraph (c), the Commissioner may consider target to own the transferred asset for purposes of applying the residual method under section 338.
Example 2. T owns all the stock of T1. T1 leases intellectual property to T, which T uses in connection with its own activities. P, a purchasing corporation, wishes to buy the T-T1 chain of corporations. P, in connection with its planned purchase of the T stock, contracts to consummate a purchase of all the stock of T1 on March 1 and of all the stock of T on March 2. Section 338 elections are thereafter made for both T and T1. Immediately after the purchases, P, T and T1 are members of the same affiliated group. T continues to lease the intellectual property from T1 and that is the primary use of the intellectual property. Thus, an asset of T, the T1 stock, was removed from T's own assets prior to the qualified stock purchase of the T stock, T1's own assets are used after the deemed asset sale in connection with T's own activities, and the T1 stock is after the deemed asset sale owned by P, a member of the same affiliated group of which T is a member. Applying the anti-abuse rule of this paragraph (c), the Commissioner may, for purposes of application of the residual method under section 338 both to T and to T1, consider P to have bought only the stock of T, with T at the time of the qualified stock purchases of both T and T1 (the qualified stock purchase of T1 being triggered by the deemed sale under section 338 of T's assets) owning T1. The Commissioner accordingly would allocate consideration to T's assets as though the T1 stock were one of those assets, and then allocate consideration within T1 based on the amount allocated to the T1 stock at the T level.

(d) Next day rule for post-closing transactions. If a target corporation for which an election under section 338 is made engages in a transaction outside the ordinary course of business on the acquisition date after the event resulting in the qualified stock purchase of the target or a higher tier corporation, the target and all persons related thereto (either before or after the qualified stock purchase) under section 267(b) or section 707 must treat the transaction for all Federal income tax purposes as occurring at the beginning of the day following the transaction and after the deemed purchase by new target.

(e) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (a)(1) and (c)(1) of this section are applicable to any qualified stock disposition for which the disposition date (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(8)) is on or after May 15, 2013.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9002, 67 FR 43540, June 28, 2002; T.D. 9257, 71 FR 18000, Apr. 10, 2006; T.D. 9377, 73 FR 3871, Jan. 23, 2008; T.D. 9446, 74 FR 6957, Feb. 11, 2009; T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28489, May 15, 2013; T.D. 9715, 80 FR 17317, Apr. 1, 2015]

§1.338-2   Nomenclature and definitions; mechanics of the section 338 election.

(a) Scope. This section prescribes rules relating to elections under section 338.

(b) Nomenclature. For purposes of the regulations under section 338 (except as otherwise provided):

(1) T is a domestic target corporation that has only one class of stock outstanding. Old T refers to T for periods ending on or before the close of T's acquisition date; new T refers to T for subsequent periods.

(2) P is the purchasing corporation.

(3) The P group is an affiliated group of which P is a member.

(4) P1, P2, etc., are domestic corporations that are members of the P group.

(5) T1, T2, etc., are domestic corporations that are target affiliates of T. These corporations (T1, T2, etc.) have only one class of stock outstanding and may also be targets.

(6) S is a domestic corporation (unrelated to P and B) that owns T prior to the purchase of T by P. (S is referred to in cases in which it is appropriate to consider the effects of having all of the outstanding stock of T owned by a domestic corporation.)

(7) A, a U.S. citizen or resident, is an individual (unrelated to P and B) who owns T prior to the purchase of T by P. (A is referred to in cases in which it is appropriate to consider the effects of having all of the outstanding stock of T owned by an individual who is a U.S. citizen or resident. Ownership of T by A and ownership of T by S are mutually exclusive circumstances.)

(8) B, a U.S. citizen or resident, is an individual (unrelated to T, S, and A) who owns the stock of P.

(9) F, used as a prefix with the other terms in this paragraph (b), connotes foreign, rather than domestic, status. For example, FT is a foreign corporation (as defined in section 7701(a)(5)) and FA is an individual other than a U.S. citizen or resident.

(10) CFC, used as a prefix with the other terms in this paragraph (b) referring to a corporation, connotes a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957, taking into account section 953(c)). A corporation identified with the prefix F may be a controlled foreign corporation. (The prefix CFC is used when the corporation's status as a controlled foreign corporation is significant.)

(c) Definitions. For purposes of the regulations under section 338 (except as otherwise provided):

(1) Acquisition date. The term acquisition date has the same meaning as in section 338(h)(2).

(2) Acquisition date assets. Acquisition date assets are the assets of the target held at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date (but see §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the acquisition date)).

(3) Affiliated group. The term affiliated group has the same meaning as in section 338(h)(5). Corporations are affiliated on any day they are members of the same affiliated group.

(4) Common parent. The term common parent has the same meaning as in section 1504.

(5) Consistency period. The consistency period is the period described in section 338(h)(4)(A) unless extended pursuant to §1.338-8(j)(1).

(6) Deemed asset sale. The deemed asset sale is the transaction described in §1.338-1(a)(1) that is deemed to occur for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code if a section 338 election is made.

(7) Deemed sale tax consequences. Deemed sale tax consequences refers to, in the aggregate, the Federal income tax consequences (generally, the income, gain, deduction, and loss) of the deemed asset sale. Deemed sale tax consequences also refers to the Federal income tax consequences of the transfer of a particular asset in the deemed asset sale.

(8) Deemed sale return. The deemed sale return is the return on which target's deemed sale tax consequences are reported that does not include any other items of target. Target files a deemed sale return when a section 338 election (but not a section 338(h)(10) election) is filed for target and target is a member of a selling group (defined in paragraph (c)(16) of this section) that files a consolidated return for the period that includes the acquisition date. See §1.338-10. If target is an S corporation for the period that ends on the day before the acquisition date and a section 338 election (but not a section 338(h)(10) election) is filed for target, see §1.338-10(a)(3).

(9) Domestic corporation. A domestic corporation is a corporation—

(i) That is domestic within the meaning of section 7701(a)(4) or that is treated as domestic for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code (e.g., to which an election under section 953(d) or 1504(d) applies); and

(ii) That is not a DISC, a corporation described in section 1248(e), or a corporation to which an election under section 936 applies.

(10) Old target's final return. Old target's final return is the income tax return of old target for the taxable year ending at the close of the acquisition date that includes the deemed sale tax consequences. However, if a deemed sale return is filed for old target, the deemed sale return is considered old target's final return.

(11) Purchasing corporation. The term purchasing corporation has the same meaning as in section 338(d)(1). The purchasing corporation may also be referred to as purchaser. Unless otherwise provided, any reference to the purchasing corporation is a reference to all members of the affiliated group of which the purchasing corporation is a member. See sections 338(h)(5) and (8). Also, unless otherwise provided, any reference to the purchasing corporation is, with respect to a deemed purchase of stock under section 338(a)(2), a reference to new target with respect to its own deemed purchase of stock in another target.

(12) Qualified stock purchase. The term qualified stock purchase has the same meaning as in section 338(d)(3).

(13) Related persons. Two persons are related if stock in a corporation owned by one of the persons would be attributed under section 318(a) (other than section 318(a)(4)) to the other.

(14) Section 338 election. A section 338 election is an election to apply section 338(a) to target. A section 338 election is made by filing a statement of section 338 election pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section. The form on which this statement is filed is referred to in the regulations under section 338 as the Form 8023, “Elections Under Section 338 For Corporations Making Qualified Stock Purchases.”

(15) Section 338(h)(10) election. A section 338(h)(10) election is an election to apply section 338(h)(10) to target. A section 338(h)(10) election is made by making a joint election for target under §1.338(h)(10)-1 on Form 8023.

(16) Selling group. The selling group is the affiliated group (as defined in section 1504) eligible to file a consolidated return that includes target for the taxable period in which the acquisition date occurs. However, a selling group is not an affiliated group of which target is the common parent on the acquisition date.

(17) Target; old target; new target. Target is the target corporation as defined in section 338(d)(2). Old target refers to target for periods ending on or before the close of target's acquisition date. New target refers to target for subsequent periods.

(18) Target affiliate. The term target affiliate has the same meaning as in section 338(h)(6) (applied without section 338(h)(6)(B)(i)). Thus, a corporation described in section 338(h)(6)(B)(i) is considered a target affiliate for all purposes of section 338. If a target affiliate is acquired in a qualified stock purchase, it is also a target.

(19) 12-month acquisition period. The 12-month acquisition period is the period described in section 338(h)(1), unless extended pursuant to §1.338-8(j)(2).

(d) Time and manner of making election. The purchasing corporation makes a section 338 election for target by filing a statement of section 338 election on Form 8023 in accordance with the instructions to the form. The section 338 election must be made not later than the 15th day of the 9th month beginning after the month in which the acquisition date occurs. A section 338 election is irrevocable. See §1.338(h)(10)-1(c)(2) for section 338(h)(10) elections.

(e) Special rules for foreign corporations or DISCs—(1) Elections by certain foreign purchasing corporations—(i) General rule. A qualifying foreign purchasing corporation is not required to file a statement of section 338 election for a qualifying foreign target before the earlier of 3 years after the acquisition date and the 180th day after the close of the purchasing corporation's taxable year within which a triggering event occurs.

(ii) Qualifying foreign purchasing corporation. A purchasing corporation is a qualifying foreign purchasing corporation only if, during the acquisition period of a qualifying foreign target, all the corporations in the purchasing corporation's affiliated group are foreign corporations that are not subject to United States tax.

(iii) Qualifying foreign target. A target is a qualifying foreign target only if target and its target affiliates are foreign corporations that, during target's acquisition period, are not subject to United States tax (and will not become subject to United States tax during such period because of a section 338 election). A target affiliate is taken into account for purposes of the preceding sentence only if, during target's 12-month acquisition period, it is or becomes a member of the affiliated group that includes the purchasing corporation.

(iv) Triggering event. A triggering event occurs in the taxable year of the qualifying foreign purchasing corporation in which either that corporation or any corporation in its affiliated group becomes subject to United States tax.

(v) Subject to United States tax. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(1), a foreign corporation is considered subject to United States tax—

(A) For the taxable year for which that corporation is required under §1.6012-2(g) (other than §1.6012-2(g)(2)(i)(B)(2)) to file a United States income tax return; or

(B) For the period during which that corporation is a controlled foreign corporation, a passive foreign investment company for which an election under section 1295 is in effect, a foreign investment company, or a foreign corporation the stock ownership of which is described in section 552(a)(2).

(2) Acquisition period. For purposes of this paragraph (e), the term acquisition period means the period beginning on the first day of the 12-month acquisition period and ending on the acquisition date.

(3) Statement of section 338 election may be filed by United States shareholders in certain cases. The United States shareholders (as defined in section 951(b)) of a foreign purchasing corporation that is a controlled foreign corporation (as defined in section 957 (taking into account section 953(c))) may file a statement of section 338 election on behalf of the purchasing corporation if the purchasing corporation is not required under §1.6012-2(g) (other than §1.6012-2(g)(2)(i)(B)(2)) to file a United States income tax return for its taxable year that includes the acquisition date. Form 8023 must be filed as described in the form and its instructions and also must be attached to the Form 5471, “Information Returns of U.S. Persons With Respect to Certain Foreign Corporations,” filed with respect to the purchasing corporation by each United States shareholder for the purchasing corporation's taxable year that includes the acquisition date (or, if paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section applies to the election, for the purchasing corporation's taxable year within which it becomes a controlled foreign corporation). The provisions of §1.964-1(c) (including §1.964-1(c)(7)) do not apply to an election made by the United States shareholders.

(4) Notice requirement for U.S. persons holding stock in foreign target—(i) General rule. If a target subject to a section 338 election was a controlled foreign corporation, a passive foreign investment company, or a foreign personal holding company at any time during the portion of its taxable year that ends on its acquisition date, the purchasing corporation must deliver written notice of the election (and a copy of Form 8023, its attachments and instructions) to—

(A) Each U.S. person (other than a member of the affiliated group of which the purchasing corporation is a member (the purchasing group member)) that, on the acquisition date of the foreign target, holds stock in the foreign target; and

(B) Each U.S. person (other than a purchasing group member) that sells stock in the foreign target to a purchasing group member during the foreign target's 12-month acquisition period.

(ii) Limitation. The notice requirement of this paragraph (e)(4) applies only where the section 338 election for the foreign target affects income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of the U.S. person described in paragraph (e)(4)(i) of this section under section 551, 951, 1248, or 1293.

(iii) Form of notice. The notice to U.S. persons must be identified prominently as a notice of section 338 election and must—

(A) Contain the name, address, and employer identification number (if any) of, and the country (and, if relevant, the lesser political subdivision) under the laws of which are organized the purchasing corporation and the relevant target (i.e., the target the stock of which the particular U.S. person held or sold under the circumstances described in paragraph (e)(4)(i) of this section);

(B) Identify those corporations as the purchasing corporation and the foreign target, respectively; and

(C) Contain the following declaration (or a substantially similar declaration):

THIS DOCUMENT SERVES AS NOTICE OF AN ELECTION UNDER SECTION 338 FOR THE ABOVE CITED FOREIGN TARGET THE STOCK OF WHICH YOU EITHER HELD OR SOLD UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES DESCRIBED IN TREASURY REGULATIONS SECTION 1.338-2(e)(4). FOR POSSIBLE UNITED STATES FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES UNDER SECTION 551, 951, 1248, OR 1293 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE OF 1986 THAT MAY APPLY TO YOU, SEE TREASURY REGULATIONS SECTION 1.338-9(b). YOU MAY BE REQUIRED TO ATTACH THE INFORMATION ATTACHED TO THIS NOTICE TO CERTAIN RETURNS.

(iv) Timing of notice. The notice required by this paragraph (e)(4) must be delivered to the U.S. person on or before the later of the 120th day after the acquisition date of the particular target or the day on which Form 8023 is filed. The notice is considered delivered on the date it is mailed to the proper address (or an address similar enough to complete delivery), unless the date it is mailed cannot be reasonably determined. The date of mailing will be determined under the rules of section 7502. For example, the date of mailing is the date of U.S. postmark or the applicable date recorded or marked by a designated delivery service.

(v) Consequence of failure to comply. A statement of section 338 election is not valid if timely notice is not given to one or more U.S. persons described in this paragraph (e)(4). If the form of notice fails to comply with all requirements of this paragraph (e)(4), the section 338 election is valid, but the waiver rule of §1.338-10(b)(1) does not apply.

(vi) Good faith effort to comply. The purchasing corporation will be considered to have complied with this paragraph (e)(4), even though it failed to provide notice or provide timely notice to each person described in this paragraph (e)(4), if the Commissioner determines that the purchasing corporation made a good faith effort to identify and provide timely notice to those U.S. persons.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001]

§1.338-3   Qualification for the section 338 election.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules on whether certain acquisitions of stock are qualified stock purchases and on other miscellaneous issues under section 338.

(b) Rules relating to qualified stock purchases—(1) Purchasing corporation requirement. An individual cannot make a qualified stock purchase of target. Section 338(d)(3) requires, as a condition of a qualified stock purchase, that a corporation purchase the stock of target. If an individual forms a corporation (new P) to acquire target stock, new P can make a qualified stock purchase of target if new P is considered for tax purposes to purchase the target stock. Facts that may indicate that new P does not purchase the target stock include new P's merging downstream into target, liquidating, or otherwise disposing of the target stock following the purported qualified stock purchase.

(2) Purchase. The term purchase has the same meaning as in section 338(h)(3). Stock in a target (or target affiliate) may be considered purchased if, under general principles of tax law, the purchasing corporation is considered to own stock of the target (or target affiliate) meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2), notwithstanding that no amount may be paid for (or allocated to) the stock.

(3) Acquisitions of stock from related corporations—(i) In general. Stock acquired by a purchasing corporation from a related corporation (R) is generally not considered acquired by purchase. See section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii).

(ii) Time for testing relationship. For purposes of section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii), a purchasing corporation is treated as related to another person if the relationship specified in section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii) exists—

(A) In the case of a single transaction, immediately after the purchase of target stock;

(B) In the case of a series of acquisitions otherwise constituting a qualified stock purchase within the meaning of section 338(d)(3), immediately after the last acquisition in such series; and

(C) In the case of a series of transactions effected pursuant to an integrated plan to dispose of target stock, immediately after the last transaction in such series.

(iii) Cases where section 338(h)(3)(C) applies—acquisitions treated as purchases. If section 338(h)(3)(C) applies and the purchasing corporation is treated as acquiring stock by purchase from R, solely for purposes of determining when the stock is considered acquired, target stock acquired from R is considered to have been acquired by the purchasing corporation on the day on which the purchasing corporation is first considered to own that stock under section 318(a) (other than section 318(a)(4)).

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(3):

Example 1. (i) S is the parent of a group of corporations that are engaged in various businesses. Prior to January 1, Year 1, S decided to discontinue its involvement in one line of business. To accomplish this, S forms a new corporation, Newco, with a nominal amount of cash. Shortly thereafter, on January 1, Year 1, S transfers all the stock of the subsidiary conducting the unwanted business (T) to Newco in exchange for 100 shares of Newco common stock and a Newco promissory note. Prior to January 1, Year 1, S and Underwriter (U) had entered into a binding agreement pursuant to which U would purchase 60 shares of Newco common stock from S and then sell those shares in an Initial Public Offering (IPO). On January 6, Year 1, the IPO closes.

(ii) Newco's acquisition of T stock is one of a series of transactions undertaken pursuant to one integrated plan. The series of transactions ends with the closing of the IPO and the transfer of all the shares of stock in accordance with the agreements. Immediately after the last transaction effected pursuant to the plan, S owns 40 percent of Newco, which does not give rise to a relationship described in section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii). See §1.338-3(b)(3)(ii)(C). Accordingly, S and Newco are not related for purposes of section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii).

(iii) Further, because Newco's basis in the T stock is not determined by reference to S's basis in the T stock and because the transaction is not an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, or 356 applies, Newco's acquisition of the T stock is a purchase within the meaning of section 338(h)(3).

Example 2. (i) On January 1 of Year 1, P purchases 75 percent in value of the R stock. On that date, R owns 4 of the 100 shares of T stock. On June 1 of Year 1, R acquires an additional 16 shares of T stock. On December 1 of Year 1, P purchases 70 shares of T stock from an unrelated person and 12 of the 20 shares of T stock held by R.

(ii) Of the 12 shares of T stock purchased by P from R on December 1 of Year 1, 3 of those shares are deemed to have been acquired by P on January 1 of Year 1, the date on which 3 of the 4 shares of T stock held by R on that date were first considered owned by P under section 318(a)(2)(C) (i.e., 4 × .75). The remaining 9 shares of T stock purchased by P from R on December 1 of Year 1 are deemed to have been acquired by P on June 1 of Year 1, the date on which an additional 12 of the 20 shares of T stock owned by R on that date were first considered owned by P under section 318(a)(2)(C) (i.e., (20 × .75)−3). Because stock acquisitions by P sufficient for a qualified stock purchase of T occur within a 12-month period (i.e., 3 shares constructively on January 1 of Year 1, 9 shares constructively on June 1 of Year 1, and 70 shares actually on December 1 of Year 1), a qualified stock purchase is made on December 1 of Year 1.

Example 3. (i) On February 1 of Year 1, P acquires 25 percent in value of the R stock from B (the sole shareholder of P). That R stock is not acquired by purchase. See section 338(h)(3)(A)(iii). On that date, R owns 4 of the 100 shares of T stock. On June 1 of Year 1, P purchases an additional 25 percent in value of the R stock, and on January 1 of Year 2, P purchases another 25 percent in value of the R stock. On June 1 of Year 2, R acquires an additional 16 shares of the T stock. On December 1 of Year 2, P purchases 68 shares of the T stock from an unrelated person and 12 of the 20 shares of the T stock held by R.

(ii) Of the 12 shares of the T stock purchased by P from R on December 1 of Year 2, 2 of those shares are deemed to have been acquired by P on June 1 of Year 1, the date on which 2 of the 4 shares of the T stock held by R on that date were first considered owned by P under section 318(a)(2)(C) (i.e., 4 × .5). For purposes of this attribution, the R stock need not be acquired by P by purchase. See section 338(h)(1). (By contrast, the acquisition of the T stock by P from R does not qualify as a purchase unless P has acquired at least 50 percent in value of the R stock by purchase. Section 338(h)(3)(C)(i).) Of the remaining 10 shares of the T stock purchased by P from R on December 1 of Year 2, 1 of those shares is deemed to have been acquired by P on January 1 of Year 2, the date on which an additional 1 share of the 4 shares of the T stock held by R on that date was first considered owned by P under section 318(a)(2)(C) (i.e., (4 × .75)−2). The remaining 9 shares of the T stock purchased by P from R on December 1 of Year 2, are deemed to have been acquired by P on June 1 of Year 2, the date on which an additional 12 shares of the T stock held by R on that date were first considered owned by P under section 318(a)(2)(C) (i.e., (20 × .75)−3). Because a qualified stock purchase of T by P is made on December 1 of Year 2 only if all 12 shares of the T stock purchased by P from R on that date are considered acquired during a 12-month period ending on that date (so that, in conjunction with the 68 shares of the T stock P purchased on that date from the unrelated person, 80 of T's 100 shares are acquired by P during a 12-month period) and because 2 of those 12 shares are considered to have been acquired by P more than 12 months before December 1 of Year 2 (i.e., on June 1 of Year 1), a qualified stock purchase is not made. (Under §1.338-8(j)(2), for purposes of applying the consistency rules, P is treated as making a qualified stock purchase of T if, pursuant to an arrangement, P purchases T stock satisfying the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) over a period of more than 12 months.)

Example 4. Assume the same facts as in Example 3, except that on February 1 of Year 1, P acquires 25 percent in value of the R stock by purchase. The result is the same as in Example 3.

(4) Acquisition date for tiered targets—(i) Stock sold in deemed asset sale. If an election under section 338 is made for target, old target is deemed to sell target's assets and new target is deemed to acquire those assets. Under section 338(h)(3)(B), new target's deemed purchase of stock of another corporation is a purchase for purposes of section 338(d)(3) on the acquisition date of target. If new target's deemed purchase causes a qualified stock purchase of the other corporation and if a section 338 election is made for the other corporation, the acquisition date for the other corporation is the same as the acquisition date of target. However, the deemed sale and purchase of the other corporation's assets is considered to take place after the deemed sale and purchase of target's assets.

(ii) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (b)(4):

Example. A owns all of the T stock. T owns 50 of the 100 shares of X stock. The other 50 shares of X stock are owned by corporation Y, which is unrelated to A, T, or P. On January 1 of Year 1, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from A and makes a section 338 election for T. On December 1 of Year 1, P purchases the 50 shares of X stock held by Y. A qualified stock purchase of X is made on December 1 of Year 1, because the deemed purchase of 50 shares of X stock by new T because of the section 338 election for T and the actual purchase of 50 shares of X stock by P are treated as purchases made by one corporation. Section 338(h)(8). For purposes of determining whether those purchases occur within a 12-month acquisition period as required by section 338(d)(3), T is deemed to purchase its X stock on T's acquisition date, i.e., January 1 of Year 1.

(5) Effect of redemptions—(i) General rule. Except as provided in this paragraph (b)(5), a qualified stock purchase is made on the first day on which the percentage ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3) are satisfied by reference to target stock that is both—

(A) Held on that day by the purchasing corporation; and

(B) Purchased by the purchasing corporation during the 12-month period ending on that day.

(ii) Redemptions from persons unrelated to the purchasing corporation. Target stock redemptions from persons unrelated to the purchasing corporation that occur during the 12-month acquisition period are taken into account as reductions in target's outstanding stock for purposes of determining whether target stock purchased by the purchasing corporation in the 12-month acquisition period satisfies the percentage ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3).

(iii) Redemptions from the purchasing corporation or related persons during 12-month acquisition period—(A) General rule. For purposes of the percentage ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3), a redemption of target stock during the 12-month acquisition period from the purchasing corporation or from any person related to the purchasing corporation is not taken into account as a reduction in target's outstanding stock.

(B) Exception for certain redemptions from related corporations. A redemption of target stock during the 12-month acquisition period from a corporation related to the purchasing corporation is taken into account as a reduction in target's outstanding stock to the extent that the redeemed stock would have been considered purchased by the purchasing corporation (because of section 338(h)(3)(C)) during the 12-month acquisition period if the redeemed stock had been acquired by the purchasing corporation from the related corporation on the day of the redemption. See paragraph (b)(3) of this section.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(5):

Example 1. QSP on stock purchase date; redemption from unrelated person during 12-month period. A owns all 100 shares of T stock. On January 1 of Year 1, P purchases 40 shares of the T stock from A. On July 1 of Year 1, T redeems 25 shares from A. On December 1 of Year 1, P purchases 20 shares of the T stock from A. P makes a qualified stock purchase of T on December 1 of Year 1, because the 60 shares of T stock purchased by P within the 12-month period ending on that date satisfy the 80-percent ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3) (i.e., 60/75 shares), determined by taking into account the redemption of 25 shares.
Example 2. QSP on stock redemption date; redemption from unrelated person during 12-month period. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that P purchases 60 shares of T stock on January 1 of Year 1 and none on December 1 of Year 1. P makes a qualified stock purchase of T on July 1 of Year 1, because that is the first day on which the T stock purchased by P within the preceding 12-month period satisfies the 80-percent ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3) (i.e., 60/75 shares), determined by taking into account the redemption of 25 shares.
Example 3. Redemption from purchasing corporation not taken into account. On December 15 of Year 1, T redeems 30 percent of its stock from P. The redeemed stock was held by P for several years and constituted P's total interest in T. On December 1 of Year 2, P purchases the remaining T stock from A. P does not make a qualified stock purchase of T on December 1 of Year 2. For purposes of the 80-percent ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3), the redemption of P's T stock on December 15 of Year 1 is not taken into account as a reduction in T's outstanding stock.
Example 4. Redemption from related person taken into account. On January 1 of Year 1, P purchases 60 of the 100 shares of X stock. On that date, X owns 40 of the 100 shares of T stock. On April 1 of Year 1, T redeems X's T stock and P purchases the remaining 60 shares of T stock from an unrelated person. For purposes of the 80-percent ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3), the redemption of the T stock from X (a person related to P) is taken into account as a reduction in T's outstanding stock. If P had purchased the 40 redeemed shares from X on April 1 of Year 1, all 40 of the shares would have been considered purchased (because of section 338(h)(3)(C)(i)) during the 12-month period ending on April 1 of Year 1 (24 of the 40 shares would have been considered purchased by P on January 1 of Year 1 and the remaining 16 shares would have been considered purchased by P on April 1 of Year 1). See paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Accordingly, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T on April 1 of Year 1, because the 60 shares of T stock purchased by P on that date satisfy the 80-percent ownership requirements of section 338(d)(3) (i.e., 60/60 shares), determined by taking into account the redemption of 40 shares.

(c) Effect of post-acquisition events on eligibility for section 338 election—(1) Post-acquisition elimination of target. (i) The purchasing corporation may make an election under section 338 for target even though target is liquidated on or after the acquisition date. If target liquidates on the acquisition date, the liquidation is considered to occur on the following day and immediately after new target's deemed purchase of assets. The purchasing corporation may also make an election under section 338 for target even though target is merged into another corporation, or otherwise disposed of by the purchasing corporation provided that, under the facts and circumstances, the purchasing corporation is considered for tax purposes as the purchaser of the target stock. See §1.338(h)(10)-1(c)(2) for special rules concerning section 338(h)(10) elections in certain multi-step transactions.

(ii) The following examples illustrate this paragraph (c)(1):

Example 1. On January 1 of Year 1, P purchases 100 percent of the outstanding common stock of T. On June 1 of Year 1, P sells the T stock to an unrelated person. Assuming that P is considered for tax purposes as the purchaser of the T stock, P remains eligible, after June 1 of Year 1, to make a section 338 election for T that results in a deemed asset sale of T's assets on January 1 of Year 1.
Example 2. On January 1 of Year 1, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T. On that date, T owns the stock of T1. On March 1 of Year 1, T sells the T1 stock to an unrelated person. On April 1 of Year 1, P makes a section 338 election for T. Notwithstanding that the T1 stock was sold on March 1 of Year 1, the section 338 election for T on April 1 of Year 1 results in a qualified stock purchase by T of T1 on January 1 of Year 1. See paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section.

(2) Post-acquisition elimination of the purchasing corporation. An election under section 338 may be made for target after the acquisition of assets of the purchasing corporation by another corporation in a transaction described in section 381(a), provided that the purchasing corporation is considered for tax purposes as the purchaser of the target stock. The acquiring corporation in the section 381(a) transaction may make an election under section 338 for target.

(d) Consequences of post-acquisition elimination of target where section 338 election not made—(1) Scope. The rules of this paragraph (d) apply to the transfer of target assets to the purchasing corporation (or another member of the same affiliated group as the purchasing corporation) (the transferee) following a qualified stock purchase of target stock, if the purchasing corporation does not make a section 338 election for target. Notwithstanding the rules of this paragraph (d), section 354(a) (and so much of section 356 as relates to section 354) cannot apply to any person other than the purchasing corporation or another member of the same affiliated group as the purchasing corporation unless the transfer of target assets is pursuant to a reorganization as determined without regard to this paragraph (d).

(2) Continuity of interest. By virtue of section 338, in determining whether the continuity of interest requirement of §1.368-1(b) is satisfied on the transfer of assets from target to the transferee, the purchasing corporation's target stock acquired in the qualified stock purchase represents an interest on the part of a person who was an owner of the target's business enterprise prior to the transfer that can be continued in a reorganization.

(3) Control requirement. By virtue of section 338, the acquisition of target stock in the qualified stock purchase will not prevent the purchasing corporation from qualifying as a shareholder of the target transferor for the purpose of determining whether, immediately after the transfer of target assets, a shareholder of the transferor is in control of the corporation to which the assets are transferred within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(D).

(4) Solely for voting stock requirement. By virtue of section 338, the acquisition of target stock in the qualified stock purchase for consideration other than voting stock will not prevent the subsequent transfer of target assets from satisfying the solely for voting stock requirement for purposes of determining if the transfer of target assets qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(C).

(5) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (d):

Example. (i) Facts. P, T, and X are domestic corporations. T and X each operate a trade or business. A and K, individuals unrelated to P, own 85 and 15 percent, respectively, of the stock of T. P owns all of the stock of X. The total adjusted basis of T's property exceeds the sum of T's liabilities plus the amount of liabilities to which T's property is subject. P purchases all of A's T stock for cash in a qualified stock purchase. P does not make an election under section 338(g) with respect to its acquisition of T stock. Shortly after the acquisition date, and as part of the same plan, T merges under applicable state law into X in a transaction that, but for the question of continuity of interest, satisfies all the requirements of section 368(a)(1)(A). In the merger, all of T's assets are transferred to X. P and K receive X stock in exchange for their T stock. P intends to retain the stock of X indefinitely.

(ii) Status of transfer as a reorganization. By virtue of section 338, for the purpose of determining whether the continuity of interest requirement of §1.368-1(b) is satisfied, P's T stock acquired in the qualified stock purchase represents an interest on the part of a person who was an owner of T's business enterprise prior to the transfer that can be continued in a reorganization through P's continuing ownership of X. Thus, the continuity of interest requirement is satisfied and the merger of T into X is a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(A). Moreover, by virtue of section 338, the requirement of section 368(a)(1)(D) that a target shareholder control the transferee immediately after the transfer is satisfied because P controls X immediately after the transfer. In addition, all of T's assets are transferred to X in the merger and P and K receive the X stock exchanged therefor in pursuance of the plan of reorganization. Thus, the merger of T into X is also a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(D).

(iii) Treatment of T and X. Under section 361(a), T recognizes no gain or loss in the merger. Under section 362(b), X's basis in the assets received in the merger is the same as the basis of the assets in T's hands. X succeeds to and takes into account the items of T as provided in section 381.

(iv) Treatment of P. By virtue of section 338, the transfer of T assets to X is a reorganization. Pursuant to that reorganization, P exchanges its T stock solely for stock of X, a party to the reorganization. Because P is the purchasing corporation, section 354 applies to P's exchange of T stock for X stock in the merger of T into X. Thus, P recognizes no gain or loss on the exchange. Under section 358, P's basis in the X stock received in the exchange is the same as the basis of P's T stock exchanged therefor.

(v) Treatment of K. Because K is not the purchasing corporation (or an affiliate thereof), section 354 cannot apply to K's exchange of T stock for X stock in the merger of T into X unless the transfer of T's assets is pursuant to a reorganization as determined without regard to this paragraph (d). Under general principles of tax law applicable to reorganizations, the continuity of interest requirement is not satisfied because P's stock purchase and the merger of T into X are pursuant to an integrated transaction in which A, the owner of 85 percent of the stock of T, received solely cash in exchange for A's T stock. See, e.g., §1.368-1(e)(1)(i); Yoc Heating v. Commissioner, 61 T.C. 168 (1973); Kass v. Commissioner, 60 T.C. 218 (1973), aff'd, 491 F.2d 749 (3d Cir. 1974). Thus, the requisite continuity of interest under §1.368-1(b) is lacking and section 354 does not apply to K's exchange of T stock for X stock. K recognizes gain or loss, if any, pursuant to section 1001(c) with respect to its T stock.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001; 66 FR 17363, Mar. 30, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9071, 68 FR 40768, July 9, 2003; T.D. 9271, 71 FR 38075, July 5, 2006]

§1.338-4   Aggregate deemed sale price; various aspects of taxation of the deemed asset sale.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 338(a)(1) to determine the aggregate deemed sale price (ADSP) for target. ADSP is the amount for which old target is deemed to have sold all of its assets in the deemed asset sale. ADSP is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-6 to determine the amount for which each asset is deemed to have been sold. When a subsequent increase or decrease is required under general principles of tax law with respect to an element of ADSP, the redetermined ADSP is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-7. This §1.338-4 also provides rules regarding the recognition of gain or loss on the deemed sale of target affiliate stock. Notwithstanding section 338(h)(6)(B)(ii), stock held by a target affiliate in a foreign corporation or in a corporation that is a DISC or that is described in section 1248(e) is not excluded from the operation of section 338.

(b) Determination of ADSP—(1) General rule. ADSP is the sum of—

(i) The grossed-up amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock (as defined in section 338(b)(6)(A)); and

(ii) The liabilities of old target.

(2) Time and amount of ADSP—(i) Original determination. ADSP is initially determined at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date of target. General principles of tax law apply in determining the timing and amount of the elements of ADSP.

(ii) Redetermination of ADSP. ADSP is redetermined at such time and in such amount as an increase or decrease would be required, under general principles of tax law, for the elements of ADSP. For example, ADSP is redetermined because of an increase or decrease in the amount realized for recently purchased stock or because liabilities not originally taken into account in determining ADSP are subsequently taken into account. Increases or decreases with respect to the elements of ADSP result in the reallocation of ADSP among target's assets under §1.338-7.

(iii) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (b)(2):

Example. In Year 1, T, a manufacturer, purchases a customized delivery truck from X with purchase money indebtedness having a stated principal amount of $100,000. P acquires all of the stock of T in Year 3 for $700,000 and makes a section 338 election for T. Assume T has no liabilities other than its purchase money indebtedness to X. In Year 4, when T is neither insolvent nor in a title 11 case, T and X agree to reduce the amount of the purchase money indebtedness to $80,000. Assume further that the reduction would be a purchase price reduction under section 108(e)(5). T and X's agreement to reduce the amount of the purchase money indebtedness would not, under general principles of tax law that would apply if the deemed asset sale had actually occurred, change the amount of liabilities of old target taken into account in determining its amount realized. Accordingly, ADSP is not redetermined at the time of the reduction. See §1.338-5(b)(2)(iii) Example 1 for the effect on AGUB.

(c) Grossed-up amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock—(1) Determination of amount. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock is an amount equal to—

(i) The amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock determined as if the selling shareholder(s) were required to use old target's accounting methods and characteristics and the installment method were not available and determined without regard to the selling costs taken into account under paragraph (c)(1)(iii) of this section;

(ii) Divided by the percentage of target stock (by value, determined on the acquisition date) attributable to that recently purchased target stock;

(iii) Less the selling costs incurred by the selling shareholders in connection with the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock that reduce their amount realized on the sale of the stock (e.g., brokerage commissions and any similar costs to sell the stock).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates this paragraph (c):

Example. T has two classes of stock outstanding, voting common stock and preferred stock described in section 1504(a)(4). On March 1 of Year 1, P purchases 40 percent of the outstanding T stock from S1 for $500, 20 percent of the outstanding T stock from S2 for $225, and 20 percent of the outstanding T stock from S3 for $275. On that date, the fair market value of all the T voting common stock is $1,250 and the preferred stock $750. S1, S2, and S3 incur $40, $35, and $25 respectively of selling costs. S1 continues to own the remaining 20 percent of the outstanding T stock. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale to P of P's recently purchased T stock is calculated as follows: The total amount realized (without regard to selling costs) is $1,000 (500 + 225 + 275). The percentage of T stock by value on the acquisition date attributable to the recently purchased T stock is 50% (1,000/(1,250 + 750)). The selling costs are $100 (40 + 35 + 25). The grossed-up amount realized is $1,900 (1,000/.5 − 100).

(d) Liabilities of old target—(1) In general. In general, the liabilities of old target are measured as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date. (But see §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the acquisition date).) In order to be taken into account in ADSP, a liability must be a liability of target that is properly taken into account in amount realized under general principles of tax law that would apply if old target had sold its assets to an unrelated person for consideration that included the discharge of its liabilities. See §1.1001-2(a). Such liabilities may include liabilities for the tax consequences resulting from the deemed sale.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities. The time for taking into account liabilities of old target in determining ADSP and the amount of the liabilities taken into account is determined as if old target had sold its assets to an unrelated person for consideration that included the discharge of the liabilities by the unrelated person. For example, if no amount of a target liability is properly taken into account in amount realized as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date, the liability is not initially taken into account in determining ADSP (although it may be taken into account at some later date).

(e) Deemed sale tax consequences. Gain or loss on each asset in the deemed sale is computed by reference to the ADSP allocated to that asset. ADSP is allocated under the rules of §1.338-6. Though deemed sale tax consequences may increase or decrease ADSP by creating or reducing a tax liability, the amount of the tax liability itself may be a function of the size of the deemed sale tax consequences. Thus, these determinations may require trial and error computations.

(f) Other rules apply in determining ADSP. ADSP may not be applied in such a way as to contravene other applicable rules. For example, a capital loss cannot be applied to reduce ordinary income in calculating the tax liability on the deemed sale for purposes of determining ADSP.

(g) Examples. The following examples illustrate this section. For purposes of the examples in this paragraph (g), unless otherwise stated, T is a calendar year taxpayer that files separate returns and that has no loss, tax credit, or other carryovers to Year 1. Depreciation for Year 1 is not taken into account. T has no liabilities other than the Federal income tax liability resulting from the deemed asset sale, and the T shareholders have no selling costs. Assume that T's tax rate for any ordinary income or net capital gain resulting from the deemed sale of assets is 34 percent and that any capital loss is offset by capital gain. On July 1 of Year 1, P purchases all of the stock of T and makes a section 338 election for T. The examples are as follows:

Example 1. One class. (i) On July 1 of Year 1, T's only asset is an item of section 1245 property with an adjusted basis to T of $50,400, a recomputed basis of $80,000, and a fair market value of $100,000. P purchases all of the T stock for $75,000, which also equals the amount realized for the stock determined as if the selling shareholder(s) were required to use old target's accounting methods and characteristics.

(ii) ADSP is determined as follows (for purposes of this section (g), G is the grossed-up amount realized on the sale to P of P's recently purchased T stock, L is T's liabilities other than T's tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences, TR is the applicable tax rate, and B is the adjusted basis of the asset deemed sold):

ADSP = G + L + TR × (ADSP−B)

ADSP = ($75,000/1) + $0 + .34 × (ADSP − $50,400)

ADSP = $75,000 + .34ADSP − $17,136 .66ADSP = $57,864

ADSP = $87,672.72

(iii) Because ADSP for T ($87,672.72) does not exceed the fair market value of T's asset ($100,000), a Class V asset, T's entire ADSP is allocated to that asset. Thus, T's deemed sale results in $37,272.72 of taxable income (consisting of $29,600 of ordinary income and $7,672.72 of capital gain).

(iv) The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 1, except that on July 1 of Year 1, P purchases only 80 of the 100 shares of T stock for $60,000. The grossed-up amount realized on the sale to P of P's recently purchased T stock (G) is $75,000 ($60,000/.8). Consequently, ADSP and the deemed sale tax consequences are the same as in paragraphs (ii) and (iii) of this Example 1.

(v) The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 1, except that T also has goodwill (a Class VII asset) with an appraised value of $10,000. The results are the same as in paragraphs (ii) and (iii) of this Example 1. Because ADSP does not exceed the fair market value of the Class V asset, no amount is allocated to the Class VII asset (goodwill).

Example 2. More than one class. (i) P purchases all of the T stock for $140,000, which also equals the amount realized for the stock determined as if the selling shareholder(s) were required to use old target's accounting methods and characteristics. On July 1 of Year 1, T has liabilities (not including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences) of $50,000, cash (a Class I asset) of $10,000, actively traded securities (a Class II asset) with a basis of $4,000 and a fair market value of $10,000, goodwill (a Class VII asset) with a basis of $3,000, and the following Class V assets:
Asset Basis FMV Ratio of asset FMV to total Class V FMV
Land$5,000$35,000.14
Building10,00050,000.20
Equipment A (Recomputed basis $80,000)5,00090,000.36
Equipment B (Recomputed basis $20,000)10,00075,000.30
Totals$30,000$250,0001.00
(ii) ADSP exceeds $20,000. Thus, $10,000 of ADSP is allocated to the cash and $10,000 to the actively traded securities. The amount allocated to an asset (other than a Class VII asset) cannot exceed its fair market value (however, the fair market value of any property subject to nonrecourse indebtedness is treated as being not less than the amount of such indebtedness; see §1.338-6(a)(2)). See §1.338-6(c)(1) (relating to fair market value limitation).

(iii) The portion of ADSP allocable to the Class V assets is preliminarily determined as follows (in the formula, the amount allocated to the Class I assets is referred to as I and the amount allocated to the Class II assets as II):

ADSPV = (G−(I + II)) + L+ TR × [(II − BII) + (ADSPV − BV)]

ADSPV = ($140,000 − ($10,000 + $10,000)) + $50,000 + .34 × [($10,000 − $4,000) + (ADSPV − ($5,000 + $10,000 + $5,000 + $10,000))]

ADSPV = $161,840 + .34ADSPV

.66 ADSPV = $161,840

ADSPV = $245,212.12

(iv) Because, under the preliminary calculations of ADSP, the amount to be allocated to the Class I, II, III, IV, V, and VI assets does not exceed their aggregate fair market value, no ADSP amount is allocated to goodwill. Accordingly, the deemed sale of the goodwill results in a capital loss of $3,000. The portion of ADSP allocable to the Class V assets is finally determined by taking into account this loss as follows:

ADSPV = (G − (I + II)) + L + T R × [(II − BII) + (ADSPV − BV) + (ADSPVII − B VII)]

ADSPV = ($140,000 − ($10,000 + $10,000))+ $50,000 + .34 × [($10,000 − $4,000) + (ADSPV − $30,000) + ($0 − $3,000)]

ADSPV = $160,820 + .34ADSPV

.66 ADSPV = $160,820

ADSPV = $243,666.67

(v) The allocation of ADSPV among the Class V assets is in proportion to their fair market values, as follows:
Asset ADSP Gain
Land$34,113.33$29,113.33 (capital gain).
Building48,733.3438,733.34 (capital gain).
Equipment A87,720.0082,720.00 (75,000 ordinary income 7,720 capital gain).
Equipment B73,100.0063,100.00 (10,000 ordinary income 53,100 capital gain).
Totals243,666.67213,666.67.
Example 3. More than one class. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that P purchases the T stock for $150,000, rather than $140,000. The amount realized for the stock determined as if the selling shareholder(s) were required to use old target's accounting methods and characteristics is also $150,000.

(ii) As in Example 2, ADSP exceeds $20,000. Thus, $10,000 of ADSP is allocated to the cash and $10,000 to the actively traded securities.

(iii) The portion of ADSP allocable to the Class V assets as preliminarily determined under the formula set forth in paragraph (iii) of Example 2 is $260,363.64. The amount allocated to the Class V assets cannot exceed their aggregate fair market value ($250,000). Thus, preliminarily, the ADSP amount allocated to Class V assets is $250,000.

(iv) Based on the preliminary allocation, the ADSP is determined as follows (in the formula, the amount allocated to the Class I assets is referred to as I, the amount allocated to the Class II assets as II, and the amount allocated to the Class V assets as V):

ADSP = G + L + TR × [(II − BII) + (V − BV) + (ADSP − (I + II + V + BVII))]

ADSP = $150,000 + $50,000 + .34 × [($10,000 − $4,000) + ($250,000 − $30,000) + (ADSP − ($10,000 + $10,000 + $250,000 + $3,000))]

ADSP = $200,000 + .34ADSP − $15,980

.66ADSP = $184,020

ADSP = $278,818.18

(v) Because ADSP as determined exceeds the aggregate fair market value of the Class I, II, III, IV, V, and VI assets, the $250,000 amount preliminarily allocated to the Class V assets is appropriate. Thus, the amount of ADSP allocated to Class V assets equals their aggregate fair market value ($250,000), and the allocated ADSP amount for each Class V asset is its fair market value. Further, because there are no Class VI assets, the allocable ADSP amount for the Class VII asset (goodwill) is $8,818.18 (the excess of ADSP over the aggregate ADSP amounts for the Class I, II, III, IV, V and VI assets).
Example 4. Amount allocated to T1 stock. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that T owns all of the T1 stock (instead of the building), and T1's only asset is the building. The T1 stock and the building each have a fair market value of $50,000, and the building has a basis of $10,000. A section 338 election is made for T1 (as well as T), and T1 has no liabilities other than the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences. T is the common parent of a consolidated group filing a final consolidated return described in §1.338-10(a)(1).

(ii) ADSP exceeds $20,000. Thus, $10,000 of ADSP is allocated to the cash and $10,000 to the actively traded securities.

(iii) Because T does not recognize any gain on the deemed sale of the T1 stock under paragraph (h)(2) of this section, appropriate adjustments must be made to reflect accurately the fair market value of the T and T1 assets in determining the allocation of ADSP among T's Class V assets (including the T1 stock). In preliminarily calculating ADSPV in this case, the T1 stock can be disregarded and, because T owns all of the T1 stock, the T1 asset can be treated as a T asset. Under this assumption, ADSPV is $243,666.67. See paragraph (iv) of Example 2.

(iv) Because the portion of the preliminary ADSP allocable to Class V assets ($243,666.67) does not exceed their fair market value ($250,000), no amount is allocated to Class VII assets for T. Further, this amount ($243,666.67) is allocated among T's Class V assets in proportion to their fair market values. See paragraph (v) of Example 2. Tentatively, $48,733.34 of this amount is allocated to the T1 stock.

(v) The amount tentatively allocated to the T1 stock, however, reflects the tax incurred on the deemed sale of the T1 asset equal to $13,169.34 (.34×($48,733.34−$10,000)). Thus, the ADSP allocable to the Class V assets of T, and the ADSP allocable to the T1 stock, as preliminarily calculated, each must be reduced by $13,169.34. Consequently, these amounts, respectively, are $230,497.33 and $35,564.00. In determining ADSP for T1, the grossed-up amount realized on the deemed sale to new T of new T's recently purchased T1 stock is $35,564.00.

(vi) The facts are the same as in paragraph (i) of this Example 4, except that the T1 building has a $12,500 basis and a $62,500 value, all of the outstanding T1 stock has a $62,500 value, and T owns 80 percent of the T1 stock. In preliminarily calculating ADSPV, the T1 stock can be disregarded but, because T owns only 80 percent of the T1 stock, only 80 percent of T1 asset basis and value should be taken into account in calculating T's ADSP. By taking into account 80 percent of these amounts, the remaining calculations and results are the same as in paragraphs (ii), (iii), (iv), and (v) of this Example 4, except that the grossed-up amount realized on the sale of the recently purchased T1 stock is $44,455.00 ($35,564.00/0.8).

(h) Deemed sale of target affiliate stock—(1) Scope. This paragraph (h) prescribes rules relating to the treatment of gain or loss realized on the deemed sale of stock of a target affiliate when a section 338 election (but not a section 338(h)(10) election) is made for the target affiliate. For purposes of this paragraph (h), the definition of domestic corporation in §1.338-2(c)(9) is applied without the exclusion therein for DISCs, corporations described in section 1248(e), and corporations to which an election under section 936 applies.

(2) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (h), if a section 338 election is made for target, target recognizes no gain or loss on the deemed sale of stock of a target affiliate having the same acquisition date and for which a section 338 election is made if—

(i) Target directly owns stock in the target affiliate satisfying the requirements of section 1504(a)(2);

(ii) Target and the target affiliate are members of a consolidated group filing a final consolidated return described in §1.338-10(a)(1); or

(iii) Target and the target affiliate file a combined return under §1.338-10(a)(4).

(3) Deemed sale of foreign target affiliate by a domestic target. A domestic target recognizes gain or loss on the deemed sale of stock of a foreign target affiliate. For the proper treatment of such gain or loss, see, e.g., sections 1246, 1248, 1291 et seq., and 338(h)(16) and §1.338-9.

(4) Deemed sale producing effectively connected income. A foreign target recognizes gain or loss on the deemed sale of stock of a foreign target affiliate to the extent that such gain or loss is effectively connected (or treated as effectively connected) with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States.

(5) Deemed sale of insurance company target affiliate electing under section 953(d). A domestic target recognizes gain (but not loss) on the deemed sale of stock of a target affiliate that has in effect an election under section 953(d) in an amount equal to the lesser of the gain realized or the earnings and profits described in section 953(d)(4)(B).

(6) Deemed sale of DISC target affiliate. A foreign or domestic target recognizes gain (but not loss) on the deemed sale of stock of a target affiliate that is a DISC or a former DISC (as defined in section 992(a)) in an amount equal to the lesser of the gain realized or the amount of accumulated DISC income determined with respect to such stock under section 995(c). Such gain is included in gross income as a dividend as provided in sections 995(c)(2) and 996(g).

(7) Anti-stuffing rule. If an asset the adjusted basis of which exceeds its fair market value is contributed or transferred to a target affiliate as transferred basis property (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(43)) and a purpose of such transaction is to reduce the gain (or increase the loss) recognized on the deemed sale of such target affiliate's stock, the gain or loss recognized by target on the deemed sale of stock of the target affiliate is determined as if such asset had not been contributed or transferred.

(8) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (h):

Example 1. (i) P makes a qualified stock purchase of T and makes a section 338 election for T. T's sole asset, all of the T1 stock, has a basis of $50 and a fair market value of $150. T's deemed purchase of the T1 stock results in a qualified stock purchase of T1 and a section 338 election is made for T1. T1's assets have a basis of $50 and a fair market value of $150.

(ii) T realizes $100 of gain on the deemed sale of the T1 stock, but the gain is not recognized because T directly owns stock in T1 satisfying the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) and a section 338 election is made for T1.

(iii) T1 recognizes gain of $100 on the deemed sale of its assets.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that P does not make a section 338 election for T1. Because a section 338 election is not made for T1, the $100 gain realized by T on the deemed sale of the T1 stock is recognized.
Example 3. (i) P makes a qualified stock purchase of T and makes a section 338 election for T. T owns all of the stock of T1 and T2. T's deemed purchase of the T1 and T2 stock results in a qualified stock purchase of T1 and T2 and section 338 elections are made for T1 and T2. T1 and T2 each own 50 percent of the vote and value of T3 stock. The deemed purchases by T1 and T2 of the T3 stock result in a qualified stock purchase of T3 and a section 338 election is made for T3. T is the common parent of a consolidated group and all of the deemed asset sales are reported on the T group's final consolidated return. See §1.338-10(a)(1).

(ii) Because T, T1, T2 and T3 are members of a consolidated group filing a final consolidated return, no gain or loss is recognized by T, T1 or T2 on their respective deemed sales of target affiliate stock.

Example 4. (i) T's sole asset, all of the FT1 stock, has a basis of $25 and a fair market value of $150. FT1's sole asset, all of the FT2 stock, has a basis of $75 and a fair market value of $150. FT1 and FT2 each have $50 of accumulated earnings and profits for purposes of section 1248(c) and (d). FT2's assets have a basis of $125 and a fair market value of $150, and their sale would not generate subpart F income under section 951. The sale of the FT2 stock or assets would not generate income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. FT1 does not have an election in effect under section 953(d) and neither FT1 nor FT2 is a passive foreign investment company.

(ii) P makes a qualified stock purchase of T and makes a section 338 election for T. T's deemed purchase of the FT1 stock results in a qualified stock purchase of FT1 and a section 338 election is made for FT1. Similarly, FT1's deemed purchase of the FT2 stock results in a qualified stock purchase of FT2 and a section 338 election is made for FT2.

(iii) T recognizes $125 of gain on the deemed sale of the FT1 stock under paragraph (h)(3) of this section. FT1 does not recognize $75 of gain on the deemed sale of the FT2 stock under paragraph (h)(2) of this section. FT2 recognizes $25 of gain on the deemed sale of its assets. The $125 gain T recognizes on the deemed sale of the FT1 stock is included in T's income as a dividend under section 1248, because FT1 and FT2 have sufficient earnings and profits for full recharacterization ($50 of accumulated earnings and profits in FT1, $50 of accumulated earnings and profits in FT2, and $25 of deemed sale earnings and profits in FT2). Section 1.338-9(b). For purposes of sections 901 through 908, the source and foreign tax credit limitation basket of $25 of the recharacterized gain on the deemed sale of the FT1 stock is determined under section 338(h)(16).

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001; 66 FR 17466, Mar. 30, 2001]

§1.338-5   Adjusted grossed-up basis.

(a) Scope. This section provides rules under section 338(b) to determine the adjusted grossed-up basis (AGUB) for target. AGUB is the amount for which new target is deemed to have purchased all of its assets in the deemed purchase under section 338(a)(2). AGUB is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-6 to determine the price at which the assets are deemed to have been purchased. When a subsequent increase or decrease with respect to an element of AGUB is required under general principles of tax law, redetermined AGUB is allocated among target's assets in accordance with §1.338-7.

(b) Determination of AGUB—(1) General rule. AGUB is the sum of—

(i) The grossed-up basis in the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock;

(ii) The purchasing corporation's basis in nonrecently purchased target stock; and

(iii) The liabilities of new target.

(2) Time and amount of AGUB—(i) Original determination. AGUB is initially determined at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date of target. General principles of tax law apply in determining the timing and amount of the elements of AGUB.

(ii) Redetermination of AGUB. AGUB is redetermined at such time and in such amount as an increase or decrease would be required, under general principles of tax law, with respect to an element of AGUB. For example, AGUB is redetermined because of an increase or decrease in the amount paid or incurred for recently purchased stock or nonrecently purchased stock or because liabilities not originally taken into account in determining AGUB are subsequently taken into account. An increase or decrease to one element of AGUB also may cause an increase or decrease to another element of AGUB. For example, if there is an increase in the amount paid or incurred for recently purchased stock after the acquisition date, any increase in the basis of nonrecently purchased stock because a gain recognition election was made is also taken into account when AGUB is redetermined. Increases or decreases with respect to the elements of AGUB result in the reallocation of AGUB among target's assets under §1.338-7.

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b)(2):

Example 1. In Year 1, T, a manufacturer, purchases a customized delivery truck from X with purchase money indebtedness having a stated principal amount of $100,000. P acquires all of the stock of T in Year 3 for $700,000 and makes a section 338 election for T. Assume T has no liabilities other than its purchase money indebtedness to X. In Year 4, when T is neither insolvent nor in a title 11 case, T and X agree to reduce the amount of the purchase money indebtedness to $80,000. Assume that the reduction would be a purchase price reduction under section 108(e)(5). T and X's agreement to reduce the amount of the purchase money indebtedness would, under general principles of tax law that would apply if the deemed asset sale had actually occurred, change the amount of liabilities of old target taken into account in determining its basis. Accordingly, AGUB is redetermined at the time of the reduction. See paragraph (e)(2) of this section. Thus the purchase price reduction affects the basis of the truck only indirectly, through the mechanism of §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7. See §1.338-4(b)(2)(iii) Example for the effect on ADSP.
Example 2. T, an accrual basis taxpayer, is a chemical manufacturer. In Year 1, T is obligated to remediate environmental contamination at the site of one of its plants. Assume that all the events have occurred that establish the fact of the liability and the amount of the liability can be determined with reasonable accuracy but economic performance has not occurred with respect to the liability within the meaning of section 461(h). P acquires all of the stock of T in Year 1 and makes a section 338 election for T. Assume that, if a corporation unrelated to T had actually purchased T's assets and assumed T's obligation to remediate the contamination, the corporation would not satisfy the economic performance requirements until Year 5. Under section 461(h), the assumed liability would not be treated as incurred and taken into account in basis until that time. The incurrence of the liability in Year 5 under the economic performance rules is an increase in the amount of liabilities properly taken into account in basis and results in the redetermination of AGUB. (Respecting ADSP, compare §1.461-4(d)(5), which provides that economic performance occurs for old T as the amount of the liability is properly taken into account in amount realized on the deemed asset sale. Thus ADSP is not redetermined when new T satisfies the economic performance requirements.)

(c) Grossed-up basis of recently purchased stock. The purchasing corporation's grossed-up basis of recently purchased target stock (as defined in section 338(b)(6)(A)) is an amount equal to—

(1) The purchasing corporation's basis in recently purchased target stock at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date determined without regard to the acquisition costs taken into account in paragraph (c)(3) of this section;

(2) Multiplied by a fraction, the numerator of which is 100 minus the number that is the percentage of target stock (by value, determined on the acquisition date) attributable to the purchasing corporation's nonrecently purchased target stock, and the denominator of which is the number equal to the percentage of target stock (by value, determined on the acquisition date) attributable to the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock;

(3) Plus the acquisition costs the purchasing corporation incurred in connection with its purchase of the recently purchased stock that are capitalized in the basis of such stock (e.g., brokerage commissions and any similar costs incurred by the purchasing corporation to acquire the stock).

(d) Basis of nonrecently purchased stock; gain recognition election—(1) No gain recognition election. In the absence of a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3) and this section, the purchasing corporation retains its basis in the nonrecently purchased stock.

(2) Procedure for making gain recognition election. A gain recognition election may be made for nonrecently purchased stock of target (or a target affiliate) only if a section 338 election is made for target (or the target affiliate). The gain recognition election is made by attaching a gain recognition statement to a timely filed Form 8023 for target. The gain recognition statement must contain the information specified in the form and its instructions. The gain recognition election is irrevocable. If a section 338(h)(10) election is made for target, see §1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(1) (providing that the purchasing corporation is automatically deemed to have made a gain recognition election for its nonrecently purchased T stock).

(3) Effect of gain recognition election—(i) In general. If the purchasing corporation makes a gain recognition election, then for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code—

(A) The purchasing corporation is treated as if it sold on the acquisition date the nonrecently purchased target stock for the basis amount determined under paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section; and

(B) The purchasing corporation's basis on the acquisition date in nonrecently purchased target stock immediately following the deemed sale in paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of this section is the basis amount.

(ii) Basis amount. The basis amount is equal to the amount in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section (the purchasing corporation's grossed-up basis in recently purchased target stock at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date determined without regard to the acquisition costs taken into account in paragraph (c)(3) of this section) multiplied by a fraction the numerator of which is the percentage of target stock (by value, determined on the acquisition date) attributable to the purchasing corporation's nonrecently purchased target stock and the denominator of which is 100 percent minus the numerator amount. Thus, if target has a single class of outstanding stock, the purchasing corporation's basis in each share of nonrecently purchased target stock after the gain recognition election is equal to the average price per share of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock.

(iii) Losses not recognized. Only gains (unreduced by losses) on the nonrecently purchased target stock are recognized.

(iv) Stock subject to election. The gain recognition election applies to—

(A) All nonrecently purchased target stock; and

(B) Any nonrecently purchased stock in a target affiliate having the same acquisition date as target if such target affiliate stock is held by the purchasing corporation on such date.

(e) Liabilities of new target—(1) In general. The liabilities of new target are the liabilities of target as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date (but see §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the acquisition date)). In order to be taken into account in AGUB, a liability must be a liability of target that is properly taken into account in basis under general principles of tax law that would apply if new target had acquired its assets from an unrelated person for consideration that included discharge of the liabilities of that unrelated person. Such liabilities may include liabilities for the tax consequences resulting from the deemed sale.

(2) Time and amount of liabilities. The time for taking into account liabilities of old target in determining AGUB and the amount of the liabilities taken into account is determined as if new target had acquired its assets from an unrelated person for consideration that included the discharge of its liabilities.

(3) Interaction with deemed sale tax consequences. In general, see §1.338-4(e). Although ADSP and AGUB are not necessarily linked, if an increase in the amount realized for recently purchased stock of target is taken into account after the acquisition date, and if the tax on the deemed sale tax consequences is a liability of target, any increase in that liability is also taken into account in redetermining AGUB.

(f) Adjustments by the Internal Revenue Service. In connection with the examination of a return, the Commissioner may increase (or decrease) AGUB under the authority of section 338(b)(2) and allocate such amounts to target's assets under the authority of section 338(b)(5) so that AGUB and the basis of target's assets properly reflect the cost to the purchasing corporation of its interest in target's assets. Such items may include distributions from target to the purchasing corporation, capital contributions from the purchasing corporation to target during the 12-month acquisition period, or acquisitions of target stock by the purchasing corporation after the acquisition date from minority shareholders. See also §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the acquisition date).

(g) Examples. The following examples illustrate this section. For purposes of the examples in this paragraph (g), T has no liabilities other than the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences, T shareholders incur no costs in selling the T stock, and P incurs no costs in acquiring the T stock. The examples are as follows:

Example 1. (i) Before July 1 of Year 1, P purchases 10 of the 100 shares of T stock for $5,000. On July 1 of Year 2, P purchases 80 shares of T stock for $60,000 and makes a section 338 election for T. As of July 1 of Year 2, T's only asset is raw land with an adjusted basis to T of $50,400 and a fair market value of $100,000. T has no loss or tax credit carryovers to Year 2. T's marginal tax rate for any ordinary income or net capital gain resulting from the deemed asset sale is 34 percent. The 10 shares purchased before July 1 of Year 1 constitute nonrecently purchased T stock with respect to P's qualified stock purchase of T stock on July 1 of Year 2.

(ii) The ADSP formula as applied to these facts is the same as in §1.338-4(g) Example 1. Accordingly, the ADSP for T is $87,672.72. The existence of nonrecently purchased T stock is irrelevant for purposes of the ADSP formula, because that formula treats P's nonrecently purchased T stock in the same manner as T stock not held by P.

(iii) The total tax liability resulting from T's deemed asset sale, as calculated under the ADSP formula, is $12,672.72.

(iv) If P does not make a gain recognition election, the AGUB of new T's assets is $85,172.72, determined as follows (In the following formula below, GRP is the grossed-up basis in P's recently purchased T stock, BNP is P's basis in nonrecently purchased T stock, L is T's liabilities, and X is P's acquisition costs for the recently purchased T stock):

AGUB = GRP + BNP + L + X

AGUB = $60,000 × [(1 − .1)/.8] + $5,000 + $12,672.72 + 0

AGUB = $85,172.72

(v) If P makes a gain recognition election, the AGUB of new T's assets is $87,672.72, determined as follows:

AGUB = $60,000 × [(1 − .1)/.8] + $60,000 × [(1 − .1)/.8] × [.1/(1 − .1)] + $12,672.72

AGUB = $87,672.72

(vi) The calculation of AGUB if P makes a gain recognition election may be simplified as follows:

AGUB = $60,000/.8 + $12,672.72

AGUB = $87,672.72

(vii) As a result of the gain recognition election, P's basis in its nonrecently purchased T stock is increased from $5,000 to $7,500 (i.e., $60,000 × [(1 − .1)/.8] × [.1/(1 − .1)]). Thus, P recognizes a gain in Year 2 with respect to its nonrecently purchased T stock of $2,500 (i.e., $7,500 − $5,000).
Example 2. On January 1 of Year 1, P purchases one-third of the T stock. On March 1 of Year 1, T distributes a dividend to all of its shareholders. On April 15 of Year 1, P purchases the remaining T stock and makes a section 338 election for T. In appropriate circumstances, the Commissioner may decrease the AGUB of T to take into account the payment of the dividend and properly reflect the fair market value of T's assets deemed purchased.
Example 3. (i) T's sole asset is a building worth $100,000. At this time, T has 100 shares of stock outstanding. On August 1 of Year 1, P purchases 10 of the 100 shares of T stock for $8,000. On June 1 of Year 2, P purchases 50 shares of T stock for $50,000. On June 15 of Year 2, P contributes a tract of land to the capital of T and receives 10 additional shares of T stock as a result of the contribution. Both the basis and fair market value of the land at that time are $10,800. On June 30 of Year 2, P purchases the remaining 40 shares of T stock for $40,000 and makes a section 338 election for T. The AGUB of T is $108,800.

(ii) To prevent the shifting of basis from the contributed property to other assets of T, the Commissioner may allocate $10,800 of the AGUB to the land, leaving $98,000 to be allocated to the building. See paragraph (f) of this section. Otherwise, applying the allocation rules of §1.338-6 would, on these facts, result in an allocation to the recently contributed land of an amount less than its value of $10,800, with the difference being allocated to the building already held by T.

(h) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (d)(3)(ii) of this section is applicable to any qualified stock purchase or qualified stock disposition (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(6)) for which the acquisition date or disposition date (as defined in §1.336-1(b)(8)), respectively, is on or after May 15, 2013.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9619, 78 FR 28489, May 15, 2013]

§1.338-6   Allocation of ADSP and AGUB among target assets.

(a) Scope—(1) In general. This section prescribes rules for allocating ADSP and AGUB among the acquisition date assets of a target for which a section 338 election is made.

(2) Fair market value—(i) In general. Generally, the fair market value of an asset is its gross fair market value (i.e., fair market value determined without regard to mortgages, liens, pledges, or other liabilities). However, for purposes of determining the amount of old target's deemed sale tax consequences, the fair market value of any property subject to a nonrecourse indebtedness will be treated as being not less than the amount of such indebtedness. (For purposes of the preceding sentence, a liability that was incurred because of the acquisition of the property is disregarded to the extent that such liability was not taken into account in determining old target's basis in such property.)

(ii) Transaction costs. Transaction costs are not taken into account in allocating ADSP or AGUB to assets in the deemed sale (except indirectly through their effect on the total ADSP or AGUB to be allocated).

(iii) Internal Revenue Service authority. In connection with the examination of a return, the Internal Revenue Service may challenge the taxpayer's determination of the fair market value of any asset by any appropriate method and take into account all factors, including any lack of adverse tax interests between the parties.

(b) General rule for allocating ADSP and AGUB—(1) Reduction in the amount of consideration for Class I assets. Both ADSP and AGUB, in the respective allocation of each, are first reduced by the amount of Class I assets. Class I assets are cash and general deposit accounts (including savings and checking accounts) other than certificates of deposit held in banks, savings and loan associations, and other depository institutions. If the amount of Class I assets exceeds AGUB, new target will immediately realize ordinary income in an amount equal to such excess. The amount of ADSP or AGUB remaining after the reduction is to be allocated to the remaining acquisition date assets.

(2) Other assets—(i) In general. Subject to the limitations and other rules of paragraph (c) of this section, ADSP and AGUB (as reduced by the amount of Class I assets) are allocated among Class II acquisition date assets of target in proportion to the fair market values of such Class II assets at such time, then among Class III assets so held in such proportion, then among Class IV assets so held in such proportion, then among Class V assets so held in such proportion, then among Class VI assets so held in such proportion, and finally to Class VII assets. If an asset is described below as includible in more than one class, then it is included in such class with the lower or lowest class number (for instance, Class III has a lower class number than Class IV).

(ii) Class II assets. Class II assets are actively traded personal property within the meaning of section 1092(d)(1) and §1.1092(d)-1 (determined without regard to section 1092(d)(3)). In addition, Class II assets include certificates of deposit and foreign currency even if they are not actively traded personal property. Class II assets do not include stock of target affiliates, whether or not of a class that is actively traded, other than actively traded stock described in section 1504(a)(4). Examples of Class II assets include U.S. government securities and publicly traded stock.

(iii) Class III assets. Class III assets are assets that the taxpayer marks to market at least annually for Federal income tax purposes and debt instruments (including accounts receivable). However, Class III assets do not include—

(A) Debt instruments issued by persons related at the beginning of the day following the acquisition date to the target under section 267(b) or 707;

(B) Contingent debt instruments subject to §1.1275-4, §1.483-4, or section 988, unless the instrument is subject to the non-contingent bond method of §1.1275-4(b) or is described in §1.988-2(b)(2)(i)(B)(2); and

(C) Debt instruments convertible into the stock of the issuer or other property.

(iv) Class IV assets. Class IV assets are stock in trade of the taxpayer or other property of a kind that would properly be included in the inventory of taxpayer if on hand at the close of the taxable year, or property held by the taxpayer primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of its trade or business.

(v) Class V assets. Class V assets are all assets other than Class I, II, III, IV, VI, and VII assets.

(vi) Class VI assets. Class VI assets are all section 197 intangibles, as defined in section 197, except goodwill and going concern value.

(vii) Class VII assets. Class VII assets are goodwill and going concern value (whether or not the goodwill or going concern value qualifies as a section 197 intangible).

(3) Other items designated by the Internal Revenue Service. Similar items may be added to any class described in this paragraph (b) by designation in the Internal Revenue Bulletin by the Internal Revenue Service (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(c) Certain limitations and other rules for allocation to an asset—(1) Allocation not to exceed fair market value. The amount of ADSP or AGUB allocated to an asset (other than Class VII assets) cannot exceed the fair market value of that asset at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date.

(2) Allocation subject to other rules. The amount of ADSP or AGUB allocated to an asset is subject to other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or general principles of tax law in the same manner as if such asset were transferred to or acquired from an unrelated person in a sale or exchange. For example, if the deemed asset sale is a transaction described in section 1056(a) (relating to basis limitation for player contracts transferred in connection with the sale of a franchise), the amount of AGUB allocated to a contract for the services of an athlete cannot exceed the limitation imposed by that section. As another example, section 197(f)(5) applies in determining the amount of AGUB allocated to an amortizable section 197 intangible resulting from an assumption-reinsurance transaction.

(3) Special rule for allocating AGUB when purchasing corporation has nonrecently purchased stock—(i) Scope. This paragraph (c)(3) applies if at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date—

(A) The purchasing corporation holds nonrecently purchased stock for which a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3) and §1.338-5(d) is not made; and

(B) The hypothetical purchase price determined under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section exceeds the AGUB determined under §1.338-5(b).

(ii) Determination of hypothetical purchase price. Hypothetical purchase price is the AGUB that would result if a gain recognition election were made.

(iii) Allocation of AGUB. Subject to the limitations in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section, the portion of AGUB (after reduction by the amount of Class I assets) to be allocated to each Class II, III, IV, V, VI, and VII asset of target held at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date is determined by multiplying—

(A) The amount that would be allocated to such asset under the general rules of this section were AGUB equal to the hypothetical purchase price; by

(B) A fraction, the numerator of which is actual AGUB (after reduction by the amount of Class I assets) and the denominator of which is the hypothetical purchase price (after reduction by the amount of Class I assets).

(4) Liabilities taken into account in determining amount realized on subsequent disposition. In determining the amount realized on a subsequent sale or other disposition of property deemed purchased by new target, §1.1001-2(a)(3) shall not apply to any liability that was taken into account in AGUB.

(5) Allocation to certain nuclear decommissioning funds—(i) General rule. For purposes of allocating ADSP or AGUB among the acquisition date assets of a target (and for no other purpose), a taxpayer may elect to treat a nonqualified nuclear decommissioning fund (as defined in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section) of the target as if—

(A) Such fund were an entity classified as a corporation;

(B) The stock of the corporation were among the acquisition date assets of the target and a Class V asset;

(C) The corporation owned the assets of the fund;

(D) The corporation bore the responsibility for decommissioning one or more nuclear power plants to the extent assets of the fund are expected to be used for that purpose; and

(E) A section 338(h)(10) election were made for the corporation (regardless of whether the requirements for a section 338(h)(10) election are otherwise satisfied).

(ii) Definition of nonqualified nuclear decommissioning fund. A nonqualified nuclear decommissioning fund means a trust, escrow account, Government fund or other type of agreement—

(A) That is established in writing by the owner or licensee of a nuclear generating unit for the exclusive purpose of funding the decommissioning of one or more nuclear power plants;

(B) That is described to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in a report described in 10 CFR 50.75(b) as providing assurance that funds will be available for decommissioning;

(C) That is not a Nuclear Decommissioning Reserve Fund, as described in section 468A;

(D) That is maintained at all times in the United States; and

(E) The assets of which are to be used only as permitted by 10 CFR 50.82(a)(8).

(iii) Availability of election. P may make the election described in this paragraph (c)(5) regardless of whether the selling consolidated group (or the selling affiliate or the S corporation shareholders) also makes the election. In addition, the selling consolidated group (or the selling affiliate or the S corporation shareholders) may make the election regardless of whether P also makes the election. If T is an S corporation, all of the S corporation shareholders, including those that do not sell their stock, must consent to the election for the election to be effective as to any S corporation shareholder.

(iv) Time and manner of making election. The election described in this paragraph (c)(5) is made by taking a position on an original or amended tax return for the taxable year of the qualified stock purchase that is consistent with having made the election. Such tax return must be filed no later than the later of 30 days after the date on which the section 338 election is due or the day the original tax return for the taxable year of the qualified stock purchase is due (with extensions).

(v) Irrevocability of election. An election made pursuant to this paragraph (c)(5) is irrevocable.

(vi) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (c)(5) applies to qualified stock purchases occurring on or after September 11, 2007. For qualified stock purchases occurring before September 11, 2007 and on or after September 15, 2004, see §1.338-6T as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2007. For qualified stock purchases occurring before September 15, 2004, see §1.338-6 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2004.

(d) Examples. The following examples illustrate §§1.338-4, 1.338-5, and this section:

Example 1. (i) T owns 90 percent of the outstanding T1 stock. P purchases 100 percent of the outstanding T stock for $2,000. There are no acquisition costs. P makes a section 338 election for T and, as a result, T1 is considered acquired in a qualified stock purchase. A section 338 election is made for T1. The grossed-up basis of the T stock is $2,000 (i.e., $2,000 + 1/1).

(ii) The liabilities of T as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date (including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences) that would, under general principles of tax law, properly be taken into account at that time, are as follows:

Liabilities (nonrecourse mortgage plus unsecured liabilities)$700
Taxes Payable300
Total1,000
(iii) The AGUB of T is determined as follows:
Grossed-up basis$2,000
Total liabilities1,000
AGUB3,000
(iv) Assume that ADSP is also $3,000.

(v) Assume that, at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date, T's cash and the fair market values of T's Class II, III, IV, and V assets are as follows:

Asset class Asset Fair market value
ICash*$200
IIPortfolio of actively traded securities300
IIIAccounts receivable600
IVInventory300
VBuilding800
VLand200
VInvestment in T1450
         Total2,850

*Amount.

(vi) Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the amount of ADSP and AGUB allocable to T's Class II, III, IV, and V assets is reduced by the amount of cash to $2,800, i.e., $3,000—$200. $300 of ADSP and of AGUB is then allocated to actively traded securities. $600 of ADSP and of AGUB is then allocated to accounts receivable. $300 of ADSP and of AGUB is then allocated to the inventory. Since the remaining amount of ADSP and of AGUB is $1,600 (i.e., $3,000—($200 + $300 + $600 + $300)), an amount which exceeds the sum of the fair market values of T's Class V assets, the amount of ADSP and of AGUB allocated to each Class V asset is its fair market value:
Building$800
Land200
Investment in T1450
Total1,450
(vii) T has no Class VI assets. The amount of ADSP and of AGUB allocated to T's Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value) is $150, i.e., $1,600-$1,450.

(viii) The grossed-up basis of the T1 stock is $500, i.e., $450 × 1/.9.

(ix) The liabilities of T1 as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date (including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences) that would, under general principles of tax law, properly be taken into account at that time, are as follows:

General Liabilities$100
Taxes Payable20
Total120
(x) The AGUB of T1 is determined as follows:
Grossed-up basis of T1 Stock$ 500
Liabilities120
AGUB620
(xi) Assume that ADSP is also $620.

(xii) Assume that at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date, T1's cash and the fair market values of its Class IV and VI assets are as follows:

Asset class Asset Fair market value
ICash*$50
IVInventory200
VIPatent350
         Total600

*Amount.

(xiii) The amount of ADSP and of AGUB allocable to T1's Class IV and VI assets is first reduced by the $50 of cash.

(xiv) Because the remaining amount of ADSP and of AGUB ($570) is an amount which exceeds the fair market value of T1's only Class IV asset, the inventory, the amount allocated to the inventory is its fair market value ($200). After that, the remaining amount of ADSP and of AGUB ($370) exceeds the fair market value of T1's only Class VI asset, the patent. Thus, the amount of ADSP and of AGUB allocated to the patent is its fair market value ($350).

(xv) The amount of ADSP and of AGUB allocated to T1's Class VII assets (goodwill and going concern value) is $20, i.e., $570-$550.

Example 2. (i) Assume that the facts are the same as in Example 1 except that P has, for five years, owned 20 percent of T's stock, which has a basis in P's hands at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date of $100, and P purchases the remaining 80 percent of T's stock for $1,600. P does not make a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3).

(ii) Under §1.338-5(c), the grossed-up basis of recently purchased T stock is $1,600, i.e., $1,600 × (1−.2)/.8.

(iii) The AGUB of T is determined as follows:

Grossed-up basis of recently purchased stock as determined under §1.338-5(c) ($1,600 × (1−.2)/.8)$1,600
Basis of nonrecently purchased stock100
Liabilities1,000
AGUB2,700
(iv) Since P holds nonrecently purchased stock, the hypothetical purchase price of the T stock must be computed and is determined as follows:
Grossed-up basis of recently purchased stock as determined under §1.338-5(c) ($1,600 × (1−.2)/.8)$1,600
Basis of nonrecently purchased stock as if the gain recognition election under §1.338-5(d)(2) had been made ($1,600 × .2/(1−.2))400
Liabilities1,000
Total3,000
(v) Since the hypothetical purchase price ($3,000) exceeds the AGUB ($2,700) and no gain recognition election is made under section 338(b)(3), AGUB is allocated under paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(vi) First, an AGUB amount equal to the hypothetical purchase price ($3,000) is allocated among the assets under the general rules of this section. The allocation is set forth in the column below entitled Original Allocation. Next, the allocation to each asset in Class II through Class VII is multiplied by a fraction having a numerator equal to the actual AGUB reduced by the amount of Class I assets ($2,700−$200 = $2,500) and a denominator equal to the hypothetical purchase price reduced by the amount of Class I assets ($3,000−$200 = $2,800), or 2,500/2,800. This produces the Final Allocation:

Class Asset Original allocation Final
allocation
ICash$200$200
IIPortfolio of actively traded securities300*268
IIIAccounts receivable600536
IVInventory300268
VBuilding800714
VLand200178
VInvestment in T1450402
VIIGoodwill and going concern value150134
         Total3,0002,700

*All numbers rounded for convenience.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001; 66 FR 17363, Mar. 30, 2001; T.D. 9158, 69 FR 55742, Sept. 16, 2004; T.D. 9358, 72 FR 51706, Sept. 11, 2007]

§1.338-7   Allocation of redetermined ADSP and AGUB among target assets.

(a) Scope. ADSP and AGUB are redetermined at such time and in such amount as an increase or decrease would be required under general principles of tax law for the elements of ADSP or AGUB. This section provides rules for allocating redetermined ADSP or AGUB.

(b) Allocation of redetermined ADSP and AGUB. When ADSP or AGUB is redetermined, a new allocation of ADSP or AGUB is made by allocating the redetermined ADSP or AGUB amount under the rules of §1.338-6. If the allocation of the redetermined ADSP or AGUB amount under §1.338-6 to a given asset is different from the original allocation to it, the difference is added to or subtracted from the original allocation to the asset, as appropriate. (See paragraph (d) of this section for new target's treatment of the amount so allocated.) Amounts allocable to an acquisition date asset (or with respect to a disposed-of acquisition date asset) are subject to all the asset allocation rules (for example, the fair market value limitation in §1.338-6(c)(1)) as if the redetermined ADSP or AGUB were the ADSP or AGUB on the acquisition date.

(c) Special rules for ADSP—(1) Increases or decreases in deemed sale tax consequences taxable notwithstanding old target ceases to exist. To the extent general principles of tax law would require a seller in an actual asset sale to account for events relating to the sale that occur after the sale date, target must make such an accounting. Target is not precluded from realizing additional deemed sale tax consequences because the target is treated as a new corporation after the acquisition date.

(2) Procedure for transactions in which section 338(h)(10) is not elected—(i) Deemed sale tax consequences included in new target's return. If an election under section 338(h)(10) is not made, any additional deemed sale tax consequences of old target resulting from an increase or decrease in the ADSP are included in new target's income tax return for new target's taxable year in which the increase or decrease is taken into account. For example, if after the acquisition date there is an increase in the allocable ADSP of section 1245 property for which the recomputed basis (but not the adjusted basis) exceeds the portion of the ADSP allocable to that particular asset on the acquisition date, the additional gain is treated as ordinary income to the extent it does not exceed such excess amount. See paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section for the special treatment of old target's carryovers and carrybacks. Although included in new target's income tax return, the deemed sale tax consequences are separately accounted for as an item of old target and may not be offset by income, gain, deduction, loss, credit, or other amount of new target. The amount of tax on income of old target resulting from an increase or decrease in the ADSP is determined as if such deemed sale tax consequences had been recognized in old target's taxable year ending at the close of the acquisition date. However, because the income resulting from the increase or decrease in ADSP is reportable in new target's taxable year of the increase or decrease, not in old target's taxable year ending at the close of the acquisition date, there is not a resulting underpayment of tax in that past taxable year of old target for purposes of calculation of interest due.

(ii) Carryovers and carrybacks—(A) Loss carryovers to new target taxable years. A net operating loss or net capital loss of old target may be carried forward to a taxable year of new target, under the principles of section 172 or 1212, as applicable, but is allowed as a deduction only to the extent of any recognized income of old target for such taxable year, as described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. For this purpose, however, taxable years of new target are not taken into account in applying the limitations in section 172(b)(1) or 1212(a)(1)(B) (or other similar limitations). In applying sections 172(b) and 1212(a)(1), only income, gain, loss, deduction, credit, and other amounts of old target are taken into account. Thus, if old target has an unexpired net operating loss at the close of its taxable year in which the deemed asset sale occurred that could be carried forward to a subsequent taxable year, such loss may be carried forward until it is absorbed by old target's income.

(B) Loss carrybacks to taxable years of old target. An ordinary loss or capital loss accounted for as a separate item of old target under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section may be carried back to a taxable year of old target under the principles of section 172 or 1212, as applicable. For this purpose, taxable years of new target are not taken into account in applying the limitations in section 172(b) or 1212(a) (or other similar limitations).

(C) Credit carryovers and carrybacks. The principles described in paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section apply to carryovers and carrybacks of amounts for purposes of determining the amount of a credit allowable under part IV, subchapter A, chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code. Thus, for example, credit carryovers of old target may offset only income tax attributable to items described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Procedure for transactions in which section 338(h)(10) is elected. If an election under section 338(h)(10) is made, any changes in the deemed sale tax consequences caused by an increase or decrease in the ADSP are accounted for in determining the taxable income (or other amount) of the member of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or the S corporation shareholders to which such income, loss, or other amount is attributable for the taxable year in which such increase or decrease is taken into account.

(d) Special rules for AGUB—(1) Effect of disposition or depreciation of acquisition date assets. If an acquisition date asset has been disposed of, depreciated, amortized, or depleted by new target before an amount is added to the original allocation to the asset, the increased amount otherwise allocable to such asset is taken into account under general principles of tax law that apply when part of the cost of an asset not previously taken into account in basis is paid or incurred after the asset has been disposed of, depreciated, amortized, or depleted. A similar rule applies when an amount is subtracted from the original allocation to the asset. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an asset is considered to have been disposed of to the extent that its allocable portion of the decrease in AGUB would reduce its basis below zero.

(2) Section 38 property. Section 1.47-2(c) applies to a reduction in basis of section 38 property under this section.

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate this section. Any amount described in the following examples is exclusive of interest. For rules characterizing deferred contingent payments as principal or interest, see §§1.483-4, 1.1274-2(g), and 1.1275-4(c). The examples are as follows:

Example 1. (i)(A) T's assets other than goodwill and going concern value, and their fair market values at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date, are as follows:
Asset class Asset Fair market value
VBuilding$ 100
VStock of X (not a target)200
         Total300
(B) T has no liabilities other than a contingent liability that would not be taken into account under general principles of tax law in an asset sale between unrelated parties when the buyer assumed the liability or took property subject to it.

(ii)(A) On September 1, 2000, P purchases all of the outstanding stock of T for $270 and makes a section 338 election for T. The grossed-up basis of the T stock and T's AGUB are both $270. The AGUB is ratably allocated among T's Class V assets in proportion to their fair market values as follows:

Asset Basis
Building ($270 × 100/300)$90
Stock ($270 × 200/300)180
Total270
(B) No amount is allocated to the Class VII assets. New T is a calendar year taxpayer. Assume that the X stock is a capital asset in the hands of new T.

(iii) On January 1, 2001, new T sells the X stock and uses the proceeds to purchase inventory.

(iv) Pursuant to events on June 30, 2002, the contingent liability of old T is at that time properly taken into account under general principles of tax law. The amount of the liability is $60.

(v) T's AGUB increases by $60 from $270 to $330. This $60 increase in AGUB is first allocated among T's acquisition date assets in accordance with the provisions of §1.338-6. Because the redetermined AGUB for T ($330) exceeds the sum of the fair market values at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date of the Class V acquisition date assets ($300), AGUB allocated to those assets is limited to those fair market values under §1.338-6(c)(1). As there are no Class VI assets, the remaining AGUB of $30 is allocated to goodwill and going concern value (Class VII assets). The amount of increase in AGUB allocated to each acquisition date asset is determined as follows:

Asset Original AGUB Redetermined AGUB Increase
Building$90$100$10
X Stock18020020
Goodwill and going concern value03030
Total27033060
(vi) Since the X stock was disposed of before the contingent liability was properly taken into account for tax purposes, no amount of the increase in AGUB attributable to such stock may be allocated to any T asset. Rather, such amount ($20) is allowed as a capital loss to T for the taxable year 2002 under the principles of Arrowsmith v. Commissioner, 344 U.S. 6 (1952). In addition, the $10 increase in AGUB allocated to the building and the $30 increase in AGUB allocated to the goodwill and going concern value are treated as basis redeterminations in 2002. See paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
Example 2. (i) On January 1, 2002, P purchases all of the outstanding stock of T and makes a section 338 election for T. Assume that ADSP and AGUB of T are both $500 and are allocated among T's acquisition date assets as follows:
Asset Class Asset Basis
VMachinery$150
VLand250
VIIGoodwill and going concern value100
         Total500
(ii) On September 30, 2004, P filed a claim against the selling shareholders of T in a court of appropriate jurisdiction alleging fraud in the sale of the T stock.

(iii) On January 1, 2007, the former shareholders refund $140 of the purchase price to P in a settlement of the lawsuit. Assume that, under general principles of tax law, both the seller and the buyer properly take into account such refund when paid. Assume also that the refund has no effect on the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences. This refund results in a decrease of T's ADSP and AGUB of $140, from $500 to $360.

(iv) The redetermined ADSP and AGUB of $360 is allocated among T's acquisition date assets. Because ADSP and AGUB do not exceed the fair market value of the Class V assets, the ADSP and AGUB amounts are allocated to the Class V assets in proportion to their fair market values at the beginning of the day after the acquisition date. Thus, $135 ($150 × ($360/($150 + $250))) is allocated to the machinery and $225 ($250 × ($360/($150 + $250))) is allocated to the land. Accordingly, the basis of the machinery is reduced by $15 ($150 original allocation—$135 redetermined allocation) and the basis of the land is reduced by $25 ($250 original allocation—$225 redetermined allocation). No amount is allocated to the Class VII assets. Accordingly, the basis of the goodwill and going concern value is reduced by $100 ($100 original allocation—$0 redetermined allocation).

(v) Assume that, as a result of deductions under section 168, the adjusted basis of the machinery immediately before the decrease in AGUB is zero. The machinery is treated as if it were disposed of before the decrease is taken into account. In 2007, T recognizes income of $15, the character of which is determined under the principles of Arrowsmith v. Commissioner and the tax benefit rule. No adjustment to the basis of T's assets is made for any tax paid on this amount. Assume also that, as a result of amortization deductions, the adjusted basis of the goodwill and going concern value immediately before the decrease in AGUB is $40. A similar adjustment to income is made in 2007 with respect to the $60 of previously amortized goodwill and going concern value.

(vi) In summary, the basis of T's acquisition date assets, as of January 1, 2007, is as follows:

Asset Basis
Machinery$0
Land225
Goodwill and going concern value0
Example 3. (i) Assume that the facts are the same as §1.338-6(d) Example 2 except that the recently purchased stock is acquired for $1,600 plus additional payments that are contingent upon T's future earnings. Assume that, under general principles of tax law, such later payments are properly taken into account when paid. Thus, T's AGUB, determined as of the beginning of the day after the acquisition date (after reduction by T's cash of $200), is $2,500 and is allocated among T's acquisition date assets under §1.338-6(c)(3)(iii) as follows:
Class Asset Final
allocation
ICash$200
IIPortfolio of actively traded securities*268
IIIAccounts receivable536
IVInventory268
VBuilding714
VLand178
VInvestment in T1402
VIIGoodwill and going concern value134
         Total2,700

*All numbers rounded for convenience.

(ii) At a later point in time, P pays an additional $200 for its recently purchased T stock. Assume that the additional consideration paid would not increase T's tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences.

(iii) T's AGUB increases by $200, from $2,700 to $2,900. This $200 increase in AGUB is accounted for in accordance with the provisions of §1.338-6(c)(3)(iii).

(iv) The hypothetical purchase price of the T stock is redetermined as follows:

Grossed-up basis of recently purchased stock as determined under §1.338-5(c) ($1,800 × (1− .2)/.8)$1,800
Basis of nonrecently purchased stock as if the gain recognition election under §1.338-5(d)(2) had been made ($1,800 × .2/(1− .2))450
Liabilities1,000
Total3,250
(v) Since the redetermined hypothetical purchase price ($3,250) exceeds the redetermined AGUB ($2,900) and no gain recognition election was made under section 338(b)(3), the rules of §1.338-6(c)(3)(iii) are reapplied using the redetermined hypothetical purchase price and the redetermined AGUB.

(vi) First, an AGUB amount equal to the redetermined hypothetical purchase price ($3,250) is allocated among the assets under the general rules of §1.338-6. The allocation is set forth in the column below entitled Hypothetical Allocation. Next, the allocation to each asset in Class II through Class VII is multiplied by a fraction with a numerator equal to the actual redetermined AGUB reduced by the amount of Class I assets ($2,900 − $200 = $2,700) and a denominator equal to the redetermined hypothetical purchase price reduced by the amount of Class I assets ($3,250 − $200 = $3,050), or 2,700/3,050. This produces the Final Allocation:

Class Asset Hypothetical allocation Final
allocation
ICash$200$200
IIPortfolio of actively traded securities300*266
IIIAccounts receivable600531
IVInventory300266
VBuilding800708
VLand200177
VInvestment in T1450398
VIIGoodwill and going concern value400354
         Total3,2502900

*All numbers rounded for convenience.

(vii) As illustrated by this example, reapplying §1.338-6(c)(3) results in a basis increase for some assets and a basis decrease for other assets. The amount of redetermined AGUB allocated to each acquisition date asset is determined as follows:
Asset Original (c)(3)
allocation
Redetermined (c)(3)
allocation
Increase
(decrease)
Portfolio of actively traded securities$268$266$(2)
Accounts receivable536531(5)
Inventory268266(2)
Building714708(6)
Land178177(1)
Investment in T1402398(4)
Goodwill and going concern value134354220
Total2,5002,700200
Example 4. (i) On January 1, 2001, P purchases all of the outstanding T stock and makes a section 338 election for T. P pays $700 of cash and promises also to pay a maximum $300 of contingent consideration at various times in the future. Assume that, under general principles of tax law, such later payments are properly taken into account by P when paid. Assume also, however, that the current fair market value of the contingent payments is reasonably ascertainable. The fair market value of T's assets (other than goodwill and going concern value) as of the beginning of the following day is as follows:
Asset class Assets Fair market value
VEquipment$200
VNon-actively traded securities100
VBuilding500
         Total800
(ii) T has no liabilities. The AGUB is $700. In calculating ADSP, assume that, under §1.1001-1, the current amount realized attributable to the contingent consideration is $200. ADSP is therefore $900 ($700 cash plus $200).

(iii) (A) The AGUB of $700 is ratably allocated among T's Class V acquisition date assets in proportion to their fair market values as follows:

Asset Basis
Equipment ($700 × 200/800)$175.00
Non-actively traded securities ($700 × 100/800)87.50
Building ($700 × 500/800)437.50
Total700.00
(B) No amount is allocated to goodwill or going concern value.

(iv) (A) The ADSP of $900 is ratably allocated among T's Class V acquisition date assets in proportion to their fair market values as follows:

Asset Basis
Equipment$200
Non-actively traded securities100
Building500
Total800
(B) The remaining ADSP, $100, is allocated to goodwill and going concern value (Class VII).

(v) P and T file a consolidated return for 2001 and each following year with P as the common parent of the affiliated group.

(vi) In 2004, a contingent amount of $120 is paid by P. For old T, this payment has no effect on ADSP, because the payment is accounted for as a separate transaction. We have assumed that, under general principles of tax law, the payment is properly taken into account by P at the time made. Therefore, in 2004, there is an increase in new T's AGUB of $120. The amount of the increase allocated to each acquisition date asset is determined as follows:

Asset Original AGUB Redetermined AGUB Increase
Equipment$175.00$200.00$25.00
Land87.50100.0012.50
Building437.50500.0062.50
Goodwill and going concern value0.0020.0020.00
Total700.00820.00120.00

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001]

§1.338-8   Asset and stock consistency.

(a) Introduction—(1) Overview. This section implements the consistency rules of sections 338(e) and (f). Under this section, no election under section 338 is deemed made or required with respect to target or any target affiliate. Instead, the person acquiring an asset may have a carryover basis in the asset.

(2) General application. The consistency rules generally apply if the purchasing corporation acquires an asset directly from target during the target consistency period and target is a subsidiary in a consolidated group. In such a case, gain from the sale of the asset is reflected under the investment adjustment provisions of the consolidated return regulations in the basis of target stock and may reduce gain from the sale of the stock. See §1.1502-32 (investment adjustment provisions). Under the consistency rules, the purchasing corporation generally takes a carryover basis in the asset, unless a section 338 election is made for target. Similar rules apply if the purchasing corporation acquires an asset directly from a lower-tier target affiliate if gain from the sale is reflected under the investment adjustment provisions in the basis of target stock.

(3) Extensions of the general rules. If an arrangement exists, paragraph (f) of this section generally extends the carryover basis rule to certain cases in which the purchasing corporation acquires assets indirectly from target (or a lower-tier target affiliate). To prevent avoidance of the consistency rules, paragraph (j) of this section also may extend the consistency period or the 12-month acquisition period and may disregard the presence of conduits.

(4) Application where certain dividends are paid. Paragraph (g) of this section extends the carryover basis rule to certain cases in which dividends are paid to a corporation that is not a member of the same consolidated group as the distributing corporation. Generally, this rule applies where a 100 percent dividends received deduction is used in conjunction with asset dispositions to achieve an effect similar to that available under the investment adjustment provisions of the consolidated return regulations.

(5) Application to foreign target affiliates. Paragraph (h) of this section extends the carryover basis rule to certain cases involving target affiliates that are controlled foreign corporations.

(6) Stock consistency. This section limits the application of the stock consistency rules to cases in which the rules are necessary to prevent avoidance of the asset consistency rules. Following the general treatment of a section 338(h)(10) election, a sale of a corporation's stock is treated as a sale of the corporation's assets if a section 338(h)(10) election is made. Because gain from this asset sale may be reflected in the basis of the stock of a higher-tier target, the carryover basis rule may apply to the assets.

(b) Consistency for direct acquisitions—(1) General rule. The basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section apply to an asset if—

(i) The asset is disposed of during the target consistency period;

(ii) The basis of target stock, as of the target acquisition date, reflects gain from the disposition of the asset (see paragraph (c) of this section); and

(iii) The asset is owned, immediately after its acquisition and on the target acquisition date, by a corporation that acquires stock of target in the qualified stock purchase (or by an affiliate of an acquiring corporation).

(2) Section 338(h)(10) elections. For purposes of this section, if a section 338(h)(10) election is made for a corporation acquired in a qualified stock purchase—

(i) The acquisition is treated as an acquisition of the corporation's assets (see §1.338(h)(10)-1); and

(ii) The corporation is not treated as target.

(c) Gain from disposition reflected in basis of target stock. For purposes of this section:

(1) General rule. Gain from the disposition of an asset is reflected in the basis of a corporation's stock if the gain is taken into account under §1.1502-32, directly or indirectly, in determining the basis of the stock, after applying section 1503(e) and other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

(2) Gain not reflected if section 338 election made for target. Gain from the disposition of an asset that is otherwise reflected in the basis of target stock as of the target acquisition date is not considered reflected in the basis of target stock if a section 338 election is made for target.

(3) Gain reflected by reason of distributions. Gain from the disposition of an asset is not considered reflected in the basis of target stock merely by reason of the receipt of a distribution from a target affiliate that is not a member of the same consolidated group as the distributee. See paragraph (g) of this section for the treatment of dividends eligible for a 100 percent dividends received deduction.

(4) Controlled foreign corporations. For a limitation applicable to gain of a target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation, see paragraph (h)(2) of this section.

(5) Gain recognized outside the consolidated group. Gain from the disposition of an asset by a person other than target or a target affiliate is not reflected in the basis of a corporation's stock unless the person is a conduit, as defined in paragraph (j)(4) of this section.

(d) Basis of acquired assets—(1) Carryover basis rule. If this paragraph (d) applies to an asset, the asset's basis immediately after its acquisition is, for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, its adjusted basis immediately before its disposition.

(2) Exceptions to carryover basis rule for certain assets. The carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section does not apply to the following assets—

(i) Any asset disposed of in the ordinary course of a trade or business (see section 338(e)(2)(A));

(ii) Any asset the basis of which is determined wholly by reference to the adjusted basis of the asset in the hands of the person that disposed of the asset (see section 338(e)(2)(B));

(iii) Any debt or equity instrument issued by target or a target affiliate (see paragraph (h)(3) of this section for an exception relating to the stock of a target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation);

(iv) Any asset the basis of which immediately after its acquisition would otherwise be less than its adjusted basis immediately before its disposition; and

(v) Any asset identified by the Internal Revenue Service in a revenue ruling or revenue procedure.

(3) Exception to carryover basis rule for de minimis assets. The carryover basis rules of this section do not apply to an asset if the asset is not disposed of as part of the same arrangement as the acquisition of target and the aggregate amount realized for all assets otherwise subject to the carryover basis rules of this section does not exceed $250,000.

(4) Mitigation rule—(i) General rule. If the carryover basis rules of this section apply to an asset and the asset is transferred to a domestic corporation in a transaction to which section 351 applies or as a contribution to capital and no gain is recognized, the transferor's basis in the stock of the transferee (but not the transferee's basis in the asset) is determined without taking into account the carryover basis rules of this section.

(ii) Time for transfer. This paragraph (d)(4) applies only if the asset is transferred before the due date (including extensions) for the transferor's income tax return for the year that includes the last date for which a section 338 election may be made for target.

(e) Examples—(1) In general. For purposes of the examples in this section, unless otherwise stated, the basis of each asset is the same for determining earnings and profits and taxable income, the exceptions to paragraph (d)(1) of this section do not apply, the taxable year of all persons is the calendar year, and the following facts apply: S is the common parent of a consolidated group that includes T, T1, T2, and T3; S owns all of the stock of T and T3; and T owns all of the stock of T1, which owns all of the stock of T2. B is unrelated to the S group and owns all of the stock of P, which owns all of the stock of P1. Y and Y1 are partnerships that are unrelated to the S group but may be related to the P group. Z is a corporation that is not related to any of the other parties.

eCFR graphic ec17oc91.000.gif

View or download PDF

(2) Direct acquisitions. Paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Asset acquired from target by purchasing corporation. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. T's gain from the disposition of the asset is taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T stock. On January 1 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) T disposed of the asset during its consistency period, gain from the asset disposition is reflected in the basis of the T stock as of T's acquisition date (January 1 of Year 2), and the asset is owned both immediately after the asset disposition (February 1 of Year 1) and on T's acquisition date by P1, the corporation that acquired T stock in the qualified stock purchase. Consequently, under paragraph (b) of this section, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset and P1's basis in the asset is T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to P1.

Example 2. Gain from section 338(h)(10) election reflected in stock basis. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T2 from T1. A section 338(h)(10) election is made for T2 and T2 recognizes gain on each of its assets. T2's gain is taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T stock. On January 1 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the acquisition of the T2 stock is treated as an acquisition of T2's assets on February 1 of Year 1, because a section 338(h)(10) election is made for T2. The gain recognized by T2 under section 338(h)(10) is reflected in S's basis in the T stock as of T's acquisition date. Because the other requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the assets and new T2's basis in its assets is old T2's adjusted basis in the assets immediately before the disposition.

Example 3. Corporation owning asset ceases affiliation with corporation purchasing target before target acquisition date. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On December 1 of Year 1, P disposes of all of the P1 stock while P1 still owns the asset. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Immediately after T's disposition of the asset, the asset is owned by P1 which is affiliated on that date with P, the corporation that acquired T stock in the qualified stock purchase. However, the asset is owned by a corporation (P1) that is no longer affiliated with P on T's acquisition date. Although the other requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied, the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied. Consequently, the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section do not apply to the asset by reason of P1's acquisition.

(c) If P acquires all of the Z stock and P1 transfers the asset to Z on or before T's acquisition date (January 1 of Year 2), the asset is owned by an affiliate of P both on February 1 of Year 1 (P1) and on January 1 of Year 2 (Z). Consequently, all of the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied and paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset and P1's basis in the asset is T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to P1.

Example 4. Gain reflected in stock basis notwithstanding offsetting loss or distribution. (a) On April 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. In Year 1, T distributes an amount equal to the gain. On March 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Although, as a result of the distribution, there is no adjustment with respect to the T stock under §1.1502-32 for Year 1, T's gain from the disposition of the asset is considered reflected in S's basis in the T stock. The gain is considered to have been taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining the adjustments to S's basis in the T stock because S's basis in the T stock is different from what it would have been had there been no gain.

(c) If T distributes an amount equal to the gain on February 1 of Year 2, rather than in Year 1, the results would be the same because S's basis in the T stock is different from what it would have been had there been no gain. If the distribution in Year 2 is by reason of an election under §1.1502-32(f)(2), the results would be the same.

(d) If, in Year 1, T does not make a distribution and the S group does not file a consolidated return, but, in Year 2, the S group does file a consolidated return and makes an election under §1.1502-32(f)(2) for T, the results would be the same. S's basis in the T stock is different from what it would have been had there been no gain. Paragraph (c)(3) of this section (gain not considered reflected by reason of distributions) does not apply to the deemed distribution under the election because S and T are members of the same consolidated group. If T distributes an amount equal to the gain in Year 2 and no election is made under §1.1502-32(f)(2), the results would be the same.

(e) If, in Year 1, T incurs an unrelated loss in an amount equal to the gain, rather than distributing an amount equal to the gain, the results would be the same because the gain is taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T stock.

Example 5. Gain of a target affiliate reflected in stock basis after corporate reorganization. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T3 sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On March 1 of Year 1, S contributes the T3 stock to T in a transaction qualifying under section 351. On January 15 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) T3's gain from the asset sale is taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T3 stock. Under section 358, the gain that is taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T3 stock is also taken into account in determining S's basis in the T stock following S's contribution of the T3 stock to T. Consequently, under paragraph (b) of this section, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset and P1's basis in the asset is T3's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to P1.

(c) If on March 1 of Year 1, rather than S contributing the T3 stock to T, S causes T3 to merge into T in a transaction qualifying under section 368(a)(1)(D), the results would be the same.

Example 6. Gain not reflected if election under section 338 made. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T1 sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T1 from T. A section 338 election (but not a section 338(h)(10) election) is made for T1.

(b) Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, because a section 338 election is made for T1, T's basis in the T1 stock is considered not to reflect gain from the disposition. Consequently, the requirement of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is not satisfied. Thus, P1's basis in the asset is not determined under paragraph (d) of this section. Although the section 338 election for T1 results in a qualified stock purchase of T2, the requirement of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section is not satisfied with respect to T2, whether or not a section 338 election is made for T2.

(c) If, on January 1 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S and a section 338 election for T, rather than T1, S's basis in the T stock is considered not to reflect gain from T1's disposition of the asset. However, the section 338 election for T results in a qualified stock purchase of T1. Because the gain is reflected in T's basis in the T1 stock, the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are satisfied. Consequently, P1's basis in the asset is determined under paragraph (d)(1) of this section unless a section 338 election is also made for T1.

(f) Extension of consistency to indirect acquisitions—(1) Introduction. If an arrangement exists (see paragraph (j)(5) of this section), this paragraph (f) generally extends the consistency rules to indirect acquisitions that have the same effect as direct acquisitions. For example, this paragraph (f) applies if, pursuant to an arrangement, target sells an asset to an unrelated person who then sells the asset to the purchasing corporation.

(2) General rule. This paragraph (f) applies to an asset if, pursuant to an arrangement—

(i) The asset is disposed of during the target consistency period;

(ii) The basis of target stock as of, or at any time before, the target acquisition date reflects gain from the disposition of the asset; and

(iii) The asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied, but the asset is owned, at any time during the portion of the target consistency period following the target acquisition date, by—

(A) A corporation—

(1) The basis of whose stock, as of, or at any time before, the target acquisition date, reflects gain from the disposition of the asset; and

(2) That is affiliated, at any time during the target consistency period, with a corporation that acquires stock of target in the qualified stock purchase; or

(B) A corporation that at the time it owns the asset is affiliated with a corporation described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section.

(3) Basis of acquired assets. If this paragraph (f) applies to an asset, the principles of the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section apply to the asset as of the date, following the disposition with respect to which gain is reflected in the basis of target's stock, that the asset is first owned by a corporation described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section. If the principles of the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply to an asset, the asset's basis also is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of any reduction in its basis occurring after the disposition with respect to which gain is reflected in the basis of target's stock.

(4) Examples. This paragraph (f) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Acquisition of asset from unrelated party by purchasing corporation. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to Z and recognizes gain. On February 15 of Year 1, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. P1 buys the asset from Z on March 1 of Year 1, before Z has reduced the basis of the asset through depreciation or otherwise.

(b) Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to the asset because the asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied. However, the asset ownership requirements of paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section are satisfied because, during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date, the asset is owned by P1 while it is affiliated with T. Consequently, paragraph (f) of this section applies to the asset if there is an arrangement for T to dispose of the asset during T's consistency period, for the gain to be reflected in S's basis in the T stock as of T's acquisition date, and for P1 to own the asset during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date. If the arrangement exists, under paragraph (f)(3) of this section, P1's basis in the asset is determined as of March 1 of Year 1, under the principles of paragraph (d) of this section. Consequently, P1's basis in the asset is T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to Z.

(c) If P1 acquires the asset from Z on January 15 of Year 2 (rather than on March 1 of Year 1), and Z's basis in the asset has been reduced through depreciation at the time of the acquisition, P1's basis in the asset as of January 15 of Year 2 would be T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to Z, reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of the depreciation. Z's basis and depreciation are determined without taking into account the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section.

(d) If P, rather than P1, acquires the asset from Z, the results would be the same.

(e) If, on March 1 of Year 1, P1 acquires the Z stock, rather than acquiring the asset from Z, paragraph (f) of this section would apply to the asset if an arrangement exists. However, under paragraph (f)(3) of this section, Z's basis in the asset would be determined as of February 1 of Year 1, the date the asset is first owned by a corporation (Z) described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii) of this section. Consequently, Z's basis in the asset as of February 1 of Year 1, determined under the principles of paragraph (d) of this section, would be T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to Z.

Example 2. Acquisition of asset from target by target affiliate. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T contributes an asset to T1 in a transaction qualifying under section 351 and in which T recognizes gain under section 351(b) that is deferred under §1.1502-13. On March 1 of Year 1, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S and, pursuant to §1.1502-13, the deferred gain is taken into account by T immediately before T ceases to be a member of the S group. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to the asset because the asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied.

(c) T1 is not described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section because the basis of the T1 stock does not reflect gain from the disposition of the asset. Although, under section 358(a)(1)(B)(ii), T's basis in the T1 stock is increased by the amount of the gain, the gain is not taken into account directly or indirectly under §1.1502-32 in determining T's basis in the T1 stock.

(d) T1 is described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(B) of this section because, during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date, T1 owns the asset while it is affiliated with T, a corporation described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section. Consequently, paragraph (f) of this section applies to the asset if there is an arrangement. Under paragraph (j)(5) of this section, the fact that, at the time T1 acquires the asset from T, T1 is related (within the meaning of section 267(b)) to T indicates that an arrangement exists.

Example 3. Acquisition of asset from target and indirect acquisition of target stock. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On March 1 of Year 1, Z makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. On January 1 of Year 2, P1 acquires the T stock from Z other than in a qualified stock purchase.

(b) The asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied because the asset was never owned by Z, the corporation that acquired T stock in the qualified stock purchase (or by a corporation that was affiliated with Z at the time it owned the asset). However, because the asset is owned by P1 while it is affiliated with T during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date, paragraph (f) of this section applies to the asset if there is an arrangement. If there is an arrangement, the principles of the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply to determine P1's basis in the asset unless Z makes a section 338 election for T. See paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(c) If P1 also makes a qualified stock purchase of T from Z, the results would be the same. If there is an arrangement, the principles of the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply to determine P1's basis in the asset unless Z makes a section 338 election for T. However, these principles apply to determine P1's basis in the asset if P1, but not Z, makes a section 338 election for T. The basis of the T stock no longer reflects, as of T's acquisition date by P1, the gain from the disposition of the asset.

(d) Assume Z purchases the T stock other than in a qualified stock purchase and P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from Z. Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to the asset because gain from the disposition of the asset is not reflected in the basis of T's stock as of T's acquisition date (January 1 of Year 2). However, because the gain is reflected in S's basis in the T stock before T's acquisition date and the asset is owned by P1 while it is affiliated with T during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date, paragraph (f) of this section applies to the asset if there is an arrangement. If there is an arrangement, the principles of the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section apply to determine P1's basis in the asset even if P1 makes a section 338 election for T. The basis of the T stock no longer reflects, as of T's acquisition date, the gain from the disposition of the asset.

Example 4. Asset acquired from target affiliate by corporation that becomes its affiliate. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T1 sells an asset to P1 and recognizes gain. On February 15 of Year 1, Z makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. On June 1 of Year 1, P1 acquires the T1 stock from T, other than in a qualified stock purchase.

(b) The asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are not satisfied because the asset was never owned by Z, the corporation that acquired T stock in the qualified stock purchase (or by a corporation that was affiliated with Z at the time it owned the asset).

(c) P1 is not described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(A) of this section because gain from the disposition of the asset is not reflected in the basis of the P1 stock.

(d) P1 is described in paragraph (f)(2)(iii)(B) of this section because the asset is owned by P1 while P1 is affiliated with T1 during the portion of T's consistency period following T's acquisition date. T1 becomes affiliated with Z, the corporation that acquired T stock in the qualified stock purchase, during T's consistency period, and, as of T's acquisition date, the basis of T1's stock reflects gain from the disposition of the asset. Consequently, paragraph (f) of this section applies to the asset if there is an arrangement.

Example 5. De minimis rules. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On February 15 of Year 1, T1 sells an asset to Z and recognizes gain. The aggregate amount realized by T and T1 on their respective sales of assets is not more than $250,000. On March 1 of Year 1, T3 sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On April 1 of Year 1, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. On June 1 of Year 1, P1 buys from Z the asset sold by T1.

(b) Under paragraph (b) of this section, the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section apply to the asset sold by T. Under paragraph (f) of this section, the principles of the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section apply to the asset sold by T1 if there is an arrangement. Because T3's gain is not reflected in the basis of the T stock, the basis rules of this section do not apply to the asset sold by T3.

(c) The de minimis rule of paragraph (d)(3) of this section applies to an asset if the asset is not disposed of as part of the same arrangement as the acquisition of T and the aggregate amount realized for all assets otherwise subject to the carryover basis rules does not exceed $250,000. The aggregate amount realized by T and T1 does not exceed $250,000. (The asset sold by T3 is not taken into account for purposes of the de minimis rule.) Thus, the de minimis rule applies to the asset sold by T if the asset is not disposed of as part of the same arrangement as the acquisition of T.

(d) If, under paragraph (f) of this section, the principles of the carryover basis rules of paragraph (d)(1) of this section otherwise apply to the asset sold by T1 because of an arrangement, the de minimis rules of this section do not apply to the asset because of the arrangement.

(e) Assume on June 1 of Year 1, Z acquires the T1 stock from T, other than in a qualified stock purchase, rather than P1 buying the T1 asset, and paragraph (f) of this section applies because there is an arrangement. Because the asset was disposed of and the T1 stock was acquired as part of the arrangement, the de minimis rules of this section do not apply to the asset.

(g) Extension of consistency if dividends qualifying for 100 percent dividends received deduction are paid—(1) General rule for direct acquisitions from target. Unless a section 338 election is made for target, the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section apply to an asset if—

(i) Target recognizes gain (whether or not deferred) on disposition of the asset during the portion of the target consistency period that ends on the target acquisition date;

(ii) The asset is owned, immediately after the asset disposition and on the target acquisition date, by a corporation that acquires stock of target in the qualified stock purchase (or by an affiliate of an acquiring corporation); and

(iii) During the portion of the target consistency period that ends on the target acquisition date, the aggregate amount of dividends paid by target, to which section 243(a)(3) applies, exceeds the greater of—

(A) $250,000; or

(B) 125 percent of the yearly average amount of dividends paid by target, to which section 243(a)(3) applies, during the three calendar years immediately preceding the year in which the target consistency period begins (or, if shorter, the period target was in existence).

(2) Other direct acquisitions having same effect. The basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section also apply to an asset if the effect of a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section is achieved through any combination of disposition of assets and payment of dividends to which section 243(a)(3) applies (or any other dividends eligible for a 100 percent dividends received deduction). See paragraph (h)(4) of this section for additional rules relating to target affiliates that are controlled foreign corporations.

(3) Indirect acquisitions. The principles of paragraph (f) of this section also apply for purposes of this paragraph (g).

(4) Examples. This paragraph (g) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Asset acquired from target paying dividends to which section 243(a)(3) applies. (a) The S group does not file a consolidated return. In Year 1, Year 2, and Year 3, T pays dividends to S to which section 243(a)(3) applies of $200,000, $250,000, and $300,000, respectively. On February 1 of Year 4, T sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 5, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. During the portion of T's consistency period that ends on T's acquisition date, T pays S dividends to which section 243(a)(3) applies of $1,000,000.

(b) Under paragraph (g)(1) of this section, paragraph (d) of this section applies to the asset. T recognizes gain on disposition of the asset during the portion of T's consistency period that ends on T's acquisition date, the asset is owned by P immediately after the disposition and on T's acquisition date, and T pays dividends described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. Consequently, under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, P's basis in the asset is T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to P.

(c) If T is a controlled foreign corporation, the results would be the same if T pays dividends in the amount described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section that qualify for a 100 percent dividends received deduction. See sections 243(e) and 245.

(d) If S and T3 file a consolidated return in which T, T1, and T2 do not join, the results would be the same because the dividends paid by T are still described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section.

(e) If T, T1, and T2 file a consolidated return in which S and T3 do not join, the results would be the same because the dividends paid by T are still described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section.

Example 2. Asset disposition by target affiliate achieving same effect. (a) The S group does not file a consolidated return. On February 1 of Year 1, T2 sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. T pays dividends to S described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Paragraph (g)(1) of this section does not apply to the asset because T did not recognize gain on the disposition of the asset. However, under paragraph (g)(2) of this section, because the asset disposition by T2 and the dividends paid by T achieve the effect of a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset. The effect was achieved because T2 is a lower-tier affiliate of T and the dividends paid by T to S reduce the value to S of T and its lower-tier affiliates.

(c) If T2 is a controlled foreign corporation, the results would be the same because T2 is a lower-tier affiliate of T and the dividends paid by T to S reduce the value to S of T and its lower-tier affiliates.

(d) If P buys an asset from T3, rather than T2, the asset disposition and the dividends do not achieve the effect of a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section because T3 is not a lower-tier affiliate of T. Thus, the basis rules of paragraph (d) of this section do not apply to the asset. The results would be the same whether or not P also acquires the T3 stock (whether or not in a qualified stock purchase).

Example 3. Dividends by target affiliate achieving same effect. (a) The S group does not file a consolidated return. On February 1 of Year 1, T1 sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. T does not pay dividends to S described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. However, T1 pays dividends to T that would be described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section if T1 were a target.

(b) Paragraph (g)(1) of this section does not apply to the asset because T did not recognize gain on the disposition of the asset and did not pay dividends described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section. Further, paragraph (g)(2) of this section does not apply because the dividends paid by T1 to T do not reduce the value to S of T and its lower-tier affiliates.

(c) If both S and T own T1 stock and T1 pays dividends to S that would be described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section if T1 were a target, paragraph (g)(2) of this section would apply because the dividends paid by T1 to S reduce the value to S of T and its lower-tier affiliates. If T, rather than T1, sold the asset to P, the results would be the same. Further, if T and T1 pay dividends to S that, only when aggregated, would be described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section (if they were all paid by T), the results would be the same.

Example 4. Gain reflected by reason of dividends. (a) S and T file a consolidated return in which T1 and T2 do not join. On February 1 of Year 1, T1 sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T. T1 pays dividends to T that would be described in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section if T1 were a target.

(b) The requirements of paragraph (b) of this section are not satisfied because, under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, gain from T1's sale is not reflected in S's basis in the T stock by reason of the dividends paid by T1 to T.

(c) Although the dividends paid by T1 to T do not reduce the value to S of T and its lower-tier affiliates, paragraph (g)(2) of this section applies because the dividends paid by T1 to T are taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining S's basis in the T stock. Consequently, the carryover basis rule of paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset.

(h) Consistency for target affiliates that are controlled foreign corporations—(1) In general. This paragraph (h) applies only if target is a domestic corporation. For additional rules that may apply with respect to controlled foreign corporations, see paragraph (g) of this section. The definitions and nomenclature of §1.338-2(b) and (c) and paragraph (e) of this section apply for purposes of this section.

(2) Income or gain resulting from asset dispositions—(i) General rule. Income or gain of a target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation from the disposition of an asset is not reflected in the basis of target stock under paragraph (c) of this section unless the income or gain results in an inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(A), 951(a)(1)(C), 1291 or 1293.

(ii) Basis of controlled foreign corporation stock. If, by reason of paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section, the carryover basis rules of this section apply to an asset, no increase in basis in the stock of a controlled foreign corporation under section 961(a) or 1293(d)(1), or under regulations issued pursuant to section 1297(b)(5), is allowed to target or a target affiliate to the extent the increase is attributable to income or gain described in paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section. A similar rule applies to the basis of any property by reason of which the stock of the controlled foreign corporation is considered owned under section 958(a)(2) or 1297(a).

(iii) Operating rule. For purposes of this paragraph (h)(2)—

(A) If there is an income inclusion under section 951 (a)(1)(A) or (C), the shareholder's income inclusion is first attributed to the income or gain of the controlled foreign corporation from the disposition of the asset to the extent of the shareholder's pro rata share of such income or gain; and

(B) Any income or gain under section 1293 is first attributed to the income or gain from the disposition of the asset to the extent of the shareholder's pro rata share of the income or gain.

(iv) Increase in asset or stock basis—(A) If the carryover basis rules under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section apply to an asset, and the purchasing corporation disposes of the asset to an unrelated party in a taxable transaction and recognizes and includes in its U.S. gross income or the U.S. gross income of its shareholders the greater of the income or gain from the disposition of the asset by the selling controlled foreign corporation that was reflected in the basis of the target stock under paragraph (c) of this section, or the gain recognized on the asset by the purchasing corporation on the disposition of the asset, then the purchasing corporation or the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, shall increase the basis of the selling controlled foreign corporation stock subject to paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, as of the date of the disposition of the asset by the purchasing corporation, by the amount of the basis increase that was denied under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the controlled foreign corporation stock is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a member of the purchasing corporation's affiliated group.

(B) If the carryover basis rules under paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section apply to an asset, and the purchasing corporation or the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, disposes of the stock of the selling controlled foreign corporation to an unrelated party in a taxable transaction and recognizes and includes in its U.S. gross income or the U.S. gross income of its shareholders the greater of the gain equal to the basis increase that was denied under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, or the gain recognized in the stock by the purchasing corporation or by the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, on the disposition of the stock, then the purchasing corporation shall increase the basis of the asset, as of the date of the disposition of the stock of the selling controlled foreign corporation by the purchasing corporation or by the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, by the amount of the basis increase that was denied pursuant to paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the asset is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a member of the purchasing corporation's affiliated group.

(3) Stock issued by target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation. The exception to the carryover basis rules of this section provided in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section does not apply to stock issued by a target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation. After applying the carryover basis rules of this section to the stock, the basis in the stock is increased by the amount treated as a dividend under section 1248 on the disposition of the stock (or that would have been so treated but for section 1291), except to the extent the basis increase is attributable to the disposition of an asset in which a carryover basis is taken under this section.

(4) Certain distributions—(i) General rule. In the case of a target affiliate that is a controlled foreign corporation, paragraph (g) of this section applies with respect to the target affiliate by treating any reference to a dividend to which section 243(a)(3) applies as a reference to any amount taken into account under §1.1502-32 in determining the basis of target stock that is—

(A) A dividend;

(B) An amount treated as a dividend under section 1248 (or that would have been so treated but for section 1291); or

(C) An amount included in income under section 951(a)(1)(B).

(ii) Basis of controlled foreign corporation stock. If the carryover basis rules of this section apply to an asset, the basis in the stock of the controlled foreign corporation (or any property by reason of which the stock is considered owned under section 958(a)(2)) is reduced (but not below zero) by the sum of any amounts that are treated, solely by reason of the disposition of the asset, as a dividend, amount treated as a dividend under section 1248 (or that would have been so treated but for section 1291), or amount included in income under section 951(a)(1)(B). For this purpose, any dividend, amount treated as a dividend under section 1248 (or that would have been so treated but for section 1291), or amount included in income under section 951(a)(1)(B) is considered attributable first to earnings and profits resulting from the disposition of the asset.

(iii) Increase in asset or stock basis—(A) If the carryover basis rules under paragraphs (g) and (h)(4)(i) of this section apply to an asset, and the purchasing corporation disposes of the asset to an unrelated party in a taxable transaction and recognizes and includes in its U.S. gross income or the U.S. gross income of its shareholders the greater of the gain equal to the basis increase denied in the asset pursuant to paragraphs (g) and (h)(4)(i) of this section, or the gain recognized on the asset by the purchasing corporation on the disposition of the asset, then the purchasing corporation or the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, shall increase the basis of the selling controlled foreign corporation stock subject to paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section, as of the date of the disposition of the asset by the purchasing corporation, by the amount of the basis reduction under paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the controlled foreign corporation stock is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a member of the purchasing corporation's affiliated group.

(B) If the carryover basis rules under paragraphs (g) and (h)(4)(i) of this section apply to an asset, and the purchasing corporation or the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, disposes of the stock of the selling controlled foreign corporation to an unrelated party in a taxable transaction and recognizes and includes in its U.S. gross income or the U.S. gross income of its shareholders the greater of the amount of the basis reduction under paragraph (h)(4)(ii) of this section, or the gain recognized in the stock by the purchasing corporation or by the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, on the disposition of the stock, then the purchasing corporation shall increase the basis of the asset, as of the date of the disposition of the stock of the selling controlled foreign corporation by the purchasing corporation or by the target or a target affiliate, as appropriate, by the amount of the basis increase that was denied pursuant to paragraphs (g) and (h)(4)(i) of this section. The preceding sentence shall apply only to the extent that the asset is owned (within the meaning of section 958(a)) by a member of the purchasing corporation's affiliated group.

(5) Examples. This paragraph (h) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Stock of target affiliate that is a CFC. (a) The S group files a consolidated return; however, T2 is a controlled foreign corporation. On December 1 of Year 1, T1 sells the T2 stock to P and recognizes gain. On January 2 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, paragraph (d) of this section applies to the T2 stock. Under paragraph (h)(3) of this section, paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section does not apply to the T2 stock. Consequently, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the T2 stock. However, after applying paragraph (d)(1) of this section, P's basis in the T2 stock is increased by the amount of T1's gain on the sale of the T2 stock that is treated as a dividend under section 1248. Because P has a carryover basis in the T2 stock, the T2 stock is not considered purchased within the meaning of section 338(h)(3) and no section 338 election may be made for T2.

Example 2. Stock of target affiliate CFC; inclusion under subpart F. (a) The S group files a consolidated return; however, T2 is a controlled foreign corporation. On December 1 of Year 1, T2 sells an asset to P and recognizes subpart F income that results in an inclusion in T1's gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A). On January 2 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Because gain from the disposition of the asset results in an inclusion under section 951(a)(1)(A), the gain is reflected in the basis of the T stock as of T's acquisition date. See paragraph (h)(2)(i) of this section. Consequently, under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset. In addition, under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, T1's basis in the T2 stock is not increased under section 961(a) by the amount of the inclusion that is attributable to the sale of the asset.

(c) If, in addition to making a qualified stock purchase of T, P acquires the T2 stock from T1 on January 1 of Year 2, the results are the same for the asset sold by T2. In addition, under paragraph (h)(2)(ii) of this section, T1's basis in the T2 stock is not increased by the amount of the inclusion that is attributable to the gain on the sale of the asset. Further, under paragraph (h)(3) of this section, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the T2 stock. However, after applying paragraph (d)(1) of this section, P's basis in the T2 stock is increased by the amount of T1's gain on the sale of the T2 stock that is treated as a dividend under section 1248. Finally, because P has a carryover basis in the T2 stock, the T2 stock is not considered purchased within the meaning of section 338(h)(3) and no section 338 election may be made for T2.

(d) If P makes a qualified stock purchase of T2 from T1, rather than of T from S, and T1's gain on the sale of T2 is treated as a dividend under section 1248, under paragraph (h)(1) of this section, paragraphs (h)(2) and (3) of this section do not apply because there is no target that is a domestic corporation. Consequently, the carryover basis rules of paragraph do not apply to the asset sold by T2 or the T2 stock.

Example 3. Gain reflected by reason of section 1248 dividend; gain from non-subpart F asset. (a) The S group files a consolidated return; however, T2 is a controlled foreign corporation. In Years 1 through 4, T2 does not pay any dividends to T1 and no amount is included in T1's income under section 951(a)(1)(B). On December 1 of Year 4, T2 sells an asset with a basis of $400,000 to P for $900,000. T2's gain of $500,000 is not subpart F income. On December 15 of Year 4, T1 sells T2, in which it has a basis of $600,000, to P for $1,600,000. Under section 1248, $800,000 of T1's gain of $1,000,000 is treated as a dividend. However, in the absence of the sale of the asset by T2 to P, only $300,000 would have been treated as a dividend under section 1248. On December 30 of Year 4, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T1 from T. No section 338 election is made for T1.

(b) Under paragraph (h)(4) of this section, paragraph (g)(2) of this section applies by reference to the amount treated as a dividend under section 1248 on the disposition of the T2 stock. Because the amount treated as a dividend is taken into account in determining T's basis in the T1 stock under §1.1502-32, the sale of the T2 stock and the deemed dividend have the effect of a transaction described in paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Consequently, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset sold by T2 to P and P's basis in the asset is $400,000 as of December 1 of Year 4.

(c) Under paragraph (h)(3) of this section, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the T2 stock and P's basis in the T2 stock is $600,000 as of December 15 of Year 4. Under paragraphs (h)(3) and (4)(ii) of this section, however, P's basis in the T2 stock is increased by $300,000 (the amount of T1's gain treated as a dividend under section 1248 ($800,000), other than the amount treated as a dividend solely as a result of the sale of the asset by T2 to P ($500,000)) to $900,000.

(i) [Reserved]

(j) Anti-avoidance rules. For purposes of this section—

(1) Extension of consistency period. The target consistency period is extended to include any continuous period that ends on, or begins on, any day of the consistency period during which a purchasing corporation, or any person related, within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1), to a purchasing corporation, has an arrangement—

(i) To purchase stock of target; or

(ii) To own an asset to which the carryover basis rules of this section apply, taking into account the extension.

(2) Qualified stock purchase and 12-month acquisition period. The 12-month acquisition period is extended if, pursuant to an arrangement, a corporation acquires by purchase stock of another corporation satisfying the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) over a period of more than 12 months.

(3) Acquisitions by conduits—(i) Asset ownership—(A) General rule. A corporation is treated as owning any portion of an asset attributed to the corporation from a conduit under section 318(a) (treating any asset as stock for this purpose), for purposes of—

(1) The asset ownership requirements of this section; and

(2) Determining whether a controlled foreign corporation is a target affiliate for purposes of paragraph (h) of this section.

(B) Application of carryover basis rule. If the basis rules of this section apply to the asset, the basis rules of this section apply to the entire asset (not just the portion for which ownership is attributed).

(ii) Stock acquisitions—(A) Purchase by conduit. A corporation is treated as purchasing stock of another corporation attributed to the corporation from a conduit under section 318(a) on the day the stock is purchased by the conduit. The corporation is not treated as purchasing the stock, however, if the conduit purchased the stock more than two years before the date the stock is first attributed to the corporation.

(B) Purchase of conduit by corporation. If a corporation purchases an interest in a conduit (treating the interest as stock for this purpose), the corporation is treated as purchasing on that date any stock owned by a conduit on that date and attributed to the corporation under section 318(a) with respect to the interest in the conduit that was purchased.

(C) Purchase of conduit by conduit. If a conduit (the first conduit) purchases an interest in a second conduit (treating the interest as stock for this purpose), the first conduit is treated as purchasing on that date any stock owned by a conduit on that date and attributed to the first conduit under section 318(a) with respect to the interest in the second conduit that was purchased.

(4) Conduit. A person (other than a corporation) is a conduit as to a corporation if—

(i) The corporation would be treated under section 318(a)(2)(A) and (B) (attribution from partnerships, estates, and trusts) as owning any stock owned by the person; and

(ii) The corporation, together with its affiliates, would be treated as owning an aggregate of at least 50 percent of the stock owned by the person.

(5) Existence of arrangement. The existence of an arrangement is determined under all the facts and circumstances. For an arrangement to exist, there need not be an enforceable, written, or unconditional agreement, and all the parties to the transaction need not have participated in each step of the transaction. One factor indicating the existence of an arrangement is the participation of a related party. For this purpose, persons are related if they are related within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1).

(6) Predecessor and successor—(i) Persons. A reference to a person (including target, target affiliate, and purchasing corporation) includes, as the context may require, a reference to a predecessor or successor. For this purpose, a predecessor is a transferor or distributor of assets to a person (the successor) in a transaction—

(A) To which section 381(a) applies; or

(B) In which the successor's basis for the assets is determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to the basis of the transferor or distributor.

(ii) Assets. A reference to an asset (the first asset) includes, as the context may require, a reference to any asset the basis of which is determined, directly or indirectly, in whole or in part, by reference to the first asset.

(7) Examples. This paragraph (j) may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Asset owned by conduit treated as owned by purchaser of target stock. (a) P owns a 60-percent interest in Y. On March 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to Y and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Under paragraph (j)(4) of this section, Y is a conduit with respect to P. Consequently, under paragraph (j)(3)(i)(A) of this section, P is treated as owning 60% of the asset on March 1 of Year 1 and January 1 of Year 2. Because P is treated as owning part or all of the asset both immediately after the asset disposition and on T's acquisition date, paragraph (b) of this section applies to the asset. Consequently, paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies to the asset and Y's basis in the asset is T's adjusted basis in the asset immediately before the sale to Y.

Example 2. Corporation whose stock is owned by conduit treated as affiliate. (a) P owns an 80-percent interest in Y. Y owns all of the stock of Z. On March 1 of Year 1, T sells an asset to Z and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 2, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) Under paragraph (j)(4) of this section, Y is a conduit with respect to P. Consequently, under paragraph (j)(3)(i)(A) of this section, P is treated as owning 80% of the Z stock and Z is therefore treated as an affiliate of P for purposes of applying the asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section. Because Z, an affiliate of P, owns the asset both immediately after the asset disposition and on T's acquisition date, paragraph (b) of this section applies to the asset, and the asset's basis is determined under paragraph (d) of this section.

(c) If, instead of owning an 80-percent interest in Y, P owned a 79-percent interest in Y, Z would not be treated as an affiliate of P and paragraph (b) of this section would not apply to the asset.

Example 3. Qualified stock purchase by reason of stock purchase by conduit. (a) P owns a 90-percent interest in Y. Y owns a 60-percent interest in Y1. On February 1 of Year 2, T sells an asset to P and recognizes gain. On January 1 of Year 3, P purchases 70% of the T stock from S and Y1 purchases the remaining 30% of the T stock from S.

(b) Under paragraph (j)(3)(ii)(A) of this section, P is treated as purchasing on January 1 of Year 3, the 16.2% of the T stock that is attributed to P from Y and Y1 under section 318(a). Thus, for purposes of this section, P is treated as making a qualified stock purchase of T on January 1 of Year 3, paragraph (b) of this section applies to the asset, and the asset's basis is determined under paragraph (d) of this section. However, because P is not treated as having made a qualified stock purchase of T for purposes of making an election under section 338, no election can be made for T.

(c) If Y1 purchases 20% of the T stock from S on December 1 of Year 1, rather than 30% on January 1 of Year 3, P would be treated as purchasing 10.8% of the T stock on December 1 of Year 1. Thus, if paragraph (j)(2) of this section (relating to extension of the 12-month acquisition period) does not apply, P would not be treated as making a qualified stock purchase of T, because P is not treated as purchasing T stock satisfying the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) within a 12-month period.

Example 4. Successor asset. (a) On February 1 of Year 1, T sells stock of X to P1 and recognizes gain. On December 1 of Year 1, P1 exchanges its X stock for stock in new X in a reorganization qualifying under section 368(a)(1)(F). On January 1 of Year 2, P1 makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. No section 338 election is made for T.

(b) The asset ownership requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iii) of this section are satisfied because, under paragraph (j)(6)(ii) of this section, P1 is treated as owning the X stock on T's acquisition date. P1 is treated as owning the X stock on that date because P1 owns the new X stock and P1's basis in the new X stock is determined by reference to P1's basis in the X stock. Consequently, under paragraph (d)(1) of this section, P1's basis in the X stock on February 1 of Year 1 is T's adjusted basis in the X stock immediately before the sale to P1.

[T.D. 8515, 59 FR 2972, Jan. 20, 1994, as amended by T.D. 8597, 60 FR 36679, July 18, 1995; T.D. 8710, 62 FR 3459, Jan. 23, 1997. Redesignated by T.D. 8858, 65 FR 1246, Jan. 7, 2000, as amended by T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001; 66 FR 17466, Mar. 30, 2001]

§1.338-9   International aspects of section 338.

(a) Scope. This section provides guidance regarding international aspects of section 338. As provided in §1.338-2(c)(18), a foreign corporation, a DISC, or a corporation for which a section 936 election has been made is considered a target affiliate for all purposes of section 338. In addition, stock described in section 338(h)(6)(B)(ii) held by a target affiliate is not excluded from the operation of section 338.

(b) Application of section 338 to foreign targets—(1) In general. For purposes of subtitle A, the deemed sale tax consequences, as defined in §1.338-2(c)(7), of a foreign target for which a section 338 election is made (FT), and the corresponding earnings and profits, are taken into account in determining the taxation of FT and FT's direct and indirect shareholders. See, however, section 338(h)(16). For example, the income and earnings and profits of FT are determined, for purposes of sections 551, 951, 1248, and 1293, by taking into account the deemed sale tax sentence consequences.

(2) Ownership of FT stock on the acquisition date. A person who transfers FT stock to the purchasing corporation on FT's acquisition date is considered to own the transferred stock at the close of FT's acquisition date. See, e.g., §1.951-1(f) (relating to determination of holding period for purposes of sections 951 through 964). If on the acquisition date the purchasing corporation owns a block of FT stock that was acquired before FT's acquisition date, the purchasing corporation is considered to own such block of stock at the close of the acquisition date.

(3) Carryover FT stock—(i) Definition. FT stock is carryover FT stock if—

(A) FT was a controlled foreign corporation within the meaning of section 957 (taking into account section 953(c)) at any time during the portion of the 12-month acquisition period that ends on the acquisition date; and

(B) Such stock is owned as of the beginning of the day after FT's acquisition date by a person other than a purchasing corporation, or by a purchasing corporation if the stock is nonrecently purchased and is not subject to a gain recognition election under §1.338-5(d).

(ii) Carryover of earnings and profits. The earnings and profits of old FT (and associated foreign taxes) attributable to the carryover FT stock (adjusted to reflect deemed sale tax sentence consequences) carry over to new FT solely for purposes of—

(A) Characterizing an actual distribution with respect to a share of carryover FT stock as a dividend;

(B) Characterizing gain on a post-acquisition date transfer of a share of carryover FT stock as a dividend under section 1248 (if such section is otherwise applicable);

(C) Characterizing an investment of earnings in United States property as income under sections 951(a)(1)(B) and 956 (if such sections are otherwise applicable); and

(D) Determining foreign taxes deemed paid under sections 902 and 960 with respect to the amount treated as a dividend or income by virtue of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii) (subject to the operation of section 338(h)(16)).

(iii) Cap on carryover of earnings and profits. The amount of earnings and profits of old FT taken into account with respect to a share of carryover FT stock is limited to the amount that would have been included in gross income of the owner of such stock as a dividend under section 1248 if—

(A) The shareholder transferred that share to the purchasing corporation on FT's acquisition date for a consideration equal to the fair market value of that share on that date; or

(B) In the case of nonrecently purchased FT stock treated as carryover FT stock, a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3)(A) applied to that share. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a shareholder that is a controlled foreign corporation is considered to be a United States person, and the principle of section 1248(c)(2)(D)(ii) (concerning a United States person's indirect ownership of stock in a foreign corporation) applies in determining the correct holding period.

(iv) Post-acquisition date distribution of old FT earnings and profits. A post-acquisition date distribution with respect to a share of carryover FT stock is considered to be derived first from earnings and profits derived after FT's acquisition date and then from earnings and profits derived on or before FT's acquisition date.

(v) Old FT earnings and profits unaffected by post-acquisition date deficits. The carryover amount for a share of carryover FT stock is not reduced by deficits in earnings and profits incurred by new FT. This rule applies for purposes of determining the amount of foreign taxes deemed paid regardless of the fact that there are no accumulated earnings and profits. For example, a distribution by new FT with respect to a share of carryover FT stock is treated as a dividend by the distributee to the extent of the carryover amount for that share notwithstanding that new FT has no earnings and profits.

(vi) Character of FT stock as carryover FT stock eliminated upon disposition. A share of FT stock is not considered carryover FT stock after it is disposed of provided that all gain realized on the transfer is recognized at the time of the transfer, or that, if less than all of the realized gain is recognized, the recognized amount equals or exceeds the remaining carryover amount for that share.

(4) Passive foreign investment company stock. Stock that is owned as of the beginning of the day after FT's acquisition date by a person other than a purchasing corporation, or by a purchasing corporation if the FT stock is nonrecently purchased stock not subject to a gain recognition election under §1.338-5(d), is treated as passive foreign investment company stock to the extent provided in section 1297(b)(1).

(c) Dividend treatment under section 1248(e). The principles of this paragraph (b) apply to shareholders of a domestic corporation subject to section 1248(e).

(d) Allocation of foreign taxes. If a section 338 election is made for target (whether foreign or domestic), and target's taxable year under foreign law (if any) does not close at the end of the acquisition date, foreign income taxes attributable to the foreign taxable income earned by target during such foreign taxable year are allocated to old target and new target. Such allocation is made under the principles of §1.1502-76(b).

(e) Operation of section 338(h)(16). [Reserved]

(f) Examples. (1) Except as otherwise provided, all corporations use the calendar year as the taxable year, have no earnings and profits (or deficit) accumulated for any taxable year, and have only one class of outstanding stock.

(2) This section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. Gain recognition election for carryover FT stock. (a) A has owned 90 of the 100 shares of CFCT stock since CFCT was organized on March 13, 1989. P has owned the remaining 10 shares of CFCT stock since CFCT was organized. Those 10 shares constitute nonrecently purchased stock in P's hands within the meaning of section 338(b)(6)(B). On November 1, 1994, P purchases A's 90 shares of CFCT stock for $90,000 and makes a section 338 election for CFCT. P also makes a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3)(A) and §1.338-5(d).

(b) CFCT's earnings and profits for its short taxable year ending on November 1, 1994, are $50,000, determined without taking into account the deemed asset sale. Assume A recognizes gain of $81,000 on the sale of the CFCT stock. Further, assume that CFCT recognizes gain of $40,000 by reason of its deemed sale of assets under section 338(a)(1).

(c) A's sale of CFCT stock to P is a transfer to which section 1248 and paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section apply. For purposes of applying section 1248(a) to A, the earnings and profits of CFCT for its short taxable year ending on November 1, 1994, are $90,000 (the earnings and profits for that taxable year as determined under §1.1248-2(e) ($50,000) plus earnings from the deemed sale ($40,000)). Thus, A's entire gain is characterized as a dividend under section 1248 (but see section 338(h)(16)).

(d) Assume that P recognizes a gain of $9,000 with respect to the 10 shares of nonrecently purchased CFCT stock by reason of the gain recognition election. Because P is treated as selling the nonrecently purchased stock for all purposes of the Internal Revenue Code, section 1248 applies. Thus, under §1.1248-2(e), $9,000 of the $90,000 of earnings and profits for 1994 are attributable to the block of 10 shares of CFCT stock deemed sold by P at the close of November 1, 1994 ($90,000 × 10/100). Accordingly, P's entire gain on the deemed sale of 10 shares of CFCT stock is included under section 1248(a) in P's gross income as a dividend (but see section 338(h)(16)).

Example 2. No gain recognition election for carryover FT stock. (a) Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that P does not make a gain recognition election.

(b) The 10 shares of nonrecently purchased CFCT stock held by P is carryover FT stock under paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Accordingly, the earnings and profits (and attributable foreign taxes) of old CFCT carry over to new CFCT solely for purposes of that block of 10 shares. The amount of old CFCT's earnings and profits taken into account with respect to that block in the event, for example, of a distribution by new CFCT with respect to that block is the amount of the section 1248 dividend that P would have recognized with respect to that block had it made a gain recognition election under section 338(b)(3)(A). Under the facts of Example 1, P would have recognized a gain of $9,000 with respect to that block, all of which would have been a section 1248 dividend ($90,000 × 10/100). Accordingly, the carryover amount for the block of 10 shares of nonrecently purchased CFCT stock is $9,000.

Example 3. Sale of controlled foreign corporation stock prior to and on the acquisition date. (a) X and Y, both U.S. corporations, have each owned 50% of the CFCT stock since 1986. Among CFCT's assets are assets the sale of which would generate subpart F income. On December 31, 1994, X sells its CFCT stock to P. On June 30, 1995, Y sells its CFCT stock to P. P makes a section 338 election for CFCT. In both 1994 and 1995, CFCT has subpart F income resulting from operations.

(b) For taxable year 1994, X and Y are United States shareholders on the last day of CFCT's taxable year, so pursuant to section 951(a)(1)(A) each must include in income its pro rata share of CFCT's subpart F income for 1994. Because P's holding period in the CFCT stock acquired from X does not begin until January 1, 1995, P is not a United States shareholder on the last day of 1994 for purposes of section 951(a)(1)(A) (see §1.951-1(f)). X must then determine the extent to which section 1248 recharacterizes its gain on the sale of CFCT stock as a dividend.

(c) For the short taxable year ending June 30, 1995, Y is considered to own the CFCT stock sold to P at the close of CFCT's acquisition date. Because the acquisition date is the last day of CFCT's taxable year, Y and P are United States shareholders on the last day of CFCT's taxable year. Pursuant to section 951(a)(1)(A), each must include its pro rata share of CFCT's subpart F income for the short taxable year ending June 30, 1995. This includes any income generated on the deemed sale of CFCT's assets. Y must then determine the extent to which section 1248 recharacterizes its gain on the sale of the CFCT stock as a dividend, taking into account any increase in CFCT's earnings and profits due to the deemed sale of assets.

Example 4. Acquisition of control for purposes of section 951 prior to the acquisition date. FS owns 100% of the FT stock. On July 1, 1994, P buys 60% of the FT stock. On December 31, 1994, P buys the remaining 40% of the FT stock and makes a section 338 election for FT. For tax year 1994, FT has earnings and profits of $1,000 (including earnings resulting from the deemed sale). The section 338 election results in $500 of subpart F income. As a result of the section 338 election, P must include in gross income the following amount under section 951(a)(1)(A) (see §1.951-(b)(2)):
FT's subpart F income for 1994$500.00
Less: reduction under section 951(a)(2)(A) for period (1-1-94 through 7-1-94) during which FT is not a controlled foreign corporation ($500×182/365)249.32
Subpart F income as limited by section 951 (a)(2)(A)250.68
P's pro rata share of subpart F income as determined under section 951(a)(2)(A) (60%×250.68)150.41
Example 5. Coordination with section 936. (a) T is a corporation for which a section 936 election has been made. P makes a qualified stock purchase of T and makes a section 338 election for T.

(b) T's deemed sale of assets under section 338 constitutes a sale for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, including section 936(a)(1)(A)(ii). To the extent that the assets deemed sold are used in the conduct of an active trade or business in a possession for purposes of section 936(a)(1)(A)(i), and assuming all the other conditions of section 936 are satisfied, the income from the deemed sale qualifies for the credit granted by section 936(a). The source of income from the deemed sale is determined as if the assets had actually been sold and is not affected for purposes of section 936 by section 338(h)(16).

(c) Because new T is treated a new corporation for purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, the three year testing period in section 936(a)(2)(A) begins again for new T on the day following T's acquisition date. Thus, if the character or source of old T's gross income disqualified it for the credit under section 936, a fresh start is allowed by a section 338 election.

[T.D. 8515, 59 FR 2978, Jan. 20, 1994. Redesignated by T.D. 8858, 65 FR 1246, Jan. 7, 2000, as amended by T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9929, Feb. 13, 2001; 66 FR 17466, Mar. 30, 2001]

§1.338-10   Filing of returns.

(a) Returns including tax liability from deemed asset sale—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(2) and (3) of this section, any deemed sale tax consequences are reported on the final return of old target filed for old target's taxable year that ends at the close of the acquisition date. Paragraphs (a)(2), (3) and (4) of this section do not apply to elections under section 338(h)(10). If old target is the common parent of an affiliated group, the final return may be a consolidated return (any such consolidated return must also include any deemed sale tax consequences of any members of the consolidated group that are acquired by the purchasing corporation on the same acquisition date as old target).

(2) Old target's final taxable year otherwise included in consolidated return of selling group—(i) General rule. If the selling group files a consolidated return for the period that includes the acquisition date, old target is disaffiliated from that group immediately before the deemed asset sale and must file a deemed sale return separate from the group, which includes only the deemed sale tax consequences and the carryover items specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section. The deemed asset sale occurs at the close of the acquisition date and is the last transaction of old target and the only transaction reported on the separate return. Except as provided in §1.338-1(d) (regarding certain transactions on the acquisition date), any transactions of old target occurring on the acquisition date other than the deemed asset sale are included in the selling group's consolidated return. A deemed sale return includes a combined deemed sale return as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section.

(ii) Separate taxable year. The deemed asset sale included in the deemed sale return under this paragraph (a)(2) occurs in a separate taxable year, except that old target's taxable year of the sale and the consolidated year of the selling group that includes the acquisition date are treated as the same year for purposes of determining the number of years in a carryover or carryback period.

(iii) Carryover and carryback of tax attributes. Target's attributes may be carried over to, and carried back from, the deemed sale return under the rules applicable to a corporation that ceases to be a member of a consolidated group.

(iv) Old target is a component member of purchasing corporation's controlled group. For purposes of its deemed sale return, target is a component member of the controlled group of corporations including the purchasing corporation unless target is treated as an excluded member under section 1563(b)(2).

(4) Combined deemed sale return—(i) General rule. Under section 338(h)(15), a combined deemed sale return (combined return) may be filed for all targets from a single selling consolidated group (as defined in §1.338(h)(10)-1(b)(3)) that are acquired by the purchasing corporation on the same acquisition date and that otherwise would be required to file separate deemed sale returns. The combined return must include all such targets. For example, T and T1 may be included in a combined return if—

(A) T and T1 are directly owned subsidiaries of S;

(B) S is the common parent of a consolidated group; and

(C) P makes qualified stock purchases of T and T1 on the same acquisition date.

(ii) Gain and loss offsets. Gains and losses recognized on the deemed asset sales by targets included in a combined return are treated as the gains and losses of a single target. In addition, loss carryovers of a target that were not subject to the separate return limitation year restrictions (SRLY restrictions) of the consolidated return regulations while that target was a member of the selling consolidated group may be applied without limitation to the gains of other targets included in the combined return. If, however, a target has loss carryovers that were subject to the SRLY restrictions while that target was a member of the selling consolidated group, the use of those losses in the combined return continues to be subject to those restrictions, applied in the same manner as if the combined return were a consolidated return. A similar rule applies, when appropriate, to other tax attributes.

(iii) Procedure for filing a combined return. A combined return is made by filing a single corporation income tax return in lieu of separate deemed sale returns for all targets required to be included in the combined return. The combined return reflects the deemed asset sales of all targets required to be included in the combined return. If the targets included in the combined return constitute a single affiliated group within the meaning of section 1504(a), the income tax return is signed by an officer of the common parent of that group. Otherwise, the return must be signed by an officer of each target included in the combined return. Rules similar to the rules in §1.1502-75(j) apply for purposes of preparing the combined return. The combined return must include a statement entitled, “ELECTION TO FILE A COMBINED RETURN UNDER SECTION 338(h)(15).” The statement must include—

(A) The name, address, and employer identification number of each target required to be included in the combined return; and

(B) The following declaration: EACH TARGET IDENTIFIED IN THIS ELECTION TO FILE A COMBINED RETURN CONSENTS TO THE FILING OF A COMBINED RETURN.

(iv) Consequences of filing a combined return. Each target included in a combined return is severally liable for any tax associated with the combined return. See §1.338-1(b)(3).

(5) Deemed sale excluded from purchasing corporation's consolidated return. Old target may not be considered a member of any affiliated group that includes the purchasing corporation with respect to its deemed asset sale.

(6) Due date for old target's final return—(i) General rule. Old target's final return is generally due on the 15th day of the third calendar month following the month in which the acquisition date occurs. See section 6072 (time for filing income tax returns).

(ii) Application of §1.1502-76(c)—(A) In general. Section 1.1502-76(c) applies to old target's final return if old target was a member of a selling group that did not file consolidated returns for the taxable year of the common parent that precedes the year that includes old target's acquisition date. If the selling group has not filed a consolidated return that includes old target's taxable period that ends on the acquisition date, target may, on or before the final return due date (including extensions), either—

(1) File a deemed sale return on the assumption that the selling group will file the consolidated return; or

(2) File a return for so much of old target's taxable period as ends at the close of the acquisition date on the assumption that the consolidated return will not be filed.

(B) Deemed extension. For purposes of applying §1.1502-76(c)(2), an extension of time to file old target's final return is considered to be in effect until the last date for making the election under section 338.

(C) Erroneous filing of deemed sale return. If, under this paragraph (a)(6)(ii), target files a deemed sale return but the selling group does not file a consolidated return, target must file a substituted return for old target not later than the due date (including extensions) for the return of the common parent with which old target would have been included in the consolidated return. The substituted return is for so much of old target's taxable year as ends at the close of the acquisition date. Under §1.1502-76(c)(2), the deemed sale return is not considered a return for purposes of section 6011 (relating to the general requirement of filing a return) if a substituted return must be filed.

(D) Erroneous filing of return for regular tax year. If, under this paragraph (a)(6)(ii), target files a return for so much of old target's regular taxable year as ends at the close of the acquisition date but the selling group files a consolidated return, target must file an amended return for old target not later than the due date (including extensions) for the selling group's consolidated return. (The amended return is a deemed sale return.)

(E) Last date for payment of tax. If either a substituted or amended final return of old target is filed under this paragraph (a)(6)(ii), the last date prescribed for payment of tax is the final return due date (as defined in paragraph (a)(6)(i) of this section).

(7) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (a):

Example 1. (i) S is the common parent of a consolidated group that includes T. The S group files calendar year consolidated returns. At the close of June 30 of Year 1, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T from S. P makes a section 338 election for T, and T's deemed asset sale occurs as of the close of T's acquisition date (June 30).

(ii) T is considered disaffiliated for purposes of reporting the deemed sale tax consequences. Accordingly, T is included in the S group's consolidated return through T's acquisition date except that the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences is reported in a separate deemed sale return of T. Provided that T is not treated as an excluded member under section 1563(b)(2), T is a component member of P's controlled group for the taxable year of the deemed asset sale, and the taxable income bracket amounts available in calculating tax on the deemed sale return must be limited accordingly.

(iii) If P purchased the stock of T at 10 a.m. on June 30 of Year 1, the results would be the same. See paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the S group does not file consolidated returns. T must file a separate return for its taxable year ending on June 30 of Year 1, which return includes the deemed asset sale.

(b) Waiver—(1) Certain additions to tax. An addition to tax or additional amount (addition) under subchapter A of chapter 68 of the Internal Revenue Code arising on or before the last day for making the election under section 338 because of circumstances that would not exist but for an election under section 338 is waived if—

(i) Under the particular statute the addition is excusable upon a showing of reasonable cause; and

(ii) Corrective action is taken on or before the last day.

(2) Notification. The Internal Revenue Service should be notified at the time of correction (e.g., by attaching a statement to a return that constitutes corrective action) that the waiver rule of this paragraph (b) is being asserted.

(3) Elections or other actions required to be specified on a timely filed return—(i) In general. If paragraph (b)(1) of this section applies or would apply if there were an underpayment, any election or other action that must be specified on a timely filed return for the taxable period covered by the late filed return described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is considered timely if specified on a late-filed return filed on or before the last day for making the election under section 338.

(ii) New target in purchasing corporation's consolidated return. If new target is includible for its first taxable year in a consolidated return filed by the affiliated group of which the purchasing corporation is a member on or before the last day for making the election under section 338, any election or other action that must be specified in a timely filed return for new target's first taxable year (but which is not specified in the consolidated return) is considered timely if specified in an amended return filed on or before such last day, at the place where the consolidated return was filed.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (b):

Example 1. T is an unaffiliated corporation with a tax year ending March 31. At the close of September 20 of Year 1, P makes a qualified stock purchase of T. P does not join in filing a consolidated return. P makes a section 338 election for T on or before June 15 of Year 2, which causes T's taxable year to end as of the close of September 20 of Year 1. An income tax return for T's taxable period ending on September 20 of Year 1 was due on December 15 of Year 1. Additions to tax for failure to file a return and to pay tax shown on a return will not be imposed if T's return is filed and the tax paid on or before June 15 of Year 2. (This waiver applies even if the acquisition date coincides with the last day of T's former taxable year, i.e., March 31 of Year 2.) Interest on any underpayment of tax for old T's short taxable year ending September 20 of Year 1 runs from December 15 of Year 1. A statement indicating that the waiver rule of this paragraph is being asserted should be attached to T's return.
Example 2. Assume the same facts as in Example 1. Assume further that new T adopts the calendar year by filing, on or before June 15 of Year 2, its first return (for the period beginning on September 21 of Year 1 and ending on December 31 of Year 1) indicating that a calendar year is chosen. See §1.338-1(b)(1). Any additions to tax or amounts described in this paragraph (b) that arise because of the late filing of a return for the period ending on December 31 of Year 1 are waived, because they are based on circumstances that would not exist but for the section 338 election. Notwithstanding this waiver, however, the return is still considered due March 15 of Year 2, and interest on any underpayment runs from that date.
Example 3. Assume the same facts as in Example 2, except that T's former taxable year ends on October 31. Although prior to the election old T had a return due on January 15 of Year 2 for its year ending October 31 of Year 1, that return need not be filed because a timely election under section 338 was made. Instead, old T must file a final return for the period ending on September 20 of Year 1, which is due on December 15 of Year 1.

(c) Effective/applicability date. Paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section applies to any taxable year beginning on or after May 30, 2006. However, taxpayers may apply paragraph (a)(4)(iii) of this section to any original Federal income tax return (including any amended return filed on or before the due date (including extensions) of such original return) timely filed on or after May 30, 2006. For taxable years beginning before May 30, 2006, see §1.338-10 as contained in 26 CFR part 1 in effect on April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9948, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30596, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32798, June 14, 2007]

§1.338-11   Effect of section 338 election on insurance company targets.

(a) In general. This section provides rules that apply when an election under section 338 is made for a target that is an insurance company. The rules in this section apply in addition to those generally applicable upon the making of an election under section 338. In the case of a conflict between the provisions of this section and other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations, the rules set forth in this section determine the Federal income tax treatment of the parties and the transaction when a section 338 election is made for an insurance company target.

(b) Computation of ADSP and AGUB—(1) Reserves taken into account as a liability. Old target's tax reserves are the reserves for Federal income tax purposes for any insurance, annuity, and reinsurance contracts deemed sold by old target to new target in the deemed asset sale. The amount of old target's tax reserves is the amount that is properly taken into account by old target for the contracts at the close of the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences (before giving effect to the deemed asset sale and assumption reinsurance transaction). Old target's tax reserves are a liability of old target taken into account in determining ADSP under §1.338-4 and a liability of new target taken into account in determining AGUB under §1.338-5.

(2) Allocation of ADSP and AGUB to specific insurance contracts. For purposes of allocating AGUB and ADSP under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7, the fair market value of a specific insurance, reinsurance or annuity contract or group of insurance, reinsurance or annuity contracts (insurance contracts) is the amount of the ceding commission a willing reinsurer would pay a willing ceding company in an arm's length transaction for the reinsurance of the contracts if the gross reinsurance premium for the contracts were equal to old target's tax reserves for the contracts. See §1.197-2(g)(5) for rules concerning the treatment of the amount allocable to insurance contracts acquired in the deemed asset sale.

(c) Application of assumption reinsurance principles—(1) In general. If a target is an insurance company, the deemed sale of insurance contracts is treated for Federal income tax purposes as an assumption reinsurance transaction between old target, as the reinsured or ceding company, and new target, as the reinsurer or acquiring company, at the close of the acquisition date. The Federal income tax treatment of the assumption reinsurance transaction is determined under the applicable provisions of subchapter L, chapter 1, subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, as modified by the rules set forth in this section.

(2) Reinsurance premium. Old target is deemed to pay a gross amount of premium in the assumption reinsurance transaction equal to the amount of old target's tax reserves for the insurance contracts that are acquisition date assets (acquired contracts). New target is deemed to receive a reinsurance premium in the amount of old target's tax reserves for the acquired contracts. See paragraph (d) of this section for circumstances in which new target is deemed to receive additional premium. See §1.817-4(d)(2) for old target's and new target's treatment of the premium.

(3) Ceding commission. Old target is deemed to receive a ceding commission in an amount equal to the amount of ADSP allocated to the acquired contracts, as determined under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 and paragraph (b) of this section. New target is deemed to pay a ceding commission in an amount equal to the amount of AGUB allocated to the acquired contracts, as determined under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7 and paragraph (b) of this section. See §1.817-4(d)(2) for old target's and new target's treatment of the ceding commission.

(4) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (c):

Example 1. (i) Facts. On January 1, 2003, T, an insurance company, has the following assets with the following fair market values: $10 cash, $30 of securities, $10 of equipment, a life insurance contract having a value, under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, of $17, and goodwill and going concern value. T has tax reserves of $50 and no other liabilities. On January 1, 2003, P purchases all of the stock of T for $16 and makes a section 338 election for T. For purposes of the capitalization requirements of section 848, assume new T has $20 of general deductions in its first taxable year ending on December 31, 2003, and earns no other premiums during the year.

(ii) Analysis. (A) For Federal income tax purposes, the section 338 election results in a deemed sale of the assets of old T to new T. Old T's ADSP is $66 ($16 amount realized for the T stock plus $50 liabilities). New T's AGUB also is $66 ($16 basis for the T stock plus $50 liabilities). See paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Each of the AGUB and ADSP is allocated under the residual method of §1.338-6 to determine the purchase or sale price of each asset transferred. Each of the AGUB and ADSP is allocated as follows: $10 to cash (Class I), $30 to the securities (Class II), $10 to equipment (Class V), $16 to the life insurance contract (Class VI), and $0 to goodwill and going concern value (Class VII).

(B) Under section 1001, old T's amount realized for the securities is $30 and for the equipment is $10. As a result of the deemed asset sale, there is an assumption reinsurance transaction between old T (as ceding company) and new T (as reinsurer) at the close of the acquisition date for the life insurance contract issued by old T. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Although the assumption reinsurance transaction results in a $50 decrease in old T's reserves, which is taxable income to old T, the reinsurance premium paid by old T is deductible by old T. Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, old T is deemed to pay a reinsurance premium equal to the reserve for the life insurance contract immediately before the deemed asset sale ($50) and is deemed to receive a ceding commission from new T. Under paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the portion of the ADSP allocated to the life insurance contract is $16; thus, the ceding commission is $16. Old T, therefore, is deemed to pay new T a reinsurance premium of $34 ($50 − $16 = $34). Old T also has $34 of net negative consideration for purposes of section 848. See paragraph (f) of this section for rules relating to the effect of a section 338 election on the capitalization of amounts under section 848.

(C) New T obtains an initial basis of $30 in the securities and $10 in the equipment. New T is deemed to receive a reinsurance premium from old T in an amount equal to the $50 of reserves for the life insurance contract and to pay old T a $16 ceding commission for the contract. See paragraphs (c)(2) and (3) of this section. Accordingly, new T includes $50 of premium in income and deducts $50 for its increase in reserves. For purposes of section 848, new T has $34 of net positive consideration for the deemed assumption reinsurance transaction. Because the only contract involved in the deemed assumption reinsurance transaction is a life insurance contract, new T must capitalize $2.62 ($34 × 7.7% = $2.62) under section 848. New T will amortize the $2.62 as provided under section 848. New T's adjusted basis in the life insurance contract, which is an amortizable section 197 intangible, is $13.38, the excess of the $16 ceding commission over the $2.62 capitalized under section 848. See section 197 and §1.197-2(g)(5). New T deducts the $2.62 of the ceding commission that is not amortizable under section 197 because it is reflected in the amount capitalized under section 848 and also deducts the remaining $17.38 of its general deductions.

Example 2. (i) Facts. Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except the life insurance contract has a value of $0 and the fair market value of T's securities are $60. Thus, to reinsure the contract in an arm's length transaction, T would have to pay the reinsurer a reinsurance premium in excess of T's $50 of tax reserves for the contract.

(ii) Analysis. (A) For Federal income tax purposes, the section 338 election results in a deemed sale of the assets of old T to new T. Old T's ADSP is $66 ($16 amount realized for the T stock plus $50 liabilities). New T's AGUB also is $66 ($16 basis for the T stock plus $50 liabilities). See paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Each of the AGUB and ADSP is allocated under the residual method of §1.338-6 to determine the purchase or sale price of each asset transferred. Each of the AGUB and ADSP is allocated as follows: $10 to cash (Class I), $56 to the securities (Class II), $0 to the equipment (Class V), $0 to the life insurance contract (Class VI), and $0 to goodwill and going concern value (Class VII).

(B) Under section 1001, old T's amount realized for the securities is $56 and for the equipment is $0. As a result of the deemed asset sale, there is an assumption reinsurance transaction between old T (as ceding company) and new T (as reinsurer) at the close of the acquisition date for the life insurance contract issued by old T. See paragraph (c)(1) of this section. Although the assumption reinsurance transaction results in a $50 decrease in old T's reserves, which is taxable income to old T, the reinsurance premium deemed paid by old T to new T is deductible by old T. Under paragraph (c)(2) of this section, old T is deemed to pay a reinsurance premium equal to the reserve for the life insurance contract immediately before the deemed asset sale ($50), and is deemed to receive from new T a ceding commission equal to the amount of AGUB allocated to the life insurance contract ($0), as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. Old T also has $50 of net negative consideration for purposes of section 848. See paragraph (f) of this section for rules relating to the effect of a section 338 election on capitalization amounts under section 848.

(C) New T obtains an initial basis of $56 in the securities (with a fair market value of $60) and $0 in the equipment (with a fair market value of $10). New T is deemed to receive a reinsurance premium from old T in an amount equal to the $50 of reserves for the life insurance contract. Accordingly, new T includes $50 of premium in income and deducts $50 for its increase in reserves. For purposes of section 848, new T has $50 of net positive consideration for the deemed assumption reinsurance transaction. Because the only contract involved in the assumption reinsurance transaction is a life insurance contract, new T must capitalize $3.85 ($50 × 7.7%) under section 848 from the transaction and deducts the remaining $16.15 of its general deductions. Because new T allocates $0 of the AGUB to the insurance contract, no amount is amortizable under section 197 with respect to the insurance contract. See §1.338-11T(d) for rules on adjustments required if new T increases its reserves for, or reinsures at a loss, the acquired life insurance contract.

(d) Reserve increases by new target after the deemed asset sale—(1) In general. If in new target's first taxable year or any subsequent year, new target increases its reserves for any acquired contracts, new target is treated as receiving an additional premium, which is computed under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, in the assumption reinsurance transaction described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. New target includes the additional premium in gross income for the taxable year in which new target increases its reserves for acquired contracts. New target's increase in reserves for the insurance contracts acquired in the deemed asset sale is a liability of new target not originally taken into account in determining AGUB that is subsequently taken into account. Thus, AGUB is increased by the amount of the additional premium included in new target's gross income. See §§1.338-5(b)(2)(ii) and 1.338-7. Old target has no deduction under this paragraph (d) and makes no adjustments under §§1.338-4(b)(2)(ii) and 1.338-7.

(2) Exceptions. New target is not treated as receiving additional premium under paragraph (d)(1) of this section if—

(i) It is under state receivership as of the close of the taxable year for which the increase in reserves occurs; or

(ii) It is required by section 807(f) to spread the reserve increase over the 10 succeeding taxable years.

(3) Amount of additional premium—(i) In general. The additional premium taken into account under this paragraph (d) is an amount equal to the sum of the positive amounts described in paragraphs (d)(3)(ii) and (d)(3)(iii) of this section. However, the additional premium cannot exceed the limitation described in paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(ii) Increases in unpaid loss reserves. The positive amount with respect to unpaid loss reserves is computed using the formula A/B × (C−[D + E]) where—

(A) A equals old target's discounted unpaid losses (determined under section 846) included in AGUB under paragraph 11(b)(1) of this section;

(B) B equals old target's undiscounted unpaid losses (determined under section 846(b)(1)) as of the close of the acquisition date;

(C) C equals new target's undiscounted unpaid losses (determined under section 846(b)(1)) at the end of the taxable year that are attributable to losses incurred by old target on or before the acquisition date;

(D) D (which may be a negative number) equals old target's undiscounted unpaid losses as of the close of the acquisition date, reduced by the cumulative amount of losses, loss adjustment expenses, and reinsurance premiums paid by new target through the end of the taxable year for losses incurred by old target on or before the acquisition date; and

(E) E equals the amount obtained by dividing the cumulative amount of reserve increases taken into account under this paragraph (d) in prior taxable years by A/B.

(iii) Increases in other reserves. The positive amount with respect to reserves other than discounted unpaid loss reserves is the net increase of those reserves due to changes in estimate, methodology, or other assumptions used to compute the reserves (including the adoption by new target of a methodology or assumptions different from those used by old target).

(4) Limitation on additional premium. The additional premium taken into account by new target under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is limited to the excess, if any, of—

(i) The fair market value of old target's assets acquired by new target in the deemed asset sale (other than Class VI and Class VII assets); over

(ii) The AGUB allocated to those assets (including increases in AGUB allocated to those assets as the result of reserve increases by new target in prior taxable years).

(5) Treatment of additional premium under section 848. If a portion of the positive amounts described in paragraphs (d)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section are attributable to an increase in reserves for specified insurance contracts (as defined in section 848(e)), new target takes an allocable portion of the additional premium in determining its specified policy acquisition expenses under section 848(c) for the taxable year of the reserve increase.

(6) Examples. The following examples illustrate this paragraph (d):

Example 1. (i) Facts. On January 1, 2006, P purchases all of the stock of T, a non-life insurance company, for $120 and makes a section 338 election for T. On the acquisition date, old T has total reserve liabilities under state law of $725, consisting of undiscounted unpaid losses of $625 and unearned premiums of $100. Old T's tax reserves on the acquisition date are $580, which consist of discounted unpaid losses (as defined in section 846) of $500 and unearned premiums (as computed under section 832(b)(4)(B)) of $80. Old T has Class I through Class V assets with a fair market value of $800. Old T also has a Class VI asset with a fair market value of $75, consisting of the future profit stream of certain insurance contracts. During 2006, new T makes loss and loss adjustment expense payments of $200 with respect to the unpaid losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date. As of December 31, 2006, new T reports undiscounted unpaid losses of $475 attributable to losses incurred before the acquisition date. The related amount of discounted unpaid losses (as defined in section 846) for those losses is $390.

(ii) Computation and allocation of AGUB. Under §1.338-5 and paragraph (b)(1) of this section, as of the acquisition date, AGUB is $700, reflecting the sum of the amount paid for old T's stock ($120) and the tax reserves assumed by new T in the transaction ($580). The fair market value of old T's Class I through V assets is $800, whereas the AGUB available for such assets under §1.338-6 is $700. There is no AGUB available for old T's Class VI assets, even though such assets have a fair market value of $75 on the acquisition date.

(iii) Adjustments for increases in reserves for unpaid losses. Under paragraph (d) of this section, new T must determine whether there are any amounts by which it increased its unpaid loss reserves that will be treated as an additional premium and an increase in AGUB. New T applies the formula of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, where A equals $500, B equals $625, C equals $475, D equals $425 ($625 − $200), and E equals $0. Under this formula, new T is treated as having increased its reserves for discounted unpaid losses attributable to losses incurred by old T by $40 ($500/$625 × ($475 − [$425 + 0]). The limitation under paragraph (d)(5) of this section based on the difference between the fair market value of old T's Class I through Class V assets and the AGUB allocated to such assets is $100. Accordingly, new T includes an additional premium of $40 in gross income for 2006, and increases the AGUB allocated to old T's Class I through Class V assets to reflect this additional premium.

Example 2. (i) Facts. Assume the same facts as in Example 1. Further assume that during 2007 new T deducts total loss and loss expense payments of $375 with respect to losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date. On December 31, 2007, new T reports undiscounted unpaid losses of $150 with respect to losses incurred before the acquisition date. The related amount of discounted unpaid losses (as defined in section 846) for those unpaid losses is $125.

(ii) Analysis. New T must determine whether any amounts by which it increased its unpaid losses during 2007 will be treated as an additional premium in paragraph (d)(3) of this section. New T applies the formula under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, where A equals $500, B equals $625, C equals $150, D equals $50 ($625 − $575), and E equals $50 ($40 divided by .8). In paragraph (d)(3) of this section, new T is treated as increasing its reserves for discounted unpaid losses by $40 during 2007 with respect to losses incurred by old T ($500/$625 × ($150−[$50 + $50]). New T determines the limitation of paragraph (d)(5) of this section by comparing the $800 fair market value of the Class I through V assets on the acquisition date to the $740 AGUB allocated to such assets (which includes the $40 addition to AGUB included during 2006). Thus, new T recognizes $40 of additional premium as a result of the increase in reserves during 2007, and adjusts the AGUB allocable to the Class I through V assets acquired from old T to reflect such additional premium.

Example 3. (i) Facts. The facts are the same as Example 2, except that on January 1, 2008, new T reinsures the outstanding liability with respect to losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date through a portfolio reinsurance transaction with R, another non-life insurance company. R agrees to assume any remaining liability relating to losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date in exchange for a reinsurance premium of $200. Accordingly, as of December 31, 2008, new T reports no undiscounted unpaid losses with respect to losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date.

(ii) Analysis. New T must determine whether any amount by which it increased its unpaid loss reserves will be treated as an additional premium under paragraph (d) of this section. New T applies the formula of paragraph (d)(3) of this section, where A equals $500, B equals $625, C equals $0, and D equals −$150 ($625 − ($575 + $200), and E equals $100 ($80 divided by .8). Thus, new T is treated as having increased its discounted unpaid losses by $40 in 2008 with respect to losses incurred by old T before the acquisition date ($500/$625 × (0 −[−$150 + $100]). New T includes this positive amount in gross income, subject to the limitation of paragraph (d)(4) of this section. The limitation of paragraph (d)(4) of this section equals $20, which is computed by comparing the $800 fair market value of the Class I through V assets acquired from old T with the $780 AGUB allocated to such assets (which includes the $40 addition to AGUB in 2006 and the $40 addition to AGUB in 2007). Thus, New T includes $20 in additional premium, and increases the AGUB allocated to the Class I through V assets acquired from old T by $20. As a result of these adjustments, the limitation under paragraph (d)(4) of this section is reduced to zero.

(7) Effective/applicability date—(i) In general. This section applies to increases to reserves made by new target after a deemed asset sale occurring on or after April 10, 2006.

(ii) Application to pre-effective date increases to reserves. If either new target makes an election under §1.338(i)-1(c)(2) or old target makes an election under §1.338(i)-1(c)(3) to apply the rules of this section, in whole, to a qualified stock purchase occurring before April 10, 2006, then the rules contained in this section shall apply in whole to the qualified stock purchase.

(e) Effect of section 338 election on section 846(e) election—(1) In general. New target and old target are treated as the same corporation for purposes of an election by old target to use its historical loss payment pattern under section 846(e). See §1.338-1(b)(2)(vii). Therefore, if old target has a section 846(e) election in effect on the acquisition date, new target will continue to use the historical loss payment pattern of old target to discount unpaid losses incurred in accident years covered by the election, unless new target elects to revoke the section 846(e) election. In addition, new target may consider old target's historical loss payment pattern when determining whether to make the section 846(e) election for a determination year that includes or is subsequent to the acquisition date.

(2) Revocation of existing section 846(e) election. New target may revoke old target's section 846(e) election to use its historical loss payment pattern to discount unpaid losses. If new target elects to revoke old target's section 846(e) election, new target will use the industry-wide patterns determined by the Secretary to discount unpaid losses incurred in accident years beginning on or after the acquisition date through the subsequent determination year. New target may revoke old target's section 846(e) election by attaching a statement to new target's original tax return for its first taxable year.

(f) Effect of section 338 election on old target's capitalization amounts under section 848—(1) Determination of net consideration for specified insurance contracts. For purposes of applying section 848 and §1.848-2(f) to the deemed assumption reinsurance transaction, old target's net consideration (either positive or negative) for each category of specified insurance contracts is an amount equal to—

(i) The allocable portion of the ceding commission (if any) relating to contracts in that category; less

(ii) The amount by which old target's tax reserves for contracts in that category has been reduced as a result of the deemed assumption reinsurance transaction.

(2) Determination of capitalization amount. Except as provided in §1.381(c)(22)-1(b)(13)—

(i) If, after the deemed asset sale, old target has an amount otherwise required to be capitalized under section 848 for the taxable year or an unamortized balance of specified policy acquisition expenses from prior taxable years, then old target deducts such remaining amount or unamortized balance as an expense incurred in the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences; and

(ii) If, after the deemed asset sale, the negative capitalization amount resulting from the reinsurance transaction exceeds the amount that old target can deduct under section 848(f)(1), then old target's capitalization amount is treated as zero at the close of the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences.

(3) Section 381 transactions. For transactions described in section 381, see §1.381(c)(22)-1(b)(13).

(g) Effect of section 338 election on policyholders surplus account. Except as specifically provided in §1.381(c)(22)-1(b)(7), the deemed asset sale effects a distribution of old target's policyholders surplus account to the extent the grossed-up amount realized on the sale to the purchasing corporation of the purchasing corporation's recently purchased target stock (as defined in §1.338-4(c)) exceeds old target's shareholders surplus account under section 815(c).

(h) Effect of section 338 election on section 847 special estimated tax payments. If old target had elected to claim an additional deduction under section 847 for the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences or any earlier years, the amount remaining in old target's special loss discount account under section 847(3) must be reduced to the extent it relates to contracts transferred to new target and the amount of such reduction must be included in old target's gross income for the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences. Old target may apply the balance of its special estimated tax account as a credit against any tax resulting from such inclusion in gross income. Any special estimated tax payments remaining after this credit are voided and, therefore, are not available for credit or refund. Under section 847(1), new target is permitted to claim a section 847 deduction for losses incurred before the deemed asset sale, subject to the general requirement that new target makes timely special estimated tax payments equal to the tax benefit resulting from this deduction. See §1.381(c)(22)-1(c)(14) regarding the carryover of the special loss discount account attributable to contracts transferred in a section 381 transaction.

[T.D. 9257, 71 FR 18000, Apr. 10, 2006, as amended by T.D. 9377, 73 FR 3872, Jan. 23, 2008]

§1.338(h)(10)-1   Deemed asset sale and liquidation.

(a) Scope. This section prescribes rules for qualification for a section 338(h)(10) election and for making a section 338(h)(10) election. This section also prescribes the consequences of such election. The rules of this section are in addition to the rules of §§1.338-1 through 1.338-10 and, in appropriate cases, apply instead of the rules of §§1.338-1 through 1.338-10.

(b) Definitions—(1) Consolidated target. A consolidated target is a target that is a member of a consolidated group within the meaning of §1.1502-1(h) on the acquisition date and is not the common parent of the group on that date.

(2) Selling consolidated group. A selling consolidated group is the consolidated group of which the consolidated target is a member on the acquisition date.

(3) Selling affiliate; affiliated target. A selling affiliate is a domestic corporation that owns on the acquisition date an amount of stock in a domestic target, which amount of stock is described in section 1504(a)(2), and does not join in filing a consolidated return with the target. In such case, the target is an affiliated target.

(4) S corporation target. An S corporation target is a target that is an S corporation immediately before the acquisition date.

(5) S corporation shareholders. S corporation shareholders are the S corporation target's shareholders. Unless otherwise indicated, a reference to S corporation shareholders refers both to S corporation shareholders who do and those who do not sell their target stock.

(6) Liquidation. Any reference in this section to a liquidation is treated as a reference to the transfer described in paragraph (d)(4) of this section notwithstanding its ultimate characterization for Federal income tax purposes.

(c) Section 338(h)(10) election—(1) In general. A section 338(h)(10) election may be made for T if P acquires stock meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2) from a selling consolidated group, a selling affiliate, or the S corporation shareholders in a qualified stock purchase.

(2) Availability of section 338(h)(10) election in certain multi-step transactions. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in §1.338-3(c)(1)(i), a section 338(h)(10) election may be made for T where P's acquisition of T stock, viewed independently, constitutes a qualified stock purchase and, after the stock acquisition, T merges or liquidates into P (or another member of the affiliated group that includes P), whether or not, under relevant provisions of law, including the step transaction doctrine, the acquisition of the T stock and the merger or liquidation of T qualify as a reorganization described in section 368(a). If a section 338(h)(10) election is made in a case where the acquisition of T stock followed by a merger or liquidation of T into P qualifies as a reorganization described in section 368(a), for all Federal tax purposes, P's acquisition of T stock is treated as a qualified stock purchase and is not treated as part of a reorganization described in section 368(a).

(3) Simultaneous joint election requirement. A section 338(h)(10) election is made jointly by P and the selling consolidated group (or the selling affiliate or the S corporation shareholders) on Form 8023 in accordance with the instructions to the form. S corporation shareholders who do not sell their stock must also consent to the election. The section 338(h)(10) election must be made not later than the 15th day of the 9th month beginning after the month in which the acquisition date occurs.

(4) Irrevocability. A section 338(h)(10) election is irrevocable. If a section 338(h)(10) election is made for T, a section 338 election is deemed made for T.

(5) Effect of invalid election. If a section 338(h)(10) election for T is not valid, the section 338 election for T is also not valid.

(d) Certain consequences of section 338(h)(10) election. For purposes of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code (except as provided in §1.338-1(b)(2)), the consequences to the parties of making a section 338(h)(10) election for T are as follows:

(1) P. P is automatically deemed to have made a gain recognition election for its nonrecently purchased T stock, if any. The effect of a gain recognition election includes a taxable deemed sale by P on the acquisition date of any nonrecently purchased target stock. See §1.338-5(d).

(2) New T. The AGUB for new T's assets is determined under §1.338-5 and is allocated among the acquisition date assets under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7. Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(4) of this section (deemed liquidation of old T), new T remains liable for the tax liabilities of old T (including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences). For example, new T remains liable for the tax liabilities of the members of any consolidated group that are attributable to taxable years in which those corporations and old T joined in the same consolidated return. See §1.1502-6(a).

(3) Old T—deemed sale—(i) In general. Old T is treated as transferring all of its assets to an unrelated person in exchange for consideration that includes the discharge of its liabilities in a single transaction at the close of the acquisition date (but before the deemed liquidation). See §1.338-1(a) regarding the tax characterization of the deemed asset sale. Except as provided in §1.338(h)(10)-1(d)(8) (regarding the installment method), old T recognizes all of the gain realized on the deemed transfer of its assets in consideration for the ADSP. ADSP for old T is determined under §1.338-4 and allocated among the acquisition date assets under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7. Old T realizes the deemed sale tax consequences from the deemed asset sale before the close of the acquisition date while old T is a member of the selling consolidated group (or owned by the selling affiliate or owned by the S corporation shareholders). If T is an affiliated target, or an S corporation target, the principles of §§1.338-2(c)(10) and 1.338-10(a)(1), (5), and (6)(i) apply to the return on which the deemed sale tax consequences are reported. When T is an S corporation target, T's S election continues in effect through the close of the acquisition date (including the time of the deemed asset sale and the deemed liquidation) notwithstanding section 1362(d)(2)(B). Also, when T is an S corporation target (but not a qualified subchapter S subsidiary), any direct and indirect subsidiaries of T which T has elected to treat as qualified subchapter S subsidiaries under section 1361(b)(3) remain qualified subchapter S subsidiaries through the close of the acquisition date.

(ii) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making elections under section 338(h)(10), the deemed asset sale of a parent corporation is considered to precede that of its subsidiary. See §1.338-3(b)(4)(i).

(4) Old T and selling consolidated group, selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders—deemed liquidation; tax characterization—(i) In general. Old T is treated as if, before the close of the acquisition date, after the deemed asset sale in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, and while old T is a member of the selling consolidated group (or owned by the selling affiliate or owned by the S corporation shareholders), it transferred all of its assets to members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders and ceased to exist. The transfer from old T is characterized for Federal income tax purposes in the same manner as if the parties had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur because of this section and taking into account other transactions that actually occurred or are deemed to occur. For example, the transfer may be treated as a distribution in pursuance of a plan of reorganization, a distribution in complete cancellation or redemption of all its stock, one of a series of distributions in complete cancellation or redemption of all its stock in accordance with a plan of liquidation, or part of a circular flow of cash. In most cases, the transfer will be treated as a distribution in complete liquidation to which section 336 or 337 applies.

(ii) Tiered targets. In the case of parent-subsidiary chains of corporations making elections under section 338(h)(10), the deemed liquidation of a subsidiary corporation is considered to precede the deemed liquidation of its parent.

(5) Selling consolidated group, selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders—(i) In general. If T is an S corporation target, S corporation shareholders (whether or not they sell their stock) take their pro rata share of the deemed sale tax consequences into account under section 1366 and increase or decrease their basis in T stock under section 1367. Members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or S corporation shareholders are treated as if, after the deemed asset sale in paragraph (d)(3) of this section and before the close of the acquisition date, they received the assets transferred by old T in the transaction described in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section. In most cases, the transfer will be treated as a distribution in complete liquidation to which section 331 or 332 applies.

(ii) Basis and holding period of T stock not acquired. A member of the selling consolidated group (or the selling affiliate or an S corporation shareholder) retaining T stock is treated as acquiring the stock so retained on the day after the acquisition date for its fair market value. The holding period for the retained stock starts on the day after the acquisition date. For purposes of this paragraph, the fair market value of all of the T stock equals the grossed-up amount realized on the sale to P of P's recently purchased target stock. See §1.338-4(c).

(iii) T stock sale. Members of the selling consolidated group (or the selling affiliate or S corporation shareholders) recognize no gain or loss on the sale or exchange of T stock included in the qualified stock purchase (although they may recognize gain or loss on the T stock in the deemed liquidation).

(6) Nonselling minority shareholders other than nonselling S corporation shareholders—(i) In general. This paragraph (d)(6) describes the treatment of shareholders of old T other than the following: Members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, S corporation shareholders (whether or not they sell their stock), and P. For a description of the treatment of S corporation shareholders, see paragraph (d)(5) of this section. A shareholder to which this paragraph (d)(6) applies is called a minority shareholder.

(ii) T stock sale. A minority shareholder recognizes gain or loss on the shareholder's sale or exchange of T stock included in the qualified stock purchase.

(iii) T stock not acquired. A minority shareholder does not recognize gain or loss under this section with respect to shares of T stock retained by the shareholder. The shareholder's basis and holding period for that T stock is not affected by the section 338(h)(10) election.

(7) Consolidated return of selling consolidated group. If P acquires T in a qualified stock purchase from a selling consolidated group—

(i) The selling consolidated group must file a consolidated return for the taxable period that includes the acquisition date;

(ii) A consolidated return for the selling consolidated group for that period may not be withdrawn on or after the day that a section 338(h)(10) election is made for T; and

(iii) Permission to discontinue filing consolidated returns cannot be granted for, and cannot apply to, that period or any of the immediately preceding taxable periods during which consolidated returns continuously have been filed.

(8) Availability of the section 453 installment method. Solely for purposes of applying sections 453, 453A, and 453B, and the regulations thereunder (the installment method) to determine the consequences to old T in the deemed asset sale and to old T (and its shareholders, if relevant) in the deemed liquidation, the rules in paragraphs (d)(1) through (7) of this section are modified as follows:

(i) In deemed asset sale. Old T is treated as receiving in the deemed asset sale new T installment obligations, the terms of which are identical (except as to the obligor) to P installment obligations issued in exchange for recently purchased stock of T. Old T is treated as receiving in cash all other consideration in the deemed asset sale other than the assumption of, or taking subject to, old T liabilities. For example, old T is treated as receiving in cash any amounts attributable to the grossing-up of amount realized under §1.338-4(c). The amount realized for recently purchased stock taken into account in determining ADSP is adjusted (and, thus, ADSP is redetermined) to reflect the amounts paid under an installment obligation for the stock when the total payments under the installment obligation are greater or less than the amount realized.

(ii) In deemed liquidation. Old T is treated as distributing in the deemed liquidation the new T installment obligations that it is treated as receiving in the deemed asset sale. The members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or the S corporation shareholders are treated as receiving in the deemed liquidation the new T installment obligations that correspond to the P installment obligations they actually received individually in exchange for their recently purchased stock. The new T installment obligations may be recharacterized under other rules. See for example §1.453-11(a)(2) which, in certain circumstances, treats the new T installment obligations deemed distributed by old T as if they were issued by new T in exchange for the stock in old T owned by members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or the S corporation shareholders. The members of the selling consolidated group, the selling affiliate, or the S corporation shareholders are treated as receiving all other consideration in the deemed liquidation in cash.

(9) Treatment consistent with an actual asset sale. No provision in section 338(h)(10) or this section shall produce a Federal income tax result under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code that would not occur if the parties had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur because of this section and taking into account other transactions that actually occurred or are deemed to occur. See, however, §1.338-1(b)(2) for certain exceptions to this rule.

(e) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section:

Example 1. (i) S1 owns all of the T stock and T owns all of the stock of T1 and T2. S1 is the common parent of a consolidated group that includes T, T1, and T2. P makes a qualified stock purchase of all of the T stock from S1. S1 joins with P in making a section 338(h)(10) election for T and for the deemed purchase of T1. A section 338 election is not made for T2.

(ii) S1 does not recognize gain or loss on the sale of the T stock and T does not recognize gain or loss on the sale of the T1 stock because section 338(h)(10) elections are made for T and T1. Thus, for example, gain or loss realized on the sale of the T or T1 stock is not taken into account in earnings and profits. However, because a section 338 election is not made for T2, T must recognize any gain or loss realized on the deemed sale of the T2 stock. See §1.338-4(h).

(iii) The results would be the same if S1, T, T1, and T2 are not members of any consolidated group, because S1 and T are selling affiliates.

Example 2. (i) S and T are solvent corporations. S owns all of the outstanding stock of T. S and P agree to undertake the following transaction: T will distribute half its assets to S, and S will assume half of T's liabilities. Then, P will purchase the stock of T from S. S and P will jointly make a section 338(h)(10) election with respect to the sale of T. The corporations then complete the transaction as agreed.

(ii) Under section 338(a), the assets present in T at the close of the acquisition date are deemed sold by old T to new T. Under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, the transactions described in paragraph (d) of this section are treated in the same manner as if they had actually occurred. Because S and P had agreed that, after T's actual distribution to S of part of its assets, S would sell T to P pursuant to an election under section 338(h)(10), and because paragraph (d)(4) of this section deems T subsequently to have transferred all its assets to its shareholder, T is deemed to have adopted a plan of complete liquidation under section 332. T's actual transfer of assets to S is treated as a distribution pursuant to that plan of complete liquidation.

Example 3. (i) S1 owns all of the outstanding stock of both T and S2. All three are corporations. S1 and P agree to undertake the following transaction. T will transfer substantially all of its assets and liabilities to S2, with S2 issuing no stock in exchange therefor, and retaining its other assets and liabilities. Then, P will purchase the stock of T from S1. S1 and P will jointly make a section 338(h)(10) election with respect to the sale of T. The corporations then complete the transaction as agreed.

(ii) Under section 338(a), the remaining assets present in T at the close of the acquisition date are deemed sold by old T to new T. Under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, the transactions described in this section are treated in the same manner as if they had actually occurred. Because old T transferred substantially all of its assets to S2, and is deemed to have distributed all its remaining assets and gone out of existence, the transfer of assets to S2, taking into account the related transfers, deemed and actual, qualifies as a reorganization under section 368(a)(1)(D). Section 361(c)(1) and not section 332 applies to T's deemed liquidation.

Example 4. (i) T owns two assets: an actively traded security (Class II) with a fair market value of $100 and an adjusted basis of $100, and inventory (Class IV) with a fair market value of $100 and an adjusted basis of $100. T has no liabilities. S is negotiating to sell all the stock in T to P for $100 cash and contingent consideration. Assume that under generally applicable tax accounting rules, P's adjusted basis in the T stock immediately after the purchase would be $100, because the contingent consideration is not taken into account. Thus, under the rules of §1.338-5, AGUB would be $100. Under the allocation rules of §1.338-6, the entire $100 would be allocated to the Class II asset, the actively traded security, and no amount would be allocated to the inventory. P, however, plans immediately to cause T to sell the inventory, but not the actively traded security, so it requests that, prior to the stock sale, S cause T to create a new subsidiary, Newco, and contribute the actively traded security to the capital of Newco. Because the stock in Newco, which would not be actively traded, is a Class V asset, under the rules of §1.338-6 $100 of AGUB would be allocated to the inventory and no amount of AGUB would be allocated to the Newco stock. Newco's own AGUB, $0 under the rules of §1.338-5, would be allocated to the actively traded security. When P subsequently causes T to sell the inventory, T would realize no gain or loss instead of realizing gain of $100.

(ii) Assume that, if the T stock had not itself been sold but T had instead sold both its inventory and the Newco stock to P, T would for tax purposes be deemed instead to have sold both its inventory and actively traded security directly to P, with P deemed then to have created Newco and contributed the actively traded security to the capital of Newco. Section 338, if elected, generally recharacterizes a stock sale as a deemed sale of assets. However, paragraph (d)(9) of this section states, in general, that no provision of section 338(h)(10) or the regulations thereunder shall produce a Federal income tax result under subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code that would not occur if the parties had actually engaged in the transactions deemed to occur by virtue of the section 338(h)(10) election, taking into account other transactions that actually occurred or are deemed to occur. Hence, the deemed sale of assets under section 338(h)(10) should be treated as one of the inventory and actively traded security themselves, not of the inventory and Newco stock. The anti-abuse rule of §1.338-1(c) does not apply, because the substance of the deemed sale of assets is a sale of the inventory and the actively traded security themselves, not of the inventory and the Newco stock. Otherwise, the anti-abuse rule might apply.

Example 5. (i) T, a member of a selling consolidated group, has only one class of stock, all of which is owned by S1. On March 1 of Year 2, S1 sells its T stock to P for $80,000, and joins with P in making a section 338(h)(10) election for T. There are no selling costs or acquisition costs. On March 1 of Year 2, T owns land with a $50,000 basis and $75,000 fair market value and equipment with a $30,000 adjusted basis, $70,000 recomputed basis, and $60,000 fair market value. T also has a $40,000 liability. S1 pays old T's allocable share of the selling group's consolidated tax liability for Year 2 including the tax liability for the deemed sale tax consequences (a total of $13,600).

(ii) ADSP of $120,000 ($80,000 + $40,000 + 0) is allocated to each asset as follows:

Assets Basis FMV Fraction Allocable ADSP
Land$50,000$75,0005/9$66,667
Equipment30,00060,0004/953,333
Total80,000135,0001120,000
(iii) Under paragraph (d)(3) of this section, old T has gain on the deemed sale of $40,000 (consisting of $16,667 of capital gain and $23,333 of ordinary income).

(iv) Under paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section, S1 recognizes no gain or loss upon its sale of the old T stock to P. S1 also recognizes no gain or loss upon the deemed liquidation of T. See paragraph (d)(4) of this section and section 332.

(v) P's basis in new T stock is P's cost for the stock, $80,000. See section 1012.

(vi) Under §1.338-5, the AGUB for new T is $120,000, i.e., P's cost for the old T stock ($80,000) plus T's liability ($40,000). This AGUB is allocated as basis among the new T assets under §§1.338-6 and 1.338-7.

Example 6. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 5, except that S1 sells 80 percent of the old T stock to P for $64,000, rather than 100 percent of the old T stock for $80,000.

(ii) The consequences to P, T, and S1 are the same as in Example 5, except that:

(A) P's basis for its 80-percent interest in the new T stock is P's $64,000 cost for the stock. See section 1012.

(B) Under §1.338-5, the AGUB for new T is $120,000 (i.e., $64,000/.8 + $40,000 + $0).

(C) Under paragraph (d)(4) of this section, S1 recognizes no gain or loss with respect to the retained stock in T. See section 332.

(D) Under paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, the basis of the T stock retained by S1 is $16,000 (i.e., $120,000 − $40,000 (the ADSP amount for the old T assets over the sum of new T's liabilities immediately after the acquisition date) “ .20 (the proportion of T stock retained by S1)).

Example 7. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 6, except that K, a shareholder unrelated to T or P, owns the 20 percent of the T stock that is not acquired by P in the qualified stock purchase. K's basis in its T stock is $5,000.

(ii) The consequences to P, T, and S1 are the same as in Example 6.

(iii) Under paragraph (d)(6)(iii) of this section, K recognizes no gain or loss, and K's basis in its T stock remains at $5,000.

Example 8. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 5, except that the equipment is held by T1, a wholly-owned subsidiary of T, and a section 338(h)(10) election is also made for T1. The T1 stock has a fair market value of $60,000. T1 has no assets other than the equipment and no liabilities. S1 pays old T's and old T1's allocable shares of the selling group's consolidated tax liability for Year 2 including the tax liability for T and T1's deemed sale tax consequences.

(ii) ADSP for T is $120,000, allocated $66,667 to the land and $53,333 to the stock. Old T's deemed sale results in $16,667 of capital gain on its deemed sale of the land. Under paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section, old T does not recognize gain or loss on its deemed sale of the T1 stock. See section 332.

(iii) ADSP for T1 is $53,333 (i.e., $53,333 + $0 + $0). On the deemed sale of the equipment, T1 recognizes ordinary income of $23,333.

(iv) Under paragraph (d)(5)(iii) of this section, S1 does not recognize gain or loss upon its sale of the old T stock to P.

Example 9. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 8, except that P already owns 20 percent of the T stock, which is nonrecently purchased stock with a basis of $6,000, and that P purchases the remaining 80 percent of the T stock from S1 for $64,000.

(ii) The results are the same as in Example 8, except that under paragraph (d)(1) of this section and §1.338-5(d), P is deemed to have made a gain recognition election for its nonrecently purchased T stock. As a result, P recognizes gain of $10,000 and its basis in the nonrecently purchased T stock is increased from $6,000 to $16,000. P's basis in all the T stock is $80,000 (i.e., $64,000 + $16,000). The computations are as follows:

(A) P's grossed-up basis for the recently purchased T stock is $64,000 (i.e., $64,000 (the basis of the recently purchased T stock) × (1−.2)/(.8) (the fraction in section 338(b)(4))).

(B) P's basis amount for the nonrecently purchased T stock is $16,000 (i.e., $64,000 (the grossed-up basis in the recently purchased T stock) × (.2)/(1.0−.2) (the fraction in section 338(b)(3)(B))).

(C) The gain recognized on the nonrecently purchased stock is $10,000 (i.e., $16,000−$6,000).

Example 10. (i) T is an S corporation whose sole class of stock is owned 40 percent each by A and B and 20 percent by C. T, A, B, and C all use the cash method of accounting. A and B each has an adjusted basis of $10,000 in the stock. C has an adjusted basis of $5,000 in the stock. A, B, and C hold no installment obligations to which section 453A applies. On March 1 of Year 1, A sells its stock to P for $40,000 in cash and B sells its stock to P for a $25,000 note issued by P and real estate having a fair market value of $15,000. The $25,000 note, due in full in Year 7, is not publicly traded and bears adequate stated interest. A and B have no selling expenses. T's sole asset is real estate, which has a value of $110,000 and an adjusted basis of $35,000. Also, T's real estate is encumbered by long-outstanding purchase-money indebtedness of $10,000. The real estate does not have built-in gain subject to section 1374. A, B, and C join with P in making a section 338(h)(10) election for T.

(ii) Solely for purposes of application of sections 453, 453A, and 453B, old T is considered in its deemed asset sale to receive back from new T the $25,000 note (considered issued by new T) and $75,000 of cash (total consideration of $80,000 paid for all the stock sold, which is then divided by .80 in the grossing-up, with the resulting figure of $100,000 then reduced by the amount of the installment note). Absent an election under section 453(d), gain is reported by old T under the installment method.

(iii) In applying the installment method to old T's deemed asset sale, the contract price for old T's assets deemed sold is $100,000, the $110,000 selling price reduced by the indebtedness of $10,000 to which the assets are subject. (The $110,000 selling price is itself the sum of the $80,000 grossed-up in paragraph (ii) above to $100,000 and the $10,000 liability.) Gross profit is $75,000 ($110,000 selling price − old T's basis of $35,000). Old T's gross profit ratio is 0.75 (gross profit of $75,000 ÷ $100,000 contract price). Thus, $56,250 (0.75 × the $75,000 cash old T is deemed to receive in Year 1) is Year 1 gain attributable to the sale, and $18,750 ($75,000 − $56,250) is recovery of basis.

(iv) In its liquidation, old T is deemed to distribute the $25,000 note to B, since B actually sold the stock partly for that consideration. To the extent of the remaining liquidating distribution to B, it is deemed to receive, along with A and C, the balance of old T's liquidating assets in the form of cash. Under section 453(h), B, unless it makes an election under section 453(d), is not required to treat the receipt of the note as a payment for the T stock; P's payment of the $25,000 note in Year 7 to B is a payment for the T stock. Because section 453(h) applies to B, old T's deemed liquidating distribution of the note is, under section 453B(h), not treated as a taxable disposition by old T.

(v) Under section 1366, A reports 40 percent, or $22,500, of old T's $56,250 gain recognized in Year 1. Under section 1367, this increases A's $10,000 adjusted basis in the T stock to $32,500. Next, in old T's deemed liquidation, A is considered to receive $40,000 for its old T shares, causing it to recognize an additional $7,500 gain in Year 1.

(vi) Under section 1366, B reports 40 percent, or $22,500, of old T's $56,250 gain recognized in Year 1. Under section 1367, this increases B's $10,000 adjusted basis in its T stock to $32,500. Next, in old T's deemed liquidation, B is considered to receive the $25,000 note and $15,000 of other consideration. Applying section 453, including section 453(h), to the deemed liquidation, B's selling price and contract price are both $40,000. Gross profit is $7,500 ($40,000 selling price − B's basis of $32,500). B's gross profit ratio is 0.1875 (gross profit of $7,500 ÷ $40,000 contract price). Thus, $2,812.50 (0.1875 × $15,000) is Year 1 gain attributable to the deemed liquidation. In Year 7, when the $25,000 note is paid, B has $4,687.50 (0.1875 × $25,000) of additional gain.

(vii) Under section 1366, C reports 20 percent, or $11,250, of old T's $56,250 gain recognized in Year 1. Under section 1367, this increases C's $5,000 adjusted basis in its T stock to $16,250. Next, in old T's deemed liquidation, C is considered to receive $20,000 for its old T shares, causing it to recognize an additional $3,750 gain in Year 1. Finally, under paragraph (d)(5)(ii) of this section, C is considered to acquire its stock in T on the day after the acquisition date for $20,000 (fair market value = grossed-up amount realized of $100,000 × 20%). C's holding period in the stock deemed received in new T begins at that time.

Example 11. Stock acquisition followed by upstream merger—without section 338(h)(10) election. (i) P owns all the stock of Y, a newly formed subsidiary. S owns all the stock of T. Each of P, S, T and Y is a domestic corporation. P acquires all of the T stock in a statutory merger of Y into T, with T surviving. In the merger, S receives consideration consisting of 50% P voting stock and 50% cash. Viewed independently of any other step, P's acquisition of T stock constitutes a qualified stock purchase. As part of the plan that includes P's acquisition of the T stock, T subsequently merges into P. Viewed independently of any other step, T's merger into P qualifies as a liquidation described in section 332. Absent the application of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the step transaction doctrine would apply to treat P's acquisition of the T stock and T's merger into P as an acquisition by P of T's assets in a reorganization described in section 368(a). P and S do not make a section 338(h)(10) election with respect to P's purchase of the T stock.

(ii) Because P and S do not make an election under section 338(h)(10) for T, P's acquisition of the T stock and T's merger into P is treated as part of a reorganization described in section 368(a).

Example 12. Stock acquisition followed by upstream merger—with section 338(h)(10) election. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 11 except that P and S make a joint election under section 338(h)(10) for T.

(ii) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section, as a result of the election under section 338(h)(10), for all Federal tax purposes, P's acquisition of the T stock is treated as a qualified stock purchase and P's acquisition of the T stock is not treated as part of a reorganization described in section 368(a).

Example 13. Stock acquisition followed by brother-sister merger—with section 338(h)(10) election. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 12, except that, following P's acquisition of the T stock, T merges into X, a domestic corporation that is a wholly owned subsidiary of P. Viewed independently of any other step, T's merger into X qualifies as a reorganization described in section 368(a). Absent the application of paragraph (c)(2) of this section, the step transaction doctrine would apply to treat P's acquisition of the T stock and T's merger into X as an acquisition by X of T's assets in a reorganization described in section 368(a).

(ii) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2) of this section, as a result of the election under section 338(h)(10), for all Federal tax purposes, P's acquisition of T stock is treated as a qualified stock purchase and P's acquisition of T stock is not treated as part of a reorganization described in section 368(a).

Example 14. Stock acquisition that does not qualify as a qualified stock purchase followed by upstream merger. (i) The facts are the same as in Example 11, except that, in the statutory merger of Y into T, S receives only P voting stock.

(ii) Pursuant to §1.338-3(c)(1)(i) and paragraph (c)(2) of this section, no election under section 338(h)(10) can be made with respect to P's acquisition of the T stock because, pursuant to relevant provisions of law, including the step transaction doctrine, that acquisition followed by T's merger into P is treated as a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(A), and that acquisition, viewed independently of T's merger into P, does not constitute a qualified stock purchase under section 338(d)(3). Accordingly, P's acquisition of the T stock and T's merger into P is treated as a reorganization described in section 368(a).

(f) Inapplicability of provisions. The provisions of section 6043, §§1.331-1(d) and 1.332-6 (relating to information returns and recordkeeping requirements for corporate liquidations) do not apply to the deemed liquidation of old T under paragraph (d)(4) of this section.

(g) Required information. The Commissioner may exercise the authority granted in section 338(h)(10)(C)(iii) to require provision of any information deemed necessary to carry out the provisions of section 338(h)(10) by requiring submission of information on any tax reporting form.

(h) Effective date. This section is applicable to stock acquisitions occurring on or after July 5, 2006. For stock acquisitions occurring before July 5, 2006, see §1.338(h)(10)-1T as contained in the edition of 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2006.

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 8950, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9071, 68 FR 40768, July 9, 2003; T.D. 9264, 71 FR 30607, May 30, 2006; T.D. 9271, 71 FR 38075, July 5, 2006; T.D. 9329, 72 FR 32808, June 14, 2007]

§1.338(i)-1   Effective/applicability date.

(a) In general. The provisions of §§1.338-1 through 1.338-7, 1.338-10 and 1.338(h)(10)-1 apply to any qualified stock purchase occurring after March 15, 2001. For rules applicable to qualified stock purchases on or before March 15, 2001, see §§1.338-1T through 1.338-7T, 1.338-10T, 1.338(h)(10)-1T and 1.338(i)-1T in effect prior to March 16, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2000).

(b) Section 338(h)(10) elections for S corporation targets. The requirements of §§1.338(h)(10)-1T(c)(2) and 1.338(h)(10)-1(c)(2) that S corporation shareholders who do not sell their stock must also consent to an election under section 338(h)(10) will not invalidate an otherwise valid election made on the September 1997 revision of Form 8023, “Elections Under Section 338 For Corporations Making Qualified Stock Purchases,” not signed by the nonselling shareholders, provided that the S corporation and all of its shareholders (including nonselling shareholders) report the tax consequences consistently with the results under section 338(h)(10).

(c) Section 338 elections for insurance company targets—(1) In general. The rules of §1.338-11 apply to qualified stock purchases occurring on or after April 10, 2006.

(2) New target election for retroactive application—(i) Availability of election. New target may make an irrevocable election to apply the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 381(c)(22)-1, and 846) in whole, but not in part, to a qualified stock purchase occurring before April 10, 2006 for which a section 338 election is made, provided that new target's first taxable year and all subsequent affected taxable years are years for which an assessment of deficiency or a refund for overpayment is not prevented by any law or rule of law. In the case of a section 338 election for which a section 338(h)(10) election is made (or a section 338 election for a foreign target), new target may make the election to apply the regulations retroactively without regard to whether old target makes the election. In the case of a section 338 election for a domestic target for which no section 338(h)(10) election is made, new target may make the election to apply the regulations retroactively only if old target also makes the election. Paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section prescribes the time and manner of the election for new target.

(ii) Time and manner of making the election for new target. New target may make an election described in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section by attaching a statement to its original or amended income tax return for its first taxable year. The statement must be entitled “Election to Retroactively Apply the Rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846) in whole to a transaction completed before April 10, 2006” and must include the following information—

(A) The name and E.I.N. for new target; and

(B) The following declaration (or a substantially similar declaration): New target has amended its income tax returns for its first taxable year and for all affected subsequent years to reflect the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846). All other parties whose income tax liabilities are affected by new target's election have amended their income tax returns for all affected years to reflect the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846).

(3) Old target election for retroactive application—(i) Availability of election. Old target may make an irrevocable election to apply the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846) in whole, but not in part, to a qualified stock purchase occurring before April 10, 2006 for which a section 338 election is made, provided that old target's taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences and all subsequent affected taxable years are years for which an assessment of deficiency or a refund for overpayment is not prevented by any law or rule of law. In the case of a section 338 election for which a section 338(h)(10) election is made (or a section 338 election for a foreign target), old target may make the election to apply the regulations retroactively without regard to whether new target makes the election. In the case of a section 338 election for a domestic target for which no section 338(h)(10) election is made, old target may make the election to apply the regulations retroactively only if new target also makes the election. Paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section prescribes the time and manner of the election for old target.

(ii) Time and manner of making the election for old target. Old target may make an election described in paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section by attaching a statement to each affected party's original or amended income tax return for the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences. The statement must be entitled “Election to Retroactively Apply the Rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846) to a transaction completed before April 10, 2006” and must include the following information—

(A) The name and E.I.N. for old target; and

(B) The following declaration (or a substantially similar declaration): Old target has amended its income tax returns for the taxable year that includes the deemed sale tax consequences and for all affected subsequent years to reflect the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846). All other parties whose income tax liabilities are affected by old target's election have amended their income tax returns for all affected years to reflect the rules in §§1.338-11 (including the applicable provisions in §§1.197-2(g)(5), 1.381(c)(22)-1 and 846).

[T.D. 8940, 66 FR 9954, Feb. 13, 2001, as amended by T.D. 9257, 71 FR 18003, Apr. 10, 2006; T.D. 9377, 73 FR 3873, 3874, Jan. 23, 2008]

collapsible corporations; foreign personal holding companies

§1.341-1   Collapsible corporations; in general.

Subject to the limitations contained in §1.341-4 and the exceptions contained in §1.341-6 and §1.341-7(a), the entire gain from the actual sale or exchange of stock of a collapsible corporation, (b) amounts distributed in complete or partial liquidation of a collapsible corporation which are treated, under section 331, as payment in exchange for stock, and (c) a distribution made by a collapsible corporation which, under section 301(c)(3), is treated, to the extent it exceeds the basis of the stock, in the same manner as a gain from the sale or exchange of property, shall be considered as ordinary income.

[T.D. 7655, 44 FR 68459, Nov. 29, 1979]

§1.341-2   Definitions.

(a) Determination of collapsible corporation. (1) A collapsible corporation is defined by section 341(b)(1) to be a corporation formed or availed of principally (i) for the manufacture, construction, or production of property, (ii) for the purchase of property which (in the hands of the corporation) is property described in section 341(b)(3), or (iii) for the holding of stock in a corporation so formed or availed of, with a view to (a) the sale or exchange of stock by its shareholders (whether in liquidation or otherwise), or a distribution to its shareholders, prior to the realization by the corporation manufacturing, constructing, producing, or purchasing the property of a substantial part of the taxable income to be derived from such property, and (b) the realization by such shareholders of gain attributable to such property. See §1.341-5 for a description of the facts which will ordinarily be considered sufficient to establish whether or not a corporation is a collapsible corporation under the rules of this section. See paragraph (d) of §1.341-5 for examples of the application of section 341.

(2) Under section 341(b)(1) the corporation must be formed or availed of with a view to the action therein described, that is, the sale or exchange of its stock by its shareholders, or a distribution to them prior to the realization by the corporation manufacturing, constructing, producing, or purchasing the property of a substantial part of the taxable income to be derived from such property, and the realization by the shareholders of gain attributable to such property. This requirement is satisfied in any case in which such action was contemplated by those persons in a position to determine the policies of the corporation, whether by reason of their owning a majority of the voting stock of the corporation or otherwise. The requirement is satisfied whether such action was contemplated, unconditionally, conditionally, or as a recognized possibility. If the corporation was so formed or availed of, it is immaterial that a particular shareholder was not a shareholder at the time of the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase of the property, or if a shareholder at such time, did not share in such view. Any gain of such a shareholder on his stock in the corporation shall be treated in the same manner as gain of a shareholder who did share in such view. The existence of a bona fide business reason for doing business in the corporate form does not, by itself, negate the fact that the corporation may also have been formed or availed of with a view to the action described in section 341(b).

(3) A corporation is formed or availed of with a view to the action described in section 341(b) if the requisite view existed at any time during the manufacture, production, construction, or purchase referred to in that section. Thus, if the sale, exchange, or distribution is attributable solely to circumstances which arose after the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase (other than circumstances which reasonably could be anticipated at the time of such manufacture, construction, production, or purchase), the corporation shall, in the absence of compelling facts to the contrary, be considered not to have been so formed or availed of. However, if the sale, exchange or distribution is attributable to circumstances present at the time of the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase, the corporation shall, in the absence of compelling facts to the contrary, be considered to have been so formed or availed of.

(4) The property referred to in section 341(b) is that property or the aggregate of those properties with respect to which the requisite view existed. In order to ascertain the property or properties as to which the requisite view existed, reference shall be made to each property as to which, at the time of the sale, exchange, or distribution referred to in section 341(b) there has not been a realization by the corporation manufacturing, constructing, producing, or purchasing the property of a substantial part of the taxable income to be derived from such property. However, where any such property is a unit of an integrated project involving several properties similar in kind, the determination whether the requisite view existed shall be made only if a substantial part of the taxable income to be derived from the project has not been realized at the time of the sale, exchange, or distribution, and in such case the determination shall be made by reference to the aggregate of the properties constituting the single project.

(5) A corporation shall be deemed to have manufactured, constructed, produced, or purchased property if it (i) engaged in the manufacture, construction, or production of property to any extent, or (ii) holds property having a basis determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the cost of such property in the hands of a person who manufactured, constructed, produced, or purchased the property, or (iii) holds property having a basis determined, in whole or in part, by reference to the cost of property manufactured, constructed, produced, or purchased by the corporation. Thus, under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, for example, a corporation need not have originated nor have completed the manufacture, construction, or production of the property. Under subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, for example, if an individual were to transfer property constructed by him to a corporation in exchange for all of the capital stock of such corporation, and such transfer qualifies under section 351, then the corporation would be deemed to have constructed the property, since the basis of the property in the hands of the corporation would, under section 362 be determined by reference to the basis of the property in the hands of the individual. Under subdivision (iii) of this subparagraph, for example, if a corporation were to exchange property constructed by it for property of like kind constructed by another person, and such exchange qualifies under section 1031(a), then the corporation would be deemed to have constructed the property received by it in the exchange, since the basis of the property received by it in the exchange would, under section 1031(d), be determined by reference to the basis of the property constructed by the corporation.

(6) In determining whether a corporation is a collapsible corporation by reason of the purchase of property, it is immaterial whether the property is purchased from the shareholders of the corporation or from persons other than such shareholders. The property, however, must be property which, in the hands of the corporation, is property of a kind described in section 341(b)(3). The determination whether property is of a kind described in section 341(b)(3) shall be made without regard to the fact that the corporation is formed or availed of with a view to the action described in section 341(b)(1).

(7) Section 341 is applicable whether the shareholder is an individual, a trust, an estate, a partnership, a company, or a corporation.

(b) Section 341 assets. For the purposes of this section, the term “section 341 assets” means the following listed property if held for less than 3 years:

(1) Stock in trade of the corporation, or other property of a kind which would properly be included in the inventory of the corporation if on hand at the close of the taxable year.

(2) Property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business.

(3) Property used in a trade or business as defined in section 1231(b) and held for less than 3 years, except property that is or has been used in connection with the manufacture, construction, production or sale of property described in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph.

(4) Unrealized receivables or fees pertaining to property listed in this paragraph. The term unrealized receivables or fees means any rights (contractual or otherwise) to payment for property listed in subparagraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this paragraph which has been delivered or is to be delivered and rights to payments for services rendered or to be rendered, to the extent such rights have not been included in the income of the corporation under the method of accounting used by it. In determining whether the assets referred to in this paragraph have been held for 3 years, the time such assets were held by a transferor shall be taken into consideration (section 1223). However, no such period shall begin before the date the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase of such assets is completed.

§1.341-3   Presumptions.

(a) Unless shown to the contrary a corporation shall be considered to be a collapsible corporation if at the time of the transactions described in §1.341-1 the fair market value of the section 341 assets held by it constitutes 50 percent or more of the fair market value of its total assets and the fair market value of the section 341 assets is 120 percent or more of the adjusted basis of such assets. In determining the fair market value of the total assets, cash, obligations which are capital assets in the hands of the corporation, governmental obligations, and stock in any other corporation shall not be taken into consideration. The failure of a corporation to meet the requirements of this paragraph, shall not give rise to the presumption that the corporation was not a collapsible corporation.

(b) The following example will illustrate the application of this section:

Example. A corporation, filing its income tax returns on the accrual basis, on July 31, 1955, owned assets with the following fair market values: Cash, $175,000; note receivable held for investment, $130,000; stocks of other corporations, $545,000; rents receivable, $15,000; and a building constructed by the corporation in 1953 and held thereafter as rental property, $750,000. The adjusted basis of the building on that date was $600,000. The only debt outstanding was a $500,000 mortgage on the building. On July 31, 1955, the corporation liquidated and distributed all of its assets to its shareholders. In computing whether the fair market value of the section 341 assets (only the building) is 50 percent or more of the fair market value of the total assets, the cash, note receivable, and stocks of other corporations are not taken into account in determining the value of the total assets, with the result that the fair market value of the total assets was $765,000 ($750,000 (building) plus $15,000 rents receivable). Therefore, the value of the building is 98 percent of the total assets ($750,000÷$765,000). The value of the building is also 125 percent of the adjusted basis of the building ($750,000÷$600,000). In view of the above facts, there arises a presumption that the corporation is a collapsible corporation.

§1.341-4   Limitations on application of section.

(a) General. This section shall apply only to the extent that the recognized gain of a shareholder upon his stock in a collapsible corporation would be considered, but for the provisions of this section, as gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset held for more than 1 year (6 months for taxable years before 1977; 9 months for taxable years beginning in 1977). Thus, if a taxpayer sells at a gain stock of a collapsible corporation which he had held for six months or less, this section would not, in any event, apply to such gain. Also, if it is determined, under provisions of law other than section 341, that a sale or exchange at a gain of stock of a collapsible corporation which has been held for more than 1 year (6 months for taxable years before 1977; 9 months for taxable years beginning in 1977) results in ordinary income rather than long-term capital gain, then this section (including the limitations contained herein) has no application whatsoever to such gain.

(b) Stock ownership rules. (1) This section shall apply in the case of gain realized by a shareholder upon his stock in a collapsible corporation only if the shareholder, at any time after the actual commencement of the manufacture, construction, or production of the property, or at the time of the purchase of the property described in section 341(b)(3) or at any time thereafter, (i) owned, or was considered as owning, more than 5 percent in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation, or (ii) owned stock which was considered as owned at such time by another shareholder who then owned, or was considered as owning, more than 5 percent in value of the outstanding stock of the corporation.

(2) The ownership of stock shall be determined in accordance with the rules prescribed by section 544(a)(1), (2), (3), (5), and (6), except that, in addition to the persons prescribed by section 544(a)(2), the family of an individual shall include the spouses of that individual's brothers and sisters, whether such brothers and sisters are by the whole or the half blood, and the spouses of that individual's lineal descendants.

(3) For the purpose of this limitation, treasury stock shall not be considered as outstanding stock.

(4) It is possible, under this limitation, that a shareholder in a collapsible corporation may have gain upon his stock in that corporation treated differently from the gain of another shareholder in the same collapsible corporation.

(c) Seventy-percent rule. (1) This section shall apply to the gain recognized during a taxable year upon the stock in a collapsible corporation only if more than 70 percent of such gain is attributable to the property referred to in section 341(b)(1). If more than 70 percent of such gain is so attributable, then all of such gain is subject to this section, and, if 70 percent or less of such gain is so attributable, then none of such gain is subject to this section.

(2) For the purpose of this limitation, the gain attributable to the property referred to in section 341(b)(1) is the excess of the recognized gain of the shareholder during the taxable year upon his stock in the collapsible corporation over the recognized gain which the shareholder would have if the property had not been manufactured, constructed, produced, or purchased. In the case of gain on a distribution in partial liquidation or a distribution described in section 301(c)(3)(A), the gain attributable to the property shall not be less than an amount which bears the same ratio to the gain on such distribution as the gain which would be attributable to the property if there had been a complete liquidation at the time of such distribution bears to the total gain which would have resulted from such complete liquidation.

(3) Gain may be attributable to the property referred to in section 341(b)(1) even though such gain is represented by an appreciation in the value of property other than that manufactured, constructed, produced, or purchased. Where, for example, a corporation owns a tract of land and the development of one-half of the tract increases the value of the other half, the gain attributable to the developed half of the tract includes the increase in the value of the other half.

(4) The following example will illustrate the application of the 70 percent rule:

Example: On January 2, 1954, A formed the Z Corporation and contributed $1,000,000 cash in exchange for all of the stock thereof. The Z Corporation invested $400,000 in one project for the purpose of building and selling residential houses. As of December 31, 1954, the residential houses in this project were all sold, resulting in a profit of $100,000 (after taxes). Simultaneously with the development of the first project and in connection with a second and separate project the Z Corporation invested $600,000 in land for the purpose of subdividing such land into lots suitable for sale as home sites and distributing such lots in liquidation before the realization by the corporation of a substantial part of the taxable income to be realized from this second project. As of December 31, 1954, Corporation Z had derived $60,000 in profits (after taxes) from the sale of some of the lots. On January 2, 1955, the Z Corporation made a distribution in complete liquidation to shareholder A who received:

(i) $560,000 in cash and notes, and

(ii) Lots having a fair market value of $940,000.

The gain recognized to shareholder A upon the liquidation is $500,000 ($1,500,000 minus $1,000,000). The gain which would have been recognized to A if the second project had not been undertaken is $100,000 ($1,100,000 minus $1,000,000). Therefore, the gain attributable to the second project which is property referred to in section 341(b)(1), is $400,000 ($500,000 minus $100,000). Since this gain ($400,000) is more than 70 percent of the entire gain ($500,000) recognized to A on the liquidation, the entire gain so recognized is gain subject to section 341(a).

(d) Three-year rule. This section shall not apply to that portion of the gain of a shareholder that is realized more than three years after the actual completion of the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase of the property referred to in section 341(b)(1) to which such portion is attributable. However, if the actual completion of the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase of all of such property occurred more than 3 years before the date on which the gain is realized, this section shall not apply to any part of the gain realized.

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11607, Nov. 26, 1960, as amended by T.D. 6738, 29 FR 7671, June 16, 1964; T.D. 7728, 45 FR 72650, Nov. 3, 1980]

§1.341-5   Application of section.

(a) Whether or not a corporation is a collapsible corporation shall be determined under the regulations of §§1.341-2 and 1.341-3 on the basis of all the facts and circumstances in each particular case. The following paragraphs of this section set forth those facts which will ordinarily be considered sufficient to establish that a corporation is or is not a collapsible corporation. The facts set forth in the following paragraphs of this section are not exclusive of other facts which may be controlling in any particular case. For example, if the facts in paragraph (b) of this section, but not the facts in paragraph (c) of this section, are present, the corporation may nevertheless not be a collapsible corporation if there are other facts which clearly establish that the regulations of §§1.341-2 and 1.341-3 are not satisfied. Similarly, if the facts in paragraph (c) of this section are present, the corporation may nevertheless be a collapsible corporation if there are other facts which clearly establish that the corporation was formed or availed of in the manner described in §§1.341-2 and 1.341-3 or if the facts in paragraph (c) of this section are not significant by reason of other facts, such as the fact that the corporation is subject to the control of persons other than those who were in control immediately prior to the manufacture, construction, production, or purchase of the property. See §1.341-4 for provisions which make section 341 inapplicable to certain shareholders of collapsible corporations.

(b) The following facts will ordinarily be considered sufficient (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a) of this section and paragraph (c) of this section) to establish that a corporation is a collapsible corporation:

(1) A shareholder of the corporation sells or exchanges his stock, or receives a liquidating distribution, or a distribution described in section 301(c)(3)(A),

(2) Upon such sale, exchange, or