About GPO   |   Newsroom/Media   |   Congressional Relations   |   Inspector General   |   Careers   |   Contact   |   askGPO   |   Help  
 
Home   |   Customers   |   Vendors   |   Libraries  

The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is a regularly updated, unofficial editorial compilation of CFR material and Federal Register amendments produced by the National Archives and Records Administration's Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Printing Office.

Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF

Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.

Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.

Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.

[1]
 
 

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 19, 2014

Title 26Chapter ISubchapter A → Part 1


Title 26: Internal Revenue


PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


Contents

TAX ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME

§1.1401-1   Tax on self-employment income.
§1.1402(a)-1   Definition of net earnings from self-employment.
§1.1402(a)-2   Computation of net earnings from self-employment.
§1.1402(a)-3   Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment.
§1.1402(a)-4   Rentals from real estate.
§1.1402(a)-5   Dividends and interest.
§1.1402(a)-6   Gain or loss from disposition of property.
§1.1402(a)-7   Net operating loss deduction.
§1.1402(a)-8   Community income.
§1.1402(a)-9   Puerto Rico.
§1.1402(a)-10   Personal exemption deduction.
§1.1402(a)-11   Ministers and members of religious orders.
§1.1402(a)-12   Continental shelf and certain possessions of the United States.
§1.1402(a)-13   Income from agricultural activity.
§1.1402(a)-14   Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1954 and before December 31, 1956.
§1.1402(a)-15   Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1956.
§1.1402(a)-16   Exercise of option.
§1.1402(a)-17   Retirement payments to retired partners.
§1.1402(a)-18   Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.
§1.1402(b)-1   Self-employment income.
§1.1402(c)-1   Trade or business.
§1.1402(c)-2   Public office.
§1.1402(c)-3   Employees.
§1.1402(c)-4   Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.
§1.1402(c)-5   Ministers and members of religious orders.
§1.1402(c)-6   Members of certain professions.
§1.1402(c)-7   Members of religious groups opposed to insurance.
§1.1402(d)-1   Employee and wages.
§1.1402(e)-1A   Application of regulations under section 1402(e).
§1.1402(e)-2A   Ministers, members of religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax.
§1.1402(e)-3A   Time limitation for filing application for exemption.
§1.1402(e)-4A   Period for which exemption is effective.
§1.1402(e)-5A   Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners.
§1.1402(e)(1)-1   Election by ministers, members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage.
§1.1402(e)(2)-1   Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.
§1.1402(e)(3)-1   Effective date of waiver certificate.
§1.1402(e)(4)-1   Treatment of certain remuneration paid in 1955 and 1956 as wages.
§1.1402(e)(5)-1   Optional provision for certain certificates filed before April 15, 1962.
§1.1402(e)(5)-2   Optional provisions for certain certificates filed on or before April 17, 1967.
§1.1402(e)(6)-1   Certificates filed by fiduciaries or survivors on or before April 15, 1962.
§1.1402(f)-1   Computation of partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as result of his death.
§1.1402(g)-1   Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.
§1.1402(h)-1   Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.
§1.1403-1   Cross references.

Net Investment Income Tax

§1.1411-0   Table of contents of provisions applicable to section 1411.
§1.1411-1   General rules.
§1.1411-2   Application to individuals.
§1.1411-3   Application to estates and trusts.
§1.1411-4   Definition of net investment income.
§1.1411-5   Trades or businesses to which tax applies.
§1.1411-6   Income on investment of working capital subject to tax.
§1.1411-7   Exception for dispositions of interests in partnerships and S corporations. [Reserved]
§1.1411-8   Exception for distributions from qualified plans.
§1.1411-9   Exception for self-employment income.
§1.1411-10   Controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies.

Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds

§1.1441-0   Outline of regulation provisions for section 1441.
§1.1441-1   Requirement for the deduction and withholding of tax on payments to foreign persons.
§1.1441-1T   Requirement for the deduction and withholding of tax on payments to foreign persons (temporary).
§1.1441-2   Amounts subject to withholding.
§1.1441-3   Determination of amounts to be withheld.
§1.1441-3T   Determination of amounts to be withheld (temporary).
§1.1441-4   Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts.
§1.1441-4T   Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts (temporary).
§1.1441-5   Withholding on payments to partnerships, trusts, and estates.
§1.1441-5T   Withholding on payments to partnerships, trusts, and estates (temporary).
§1.1441-6   Claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty.
§1.1441-6T   Claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty (temporary).
§1.1441-7   General provisions relating to withholding agents.
§1.1441-7T   General provisions relating to withholding agents (temporary).
§1.1441-8   Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for International Settlements.
§1.1441-9   Exemption from withholding on exempt income of a foreign tax-exempt organization, including foreign private foundations.
§1.1441-10   Withholding agents with respect to fast-pay arrangements.
§1.1442-1   Withholding of tax on foreign corporations.
§1.1442-2   Exemption under a tax treaty.
§1.1442-3   Tax exempt income of a foreign tax-exempt corporation.
§1.1443-1   Foreign tax-exempt organizations.
§1.1445-1   Withholding on dispositions of U.S. real property interests by foreign persons: In general.
§1.1445-2   Situations in which withholding is not required under section 1445(a).
§1.1445-3   Adjustments to amount required to be withheld pursuant to withholding certificate.
§1.1445-4   Liability of agents.
§1.1445-5   Special rules concerning distributions and other transactions by corporations, partnerships, trusts, and estates.
§1.1445-6   Adjustments pursuant to withholding certificate of amount required to be withheld under section 1445(e).
§1.1445-7   Treatment of foreign corporation that has made an election under section 897(i) to be treated as a domestic corporation.
§1.1445-8   Special rules regarding publicly traded partnerships, publicly traded trusts and real estate investment trusts (REITs).
§1.1445-10T   Special rule for Foreign governments (temporary).
§1.1445-11T   Special rules requiring withholding under §1.1445-5 (temporary).
§1.1446-0   Table of contents.
§1.1446-1   Withholding tax on foreign partners' share of effectively connected taxable income.
§1.1446-2   Determining a partnership's effectively connected taxable income allocable to foreign partners under section 704.
§1.1446-3   Time and manner of calculating and paying over the 1446 tax.
§1.1446-4   Publicly traded partnerships.
§1.1446-5   Tiered partnership structures.
§1.1446-6   Special rules to reduce a partnership's 1446 tax with respect to a foreign partner's allocable share of effectively connected taxable income.
§1.1446-7   Effective/Applicability date..

TAX-FREE COVENANT BONDS

§1.1451-1   Tax-free covenant bonds issued before January 1, 1934.
§1.1451-2   Exemptions from withholding under section 1451.

APPLICATION OF WITHHOLDING PROVISIONS

§1.1461-1   Payment and returns of tax withheld.
§1.1461-1T   Payments and returns of tax withheld (temporary).
§1.1461-2   Adjustments for overwithholding or underwithholding of tax.
§1.1461-2T   Adjustments for overwithholding or underwithholding of tax (temporary).
§1.1461-3   Withholding under section 1446.
§1.1462-1   Withheld tax as credit to recipient of income.
§1.1463-1   Tax paid by recipient of income.
§1.1464-1   Refunds or credits.

Information Reporting by Foreign Financial Institutions

§1.1471-0   Outline of regulation provisions for sections 1471 through 1474.
§1.1471-1   Scope of chapter 4 and definitions.
§1.1471-1T   Scope of chapter 4 and definitions (temporary).
§1.1471-2   Requirement to deduct and withhold tax on withholdable payments to certain FFIs.
§1.1471-2T   Requirement to deduct and withhold tax on withholdable payments to certain FFIs (temporary).
§1.1471-3   Identification of payee.
§1.1471-3T   Identification of payee (temporary).
§1.1471-4   FFI agreement.
§1.1471-4T   FFI Agreement (temporary).
§1.1471-5   Definitions applicable to section 1471.
§1.1471-5T   Definitions applicable to section 1471 (temporary).
§1.1471-6   Payments beneficially owned by exempt beneficial owners.
§1.1471-6T   Payments beneficially owned by exempt beneficial owners (temporary).
§1.1472-1   Withholding on NFFEs.
§1.1472-1T   Withholding on NFFEs (temporary).
§1.1473-1   Section 1473 definitions.
§1.1473-1T   Section 1473 definitions (temporary).
§1.1474-1   Liability for withheld tax and withholding agent reporting.
§1.1474-1T   Liability for withheld tax and withholding agent reporting (temporary).
§1.1474-2   Adjustments for overwithholding or underwithholding of tax.
§1.1474-3   Withheld tax as credit to beneficial owner of income.
§1.1474-4   Tax paid only once.
§1.1474-5   Refunds or credits.
§1.1474-6   Coordination of chapter 4 with other withholding provisions.
§1.1474-6T   Coordination of chapter 4 with other withholding provisions (temporary).
§1.1474-7   Confidentiality of information.

MITIGATION OF EFFECT OF RENEGOTIATION OF GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS

§1.1481-1   [Reserved]

Tax on Transfers To Avoid Income Tax

§1.1491-1   Imposition of tax.
§1.1492-1   Nontaxable transfers.
§1.1493-1   Definition of foreign trust.
§1.1494-1   Returns; payment and collection of tax.
§1.1494-2   Effective date.

Consolidated Returns

Consolidated Return Regulations

§1.1502-0   Effective dates.
§1.1502-1   Definitions.

Consolidated Tax Liability

§1.1502-2   Computation of tax liability.
§1.1502-3   Consolidated tax credits.
§1.1502-4   Consolidated foreign tax credit.
§1.1502-5   Estimated tax.
§1.1502-6   Liability for tax.
§1.1502-9   Consolidated overall foreign losses, separate limitation losses, and overall domestic losses.

Computation of Consolidated Taxable Income

§1.1502-11   Consolidated taxable income.

Computation of Separate Taxable Income

§1.1502-12   Separate taxable income.
§1.1502-13   Intercompany transactions.
§1.1502-15   SRLY limitation on built-in losses.
§1.1502-16   Mine exploration expenditures.
§1.1502-17   Methods of accounting.
§1.1502-18   Inventory adjustment.
§1.1502-19   Excess loss accounts.

Computation of Consolidated Items

§1.1502-21   Net operating losses.
§1.1502-21T   Net operating losses (temporary).
§1.1502-22   Consolidated capital gain and loss.
§1.1502-23   Consolidated net section 1231 gain or loss.
§1.1502-24   Consolidated charitable contributions deduction.
§1.1502-26   Consolidated dividends received deduction.
§1.1502-27   Consolidated section 247 deduction.
§1.1502-28   Consolidated section 108.

Basis, Stock Ownership, and Earnings and Profits Rules

§1.1502-30   Stock basis after certain triangular reorganizations.
§1.1502-31   Stock basis after a group structure change.
§1.1502-32   Investment adjustments.
§1.1502-33   Earnings and profits.
§1.1502-34   Special aggregate stock ownership rules.
§1.1502-35   Transfers of subsidiary stock and deconsolidations of subsidiaries.
§1.1502-36   Unified loss rule.

Special Taxes and Taxpayers

§1.1502-42   Mutual savings banks, etc.
§1.1502-43   Consolidated accumulated earnings tax.
§1.1502-44   Percentage depletion for independent producers and royalty owners.
§1.1502-47   Consolidated returns by life- nonlife groups.
§1.1502-55   Computation of alternative minimum tax of consolidated groups.

Administrative Provisions and Other Rules

§1.1502-75   Filing of consolidated returns.
§1.1502-76   Taxable year of members of group.
§1.1502-77   Agent for the group.
§1.1502-78   Tentative carryback adjustments.
§1.1502-79   Separate return years.
§1.1502-80   Applicability of other provisions of law.
§1.1502-81T   Alaska Native Corporations.
§1.1502-90   Table of contents.
§1.1502-91   Application of section 382 with respect to a consolidated group.
§1.1502-92   Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup.
§1.1502-93   Consolidated section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation).
§1.1502-94   Coordination with section 382 and the regulations thereunder when a corporation becomes a member of a consolidated group.
§1.1502-95   Rules on ceasing to be a member of a consolidated group (or loss subgroup).
§1.1502-96   Miscellaneous rules.
§1.1502-97   Special rules under section 382 for members under the jurisdiction of a court in a title 11 or similar case. [Reserved]
§1.1502-98   Coordination with section 383.
§1.1502-99   Effective/applicability dates.
§1.1502-100   Corporations exempt from tax.
§1.1503-1   Computation and payment of tax.
§1.1503-2   Dual consolidated loss.
§1.1503(d)-0   Table of contents.
§1.1503(d)-1   Definitions and special rules for filings under section 1503(d).
§1.1503(d)-2   Domestic use.
§1.1503(d)-3   Foreign use.
§1.1503(d)-4   Domestic use limitation and related operating rules.
§1.1503(d)-5   Attribution of items and basis adjustments.
§1.1503(d)-6   Exceptions to the domestic use limitation rule.
§1.1503(d)-7   Examples.
§1.1503(d)-8   Effective dates.
§1.1504-0   Outline of provisions.
§1.1504-1   Definitions.
§§1.1504-2--1.1504-3   [Reserved]
§1.1504-4   Treatment of warrants, options, convertible obligations, and other similar interests.

Regulations Applicable for Tax Years for Which a Return Is Due on or Before August 11, 1999

§1.1502-9A   Application of overall foreign loss recapture rules to corporations filing consolidated returns due on or before August 11, 1999.

Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Before January 1, 1997

§1.1502-15A   Limitations on the allowance of built-in deductions for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.
§1.1502-21A   Consolidated net operating loss deduction generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.
§1.1502-22A   Consolidated net capital gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.
§1.1502-23A   Consolidated net section 1231 gain or loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.
§1.1502-41A   Determination of consolidated net long-term capital gain and consolidated net short-term capital loss generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.

REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING BEFORE JUNE 28, 2002

§1.1502-77A   Common parent agent for subsidiaries applicable for consolidated return years beginning before June 28, 2002.

REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO TAXABLE YEARS BEFORE JANUARY 1, 1997

§1.1502-79A   Separate return years generally applicable for consolidated return years beginning before January 1, 1997.

Regulations Applying Section 382 With Respect to Testing Dates (and Corporations Joining or Leaving Consolidated Groups) Before June 25, 1999

§1.1502-90A   Table of contents.
§1.1502-91A   Application of section 382 with respect to a consolidated group generally applicable for testing dates before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-92A   Ownership change of a loss group or a loss subgroup generally applicable for testing dates before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-93A   Consolidated section 382 limitation (or subgroup section 382 limitation) generally applicable for testing dates before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-94A   Coordination with section 382 and the regulations thereunder when a corporation becomes a member of a consolidated group) generally applicable for corporations becoming members of a group before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-95A   Rules on ceasing to be a member of a consolidated group generally applicable for corporations ceasing to be members before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-96A   Miscellaneous rules generally applicable for testing dates before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-97A   Special rules under section 382 for members under the jurisdiction of a court in a title 11 or similar case. [Reserved]
§1.1502-98A   Coordination with section 383 generally applicable for testing dates (or members joining or leaving a group) before June 25, 1999.
§1.1502-99A   Effective dates.

DUAL CONSOLIDATED LOSSES INCURRED IN TAXABLE YEARS BEGINNING BEFORE OCTOBER 1, 1992


Authority: 26 U.S.C. 7805, unless otherwise noted.

Section 1.1402 (e)-5T also is issued under 26 U.S.C. 1402(e)(1) and (2).

Section 1.1441-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1441-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4), 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6) and 26 U.S.C. 7701(l).

Section 1.1441-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1441-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4), 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6) and 26 U.S.C. 7701(b)(11).

Section 1.1441-6 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1441-7 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4), 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6) and 26 U.S.C. 7701(l).

Section 1.1443-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1443(a).

Section 1.1445-5 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1445(e)(6).

Section 1.1445-8 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1445(e)(6).

Section 1.1461-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1461-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1462-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1441(c)(4) and 26 U.S.C. 3401(a)(6).

Section 1.1471-1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1471-2 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1471-3 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1471-4 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1471-5 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1471-6 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1471

Section 1.1472-1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1472

Section 1.1473-1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1473

Section 1.1474-1 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-2 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-3 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-4 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-5 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-6 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1474-7 is also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1474

Section 1.1502-0 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-1 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-3 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-9 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-11 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-12 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-13 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-15 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-17 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 446 and 1502.

Section 1.1502-18 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-19 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 301, 1502, and 1503.

Section 1.1502-20 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d) and 1502.

Section 1.1502-20T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d) and 1502.

Section 1.1502-21 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502 and 6402(i).

Section 1.1502-21(b)(1) and (b)(3)(v) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-21T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-21T(b)(1) and (b)(3)(v) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-22 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-23 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-26 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-28 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-30 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-31 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-32 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 301, 1502, and 1503.

Section 1.1502-32 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-32(a)(2), (b)(3)(iii)(C), (b)(3)(iii)(D), and (b)(4)(vi) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-32T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-33 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-34 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-35 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-35T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-36 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-36 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 337(d).

Section 1.1502-43 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-47 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502, 1503(c) and 1504(c).

Section 1.1502-55 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-75 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-76 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-77 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502 and 6402(j).

Section 1.1502-78 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502, 6402(j), and 6411(c).

Section 1.1502-79 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-80 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-81T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-91 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-92 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-93 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-94 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-95 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-96 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-98 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-99 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1503-2 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1503(d) also issued under 26 U.S.C. 953(d) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1503-2T also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1503(d).

Section 1.1504-4 also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1504(a)(5).

Section 1.1502-9A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-15A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-21A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-22A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-23A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-41A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-77A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502 and 6402(j).

Section 1.1502-79A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-91A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-92A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-93A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-94A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-95A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-96A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-98A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Section 1.1502-99A also issued under 26 U.S.C. 382(m) and 26 U.S.C. 1502.

Source: Sections 1.1401-1 through 1.1403-1 contained in T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, unless otherwise noted.

TAX ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME

§1.1401-1   Tax on self-employment income.

(a) There is imposed, in addition to other taxes, a tax upon the self-employment income of every individual at the rates prescribed in section 1401(a) (old-age, survivors, and disability insurance) and (b) (hospital insurance). (See subparagraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph (b) of this section.) This tax shall be levied, assessed, and collected as part of the income tax imposed by subtitle A of the Code and, except as otherwise expressly provided, will be included with the tax imposed by section 1 or 3 in computing any deficiency or overpayment and in computing the interest and additions to any deficiency, overpayment, or tax. Since the tax on self-employment income is part of the income tax, it is subject to the jurisdiction of the Tax Court of the United States to the same extent and in the same manner as the other taxes under subtitle A of the Code. Furthermore, with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966, this tax must be taken into account in computing any estimate of the taxes required to be declared under section 6015.

(b) The rates of tax on self-employment income are as follows (these regulations do not reflect off-Code revisions to the following rates):

(1) For Old-age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance:

Taxable yearPercent
Beginning after December 31, 1983 and before January 1, 198811.40
Beginning after December 31, 1987 and before January 1, 199012.12
Beginning after December 31, 198912.40

(2)(i) For Hospital Insurance:

Taxable yearPercent
Beginning after December 31, 1983 and before January 1, 19852.60
Beginning after December 31, 1984 and before January 1, 19862.70
Beginning after December 31, 19852.90

(ii) For Additional Medicare Tax:

Taxable yearPercent
Beginning after December 31, 20120.9

(c) In general, self-employment income consists of the net earnings derived by an individual (other than a nonresident alien) from a trade or business carried on by him as sole proprietor or by a partnership of which he is a member, including the net earnings of certain employees as set forth in §1.1402(c)-3, and of crew leaders, as defined in section 3121(o) (see such section and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)). See, however, the exclusions, exceptions, and limitations set forth in §§1.1402(a)-1 through 1.1402(h)-1.

(d) Special rules regarding Additional Medicare Tax. (1) General rule. An individual is liable for Additional Medicare Tax to the extent that his or her self-employment income exceeds the following threshold amounts.

Filling statusThreshold
Married individual filing a joint return$250,000
Married individual filing a separate return125,000
Any other case200,000

Note: These threshold amounts are specified under section 1401(b)(2)(A).

(2) Coordination with Federal Insurance Contributions Act. (i) General rule. Under section 1401(b)(2)(B), the applicable threshold specified under section 1401(b)(2)(A) is reduced (but not below zero) by the amount of wages (as defined in section 3121(a)) taken into account in determining Additional Medicare Tax under section 3101(b)(2) with respect to the taxpayer. This rule does not apply to Railroad Retirement Tax Act (RRTA) compensation (as defined in section 3231(e)).

(ii) Examples. The rules provided in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A, a single filer, has $130,000 in self-employment income and $0 in wages. A is not liable to pay Additional Medicare Tax.
Example 2. B, a single filer, has $220,000 in self-employment income and $0 in wages. B is liable to pay Additional Medicare Tax on $20,000 ($220,000 in self-employment income minus the threshold of $200,000).
Example 3. C, a single filer, has $145,000 in self-employment income and $130,000 in wages. C's wages are not in excess of $200,000 so C's employer did not withhold Additional Medicare Tax. However, the $130,000 of wages reduces the self-employment income threshold to $70,000 ($200,000 threshold minus the $130,000 of wages). C is liable to pay Additional Medicare Tax on $75,000 of self-employment income ($145,000 in self-employment income minus the reduced threshold of $70,000).
Example 4. E, who is married and files a joint return, has $140,000 in self-employment income. F, E's spouse, has $130,000 in wages. F's wages are not in excess of $200,000 so F's employer did not withhold Additional Medicare Tax. However, the $130,000 of F's wages reduces E's self-employment income threshold to $120,000 ($250,000 threshold minus the $130,000 of wages). E and F are liable to pay Additional Medicare Tax on $20,000 of E's self-employment income ($140,000 in self-employment income minus the reduced threshold of $120,000).
Example 5. D, who is married and files married filing separately, has $150,000 in self-employment income and $200,000 in wages. D's wages are not in excess of $200,000 so D's employer did not withhold Additional Medicare Tax. However, the $200,000 of wages reduces the self-employment income threshold to $0 ($125,000 threshold minus the $200,000 of wages). D is liable to pay Additional Medicare Tax on $75,000 of wages ($200,000 in wages minus the $125,000 threshold for a married filing separately return) and on $150,000 of self-employment income ($150,000 in self-employment income minus the reduced threshold of $0).

(e) Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section apply to quarters beginning on or after November 29, 2013.

[T.D. 6993, 34 FR 828, Jan. 18, 1969, as amended by T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44445, Dec. 24, 1974; T.D. 9645, 78 FR 71471, Nov. 29, 2013]

§1.1402(a)-1   Definition of net earnings from self-employment.

(a) Subject to the special rules set forth in §§1.1402(a)-3 to 1.1402(a)-17, inclusive, and to the exclusions set forth in §§1.1402(c)-2 to 1.1402(c)-7, inclusive, the term “net earnings from self-employment” means:

(1) The gross income derived by an individual from any trade or business carried on by such individual, less the deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Code which are attributable to such trade or business, plus

(2) His distributive share (whether or not distributed), as determined under section 704, of the income (or minus the loss), described in section 702(a)(9) and as computed under section 703, from any trade or business carried on by any partnership of which he is a member.

(b) Gross income derived by an individual from a trade or business includes payments received by him from a partnership of which he is a member for services rendered to the partnership or for the use of capital by the partnership, to the extent the payments are determined without regard to the income of the partnership. However, such payments received from a partnership not engaged in a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 do not constitute gross income derived by an individual from a trade or business. See section 707(c) and the regulations thereunder, relating to guaranteed payments to a member of a partnership for services or the use of capital. See also section 706(a) and the regulations thereunder, relating to the taxable year of the partner in which such guaranteed payments are to be included in computing taxable income.

(c) Gross income derived by an individual from a trade or business includes gross income received (in the case of an individual reporting income on the cash receipts and disbursements method) or accrued (in the case of an individual reporting income on the accrual method) in the taxable year from a trade or business even though such income may be attributable in whole or in part to services rendered or other acts performed in a prior taxable year as to which the individual was not subject to the tax on self-employment income.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44445, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(a)-2   Computation of net earnings from self-employment.

(a) General rule. In general, the gross income and deductions of an individual attributable to a trade or business (including a trade or business conducted by an employee referred to in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), or (e) of §1.1402(c)-3), for the purpose of ascertaining his net earnings from self-employment, are to be determined by reference to the provisions of law and regulations applicable with respect to the taxes imposed by sections 1 and 3. Thus, if an individual uses the accrual method of accounting in computing taxable income from a trade or business for the purpose of the tax imposed by section 1 or 3, he must use the same method in determining net earnings from self-employment. Likewise, if a taxpayer engaged in a trade or business of selling property on the installment plan elects, under the provisions of section 453, to use the installment method in computing income for purposes of the tax under section 1 or 3, he must use the same method in determining net earnings from self-employment. Income which is excludable from gross income under any provision of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code is not taken into account in determining net earnings from self-employment except as otherwise provided in §1.1402(a)-9, relating to certain residents of Puerto Rico, in §1.1402(a)-11, relating to ministers or members of religious orders, and in §1.1402(a)-12, relating to the term “possession of the United States” as used for purposes of the tax on self-employment income. Thus, in the case of a citizen of the United States conducting, in a foreign country, a trade or business in which both personal services and capital are material income-producing factors, any part of the income therefrom which is excluded from gross income as earned income under the provisions of section 911 and the regulations thereunder is not taken into account in determining net earnings from self-employment.

(b) Trade or business carried on. The trade or business must be carried on by the individual, either personally or through agents or employees. Accordingly, income derived from a trade or business carried on by an estate or trust is not included in determining the net earnings from self-employment of the individual beneficiaries of such estate or trust.

(c) Aggregate net earnings. Where an individual is engaged in more than one trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1, his net earnings from self-employment consist of the aggregate of the net income and losses (computed subject to the special rules provided in §§1.1402(a)-1 to 1.1402(a)-17 inclusive) of all such trades or businesses carried on by him. Thus, a loss sustained in one trade or business carried on by an individual will operate to offset the income derived by him from another trade or business.

(d) Partnerships. The net earnings from self-employment of an individual include, in addition to the earnings from a trade or business carried on by him, his distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), from any trade or business carried on by each partnership of which he is a member. An individual's distributive share of such income or loss of a partnership shall be determined as provided in section 704, subject to the special rules set forth in section 1402(a) and in §§1.1402(a)-1 to 1.1402(a)-17, inclusive, and to the exclusions provided in section 1402(c) and §§1.1402(c)-2 to 1.1402(c)-7, inclusive. For provisions relating to the computation of the taxable income of a partnership, see section 703.

(e) Different taxable years. If the taxable year of a partner differs from that of the partnership, the partner shall include, in computing net earnings from self-employment, his distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), of the partnership for its taxable year ending with or within the taxable year of the partner. For the special rule in case of the termination of a partner's taxable year as result of death, see §§1.1402(f) and 1.1402(f)-1.

(f) Meaning of partnerships. For the purpose of determining net earnings from self-employment, a partnership is one which is recognized as such for income tax purposes. For income tax purposes, the term “partnership” includes not only a partnership as known at common law, but, also a syndicate, group, pool, joint venture, or other unincorporated organization which carries on any trade or business, financial operation, or venture, and which is not, within the meaning of the Code, a trust, estate, or a corporation. An organization described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as a partnership for purposes of the tax on self-employment income even though such organization has elected, pursuant to section 1361 and the regulations thereunder, to be taxed as a domestic corporation.

(g) Nature of partnership interest. The net earnings from self-employment of a partner include his distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), of the partnership of which he is a member, irrespective of the nature of his membership. Thus, in determining his net earnings from self-employment, a limited or inactive partner includes his distributive share of such partnership income or loss. In the case of a partner who is a member of a partnership with respect to which an election has been made pursuant to section 1361 and the regulations thereunder to be taxed as a domestic corporation, net earnings from self-employment include his distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), from the trade or business carried on by the partnership computed without regard to the fact that the partnership has elected to be taxed as a domestic corporation.

(h) Proprietorship taxed as domestic corporation. A proprietor of an unincorporated business enterprise with respect to which an election has been made pursuant to section 1361 and the regulations thereunder to be taxed as a domestic corporation shall compute his net earnings from self-employment without regard to the fact that such election has been made.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44445, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(a)-3   Special rules for computing net earnings from self-employment.

For the purpose of computing net earnings from self-employment, the gross income derived by an individual from a trade or business carried on by him, the allowable deductions attributable to such trade or business, and the individual's distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), from any trade or business carrier on by a partnership of which he is a member shall be computed in accordance with the special rules set forth in §§1.1402(a)-4 to 1.1402(a)-17, inclusive.

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44445, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(a)-4   Rentals from real estate.

(a) In general. Rentals from real estate and from personal property leased with the real estate (including such rentals paid in crop shares) and the deductions attributable thereto, unless such rentals are received by an individual in the course of a trade or business as a real-estate dealer, are excluded. Whether or not an individual is engaged in the trade or business of a real-estate dealer is determined by the application of the principles followed in respect of the taxes imposed by sections 1 and 3. In general, an individual who is engaged in the business of selling real estate to customers with a view to the gains and profits that may be derived from such sales is a real-estate dealer. On the other hand, an individual who merely holds real estate for investment or speculation and receives rentals therefrom is not considered a real-estate dealer. Where a real-estate dealer holds real estate for investment or speculation in addition to real estate held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of his trade or business as a real-estate dealer, only the rentals from the real estate held for sale to customers in the ordinary course of his trade or business as a real-estate dealer, and the deductions attributable thereto, are included in determining net earnings from self-employment; the rentals from the real estate held for investment or speculation, and the deductions attributable thereto, are excluded. Rentals paid in crop shares include income derived by an owner or lessee of land under an agreement entered into with another person pursuant to which such other person undertakes to produce a crop or livestock on such land and pursuant to which (1) the crop or livestock, or the proceeds thereof, are to be divided between such owner or lessee and such other person, and (2) the share of the owner or lessee depends on the amount of the crop or livestock produced. See, however, paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Special rule for “includible farm rental income”—(1) In general. Notwithstanding the rules set forth in paragraph (a) of this section, there shall be included in determining net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1955 any income derived by an owner or tenant of land, if the following requirements are met with respect to such income:

(i) The income is derived under an arrangement between the owner or tenant of land and another person which provides that such other person shall produce agricultural or horticultural commodities on such land, and that there shall be material participation by the owner or tenant in the production or the management of the production of such agricultural or horticultural commodities; and

(ii) There is material participation by the owner or tenant with respect to any such agricultural or horticultural commodity.

Income so derived shall be referred to in this section as “includible farm rental income”.

(2) Requirement that income be derived under an arrangement. In order for rental income received by an owner or tenant of land to be treated as includible farm rental income, such income must be derived pursuant to a share-farming or other rental arrangement which contemplates material participation by the owner or tenant in the production or management of production of agricultural or horticultural commodities.

(3) Nature of arrangement. (i) The arrangement between the owner or tenant and the person referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be either oral or written. The arrangement must impose upon such other person the obligation to produce one or more agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on the land of the owner or tenant. In addition, it must be within the contemplation of the parties that the owner or tenant will participate in the production or the management of the production of the agricultural or horticultural commodities required to be produced by the other person under such arrangement to an extent which is material with respect either to the production or to the management of production of such commodities or is material with respect to the production and management of production when the total required participation in connection with both is considered.

(ii) The term “production”, wherever used in this paragraph, refers to the physical work performed and the expenses incurred in producing a commodity. It includes such activities as the actual work of planting, cultivating, and harvesting crops, and the furnishing of machinery, implements, seed, and livestock. An arrangement will be treated as contemplating that the owner or tenant will materially participate in the “production” of the commodities required to be produced by the other person under the arrangement if under the arrangement it is understood that the owner or tenant is to engage to a material degree in the physical work related to the production of such commodities. The mere undertaking to furnish machinery, implements, and livestock and to incur expenses is not, in and of itself, sufficient. Such factors may be significant, however, in cases where the degree of physical work intended of the owner or tenant is not material. For example, if under the arrangement it is understood that the owner or tenant is to engage periodically in physical work to a degree which is not material in and of itself and, in addition, to furnish a substantial portion of the machinery, implements, and livestock to be used in the production of the commodities or to furnish or advance funds or assume financial responsibility for a substantial part of the expense involved in the production of the commodities, the arrangement will be treated as contemplating material participation of the owner or tenant in the production of such commodities.

(iii) The term “management of the production”, wherever used in this paragraph, refers to services performed in making managerial decisions relating to the production, such as when to plant, cultivate, dust, spray, or harvest the crop, and includes advising and consulting, making inspections, and making decisions as to matters such as rotation of crops, the type of crops to be grown, the type of livestock to be raised, and the type of machinery and implements to be furnished. An arrangement will be treated as contemplating that the owner or tenant is to participate materially in the “management of the production” of the commodities required to be produced by the other person under the arrangement if the owner or tenant is to engage to a material degree in the management decisions related to the production of such commodities. The services which are considered of particular importance in making such management decisions are those services performed in making inspections of the production activities and in advising and consulting with such person as to the production of the commodities. Thus, if under the arrangement it is understood that the owner or tenant is to advise or consult periodically with the other person as to the production of the commodities required to be produced by such person under the arrangement and to inspect periodically the production activities on the land, a strong inference will be drawn that the arrangement contemplates participation by the owner or tenant in the management of the production of such commodities. The mere undertaking to select the crops or livestock to be produced or the type of machinery and implements to be furnished or to make decisions as to the rotation of crops generally is not, in and of itself, sufficient. Such factors may be significant, however, in making the overall determination of whether the arrangement contemplates that the owner or tenant is to participate materially in the management of the production of the commodities. Thus, if in addition to the understanding that the owner or tenant is to advise or consult periodically with the other person as to the production of the commodities and to inspect periodically the production activities on the land, it is also understood that the owner is to select the type of crops and livestock to be produced and the type of machinery and implements to be furnished and to make decisions as to the rotation of crops, the arrangement will be treated as contemplating material participation of the owner or tenant in the management of production of such commodities.

(4) Actual participation. In order for the rental income received by the owner or tenant of land to be treated as includible farm rental income, not only must it be derived pursuant to the arrangement described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, but also the owner or tenant must actually participate to a material degree in the production or in the management of the production of any of the commodities required to be produced under the arrangement, or he must actually participate in both the production and the management of the production to an extent that his participation in the one when combined with his participation in the other will be considered participation to a material degree. If the owner or tenant shows that he periodically advises or consults with the other person, who under the arrangement produces the agricultural or horticultural commodities, as to the production of any of these commodities and also shows that he periodically inspects the production activities on the land, he will have presented strong evidence of the existence of the degree of participation contemplated by section 1402(a)(1). If, in addition to the foregoing, the owner or tenant shows that he furnishes a substantial portion of the machinery, implements, and livestock used in the production of the commodities or that he furnishes or advances funds, or assumes financial responsibility, for a substantial part of the expense involved in the production of the commodities, he will have established the existence of the degree of participation contemplated by section 1402(a)(1) and this paragraph.

(5) Employees or agents. An agreement entered into by an employee or agent of an owner or tenant and another person is considered to be an arrangement entered into by the owner or tenant for purposes of satisfying the requirement set forth in paragraph (b)(2) that the income must be derived under an arrangement between the owner or tenant and another person. For purposes of determining whether the arrangement satisfies the requirement set forth in paragraph (b)(3) that the parties contemplate that the owner or tenant will materially participate in the production or management of production of a commodity, services which will be performed by an employee or agent of the owner or tenant are not considered to be services which the arrangement contemplates will be performed by the owner or tenant. Services actually performed by such employee or agent are not considered services performed by the owner or tenant in determining the extent to which the owner or tenant has participated in the production or management of production of a commodity. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1974, contemplated or actual services of an agent or an employee of the owner or tenant are deemed to be contemplated or actual services of the owner or tenant under paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4) of this section.

(6) Examples. Application of the rules prescribed in this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). After the death of her husband, Mrs. A rents her farm, together with its machinery and equipment, to B for one-half of the proceeds from the commodities produced on such farm by B. It is agreed that B will live in the tenant house on the farm and be responsible for the over-all operation of the farm, such as planting, cultivating, and harvesting the field crops, caring for the orchard and harvesting the fruit and caring for the livestock and poultry. It also is agreed that Mrs. A will continue to live in the farm residence and help B operate the farm. Under the agreement it is contemplated that Mrs. A will regularly operate and clean the cream separator and feed the poultry flock and collect the eggs. When possible she will assist B in such work as spraying the fruit trees, penning livestock, culling the poultry, and controlling weeds. She will also assist in preparing the meals when B engages seasonal workers. The agreement between Mrs. A and B clearly provides that she will materially participate in the over-all production operations to be conducted on her farm by B. In actual practice, Mrs. A performs such regular and intermittent services. The regularly performed services are material to the production of an agricultural commodity, and the intermittent services performed are material to the production operations to which they relate. The furnishing of a substantial portion of the farm machinery and equipment also adds support to a conclusion that Mrs. A has materially participated. Accordingly, the rental income Mrs. A receives from her farm should be included in net earnings from self-employment.
Example (2). D agrees to produce a crop on C's cotton farm under an arrangement providing that C and D will each receive one-half of the proceeds from such production. C agrees to furnish all the necessary equipment, and it is understood that he is to advise D when to plant the cotton and when it needs to be chopped, plowed, sprayed, and picked. It is also understood that during the growing season C is to inspect the crop every few days to determine whether D is properly taking care of the crop. Under the arrangement, D is required to furnish all labor needed to grow and harvest the crop. C, in fact, renders such advice, makes such inspections, and furnishes such equipment. C's contemplated participation in management decisions is considered material with respect to the management of the cotton production operation. C's actual participation pursuant to the arrangement is also considered to be material with respect to the management of the production of cotton. Accordingly, the income C receives from his cotton farm is to be included in computing his net earnings from self-employment.
Example (3). E owns a grain farm and turns its operation over to his son, F. By the oral rental arrangement between E and F, the latter agrees to produce crops of grain on the farm, and E agrees that he will be available for consultation and advice and will inspect and help to harvest the crops. E furnishes most of the equipment, including a tractor, a combine, plows, wagons, drills, and harrows; he continues to live on the farm and does some of the work such as repairing barns and farm machinery, going to town for supplies, cutting weeds, etc.; he regularly inspects the crops during the growing season; and he helps F to harvest the crops. Although the final decisions are made by F, he frequently consults with his father regarding the production of the crops. An evaluation of all of E's actual activities indicates that they are sufficiently substantial and regular to support a conclusion that he is materially participating in the crop production operations and the management thereof. If it can be shown that the degree of E's actual participation was contemplated by the arrangement, E's income from the grain farm will be included in computing net earnings from self-employment.
Example (4). G owns a fully-equipped farm which he rents to H under an arrangement which contemplates that G shall materially participate in the management of the production of crops raised on the farm pursuant to the arrangement. G lives in town about 5 miles from the farm. About twice a month he visits the farm and looks over the buildings and equipment. G may occasionally, in an emergency, discuss with H some phase of a crop production activity. In effect, H has complete charge of the management of farming operations regardless of the understanding between him and G. Although G pays one-half of the cost of the seed and fertilizer and is charged for the cost of materials purchased by H to make all necessary repairs, G's activities do not constitute material participation in the crop production activities. Accordingly, G's income from the crops is not included in computing net earnings from self-employment.
Example (5). I owned a farm several miles from the town in which he lived. He rented the farm to J under an arrangement which contemplated I's material participation in the management of production of wheat. I furnished one-half of the seed and fertilizer and all the farm equipment and livestock. He employed K to perform all the services in advising, consulting, and inspecting contemplated by the arrangement. I is not materially participating in the management of production of wheat by J. The work done by I's employee, K, is not attributable to I in determining the extent of I's participation. I's rental income from the arrangement is, therefore, not to be included in computing his net earnings from self-employment. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1974, however, I's rental income would be includible in those earnings.
Example (6). L, a calendar-year taxpayer, appointed M as his agent to rent his fully equipped farm for 1974. M entered into a rental arrangement with N under which M was to direct the planting of crops, inspect them weekly during the growing season, and consult with N on any problems that might arise in connection with irrigation, etc., while N furnished all the labor needed to grow and harvest the crops. M did in fact fulfill its responsibilities under the arrangement. Although the arrangement entered into by M and N is considered to have been made by L, M's services are not attributable to L, and L's furnishing of a fully equipped farm is insufficient by itself to constitute material participation in the production of the crops. Accordingly, L's rental income from the arrangement is not included in his net earnings from self-employment for that year. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 1974, however, L's rental income would be includible in those earnings.

(c) Rentals from living quarters—(1) No services rendered for occupants. Payments for the use or occupancy of entire private residences or living quarters in duplex or multiple-housing units are generally rentals from real estate. Except in the case of real-estate dealers, such payments are excluded in determining net earnings from self-employment even though such payments are in part attributable to personal property furnished under the lease.

(2) Services rendered for occupants. Payments for the use or occupancy of rooms or other space where services are also rendered to the occupant, such as for the use or occupancy of rooms or other quarters in hotels, boarding houses, or apartment houses furnishing hotel services, or in tourist camps or tourist homes, or payments for the use or occupancy of space in parking lots, warehouses, or storage garages, do not constitute rentals from real estate; consequently, such payments are included in determining net earnings from self-employment. Generally, services are considered rendered to the occupant if they are primarily for his convenience and are other than those usually or customarily rendered in connection with the rental of rooms or other space for occupancy only. The supplying of maid service, for example, constitutes such service; whereas the furnishing of heat and light, the cleaning of public entrances, exits, stairways and lobbies, the collection of trash, and so forth, are not considered as services rendered to the occupant.

(3) Example. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. A, an individual, owns a building containing four apartments. During the taxable year, he receives $1,400 from apartments numbered 1 and 2, which are rented without services rendered to the occupants, and $3,600 from apartments numbered 3 and 4, which are rented with services rendered to the occupants. His fixed expenses for the four apartments aggregate $1,200 during the taxable year. In addition, he has $500 of expenses attributable to the services rendered to the occupants of apartments 3 and 4. In determining his net earnings from self-employment, A includes the $3,600 received from apartments 3 and 4, and the expenses of $1,100 ($500 plus one-half of $1,200) attributable thereto. The rentals and expenses attributable to apartments 1 and 2 are excluded. Therefore, A has $2,500 of net earnings from self-employment for the taxable year from the building.

(d) Treatment of business income which includes rentals from real estate. Except in the case of a real-estate dealer, where an individual or a partnership is engaged in a trade or business the income of which is classifiable in part as rentals from real estate, only that portion of such income which is not classifiable as rentals from real estate, and the expenses attributable to such portion, are included in determining net earnings from self-employment.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 7710, 45 FR 50739, July 31, 1980]

§1.1402(a)-5   Dividends and interest.

(a) All dividends on shares of stock are excluded unless they are received by an individual in the course of his trade or business as a dealer in stocks or securities.

(b) Interest on any bond, debenture, note, or certificate, or other evidence of indebtedness, issued with interest coupons or in registered form by any corporation (including one issued by a government or political subdivision thereof) is excluded unless such interest is received in the course of a trade or business as a dealer in stocks or securities. However, interest with respect to which a credit against tax is allowable as provided in section 35, that is, interest on certain obligations of the United States and its instrumentalities, is not included in net earnings from self-employment even though received in the course of a trade or business as a dealer in stocks or securities. Only interest on bonds, debentures, notes, or certificates, or other evidence of indebtedness, issued with interest coupons or in registered form by a corporation, is excluded in the case of all persons other than dealers in stocks or securities; other interest received in the course of any trade or business (such as interest received by a pawnbroker on his loans or interest received by a merchant on his accounts or notes receivable) is not excluded.

(c) Dividends and interest of the character excludable under paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section received by an individual on stocks or securities held for speculation or investment are excluded whether or not the individual is a dealer in stocks or securities.

(d) A dealer in stocks or securities is a merchant of stocks or securities with an established place of business, regularly engaged in the business of purchasing stocks or securities and reselling them to customers; that is, he is one who as a merchant buys stocks or securities and sells them to customers with a view to the gains and profits that may be derived therefrom. Persons who buy and sell or hold stocks or securities for investment or speculation, irrespective of whether such buying or selling constitutes the carrying on of a trade or business, are not dealers in stocks or securities.

§1.1402(a)-6   Gain or loss from disposition of property.

(a) There is excluded any gain or loss: (1) Which is considered as gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset; (2) from the cutting of timber or the disposal of timber, coal, or iron ore, even though held primarily for sale to customers, if section 631 is applicable to such gain or loss; and (3) from the sale, exchange, involuntary conversion, or other disposition of property if such property is neither (i) stock in trade or other property of a kind which would properly be includible in inventory if on hand at the close of the taxable year, nor (ii) property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of a trade or business. For the purpose of the special rule in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph, it is immaterial whether a gain or loss is treated as a capital gain or loss or as an ordinary gain or loss for purposes other than determining net earnings from self-employment. For instance, where the character of a loss is governed by the provisions of section 1231, such loss is excluded in determining net earnings from self-employment even though such loss is treated under section 1231 as an ordinary loss. For the purposes of this special rule, the term “involuntary conversion” means a compulsory or involuntary conversion of property into other property or money as a result of its destruction in whole or in part, theft or seizure, or an exercise of the power of requisition or condemnation or the threat or imminence thereof; and the term “other dispostion” includes the destruction or loss, in whole or in part, of property by fire, storm, shipwreck, or other casualty, or by theft, even though there is no conversion of such property into other property or money.

(b) The application of this section may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. During the taxable year 1954, A, who owns a grocery store, realized a net profit of $1,500 from the sale of groceries and a gain of $350 from the sale of a refrigerator case. During the same year, he sustained a loss of $2,000 as a result of damage by fire to the store building. In computing taxable income, all of these items are taken into account. In determining net earnings from self-employment, however, only the $1,500 of profit derived from the sale of groceries is included. The $350 gain and the $2,000 loss are excluded.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6841, 30 FR 9309, July 27, 1965]

§1.1402(a)-7   Net operating loss deduction.

The deduction provided by section 172, relating to net operating losses sustained in years other than the taxable year, is excluded.

§1.1402(a)-8   Community income.

(a) In case of an individual. If any of the income derived by an individual from a trade or business (other than a trade or business carried on by a partnership) is community income under community property laws applicable to such income, all of the gross income, and the deductions attributable to such income, shall be treated as the gross income and deductions of the husband unless the wife exercises substantially all of the management and control of such trade or business, in which case all of such gross income and deductions shall be treated as the gross income and deductions of the wife. For the purpose of this special rule, the term “management and control” means management and control in fact, not the management and control imputed to the husband under the community property laws. For example, a wife who operates a beauty parlor without any appreciable collaboration on the part of her husband will be considered as having substantially all of the management and control of such business despite the provision of any community property law vesting in the husband the right of management and control of community property; and the income and deductions attributable to the operation of such beauty parlor will be considered the income and deductions of the wife.

(b) In case of a partnership. Even though a portion of a partner's distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), from a trade or business carried on by a partnership is community income or loss under the community property laws applicable to such share, all of such distributive share shall be included in computing the net earnings from self-employment of such partner; no part of such share shall be taken into account in computing the net earnings from self-employment of the spouse of such partner. In any case in which both spouses are members of the same partnership, the distributive share of the income or loss of each spouse is included in computing the net earnings from self-employment of that spouse.

§1.1402(a)-9   Puerto Rico.

(a) Residents. A resident of Puerto Rico, whether or not a bona fide resident thereof during the entire taxable year, and whether or not an alien, a citizen of the United States, or a citizen of Puerto Rico, shall compute his net earnings from self-employment in the same manner as would a citizen of the United States residing in the United States. See paragraph (d) of §1.1402(b)-1 for regulations relating to nonresident aliens. For the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, the gross income of such a resident of Puerto Rico also includes income from Puerto Rican sources. Thus, under this special rule, income from Puerto Rican sources will be included in determining net earnings from self-employment of a resident of Puerto Rico engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business in Puerto Rico despite the fact that, under section 933, such income may not be taken into account for purposes of the tax under section 1 or 3.

(b) Nonresidents. A citizen of Puerto Rico who is also a citizen of the United States and who is not a resident of Puerto Rico will compute his net earnings from self-employment in the same manner and subject to the same provisions of law and regulations as other citizens of the United States.

§1.1402(a)-10   Personal exemption deduction.

The deduction provided by section 151, relating to personal exemptions, is excluded.

§1.1402(a)-11   Ministers and members of religious orders.

(a) In general. For each taxable year ending after 1954 in which a minister or member of a religious order is engaged in a trade or business, within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-5, with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order, net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business include the gross income derived during the taxable year from any such service, less the deductions attributable to such gross income. For each taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1957, such minister or member of a religious order shall compute his net earnings from self-employment derived from the performance of such service without regard to the exclusions from gross income provided by section 107 (relating to rental value of parsonages) and section 119 (relating to meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer). Thus, a minister who is subject to self-employment tax with respect to his services as a minister will include in the computation of his net earnings from self-employment for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1957, the rental value of a home furnished to him as remuneration for services performed in the exercise of his ministry or the rental allowance paid to him as remuneration for such services irrespective of whether such rental value or rental allowance is excluded from gross income by section 107. Similarly, the value of any meals or lodging furnished to a minister or to a member of a religious order in connection with service performed in the exercise of his ministry or as a member of such order will be included in the computation of his net earnings from self-employment for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1957, notwithstanding the exclusion of such value from gross income by section 119.

(b) In employ of American employer. If a minister or member of a religious order engaged in a trade or business described in section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-5 is a citizen of the United States and performs service, in his capacity as a minister or member of a religious order, as an employee of an American employer, as defined in section 3121(h) and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations), his net earnings from self-employment derived from such service shall be computed as provided in paragraph (a) of this section but without regard to the exclusions from gross income provided in section 911, relating to earned income from sources without the United States, and section 931, relating to income from sources within certain possessions of the United States. Thus, even though all the income of the minister or member for service of the character to which this paragraph is applicable was derived from sources without the United States, or from sources within certain possessions of the United States, and therefore may be excluded from gross income, such income is included in computing net earnings from self-employment.

(c) Minister in a foreign country whose congregation is composed predominantly of citizens of the United States—(1) Taxable years ending after 1956. For any taxable year ending after 1956, a minister of a church, who is engaged in a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-5, is a citizen of the United States, is performing service in the exercise of his ministry in a foreign country, and has a congregation composed predominantly of United States citizens, shall compute his net earnings from self-employment derived from his services as a minister for such taxable year without regard to the exclusion from gross income provided in section 911, relating to earned income from sources without the United States. For taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1957, such minister shall also disregard sections 107 and 119 in the computation of his net earnings from self-employment. (See paragraph (a) of this section.) For purposes of section 1402(a)(8) and this paragraph a “congregation composed predominantly of citizens of the United States” means a congregation the majority of which throughout the greater portion of its minister's taxable year were United States citizens.

(2) Election for taxable years ending after 1954 and before 1957. (i) A minister described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph who, for a taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1957, had income from service described in such subparagraph which would have been included in computing net earnings from self-employment if such income had been derived in a taxable year ending after 1956 by an individual who had filed a waiver certificate under section 1402(e), may elect to have section 1402(a)(8) and subparagraph (1) of this paragraph apply to his income from such service for his taxable years ending after 1954 and before 1957. If such minister filed a waiver certificate prior to August 1, 1956, in accordance with §1.1402(e)(1)-1, or he files such a waiver certificate on or before the due date of his return (including any extensions thereof) for his last taxable year ending before 1957, he must make such election on or before the due date of his return (including any extensions thereof) for such taxable year or before April 16, 1957, whichever is the later. If the waiver certificate is not so filed, the minister must make his election on or before the due date of the return (including any extensions thereof) for his first taxable year ending after 1956. Notwithstanding the expiration of the period prescribed by section 1402(e)(2) for filing such waiver, the minister may file a waiver certificate at the time he makes the election. In no event shall an election be valid unless the minister files prior to or at the time of the election a waiver certificate in accordance with §1.1402(e)(1)-1.

(ii) The election shall be made by filing with the district director of internal revenue with whom the waiver certificate, Form 2031, is filed a written statement indicating that, by reason of the Social Security Amendments of 1956, the minister desires to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his services performed in a foreign country as a minister of a congregation composed predominantly of United States citizens beginning with the first taxable year ending after 1954 and prior to 1957 for which he had income from such services. The statement shall be dated and signed by the minister and shall clearly state that it is an election for retroactive self-employment tax coverage under the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954. In addition, the statement shall include the following information:

(a) The name and address of the minister.

(b) His social security account number, if he has one.

(c) That he is a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church.

(d) That he is a citizen of the United States.

(e) That he is performing services in the exercise of his ministry in a foreign country.

(f) That his congregation is composed predominantly of citizens of the United States.

(g)(1) That he has filed a waiver certificate and, if so, where and under what circumstances the certificate was filed and the taxable year for which it is effective; or (2) that he is filing a waiver certificate with his election for retroactive coverage and, if so, the taxable year for which it is effective.

(h) That he has or has not filed income tax returns for his taxable years ending after 1954 and before 1957. If he has filed such returns, he shall state the years for which they were filed and indicate the district director of internal revenue with whom they were filed.

(iii) Notwithstanding section 1402(e)(3), a waiver certificate filed pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1 by a minister making an election under this paragraph shall be effective (regardless of when such certificate is filed) for such minister's first taxable year ending after 1954 in which he had income from service described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph or for the taxable year of the minister prescribed by section 1402(e)(3), if such taxable year is earlier, and for all succeeding taxable years.

(iv) No interest or penalty shall be assessed or collected for failure to file a return within the time prescribed by law if such failure arises solely by reason of an election made by a minister pursuant to this paragraph or for any underpayment of self-employment income tax arising solely by reason of such election, for the period ending with the date such minister makes an election pursuant to this paragraph.

(d) Treatment of certain remuneration paid in 1955 and 1956 as wages. For treatment of remuneration paid to an individual for service described in section 3121(b)(8)(A) which was erroneously treated by the organization employing him as employment with-in the meaning of chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code, see §1.1402(e)(4)-1.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 9194, 70 FR 18946, Apr. 11, 2005]

§1.1402(a)-12   Continental shelf and certain possessions of the United States.

(a) Certain possessions. For purposes of the tax on self-employment income, the exclusion from gross income provided by section 931 (relating to bona fide residents of certain possessions of the United States) will not apply. Net earnings from self-employment are subject to the tax on self-employment income even if such amounts are excluded from gross income under section 931.

(b) Continental shelf. For the definition of the term “United States” and for other geographical definitions relating to the continental shelf, see section 638 and §1.638-1.

(c) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years ending after April 9, 2008.

[T.D. 9391, 73 FR 19376, Apr. 9, 2008]

§1.1402(a)-13   Income from agricultural activity.

(a) Agricultural trade or business. (1) An agricultural trade or business is one in which, if the trade or business were carried on exclusively by employees, the major portion of the services would constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 3121(g) and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations). In case the services are in part agricultural and in part nonagricultural, the time devoted to the performance of each type of service is the test to be used to determine whether the major portion of the services would constitute agricultural labor. If more than half of the time spent in performing all the services is spent in performing services which would constitute agricultural labor under section 3121(g), the trade or business is agricultural. If only half, or less, of the time spent in performing all the services is spent in performing services which would constitute agricultural labor under section 3121(g), the trade or business is not agricultural. In every case the time spent in performing the services will be computed by adding the time spent in the trade or business during the taxable year by every individual (including the individual carrying on such trade or business and the members of his family) in performing such services. The operation of this special rule is not affected by section 3121(c), relating to the included-excluded rule for determining employment.

(2) The rules prescribed in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph have no application where the nonagricultural services are performed in connection with an enterprise which constitutes a trade or business separate and distinct from the trade or business conducted as an agricultural enterprise. Thus, the operation of a roadside automobile service station on farm premises constitutes a trade or business separate and distinct from the agricultural enterprise, and the gross income derived from such service station, less the deductions attributable thereto, is to be taken into account in determining net earnings from self-employment.

(b) Farm operator's income for taxable years ending before 1955. Income derived in a taxable year ending before 1955 from any agricultural trade or business (see paragraph (a) of this section), and all deductions attributable to such income, are excluded in computing net earnings from self-employment.

(c) Farm operator's income for taxable years ending after 1954. Income derived in a taxable year ending after 1954 from an agricultural trade or business (see paragraph (a) of this section) is includible in computing net earnings from self-employment. Income derived from an agricultural trade or business includes income derived by an individual under an agreement entered into by such individual with another person pursuant to which such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on land owned or leased by such other person and pursuant to which the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such other person, and the amount of such individual's share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced. However, except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, relating to arrangements involving material participation, the income derived under such an agreement by the owner or lessee of the land is not includible in computing net earnings from self-employment. See §1.1402(a)-4. For options relating to the computation of net earnings from self-employment, see §§1.1402(a)-14 and 1.1402(a)-15.

(d) Includible farm rental income for taxable years ending after 1955. For taxable years ending after 1955, income derived from an agricultural trade or business (see paragraph (a) of this section) includes also income derived by the owner or tenant of land under an arrangement between such owner or tenant and another person, if such arrangement provides that such other person shall produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land, and that there shall be material participation by the owner or tenant in the production or the management of the production of such agricultural or horticultural commodities, and if there is material participation by the owner or tenant with respect to any such agricultural or horticultural commodity. See paragraph (b) of §1.1402(a)-4. For options relating to the computation of net earnings from self-employment, see §§1.1402(a)-14 and 1.1402(a)-15.

(e) Income from service performed after 1956 as a crew leader. Income derived by a crew leader (see section 3121(o) and the regulations thereunder in Part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)) from service performed after 1956 in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person and from service performed after 1956 in agricultural labor as a member of the crew is considered to be income derived from a trade or business for purposes of §1.1402(c)-1. Whether such trade or business is an agricultural trade or business shall be determined by applying the rules set forth in this section.

§1.1402(a)-14   Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1954 and before December 31, 1956.

(a) Computation of net earnings. In the case of any trade or business which is carried on by an individual who reports his income on the cash receipts and disbursements method, and in which, if it were carried on exclusively by employees, the major portion of the services would constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 3121(g) (see paragraph (a) of §1.1402(a)-13), net earnings from self-employment may, for a taxable year ending after 1954, at the option of the taxpayer, be computed as follows:

(1) Gross income $1,800 or less. If the gross income, computed as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, from such trade or business is $1,800 or less, the taxpayer may, at his option, treat as net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business an amount equal to 50 percent of such gross income. If the taxpayer so elects, the amount equal to 50 percent of such gross income shall be used in computing his self-employment income in lieu of his actual net earnings from such trade or business, if any.

(2) Gross income in excess of $1,800. If the gross income, computed as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, from such trade or business is more than $1,800, and the actual net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business are less than $900, the taxpayer may, at his option, treat $900 as net earnings from self-employment. If the taxpayer so elects, $900 shall be used in computing his self-employment income in lieu of his actual net earnings from such trade or business, if any. However, if the taxpayer's actual net earnings from such trade or business, as computed in accordance with §§1.1402(a)-1 through 1.1402(a)-3 are $900 or more, such actual net earnings shall be used in computing his self-employment income.

(b) Computation of gross income. For purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, gross income shall consist of the gross receipts from such trade or business reduced by the cost or other basis of property which was purchased and sold in carrying on such trade or business, adjusted (after such reduction) in accordance with the provisions of §1.1402(a)-3, relating to income and deductions not included in computing net earnings from self-employment.

(c) Two or more agricultural activities. If an individual is engaged in more than one agricultural trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (a) of §1.1402(a)-13 (for example, the business of ordinary farming and the business of cotton ginning), the gross income derived from each agricultural trade or business shall be aggregated for purposes of the optional method provided in paragraph (a) of this section for computing net earnings from self-employment.

(d) Examples. Application of the regulations prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). F, a farmer, uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting in making his income tax returns. F's books and records show that during the calendar year 1955 he received $1,200 from the sale of produce raised on the farm, $200 from the sale of livestock raised on the farm and not held for breeding or dairy purposes, and $600 from the sale of a tractor. The income from the sale of the tractor is of a type which is excluded from net earnings from self-employment by section 1402(a). F's actual net earnings from self-employment, computed in accordance with the provisions of §§1.1402(a)-1 through 1.1402(a)-3, are $450. F may report $450 as his net earnings from self-employment or he may elect to report $700 (one-half of $1,400).
Example (2). C, a cattleman, uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting in making his income tax returns. C had actual net earnings from self-employment, computed in accordance with the provisions of §§1.1402(a)-1 through 1.1402(a)-3, of $725. His gross receipts were $1,000 from the sale of produce raised on the farm and $1,200 from the sale of feeder cattle, which C bought for $500. The income from the sale of the feeder cattle is of a type which is included in computing net earnings from self-employment. Therefore, C may report $725 as his net earnings from self-employment or he may elect to report $850, one-half of $1,700 ($2,200 minus $500).
Example (3). R, a rancher, has gross income of $3,000 from the operation of his ranch, computed as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. His actual net earnings from self-employment from farming activities are less than $900. R, nevertheless, may elect to report $900 as net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business. If R had actual net earnings from self-employment from his farming activities in the amount of $900 or more, he would be required to report such amount in computing his self-employment income.

(e) Members of farm partnerships. The optional method provided by paragraph (a) of this section for computing net earnings from self-employment is not available to a member of a partnership with respect to his distributive share of the income or loss from any trade or business carried on by any partnership of which he is a member.

§1.1402(a)-15   Options available to farmers in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1956.

(a) Computation of net earnings. In the case of any trade or business which is carried on by an individual or by a partnership and in which, if such trade or business were carried on exclusively by employees, the major portion of the services would constitute agricultural labor as defined in section 3121(g) (see paragraph (a) of §1.1402(a)-13), net earnings from self-employment may, for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, at the option of the taxpayer, be computed as follows:

(1) In case of an individual—(i) Gross income of less than specified amount. If the gross income, computed as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, from such trade or business is $2,400 or less ($1,800 or less for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), the taxpayer may, at his option, treat as net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business an amount equal to 6623 percent of such gross income. If the taxpayer so elects, the amount equal to 6623 percent of such gross income shall be used in computing his self-employment income in lieu of his actual net earnings from such trade or business, if any.

(ii) Gross income in excess of specified amount. If the gross income, computed as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, from such trade or business is more than $2,400 ($1,800 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), and the net earnings from self-employment from such trade or business (computed without regard to this section) are less than $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), the taxpayer may, at his option, treat $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) as net earnings from self-employment. If the taxpayer so elects, $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) shall be used in computing his self-employment income in lieu of his actual net earnings from such trade or business, if any. However, if the taxpayer's actual net earnings from such trade or business, as computed in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§1.1402(a)-1 to 1.1402(a)-13, inclusive, are $1,600 or more ($1,200 or more for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) such actual net earnings shall be used in computing his self-employment income.

(2) In case of a member of a partnership—(i) Distributive share of gross income of less than specified amount. If a taxpayer's distributive share of the gross income of a partnership (as such gross income is computed under the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section) derived from such trade or business (after such gross income has been reduced by the sum of all payments to which section 707(c) applies) is $2,400 or less ($1,800 or less for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), the taxpayer may, at his option, treat as his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) derived from such trade or business an amount equal to 6623 percent of his distributive share of such gross income (after such gross income has been reduced by the sum of all payments to which section 707(c) applies). If the taxpayer so elects, the amount equal to 6623 percent of his distributive share of such gross income shall be used by him in the computation of his net earnings from self-employment in lieu of the actual amount of his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) from such trade or business, if any.

(ii) Distributive share of gross income in excess of specified amount. If a taxpayer's distributive share of the gross income of the partnership (as such gross income is computed under the provisions of paragraph (b) of this section) derived from such trade or business (after such gross income has been reduced by the sum of all payments to which section 707(c) applies) is more than $2,400 ($1,800 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) and the actual amount of his distributive share (whether or not distributed) of income described in section 702(a)(9) derived from such trade or business (computed without regard to this section) is less than $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), the taxpayer may, at his option, treat $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) as his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) derived from such trade or business. If the taxpayer so elects, $1,600 ($1,200 for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966) shall be used by him in the computation of his net earnings from self-employment in lieu of the actual amount of his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) from such trade or business, if any. However, if the actual amount of the taxpayer's distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) from such trade or business, as computed in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§1.1402(a)-1 to 1.1402(a)-13, inclusive, is $1,600 or more ($1,200 or more for a taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1956, and beginning before January 1, 1966), such actual amount of the taxpayer's distributive share shall be used in computing his net earnings from self-employment.

(iii) Cross reference. For a special rule in the case of certain deceased partners, see paragraph (c) of §1.1402(f)-1.

(b) Computation of gross income. For purposes of this section gross income has the following meanings:

(1) In the case of any such trade or business in which the income is computed under a cash receipts and disbursements method, the gross receipts from such trade or business reduced by the cost or other basis of property which was purchased and sold in carrying on such trade or business (see paragraphs (a) and (c), other than paragraph (a)(5), of §1.61-4), adjusted (after such reduction) in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§1.1402(a)-3 to 1.1402(a)-13, inclusive.

(2) In the case of any such trade or business in which the income is computed under an accrual method (see paragraphs (b) and (c), other than paragraph (b)(5), of §1.61-4), the gross income from such trade or business, adjusted in accordance with the applicable provisions of §§1.1402(a)-3 to 1.1402(a)-13, inclusive.

(c) Two or more agricultural activities. If an individual (including a member of a partnership) derives gross income (as defined in paragraph (b) of this section) from more than one agricultural trade or business, such gross income (including his distributive share of the gross income of any partnership derived from any such trade or business) shall be deemed to have been derived from one trade or business. Thus, such an individual shall aggregate his gross income derived from each agricultural trade or business carried on by him (which includes, under paragraph (b) of §1.1402(a)-1, any guaranteed payment, within the meaning of section 707(c), received by him from a farm partnership of which he is a member) and his distributive share of partnership gross income (after such gross income has been reduced by any guaranteed payment within the meaning of section 707(c)) derived from each farm partnership of which he is a member. Such gross income is the amount to be considered for purposes of the optional method provided in this section for computing net earnings from self-employment. If the aggregate gross income of an individual includes income derived from an agricultural trade or business carried on by him and a distributive share of partnership income derived from an agricultural trade or business carried on by a partnership of which he is a member, such aggregate gross income shall be treated as income derived from a single trade or business carried on by him, and such individual shall apply the optional method applicable to individuals set forth in paragraph (a)(1) of this section for purposes of computing his net earnings from self-employment.

(d) Examples. The application of this section may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). F is engaged in the business of farming and computes his income under the cash receipts and disbursements method. He files his income tax returns on the basis of the calendar year. During the year 1966, F's gross income from the business of farming (computed in accordance with paragraph (b) (1) of this section) is $2,325. His actual net earnings from self-employment derived from such business are $1,250. As his net earnings from self-employment, F may report $1,250 or, by the optional computation method, he may report $1,550 (6623 percent of $2,325).
Example (2). G is engaged in the business of farming and computes his income under the accrual method. His income tax returns are filed on the calendar year basis. For the year 1966, G's gross income from the operation of his farm (computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section) is $2,800. He has actual net earnings from self-employment derived from such farm in the amount of $1,250. As his net earnings from self-employment derived from his farm, G may report his actual net earnings of $1,250, or by the optional method he may report $1,600. If G's actual net earnings from self-employment from his farming activities for 1966 were in an amount of $1,600 or more, he would be required to report such amount in computing his self-employment income.
Example (3). M, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, is one of the three partners of the XYZ Company, a partnership, engaged in the business of farming. The taxable year of the partnership is the calendar year, and its income is computed under the cash receipts and disbursements method. For M's services in connection with the planting, cultivating, and harvesting of the crops during the year 1966 the partnership agrees to pay him $500, the full amount of which is determined without regard to the income of the partnership and constitutes a guaranteed payment within the meaning of section 707(c). This guaranteed payment to M is the only such payment made during such year. The gross income derived from the business for the year 1966 computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section and after being reduced by the guaranteed payment of $500 made to M, is $3,000. One-third of the $3,000 ($1,000), is M's distributive share of such gross income. Under paragraph (c) of this section, the guaranteed payment ($500) received by M and his distributive share of the partnership gross income ($1,000) are deemed to have been derived from one trade or business, and such amounts must be aggregated for purposes of the optional method of computing net earnings from self-employment. Since M's combined gross income from his two agricultural businesses ($1,000 and $500) is not more than $2,400 and since such income is deemed to be derived from one trade or business, M's net earnings from self-employment derived from such farming business may, at his option, be deemed to be $1,000 (6623 percent of $1,500).
Example (4). A is one of the two partners of the AB partnership which is engaged in the business of farming. The taxable year of the partnership is the calendar year and its income is computed under the accrual method. A files his income tax returns on the calendar year basis. The partnership agreement provides for an equal sharing in the profits and losses of the partnership by the two partners. A is an experienced farmer and for his services as manager of the partnership's farm activities during the year 1966 he receives $6,000 which amount constitutes a guaranteed payment within the meaning of section 707(c). The gross income of the partnership derived from such business for the year 1966, computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(2) of this section and after being reduced by the guaranteed payment made to A, is $9,600. A's distributive share of such gross income is $4,800 and his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) derived from the partnership's business is $1,900. Under paragraph (c) of this section, the guaranteed payment received by A and his distributive share of the partnership gross income are deemed to have been derived from one trade or business, and such amounts must be aggregated for purposes of the optional method of computing his net earnings from self-employment. Since the aggregate of A's guaranteed payment ($6,000) and his distributive share of partnership gross income ($4,800) is more than $2,400 and since the aggregate of A's guaranteed payment ($6,000) and his distributive share ($1,900) of partnership income described in section 702(a)(9) is not less than $1,600, the optional method of computing net earnings from self-employment is not available to A.
Example (5). F is a member of the EFG partnership which is engaged in the business of farming. F files his income tax returns on the calendar year basis. The taxable year of the partnership is the calendar year, and its income is computed under a cash receipts and disbursements method. Under the partnership agreement the partners are to share equally the profits or losses of the business. The gross income derived from the partnership business for the year 1966, computed in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section is $7,500. F's share of such gross income is $2,500. Due to drought and an epidemic among the livestock, the partnership sustains a net loss of $7,800 for the year 1966 of which loss F's share is $2,600. Since F's distributive share of gross income derived from such business is in excess of $2,400 and since F does not receive income described in section 702(a)(9) of $1,600 or more from such business, he may, at his option, be deemed to have received $1,600 as his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) from such business.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6993, 34 FR 828, Jan. 18, 1969]

§1.1402(a)-16   Exercise of option.

A taxpayer shall, for each taxable year with respect to which he is eligible to use the optional method described in §1.1402(a)-14 or §1.1402(a)-15, make a determination as to whether his net earnings from self-employment are to be computed in accordance with such method. If the taxpayer elects the optional method for a taxable year, he shall signify such election by computing net earnings from self-employment under the optional method as set forth in Schedule F (Form 1040) of the income tax return filed by the taxpayer for such taxable year. If the optional method is not elected at the time of the filing of the return for a taxable year with respect to which the taxpayer is eligible to elect such optional method, such method may be elected on an amended return (or on such other form as may be prescribed for such use) filed within the period prescribed by section 6501 and the regulations thereunder for the assessment of the tax for such taxable year. If the optional method is elected on a return for a taxable year, the taxpayer may revoke such election by filing an amended return (or such other form as may be prescribed for such use) for the taxable year within the period prescribed by section 6501 and the regulations thereunder for the assessment of the tax for such taxable year. If the taxpayer is deceased or unable to make an election, the person designated in section 6012(b) and the regulations thereunder may, within the period prescribed in this section elect the optional method for any taxable year with respect to which the taxpayer is eligible to use the optional method and revoke an election previously made by or for the taxpayer.

§1.1402(a)-17   Retirement payments to retired partners.

(a) In general. There shall be excluded, in computing net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1967, certain payments made on a periodic basis by a partnership, pursuant to a written plan of the partnership, to a retired partner on account of his retirement. The exclusion applies only if the payments are made pursuant to a plan which meets the requirements prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section, and, in addition, the conditions set forth in paragraph (c) of this section are met.

(b) Retirement plan of partnership. (1) To meet the requirements of section 1402(a)(10), the written plan of the partnership must set forth the terms and conditions of the program or system established by the partnership for the purpose of making payments to retired partners on account of their retirement. To qualify as payments on account of retirement, the payments must constitute bona fide retirement income. Thus, payments of benefits not customarily included in a pension or retirement plan such as layoff benefits are not payments on account of retirement. Eligibility for retirement generally is established on the basis of age, physical condition, or a combination of age or physical condition and years of service. Generally, retirement benefits are measured by, and based on, such factors as years of service and compensation received. In determining whether the plan of the partnership provides for payments on account of retirement, factors, formulas, etc., reflected in public, and in broad based private, pension or retirement plans in prescribing eligibility requirements and in computing benefits may be taken into account.

(2) The plan of the partnership must provide for payments on account of retirement:

(i) To partners generally or to a class or classes of partners,

(ii) On a periodic basis, and

(iii) Which continue at least until the partner's death.

For purposes of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, a class of partners may, in an appropriate case, contain only one member. Payments are made on a periodic basis if made at regularly recurring intervals (usually monthly) not exceeding one year.

(c) Conditions relating to exclusion—(1) In general. A payment made pursuant to a written plan of a partnership which meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section shall be excluded, in computing net earnings from self-employment, only if:

(i) The retired partner to whom the payment is made rendered no service with respect to any trade or business carried on by the partnership (or its successors) during the taxable year of the partnership (or its successors), which ends within or with the taxable year of the retired partner and in which the payment was received by him;

(ii) No obligation (whether certain in amount or contingent on a subsequent event) exists (as of the close of the partnership's taxable year referred to in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph) from the other partners to the retired partner except with respect to retirement payments under the plan or rights such as benefits payable on account of sickness, accident, hospitalization, medical expenses, or death; and

(iii) The retired partner's share (if any) of the capital of the partnership has been paid to him in full before the close of the partnership's taxable year referred to in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph.

By application of the conditions set forth in this subparagraph, either all payments on account of retirement received by a retired partner during the taxable year of the partnership ending within or with his taxable year are excluded or none of the payments are excluded. Subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph has application only to obligations from other partners in their capacity as partners as distinguished from an obligation which arose and exists from a transaction unrelated to the partnership or to a trade or business carried on by the partnership. The effect of the conditions set forth in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph is that the exclusion may apply with respect to payments received by a retired partner during the taxable year of the partnership ending within or with his taxable year only if at the close of the partnership's taxable year the retired partner had no financial interest in the partnership except for the right to retirement payments.

(2) Examples. The application of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples. Each example assumes that the partnership plan pursuant to which the payments are made meets the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section.

Example (1). A, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, is a partner in the ABC partnership. The taxable year of the partnership is the period July 1 to June 30, inclusive. A retired from the partnership on January 1, 1973, and receives monthly payments on account of his retirement. As of June 30, 1973, no obligation existed from the other partners to A (except with respect to retirement payments under the plan) and A's share of the capital of the partnership had been paid to him in full. The monthly retirement payments received by A from the partnership in his taxable year ending on December 31, 1973, are not excluded from net earnings from self-employment since A rendered service to the partnership during a portion of the partnership's taxable year (July 1, 1972, through June 30, 1973) which ends within A's taxable year ending on December 31, 1973.
Example (2). D, a partner in the DEF partnership, retired from the partnership as of the close of December 31, 1972. The taxable year of both D and the partnership is the calendar year. During the partnership's taxable year ending December 31, 1973, D rendered no service with respect to any trade or business carried on by the partnership. On or before December 31, 1973, all obligations (other than with respect to retirement payments under the plan) from the other partners to D have been liquidated, and D's share of the capital of the partnership has been paid to him. Retirement payments received by D pursuant to the partnership's plan in his taxable year ending December 31, 1973, are excluded in determining his net earnings from self-employment (if any) for that taxable year.
Example (3). Assume the same facts as in example (2) except that as of the close of December 31, 1973, D has a right to a fixed percentage of any amounts collected by the partnership after that date which are attributable to services rendered by him prior to his retirement for clients of the partnership. The monthly payments received by D in his taxable year ending December 31, 1973, are not excluded from net earnings from self-employment since as of the close of the partnership's taxable year which ends with D's taxable year, an obligation (other than an obligation with respect to retirement payments) exists from the other partners to D.

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44446, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(a)-18   Split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

See §§1.61-22 and 1.7872-15 for rules relating to the treatment of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

[T.D. 9092, 68 FR 54352, Sept. 17, 2003]

§1.1402(b)-1   Self-employment income.

(a) In general. Except for the exclusions in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and the exception in paragraph (d) of this section, the term “self-employment income” means the net earnings from self-employment derived by an individual during a taxable year.

(b) Maximum self-employment income—(1) General rule. Subject to the special rules described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the maximum self-employment income of an individual for a taxable year (whether a period of 12 months or less) is:

(i) For any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1974, an amount equal to the contribution and benefit base (as determined under section 230 of the Social Security Act) which is effective for such calendar year; and

(ii) For any taxable year:

  • Ending before 1955$3,600
  • Ending after 1954 and before 19594,200
  • Ending after 1958 and before 19664,800
  • Ending after 1965 and before 19686,600
  • Ending after 1967 and beginning before 19727,800
  • Beginning after 1971 and before 19739,000
  • Beginning after 1972 and before 197410,800
  • Beginning after 1973 and before 197513,200

(2) Special rules. (i) If an individual is paid wages as defined in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph in a taxable year, the maximum self-employment income for such taxable year is computed as provided in subdivision (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) If an individual is paid wages as defined in subparagraph (3) (i) or (ii) of this paragraph in a taxable year, the maximum self-employment income of such individual for such taxable year is the excess of the amounts indicated in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph over the amount of the wages, as defined in subparagraph (3) (i) and (ii) of this paragraph, paid to him during the taxable year. For example, if for his taxable year beginning in 1974, an individual has $15,000 of net earnings from self-employment and during such taxable year is paid $1,000 of wages as defined in section 3121(a) (see subparagraph (3)(i) of this paragraph), he has $12,200 ($13,200 −$1,000) of self-employment income for the taxable year.

(iii) For taxable years ending on or after December 31, 1968, wages, as defined in subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph, are taken into account in determining the maximum self-employment income of an individual for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b) (hospital insurance), but not for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a) (old-age survivors, and disability insurance). If an individual is paid wages as defined in subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph in a taxable year, his maximum self-employment income for such taxable year for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a) is computed under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph or subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph (whichever is applicable), and his maximum self-employment income for such taxable year for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b) is the excess of his section 1401(a) maximum self-employment income over the amount of wages, as defined in subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph, paid to him during the taxable year. For purposes of this subdivision, wages as defined in subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph are deemed paid to an individual in the period with respect to which the payment is made, that is, the period in which the compensation was earned or deemed earned within the meaning of section 3231(e). For an explanation of the term “compensation” and for provisions relating to when compensation is earned, see the regulations under section 3231(e) in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations). The application of the rules set forth in this subdivision may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. M, a calendar-year taxpayer, has $15,000 of net earnings from self-employment for 1974 and during the taxable year is paid $1,000 of wages as defined in section 3121(a) (see subparagraph (3)(i) of this paragraph) and $1,600 of compensation subject to tax under section 3201 (see subparagraph (3)(iii) of this paragraph). Of the $1,600 of taxable compensation, $1,200 represents compensation for services rendered in 1974 and the balance ($400) represents compensation which pursuant to the provisions of section 3231(e) is earned or deemed earned in 1973. M's maximum self-employment income for 1974 for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a), computed as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, is $12,200 ($13,200−$1,000), and for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b) is $11,000 ($12,200−$1,200). However, M may recompute his maximum self-employment income for 1973 for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b) by taking into account the $400 of compensation which is deemed paid in 1973.

(3) Meaning of term “wages”. For the purpose of the computation described in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the term “wages” includes:

(i) Wages as defined in section 3121(a);

(ii) Such remuneration paid to an employee for services covered by:

(a) An agreement entered into pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 418), which section provides for extension of the Federal old-age, survivors and disability insurance system to State and local government employees under voluntary agreements between the States and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (Federal Security Administrator before April 11, 1953), or

(b) An agreement entered into pursuant to the provisions of section 3121(1), relating to coverage of citizens of the United States who are employees of foreign subsidiaries of domestic corporations,

as would be wages under section 3121(a) if such services constituted employment under section 3121(b). For an explanation of the term “wages”, see the regulations under section 3121(a) in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations); and

(iii) Compensation, as defined in section 3231(e), which is subject to the employee tax imposed by section 3201 or the employee representative tax imposed by section 3211.

(c) Minimum net earnings from self-employment. Self-employment income does not include the net earnings from self-employment of an individual when the amount of such earnings for the taxable year is less than $400. Thus, an individual having only $300 of net earnings from self-employment for the taxable year would not have any self-employment income. However, an individual having net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more for the taxable year may, by application of paragraph (b)(2) of this section, have less than $400 of self-employment income for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a) and the tax imposed under section 1401(b) or may have self-employment income of $400 or more for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a) and of less than $400 for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b). This could occur in a case in which the amount of the individual's net earnings from self-employment is $400 or more for a taxable year and the amount of such net earnings from self-employment plus the amount of wages, as defined in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, paid to him during the taxable year exceed the maximum self-employment income, as set forth in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, for the taxable year. However, the result occurs only if such maximum self-employment income exceeds the amount of such wages. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. For 1974 M, a calendar-year taxpayer, has net earnings from self-employment of $2,000 and wages (as defined in paragraph (b)(3) (i) and (ii) of this section) of $12,500. Since M's net earnings from self-employment plus his wages exceed the maximum self-employment income for 1974 ($13,200), his self-employment income for 1974 is $700 ($13,200−$12,500). If M also had wages, as defined in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, of $200, his self-employment income would be $700 for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(a) and $500 ($13,200−$12,700 ($12,500+$200)) for purposes of the tax imposed under section 1401(b).

For provisions relating to when wages as defined in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section are treated as paid, see paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section.

(d) Nonresident aliens. A nonresident alien individual never has self-employment income. While a nonresident alien individual who derives income from a trade or business carried on within the United States, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, or American Samoa (whether by agents or employees, or by a partnership of which he is a member) may be subject to the applicable income tax provisions on such income, such nonresident alien individual will not be subject to the tax on self-employment income, since any net earnings which he may have from self-employment do not constitute self-employment income. For the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, an individual who is not a citizen of the United States but who is a resident of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or, for taxable years beginning after 1960, of Guam or American Samoa is not considered to be a nonresident alien individual.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44447, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(c)-1   Trade or business.

In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as an individual or as a member of a partnership. Except for the exclusions discussed in §§1.1402(c)-2 to 1.1402(c)-7, inclusive, the term “trade or business”, for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, shall have the same meaning as when used in section 162. An individual engaged in one of the excluded activities specified in such sections of the regulations may also be engaged in carrying on activities which constitute a trade or business for purposes of the tax on self-employment income. Whether or not he is also engaged in carrying on a trade or business will be dependent upon all of the facts and circumstances in the particular case. An individual who is a crew leader, as defined in section 3121(o) (see such section and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)), is considered to be engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to services performed by him after 1956 in furnishing individuals to perform agricultural labor for another person or services performed by him after 1956 as a member of the crew.

[T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15937, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(c)-2   Public office.

(a) In general—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, the performance of the functions of a public office does not constitute a trade or business.

(2) Fee basis public officials—(i) In general. If an individual receives fees after 1967 for the performance of the functions of a public office of a State or a political subdivision thereof for which he is compensated solely on a fee basis, and if the service performed in such office is eligible for (but is not made the subject of) an agreement between the State and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act to extend social security coverage thereto, the service for which such fees are received constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1. If an individual performs service for a State or a political subdivision thereof in any period in more than one position, each position is treated separately for purposes of the preceding sentence. See also paragraph (f) of §1.1402(c)-3 relating to the performance of service by an individual as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated solely on a fee basis.

(ii) Election with respect to fees received in 1968. (A) Any individual who in 1968 receives fees for service performed by him with respect to the functions of a public office of a State or a political subdivision thereof in any period in which the functions are performed in a position compensated solely on a fee basis may elect, if the performance of the service for which such fees are received constitutes a trade or business pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, to have such performance of service treated as excluded from the term “trade or business” for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, pursuant to the provisions of section 122(c)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 (as quoted in §1.1402(c)). Such election shall not be limited to service to which the fees received in 1968 are attributable but must also be applicable to service (if any) in subsequent years which, except for the election, would constitute a trade or business pursuant to the provisions of subdivision (i) of this subparagraph. An election made pursuant to the provisions of this subparagraph is irrevocable.

(B) The election referred to in subdivision (ii)(A) of this subparagraph shall be made by filing a certificate of election of exemption (Form 4415) on or before the due date of the income tax return (see section 6072), including any extension thereof (see section 6081), for the taxable year of the individual making the election which begins in 1968. The certificate of election of exemption shall be filed with an internal revenue office in accordance with the instructions on the certificate.

(b) Meaning of public office. The term “public office” includes any elective or appointive office of the United States or any possession thereof, of the District of Columbia, of a State or its political subdivisions, or a wholly-owned instrumentality of any one or more of the foregoing. For example, the President, the Vice President, a governor, a mayor, the Secretary of State, a member of Congress, a State representative, a county commissioner, a judge, a justice of the peace, a county or city attorney, a marshal, a sheriff, a constable, a registrar of deeds, or a notary public performs the functions of a public office. (However, the service of a notary public could not be made the subject of a section 218 agreement under the Social Security Act because notaries are not “employees” within the meaning of that section. Accordingly, such service does not constitute a trade or business.)

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44448, Dec. 24, 1974, as amended by T.D. 7372, 40 FR 30945, July 24, 1975]

§1.1402(c)-3   Employees.

(a) General rule. Generally, the performance of service by an individual as an employee, as defined in the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code) does not constitute a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1. However, in six cases set forth in paragraphs (b) to (g), inclusive, of this section, the performance of service by an individual is considered to constitute a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1. (As to when an individual is an employee, see section 3121 (d) and (o) and section 3506 and the regulations under those sections in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).)

(b) Newspaper vendors. Service performed by an individual who has attained the age of 18 constitutes a trade or business for purposes of the tax on self-employment income within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 if performed in, and at the time of, the sale of newspapers or magazines to ultimate consumers, under an arrangement under which the newspapers or magazines are to be sold by him at a fixed price, his compensation being based on the retention of the excess of such price over the amount at which the newspapers or magazines are charged to him, whether or not he is guaranteed a minimum amount of compensation for such service, or is entitled to be credited with the unsold newspapers or magazines turned back.

(c) Sharecroppers. Service performed by an individual under an arrangement with the owner or tenant of land pursuant to which:

(1) Such individual undertakes to produce agricultural or horticultural commodities (including livestock, bees, poultry, and fur-bearing animals and wildlife) on such land,

(2) The agricultural or horticultural commodities produced by such individual, or the proceeds therefrom, are to be divided between such individual and such owner or tenant, and

(3) The amount of such individual's share depends on the amount of the agricultural or horticultural commodities produced, constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1.

(d) Employees of foreign government, instrumentality wholly owned by foreign government, or international organization. Service performed in the United States, as defined in section 3121(e)(2) (see such section and the regulations thereunder in part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)), by an individual who is a citizen of the United States constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 if such service is excepted from employment, for purposes of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (chapter 21 of the Code), by:

(1) Section 3121(b)(11), relating to service in the employ of a foreign government (for regulations under section 3121(b)(11), see §31.3121(b)(11)-1 of this chapter);

(2) Section 3121(b)(12), relating to service in the employ of an instrumentality wholly owned by a foreign government (for regulations under section 3121(b)(12), see §31.3121(b)(12)-1 of this chapter); or

(3) Section 3121(b)(15), relating to service in the employ of an international organization (for regulations under section 3121(b)(15), see §31.3121(b)(15)-1 of this chapter).

This paragraph is applicable to service performed in any taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1960, except that it does not apply to service performed before 1961 in Guam or American Samoa.

(e) Ministers and members of religious orders—(1) Taxable years ending before 1968. Service described in section 1402(c)(4) performed by an individual during taxable years ending before 1968 for which a certificate filed pursuant to section 1402(e) is in effect constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1. See also §1.1402(c)-5.

(2) Taxable years ending after 1967. Service described in section 1402(c)(4) performed by an individual during taxable years ending after 1967 constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 unless an exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) is effective with respect to such individual for the taxable year during which the service is performed. See also §1.1402(c)-5.

(f) State and local government employees compensated on fee basis—(1) In general. (i) Section 1402(c)(2)(E) and this paragraph are applicable only with respect to fees received by an individual after 1967 for service performed by him as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated solely on a fee basis. If an individual performs service for a State or a political subdivision thereof in more than one position, each position is treated separately for purposes of determining whether the service performed in such position is performed by an employee and whether compensation for service performed in the position is solely on a fee basis.

(ii) If an individual receives fees after 1967 for service performed by him as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated solely on a fee basis, the service for which such fees are received constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 except that if service performed in such position is covered under an agreement entered into by the State and the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare pursuant to section 218 of the Social Security Act at the time a fee is received, the service to which such fee relates does not constitute a trade or business. See also paragraph (a) of §1.1402(c)-2, relating, in part, to the performance of the functions of a public office of a State or a political subdivision thereof by an individual.

(2) Election with respect to fees received in 1968. (i) Any individual who in 1968 receives fees for service as an employee of a State or a political subdivision thereof in a position compensated solely on a fee basis may elect, if the performance of the service for which such fees are received constitutes a trade or business pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, to have such performance of service treated as excluded from the term “trade or business” for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, pursuant to the provisions of section 122(c)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 (as quoted in §1.1402(c)). Such election shall not be limited to service to which the fees received in 1968 are attributable but must also be applicable to service (if any) in subsequent years which, except for the election, would constitute a trade or business pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. An election made pursuant to the provisions of this subparagraph is irrevocable.

(ii) The election referred to in subdivision (i) of this subparagraph shall be made by filing a certificate of election of exemption (Form 4415) on or before the due date of the income tax return (see section 6072), including any extension thereof (see section 6081), for the taxable year of the individual making the election which begins in 1968. The certificate of election of exemption shall be filed with an internal revenue office in accordance with the instructions on the certificate.

(g) Individuals engaged in fishing. For taxable years ending after December 31, 1954, service performed by an individual on a boat engaged in catching fish or other forms of aquatic animal life (hereinafter “fish”) constitutes a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1 if the service is excepted from the definition of employment by section 3121(b)(20) and §31.3121(b)(20)-1(a). However, the preceding sentence does not apply to services performed after December 31, 1954, and before October 4, 1976, on a boat engaged in catching fish if the owner or operator of the boat treated the individual as an employee in the manner described in §31.3121(b)(20)-1(b).

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15937, Oct. 30, 1968; T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44448, Dec. 24, 1974; T.D. 7691, 45 FR 24129, Apr. 9, 1980; T.D. 7716, 45 FR 57123, Aug. 27, 1980]

§1.1402(c)-4   Individuals under Railroad Retirement System.

The performance of service by an individual as an employee or employee representative as defined in section 3231(b) and (c), respectively (see §§31.3231(b)-1 and 31.3231(c)-1 of Part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations)), that is, an individual covered under the railroad retirement system, does not constitute a trade or business.

§1.1402(c)-5   Ministers and members of religious orders.

(a) In general—(1) Taxable years ending before 1968. For taxable years ending before 1955, a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order is not engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order. However, for taxable years ending after 1954 and before 1968, any individual who is a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) may elect, as provided in §1.1402(e)(1)-1, to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed by him in his capacity as such a minister or member. If such a minister or a member of a religious order makes an election pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1 he is, with respect to service performed by him in such capacity, engaged in carrying on a trade or business for each taxable year to which the election is effective. An election by a minister or member of a religious order has no application to service performed by such minister or member which is not in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order.

(2) Taxable years ending after 1967. For any taxable year ending after 1967, a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) is engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order unless an exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) is effective with respect to such individual for the taxable year during which the service is performed. An exemption which is effective with respect to a minister or a member of a religious order has no application to service performed by such minister or member which is not in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order.

(b) Service by a minister in the exercise of his ministry. (1)(i) A certificate of election filed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church under the provisions of §1.1402(e)(1)-1 has application only to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry.

(ii) An exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) which is effective with respect to a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church has application only to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, service performed by a minister in the exercise of his ministry includes the ministration of sacerdotal functions and the conduct of religious worship, and the control, conduct, and maintenance of religious organizations (including the religious boards, societies, and other integral agencies of such organizations), under the authority of a religious body constituting a church or church denomination. The following rules are applicable in determining whether services performed by a minister are performed in the exercise of his ministry:

(i) Whether service performed by a minister constitutes the conduct of religious worship or the ministration of sacerdotal functions depends on the tenets and practices of the particular religious body constituting his church or church denomination.

(ii) Service performed by a minister in the control, conduct, and maintenance of a religious organization relates to directing, managing, or promoting the activities of such organization. Any religious organization is deemed to be under the authority of a religious body constituting a church or church denomination if it is organized and dedicated to carrying out the tenets and principles of a faith in accordance with either the requirements or sanctions governing the creation of institutions of the faith. The term “religious organization” has the same meaning and application as is given to the term for income tax purposes.

(iii) If a minister is performing service in the conduct of religious worship or the ministration of sacerdotal functions, such service is in the exercise of his ministry whether or not it is performed for a religious organization. The application of this rule may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. M, a duly ordained minister, is engaged to perform service as chaplain at N University. M devotes his entire time to performing his duties as chaplain which include the conduct of religious worship, offering spiritual counsel to the university students, and teaching a class in religion. M is performing service in the exercise of his ministry.

(iv) If a minister is performing service for an organization which is operated as an integral agency of a religious organization under the authority of a religious body constituting a church or church denomination, all service performed by the minister in the conduct of religious worship, in the ministration of sacerdotal functions, or in the control, conduct, and maintenance of such organization (see subparagraph (2)(ii) of this paragraph) is in the exercise of his ministry. The application of this rule may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. M, a duly ordained minister, is engaged by the N Religious Board to serve as director of one of its departments. He performs no other service. The N Religious Board is an integral agency of O, a religious organization operating under the authority of a religious body constituting a church denomination. M is performing service in the exercise of his ministry.

(v) If a minister, pursuant to an assignment or designation by a religious body constituting his church, performs service for an organization which is neither a religious organization nor operated as an integral agency of a religious organization, all service performed by him, even though such service may not involve the conduct of religious worship or the ministration of sacerdotal functions, is in the exercise of his ministry. The application of this rule may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. M, a duly ordained minister, is assigned by X, the religious body constituting his church, to perform advisory service to Y Company in connection with the publication of a book dealing with the history of M's church denomination. Y is neither a religious organization nor operated as an integral agency of a religious organization. M performs no other service for X or Y. M is performing service in the exercise of his ministry.

(c) Service by a minister not in the exercise of his ministry. (1)(i) A certificate filed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church under the provisions of §1.1402(e)(1)-1 has no application to service performed by him which is not in the exercise of his ministry.

(ii) An exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) which is effective with respect to a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church has no application to service performed by him which is not in the exercise of his ministry.

(2) If a minister is performing service for an organization which is neither a religious organization nor operated as an integral agency of a religious organization and the service is not performed pursuant to an assignment or designation by his ecclesiastical superiors, then only the service performed by him in the conduct of religious worship or the ministration of sacerdotal functions is in the exercise of his ministry. See, however, subparagraph (3) of this paragraph. The application of the rule in this subparagraph may be illustrated by the following example:

Example. M, a duly ordained minister, is engaged by N University to teach history and mathematics. He performs no other service for N although from time to time he performs marriages and conducts funerals for relatives and friends. N University is neither a religious organization nor operated as an integral agency of a religious organization. M is not performing the service for N pursuant to an assignment or designation by his ecclesiastical superiors. The service performed by M for N University is not in the exercise of his ministry. However, service performed by M in performing marriages and conducting funerals is in the exercise of his ministry.

(3) Service performed by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church as an employee of the United States, or a State, Territory, or possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, or a foreign government, or a political subdivision of any of the foregoing, is not considered to be in the exercise of his ministry for purposes of the tax on self-employment income, even though such service may involve the ministration of sacerdotal functions or the conduct of religious worship. Thus, for example, service performed by an individual as a chaplain in the Armed Forces of the United States is considered to be performed by a commissioned officer in his capacity as such, and not by a minister in the exercise of his ministry. Similarly, service performed by an employee of a State as a chaplain in a State prison is considered to be performed by a civil servant of the State and not by a minister in the exercise of his ministry.

(d) Service in the exercise of duties required by a religious order—(1) Certificate of election. A certificate of election filed by a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) under the provisions of §1.1402(e)(1)-1 has application to all duties required of him by such order.

(2) Exemption. An exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) which is effective with respect to a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) has application only to the duties required of him by such order.

(3) Service. For purposes of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph, the nature or extent of the duties required of the member by the order is immaterial so long as it is a service which he is directed or required to perform by his ecclesiastical superiors.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15937, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(c)-6   Members of certain professions.

(a) Periods of exclusion—(1) Taxable years ending before 1955. For taxable years ending before 1955, an individual is not engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a physician, lawyer, dentist, osteopath, veterinarian, chiropractor, naturopath, optometrist, Christian Science practitioner, architect, certified public accountant, accountant registered or licensed as an accountant under State or municipal law, full-time practicing public accountant, funeral director, or professional engineer.

(2) Taxable years ending in 1955. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, for a taxable year ending in 1955 an individual is not engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a physician, lawyer, dentist, osteopath, veterinarian, chiropractor, naturopath, optometrist, or Christian Science practitioner.

(3) Taxable years ending after 1955—(i) Doctors of medicine. For taxable years ending after 1955 and before December 31, 1965, and individual is not engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a doctor of medicine. For taxable years ending after December 30, 1965, an individual is engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a doctor of medicine.

(ii) Christian Science practitioners. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, for taxable years ending after 1955 and before 1968, an individual is not engaged in carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner. For provisions relating to the performance of service in taxable years ending after 1967 by an individual in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, see paragraph (b)(2) of this section.

(b) Christian Science practitioner—(1) Certain taxable years ending before 1968; election. For taxable years ending after 1954 and before 1968, a Christian Science practitioner may elect, as provided in §1.1402(e)(1)-1, to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed by him in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner. If an election is made pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1, the Christian Science practitioner is, with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of such profession, engaged in carrying on a trade or business for each taxable year for which the election is effective. An election by a Christian Science practitioner has no application to service performed by him which is not in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner.

(2) Taxable years ending after 1967; exemption. For a taxable year ending after 1967, a Christian Science practitioner is, with respect to the performance of service in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, engaged in carrying on a trade or business unless an exemption under section 1402(e) (see §§1.1402(e)-1A through 1.1402(e)-4A) is effective with respect to him for the taxable year during which the service is performed. An exemption which is effective with respect to a Christian Science practitioner has no application to service performed by him which is not in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner.

(c) Meaning of terms. The designations in this section are to be given their commonly accepted meanings. For taxable years ending after 1955, an individual who is a doctor of osteopathy, and who is not a doctor of medicine within the commonly accepted meaning of that term, is deemed, for purposes of this section, not to be engaged in carrying on a trade or business in the exercise of the profession of doctor of medicine.

(d) Legal requirements. The exclusions specified in paragraph (a) of this section apply only if the individuals meet the legal requirements, if any, for practicing their professions in the place where they perform the service.

(e) Partnerships. In the case of a partnership engaged in the practice of any of the designated excluded professions, the partnership shall not be considered as carrying on a trade or business for the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, and none of the distributive shares of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), of such partnership shall be included in computing net earnings from self-employment of any member of the partnership. On the other hand, where a partnership is engaged in a trade or business not within any of the designated excluded professions, each partner must include his distributive share of the income or loss, described in section 702(a)(9), of such partnership in computing his net earnings from self-employment, irrespective of whether such partner is engaged in the practice of one or more of such professions and contributes his professional services to the partnership.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15938, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(c)-7   Members of religious groups opposed to insurance.

The performance of service by an individual:

(a) Who is a member of a recognized religious sect or division thereof, and

(b) Who is an adherent of established tenets or teachings of such sect or division by reason of which he is conscientiously opposed to acceptance of the benefits of any private or public insurance which makes payments in the event of death, disability, old age, or retirement or makes payments toward the cost of, or provides services for, medical care (including the benefits of any insurance system established by the Social Security Act),

during any taxable year for which he is granted a tax exemption, pursuant to section 1402(h), does not constitute a trade or business within the meaning of section 1402(c) and §1.1402(c)-1. See also §§1.1402(h) and 1.1402(h)-1.

[T.D. 6993, 34 FR 830, Jan. 18, 1969]

§1.1402(d)-1   Employee and wages.

For the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, the term “employee” and the term “wages” shall have the same meaning as when used in the Federal Insurance Contributions Act. For an explanation of these terms, see Subpart B of Part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).

§1.1402(e)-1A   Application of regulations under section 1402(e).

The regulations in §§1.1402(e)-2A through 1.1402(e)-4A relate to section 1402(e) as amended by section 115(b)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 (81 Stat. 839) and apply to taxable years ending after 1967. Section 1.1402(e)-5A reflects changes made by section 1704(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (100 Stat. 2085, 2779) and applies to applications for exemption under section 1402(e) filed after December 31, 1986. For regulations under section 1402(e) (as in effect prior to amendment by the Social Security Amendments of 1967) applicable to taxable years ending before 1968, see §§1.1402(e)(1)-1 through 1.1402(e)(6)-1.

[T.D. 8221, 53 FR 33461, Aug. 31, 1988]

§1.1402(e)-2A   Ministers, members of religious orders and Christian Science practitioners; application for exemption from self-employment tax.

(a) In general. (1) Subject to the limitations set forth in subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph, any individual who is (i) a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) or (ii) a Christian Science practitioner may request an exemption from the tax on self-employment income (see section 1401 and §1.1401-1) with respect to services performed by him in his capacity as a minister or member, or as a Christian Science practitioner, as the case may be. Such a request shall be made by filing an application for exemption on Form 4361 in the manner provided in paragraph (b) of this section and within the time specified in §1.1402(e)-3A. For provisions relating to the taxable year or years for which an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed by a minister or member or a Christian Science practitioner in his capacity as such is effective, see §1.1402(e)-4A. For additional provisions applicable to services performed by individuals referred to in this subparagraph, see paragraph (e) of §1.1402(c)-3 and §1.1402(c)-5 relating to ministers and members of religious orders, and paragraphs (a)(3)(ii) and (b) of §1.1402(c)-6 relating to Christian Science practitioners.

(2) The application for exemption shall contain, or there shall be filed with such application, a statement to the effect that the individual making application for exemption is conscientiously opposed to, or because of religious principles is opposed to, the acceptance (with respect to services performed by him in his capacity as a minister, member, or Christian Science practitioner) of any public insurance which makes payments in the event of death, disability, old age, or retirement or makes payments toward the cost of, or provides services for, medical care (including the benefits of any insurance system established by the Social Security Act). Thus, ministers, members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners requesting exemption from social security coverage must meet either of two alternative tests: (1) A religious principles test which refers to the institutional principles and discipline of the particular religious denomination to which he belongs, or (2) a conscientious opposition test which refers to the opposition because of religious considerations of individual ministers, members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners (rather than opposition based upon the general conscience of any such individual or individuals). The term “public insurance”, as used in section 1402(e) and this paragraph, refers to governmental, as distinguished from private, insurance and does not include insurance carried with a commercial insurance carrier. To be eligible to file an application for exemption on Form 4361, a minister, member, or Christian Science practitioners need not be opposed to the acceptance of all public insurance making payments of this specified type; he must, however, be opposed on religious grounds to the acceptance of any such payment which, in whole or in part, is based on, or measured by earnings from, services performed by in his capacity as a minister or member (see §1.1402(c)-5) or in his capacity as a Christian Science practitioner (see paragraph (b)(2) of §1.1402(c)-6). For example, a minister performing service in the exercise of his ministry may be eligible to file an application for exemption on Form 4361 even though he is not opposed to the acceptance of benefits under the Social Security Act with respect to service performed by him which is not in the exercise of his ministry.

(3) An exemption from the tax imposed on self-employment income with respect to service performed by a minister, member, or Christian Science practitioner in his capacity as such may not be granted to a minister, member, or practitioner who (in accordance with the provisions of section 1402(e) as in effect prior to amendment by section 115(b)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 (81 Stat. 839)) filed a valid waiver certificate on Form 2031 electing to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system establish by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by the order of which he is a member, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner. For provisions relating to waiver certificates on Form 2031, see §§1.1402(e)(1)-1 through 1.1402(e)(6)-1.

(b) Application for exemption. An application for exemption on Form 4361 shall be filed in triplicate with the internal revenue officer or the internal revenue office, as the case may be, designated in the instructions relating to the application for exemption. The application for exemption must be filed within the time prescribed in §1.1402(e)-3A. If the last original Federal income tax return of an individual to whom paragraph (a) of this section applies which was filed before the expiration of such time limitation for filing an application for exemption shows no liability for tax on self-employment income, such return will be treated as an application for exemption, provided that before February 28, 1975 such individual also files a properly executed Form 4361.

(c) Approval of application for exemption. The filing of an application for exemption on Form 4361 by a minister, a member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner does not constitute an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to services performed by him in his capacity as a minister, member, or practitioner. The exemption is granted only if the application is approved by an appropriate internal revenue officer. See §1.1402(e)-4A relating to the period for which an exemption is effective.

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44448, Dec. 24, 1974; 39 FR 45216, Dec. 31, 1974]

§1.1402(e)-3A   Time limitation for filing application for exemption.

(a) General rule. (1) Any individual referred to in paragraph (a) of §1.1402(e)-2A who desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed by him in his capacity as a minister or member of a religious order or as a Christian Science practitioner must file the application for exemption (Form 4361) prescribed by §1.1402(e)-2A on or before whichever of the following dates is later:

(i) The due date of the income tax return (see section 6072), including any extension thereof (see section 6081), for his second taxable year ending after 1967, or

(ii) The due date of the income tax return, including any extension thereof, for his second taxable year beginning after 1953 for which he has net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more, any part of which:

(a) In the case of a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of his ministry,

(b) In the case of a member of a religious order who has not taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of duties required by such order, or

(c) In the case of a Christian Science practitioner, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner.

See paragraph (c) of this section for provisions relating to the computation of net earnings from self-employment.

(2) If a minister, a member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner derives gross income in a taxable year both from service performed in such capacity and from the conduct of another trade or business, and the deductions allowed by Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code which are attributable to the gross income derived from service performed in such capacity equal or exceed the gross income derived from service performed in such capacity, no part of the net earnings from self-employment (computed as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section) for the taxable year shall be considered as derived from service performed in such capacity.

(3) The application of the rules set forth in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). M, who makes his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in January 1960. During each of two or more taxable years ending before 1968 M has net earnings from self-employment in excess of $400 some part of which is from service performed in the exercise of his ministry. M has not filed an effective waiver certificate on Form 2031 (see paragraph (a)(3) of §1.1402(e)-2A). If M desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry, he must file an application for exemption on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1969 (his second taxable year ending after 1967), or any extension thereof.
Example (2). M, who makes his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in January 1966. M has net earnings of $350 for the taxable year 1966 and has net earnings in excess of $400 for each of his taxable years 1967 and 1968 (some part or all of which is derived from service performed in the exercise of his ministry). M has not filed an effective waiver certificate on Form 2031 (see paragraph (a)(3) of §1.1402(e)-2A). If M desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry, he must file an application for exemption on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1969 (his second taxable year ending after 1967), or any extension thereof.
Example (3). Assume the same facts as in example (2) except that M has net earnings in excess of $400 for each of his taxable years 1967 and 1969 (but less than $400 in 1968). The application for exemption must be filed on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1969, or any extension thereof.
Example (4). M was ordained as a minister in May 1973. During each of the taxable years 1973 and 1975, M, who makes his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, derives net earnings in excess of $400 from his activities as a minister. M has net earnings of $350 for the taxable year 1974, $200 of which is derived from service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry. If M desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry, he must file an application for exemption on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1975, or any extension thereof.
Example (5). M, who was ordained a minister in January 1973, is employed as a toolmaker by the XYZ Corporation for the taxable years 1973 and 1974 and also engages in activities as a minister on weekends. M makes his income tax returns on the basis of a calendar year. During each of the taxable years 1973 and 1974 M receives wages of $14,000 from the XYZ Corporation and derives net earnings of $400 from his activities as a minister. If M desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry, he must file an application for exemption on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1974, or any extension thereof. It should be noted that although by reason of section 1402(b)(1) (G) and (H) no part of the $400 represents “self-employment income”, nevertheless the entire $400 constitutes “net earnings from self-employment” for purposes of fulfilling the requirements of section 1402(e)(2).
Example (6). M, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in March 1973. During 1973 he receives $410 for service performed in the exercise of his ministry. In addition to his ministerial services, M is engaged during the year 1973 in a mercantile venture from which he derives net earnings from self-employment in the amount of $4,000. The expenses incurred by him in connection with his ministerial services during 1973 and which are allowable deductions under Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code amount to $410. During 1974 and 1975, M has net earnings from self-employment in amounts of $4,600 and $4,800, respectively, and some part of each of these amounts is from the exercise of his ministry. The deductions allowed in each of the years 1974 and 1975 by Chapter 1 which are attributable to the gross income derived by M from the exercise of his ministry in each of such years, respectively, do not equal or exceed such gross income in such year. If M desires an exemption from the tax on self-employment income with respect to service performed in the exercise of his ministry, he must file an application for exemption on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1975, or an extension thereof.

(b) Effect of death. The right of an individual to file an application for exemption shall cease upon his death. Thus, the surviving spouse, administrator, or executor of a decedent shall not be permitted to file an application for exemption for such decedent.

(c) Computation of net earnings—(1) Taxable years ending before 1968. For purposes of this section net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending before 1968 shall be determined without regard to the fact that, without an election under section 1402(e) (as in effect prior to amendment by section 115(b)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967, see §1.1402(e)-1A), the performance of services by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order, or the performance of service by an individual in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, does not constitute a trade or business for purposes of the tax on self-employment income.

(2) Taxable years ending after 1967. For purposes of this section and §1.1402(e)-4A net earnings from self-employment for taxable years ending after 1967 shall be determined without regard to section 1402(c) (4) and (5). See §1.1402(c)-3(e)(2) and §1.1402(c)-5 relating to ministers and members of religious orders, and paragraphs (a)(3)(ii) and (b) of §1.1402(c)-6 relating to Christian Science practitioners.

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44449, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(e)-4A   Period for which exemption is effective.

(a) In general. If an application for exemption on Form 4361:

(1) Is filed by a minister, a member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner eligible to file such an application (see particularly paragraph (a) (2) and (3) of §1.1402(e)-2A), and

(2) Is approved (see paragraph (c) of §1.1402(e)-2A),

the exemption from the tax on self-employment income shall be effective for the first taxable year ending after 1967 for which such minister, member, or practitioner has net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more any part of which was derived from the performance of service in his capacity as a minister, member, or practitioner, and for all succeeding taxable years. See, however, paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (d)(2) of §1.1402(c)-5 relating to ministers and members of religious orders and paragraph (b)(2) of §1.1402(c)-6 relating to Christian Science practitioners.

(b) Exemption irrevocable. An exemption granted to a minister, a member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner pursuant to the provisions of section 1402(e) is irrevocable.

[T.D. 7333, 39 FR 44450, Dec. 24, 1974]

§1.1402(e)-5A   Applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by ministers, certain members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners.

(a) In general. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any individual who is a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church, member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order), or a Christian Science practitioner who files an application after December 31, 1986, for exemption from the tax on self-employment income (see section 1401 and 1.1401-1) with respect to services performed by him or her in his or her capacity as a minister, member, or practitioner pursuant to §§1.1402(e)-2A through 1.1402(e)-4A. This section does not apply to applications for exemption under section 1402(e) that are filed before January 1, 1987.

(2) Application of this section to Christian Science practitioners. Paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to Christian Science practitioners. Thus, Christian Science practitioners filing applications for exemption from self-employment taxes under section 1402(e) should follow the procedures set forth in §§1.1402(e)-2A through 1.1402(e)-4A, and are not required to include the statement described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section. However, see paragraph (c) of this section for verification procedures with respect to applications for exemption from self-employment taxes filed after December 31, 1986, by Christian Science practitioners.

(b) Church or order must be informed—(1) In general. Any individual, other than a Christian Science practitioner, who files an application for exemption from the tax on self-employment income under section 1402(e) after December 31, 1986:

(i) Shall file such application in accordance with the procedures set forth in §§1.1402(e)-2A through 1.1402(e)-4A, and

(ii) Shall include with such application a statement to the effect that the individual making application for exemption has informed the ordaining, commissioning, or licensing body of the church or order that he or she is opposed to the acceptance (for services performed as a minister or member of a religious order not under a vow of poverty) of any public insurance that makes payments in the event of death, disability, old age, or retirement, or that makes payments toward the cost of, or provides services for, medical care (including the benefits of any insurance system established by the Social Security Act).

(2) Statement to be filed with form. If the form provided by the Service for applying for exemption under 1402(e) does not contain the statement set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, any individual required to include this statement with his or her application under this paragraph (b) shall file such statement with the individual's application at the time and place prescribed for filing such application under §§1.1402(e)-2A and 1.1402(e)-3A. The statement shall contain the information set forth in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section and shall be signed by such individual under penalties of perjury.

(c) Verification of application—(1) In general. The Service will approve an application for an exemption filed by an individual to whom this section applies only after verifying that the individual applying for the exemption is aware of the grounds on which the individual may receive an exemption under section 1402(e) (See §1.1402(e)-2A) and that the individual seeks exemption on such grounds in accordance with the procedures set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(2) Verification procedure. Upon receipt of an application for exemption from self-employment taxes under section 1402(e) and this section, the Service will mail to the applicant a statement that describes the grounds on which an individual may receive an exemption under section 1402(e). The individual filing the application shall certify that he or she has read the statement and that he or she seeks exemption from self-employment taxes on the grounds listed in the statement. The certification shall be made by signing a copy of the statement under penalties of perjury and mailing the signed copy to the Service Center from which the statement was issued not later than 90 days after the date on which the statement was mailed to the individual. If the signed copy of the statement is not mailed to the Service Center within 90 days of the date on which the statement was mailed to the individual, that individual's exemption will not be effective until the date that the signed copy of the statement is received at the Service Center.

[T.D. 8136, 52 FR 12162, Apr. 15, 1987, redesignated and amended at T.D. 8221, 53 FR 33461, Aug. 31, 1988]

§1.1402(e)(1)-1   Election by ministers, members of religious orders, and Christian Science practitioners for self-employment coverage.

(a) In general. Any individual who is (1) a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church or a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) or (2) a Christian Science practitioner may elect to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to service performed by him in the exercise of his ministry or in the exercise of duties required by such order, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, as the case may be. Such an election shall be made by filing a certificate on Form 2031 in the manner provided in paragraph (b) of this section and within the time specified in §1.1402(e)(2)-1. If a minister or member to whom this section has application, or a Christian Science practitioner, makes an election by filing Form 2031 such individual shall, for each taxable year for which the election is effective (see §1.1402(e)(3)-1), be considered as carrying on a trade or business with respect to the performance of service in his capacity as a minister or member, or as a Christian Science practitioner, as the case may be.

(b) Waiver certificate. The certificate on Form 2031 shall be filed in triplicate with the district director of internal revenue for the internal revenue district in which is located the legal residence or principal place of business of the individual who executes the certificate. If such individual has no legal residence or principal place of business in any internal revenue district, the certificate shall be filed with the Director of International Operations, Internal Revenue Service, Washington, DC 20225, or at such other address as is designated in the instructions relating to the certificate. The certificate must be filed within the time prescribed in §1.1402(e)(2)-1. If an individual to whom paragraph (a) of this section has application submits to a district director of internal revenue a dated and signed statement indicating that he desires to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his services, such statement will be treated as a waiver certificate, if filed within the time specified in §1.1402(e)(2)-1, provided that without unnecessary delay such statement is supplemented by a properly executed Form 2031. An application for a social security account number filed on Form SS-5 or the filing of an income tax return showing an amount representing self-employment income or self-employment tax shall not be construed to constitute an election referred to in §1.1402(e)(1)-1.

§1.1402(e)(2)-1   Time limitation for filing waiver certificate.

(a) General rule. (1) Any individual referred to in §1.1402(e)(1)-1 who desires to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his services must file the waiver certificate (Form 2031) prescribed by §1.1402(e)(1)-1 on or before whichever of the following dates is later:

(i) The due date of the income tax return (see section 6072), including any extension thereof (see section 6081), for his second taxable year ending after 1963; or

(ii) The due date of the income tax return, including any extension thereof, for his second taxable year ending after 1954 for which he has net earnings from self-employment (computed as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section) of $400 or more, any part of which:

(a) In the case of a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of his ministry,

(b) In the case of a member of a religious order who has not taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of duties required by such order, or

(c) In the case of a Christian Science practitioner, consists of remuneration for service performed in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner.

(2) If a minister, a member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner derives gross income in a taxable year both from service performed in such capacity and from the conduct of another trade or business, and the deductions allowed by chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code which are attributable to the gross income derived from service performed in such capacity equal or exceed the gross income derived from service performed in such capacity, no part of the net earnings from self-employment (computed as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section) for the taxable year shall be considered as derived from service performed in such capacity.

(3) The application of the rules set forth in subparagraphs (1) and (2) of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). M was ordained as a minister in May 1963. During each of the taxable years 1963 and 1966, M, who makes his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, derives net earnings in excess of $400 from his activities as a minister. M has net earnings of $350 for each of the taxable years 1964 and 1965, $200 of which is derived from service performed by him as a minister. If M wishes to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his service as a minister, he must file the waiver certificate on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1966, or any extension thereof.
Example (2). M, who was ordained a minister in January 1965, is employed as a toolmaker by the XYZ Corporation for the taxable years 1965 and 1966 and also engages in activities as a minister on weekends. M makes his income tax return on the basis of a calendar year. During each of the taxable years 1965 and 1966, M receives wages of $4,800 from the XYZ Corporation and derives $400 (all of which constitutes net earnings from self-employment computed as prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section) from his activities as a minister. In such case if M wishes to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his services as a minister, he must file the waiver certificate on or before the due date of his income tax return for 1966, or any extension thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid. It should be noted that although by reason of section 1402(b)(1)(C) no part of the $400 for the taxable year 1965 represents “self-employment income”, nevertheless the entire $400 constitutes “net earnings from self-employment” for purposes of fulfilling the requirements of section 1402(e)(2).
Example (3). M, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in June 1964. During 1964 he receives $410 for services performed in the exercise of his ministry. In addition to his ministerial services, M is engaged during the year 1964 in a mercantile venture from which he derives net earnings from self-employment in the amount of $1,000. The expenses incurred by him in connection with his ministerial services during 1964 and which are allowable deductions under Chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code amount to $410. During 1965 and 1966, M has net earnings from self-employment in amounts of $1,200 and $1,500, respectively, and some part of each of these amounts is from the exercise of his ministry. The deductions allowed in each of the years 1965 and 1966 by Chapter 1 which are attributable to the gross income derived by M from the exercise of his ministry in each of such years, respectively, do not equal or exceed such gross income in such year. If M wishes to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his service as a minister, he must file a waiver certificate on or before the due date of his income tax return (including any extension thereof) for 1966.
Example (4). M, a licensed minister who makes his income tax returns on the basis of a calendar year, derived net earnings of $400 or more from the exercise of his ministry for two or more of the taxable years 1955 to 1965, inclusive. In such case, if M wishes to have the Federal old-age, survivors, and disability insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act extended to his services as a minister, he must file the waiver certificate on or before the due date (April 15, 1966) prescribed for filing his income tax return for 1965, or any extension thereof. A waiver certificate filed after such date will be invalid.

(b) Effect of death. Except as provided in §§1.1402(e)(5)-1, 1.1402(e) (5)-2, and 1.1402(e)(6)-1, the right of an individual to file a waiver certificate shall cease from his death. Thus, except as provided in such sections, the surviving spouse, administrator, or executor of a decedent shall not be permitted to file a waiver certificate for such decedent.

(c) Computation of net earnings without regard to election. For the purpose of this section net earnings from self-employment shall be determined without regard to the fact that, without an election under section 1402(e), the performance of services by a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, or by a member of a religious order in the exercise of duties required by such order, or the performance of service by an individual in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, does not constitute a trade or business for purposes of the tax on self-employment income.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15938, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(e)(3)-1   Effective date of waiver certificate.

(a) Filed before August 31, 1957—(1) In general. A certificate on Form 2031 filed by an individual before August 31, 1957, in accordance with the provisions of section 1402(e) in effect at the time the certificate is filed, shall be effective for the first taxable year with respect to which it is filed, and all subsequent taxable years. In order for a certificate filed by an individual before August 31, 1957, to be effective under section 1402(e), the certificate must be made effective for either the first or second taxable year ending after 1954 in which the individual has net earnings from self-employment of $400 or more (determined as provided in paragraph (c) of §1.1402(e)(2)-1) some part of which is derived from service of the character with respect to which an election may be made. However, a certificate on Form 2031, filed before August 31, 1957, even though filed within the time specified in paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of §1.1402(e)(2)-1, may not be effective, except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, for any taxable year with respect to which the due date for filing the individual's income tax return (including any extension thereof) has expired at the time such certificate is filed. Further, a certificate on Form 2031 may not be effective for any taxable year ending before 1955. In order for a certificate filed before August 31, 1957, except for the filing of a supplemental certificate, to be effective for the first or second taxable year ending after 1954 in which the individual has net earnings from self-employment (determined as provided in paragraph (c) of §1.1402(e)(2)-1) some part of which is derived from service of the character with respect to which an election may be made, the certificate on Form 2031 must be filed on or before the due date for filing the income tax return of the individual for such first or second taxable year, respectively, or any extension thereof.

(2) Supplemental certificates—(i) Filed before due date of 1958 return. If under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the certificate is effective only for the individual's third or fourth taxable year ending after 1954 and all succeeding taxable years, the individual may make such a certificate effective for his first taxable year ending after 1955 and all succeeding taxable years by filing a supplemental certificate on Form 2031. To be valid the supplemental certificate must be filed after August 30, 1957, and on or before the due date of the return (including any extension thereof) for his second taxable year ending after 1956 and must be otherwise in accordance with §1.1402(e)(1)-1.

Example. M, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in 1956, and his net earnings from service performed in the exercise of his ministry during such year were $400 or more. M had no net earnings from the exercise of his ministry during 1957. On July 15, 1957, M filed a waiver certificate and indicated thereon that it was to become effective for the taxable year 1958. At the time of filing, the certificate was effective for 1958 and all succeeding taxable years. Since the certificate was not filed on or before April 15, 1957 (the due date of M's income tax return for the taxable year 1956), and since there was no extension of time for filing his 1956 income tax return, the certificate was not, at the time of filing, effective for the taxable year 1956. M files a supplemental certificate on April 15, 1958. By the filing of the supplemental certificate, the certificate filed by M on July 15, 1957, was made effective for the year 1956 and all succeeding taxable years.

(ii) Filed after September 13, 1960, and on or before April 16, 1962. If under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph the certificate is effective only for the individual's first taxable year ending after 1956 and all succeeding taxable years, the individual may make such certificate effective for his first taxable year ending after 1955 and all succeeding taxable years by:

(a) Filing a supplemental certificate on Form 2031 after September 13, 1960, and before April 17, 1962;

(b) Paying on or before April 16, 1962, the tax under section 1401 in respect of all the individual's self-employment income (except for underpayments of tax attributable to errors made in good faith) for his first taxable year ending after 1955; and

(c) By repaying on or before April 16, 1962, the amount of any refund (including any interest paid under section 6611) that has been made of any such tax which (but for section 1402(e)(3)(B)) is an overpayment.

Any payment or repayment described in section 1402(e)(3)(B) and in this subparagraph shall not constitute an overpayment within the meaning of section 6401 which relates to amounts treated as overpayments. See section 6401 and the regulations thereunder in part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

Example. M, who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, was ordained as a minister in 1956, and his net earnings from service performed in the exercise of his ministry during each of the years 1956 and 1957 were $400 or more. On July 15, 1957, M filed a waiver certificate which became effective, at the time of filing, for 1957 and all succeeding taxable years. Since the certificate was not filed on or before April 15, 1957 (the due date of M's income tax return for the taxable year 1956), and since there was no extension of time for filing his 1956 income tax return, the certificate was not, at the time of filing, effective for the taxable year 1956. M files a supplemental certificate on April 17, 1961. If, in addition to the filing of the supplemental certificate, M pays on or before April 16, 1962, the self-employment tax in respect of all his self-employment income (except for underpayments of tax attributable to errors made in good faith) for his taxable year 1956, and repays, on or before April 16, 1962, the amount of any refund (including any interest paid under section 6611) that has been made of any such tax which (but for section 1402(e)(3)(B)) is an overpayment, the certificate filed by M on July 15, 1957, becomes effective for the year 1956 and all succeeding taxable years.

(b) Filed after August 30, 1957, and before the due date of the 1958 return. A certificate on Form 2031 filed by an individual after August 30, 1957, but on or before the due date of the return (including any extension thereof) for his second taxable year ending after 1956, in accordance with the provisions of section 1402(e) in effect at the time the certificate is filed, shall be effective for his first taxable year ending after 1955, and all subsequent taxable years.

(c) Filed after due date of 1958 return—(1) In general. Except as otherwise provided in §1.1402(e)(5)-1 (applicable to certificates filed within the period September 14, 1960, to April 16, 1962, inclusive) and in subparagraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph, a certificate on Form 2031 filed by an individual in accordance with the provisions of §§1.1402(e)(1)-1 and 1.1402(e)(2)-1, inclusive, after the due date of the return (including any extension thereof) for his second taxable year ending after 1956 shall be effective for the taxable year immediately preceding the earliest taxable year for which, at the time the certificate is filed, the period for filing a return (including any extension thereof) has not expired, and for all succeeding taxable years.

Example. M, a duly ordained minister of a church, makes his income tax returns on the basis of a calendar year. M has not been granted an extension of time for filing any return. On April 15, 1963, the due date of his income tax return for 1962, M files a waiver certificate pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1 and within the time limitation set forth in §1.1402(e)(2)-1. On April 15, 1963, the year 1962 is the earliest taxable year for which the period for filing a return has not expired. Consequently, M's certificate is effective for 1961 and all succeeding taxable years. M must report and pay any self-employment tax due for 1961 and 1962. (The tax, if any, for 1962 is due on April 15, 1963.) Inasmuch as the due date of the tax for 1961 is April 16, 1962, M must pay interest on any tax due for 1961. For provisions relating to such interest, see §301.6601-1 of Part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(2) Filed after October 13, 1964, and on or before the due date of return for second taxable year ending after 1962. A certificate on Form 2031 filed by an individual in accordance with the provisions of §§1.1402(e)(1)-1 and 1.1402(e)(2)-1, inclusive, after October 13, 1964, and on or before the due date of the return (including any extension thereof) for his second taxable year ending after 1962 (April 15, 1965, in the case of a calendar year taxpayer who has not been granted an extension of time for filing his income tax return for 1964) shall be effective for his first taxable year ending after 1961 and all succeeding taxable years.

Example. M, a duly ordained minister of a church, makes his income tax returns on the basis of a calendar year. M has not been granted an extension of time for filing any return. On April 15, 1965, the due date of his income tax return for 1964, M files a waiver certificate pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1 and within the time limitation set forth in §1.1402(e)(2)-1. M's certificate is effective for 1962 and all succeeding taxable years, and he must report and pay any self-employment tax due for 1962, 1963, and 1964. (The tax, if any, for 1964 is due on April 15, 1965.) Inasmuch as the due dates of the tax for 1962 and 1963 are April 15, 1963, and April 15, 1964, respectively, M must pay interest on any tax due for 1962 or 1963. For provisions relating to such interest, see §301.6601-1 of Part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(3) Filed after July 30, 1965, and on or before the due date of return for second taxable year ending after 1963. A certificate on Form 2031 filed by an individual in accordance with the provisions of §§1.1402(e)(1)-1 and 1.1402(e)(2)-1, inclusive, after July 30, 1965, and on or before the due date of the return (including any extension thereof) for his second taxable year ending after 1963 (Apr. 15, 1966, in the case of a calendar year taxpayer who has not been granted an extension of time for filing his income tax return for 1965) shall be effective for his first taxable year ending after 1962 and all succeeding taxable years.

Example. M, a duly ordained minister of a church, makes his income tax returns on the basis of a calendar year. M has not been granted an extension of time for filing any return. On April 15, 1966, the due date of his income tax return for 1965, M files a waiver certificate pursuant to §1.1402(e)(1)-1 and within the time limitation set forth in §1.1402(e)(2)-1. M's certificate is effective for 1963 and all succeeding taxable years, and he must report and pay any self-employment tax due for 1963, 1964, and 1965. (The tax, if any, for 1965 is due on April 15, 1966.) Inasmuch as the due dates of the tax for 1963 and 1964 are April 15, 1964, and April 15, 1965, respectively, M must pay interest on any tax due for 1963 or 1964. For provisions relating to such interest, see §301.6601-1 of Part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(d) Election irrevocable. An election which has become effective pursuant to this section is irrevocable. A certificate may not be withdrawn after June 30, 1961.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15939, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(e)(4)-1   Treatment of certain remuneration paid in 1955 and 1956 as wages.

If in 1955 or 1956 an individual was paid remuneration for service described in section 3121(b)(8)(A) which was erroneously treated by the organization employing him (under a certificate filed by such organization pursuant to section 3121(k) or the corresponding section of prior law) as employment, within the meaning of the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter 21 of the Internal Revenue Code), and if on or before August 30, 1957, the taxes imposed by sections 3101 and 3111 were paid (in good faith and upon the assumption that the insurance system established by title II of the Social Security Act had been extended to such service) with respect to any part of the remuneration paid to such individual for such service, then the remuneration with respect to which such taxes were paid, and with respect to which no credit or refund of such taxes (other than a credit or refund which would be allowable if such service had constituted employment) has been obtained either by the employer or the employee on or before August 30, 1957, shall be deemed, for purposes of the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954 and the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, to constitute remuneration paid for employment and not net earnings from self-employment. For regulations relating to section 3121(b)(8)(A) and (k), see §§31.3121(b)(8)-1 and 31.3121(k)-1 of subpart B of part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations).

§1.1402(e)(5)-1   Optional provision for certain certificates filed before April 15, 1962.

(a) Certificates. (1) The optional provision contained in section 1402(e)(5)(A) may be applied to a certificate on Form 2031 filed within the period September 14, 1960, to April 16, 1962, inclusive, in the case of a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church, a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order), or a Christian Science practitioner, who has derived net earnings, in any taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1960, from the performance of service in the exercise of his ministry, in the exercise of duties required by his religious order, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, respectively, and who has reported such earnings as self-employment income on a return filed before September 14, 1960, and on or before the date prescribed for filing such return (including any extension thereof). The certificate may be filed by such minister, member of a religious order, or Christian Science practitioner or by a fiduciary acting for such individual or his estate, or by his survivor within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act, and it must be filed after September 13, 1960, and on or before April 16, 1962. Subject to the conditions stated in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, such certificate may be effective at the election of the person filing it, for the first taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1960 for which a return, as described in the first sentence of this subparagraph, was filed, and for all succeeding taxable years, rather than for the period prescribed in §1.1402(e)(3)-1. The election for retroactive application of the certificate may be made by indicating on the certificate the first taxable year for which it is to be effective and that such year is the first taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1960 for which the minister, member of a religious order, or Christian Science practitioner filed an income tax return on which he reported net earnings for such year from the exercise of his ministry, the exercise of duties required by his religious order, or the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, as the case may be, and by fulfilling the conditions prescribed in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(2) A certificate to which subparagraph (1) of this paragraph relates may be effective for a taxable year prior to the taxable year immediately preceding the earliest taxable year for which, at the time the certificate is filed, the period for filing a return (including any extension thereof) has not expired, only if the following conditions are met:

(i) The tax under section 1401 is paid on or before April 16, 1962, in respect of all self-employment income (whether or not derived from the performance of service by the individual in the exercise of his ministry, in the exercise of duties required by his religious order, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, as the case may be) for the first taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1960 for which such individual has filed a return, as described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, and for each succeeding taxable year ending before 1960; and

(ii) In any case where refund has been made of any such tax which (but for section 1402(e)(5)) is an overpayment, the amount refunded (including any interest paid under section 6611) is repaid on or before April 16, 1962. For regulations under section 6611 (relating to interest on overpayments), see §301.6611-1 of part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(b) Supplemental certificates. (1) Subject to the conditions stated in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, a certificate on Form 2031 filed on or before September 13, 1960, by a minister, member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and which (but for section 1402(e)(5)(B)) is ineffective for the first taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1959 for which such a return as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section was filed by such individual, shall be effective for such first taxable year and for all succeeding taxable years, provided a supplemental certificate is filed by such individual or by a fiduciary acting for him or his estate, or by his survivor (within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act), after September 13, 1960 and on or before April 16, 1962.

(2) The filing of a supplemental certificate pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph will give retroactive effect to a certificate to which such subparagraph applies only if the following conditions are met:

(i) The tax under section 1401 is paid on or before April 16, 1962, in respect of all self-employment income (whether or not attributable to earnings as a minister, member of a religious order, or Christian Science practitioner) for the first taxable year for which the certificate is retroactively effective and for each subsequent year ending before 1959; and

(ii) In any case where refund has been made of any such tax which (but for section 1402(d)(5)) is an overpayment, the amount refunded (including any interest paid under section 6611) is repaid on or before April 16, 1962.

(c) Underpayment of tax. For purposes of this section, any underpayment of the tax which is attributable to an error made in good faith will not invalidate an election which is otherwise valid.

(d) Nonapplicability of section 6401. Any payment or repayment described in paragraph (a)(2) or paragraph (b)(2) of this section shall not constitute an overpayment within the meaning of section 6401 which relates to amounts treated as overpayments. For the provisions of section 6401 and the regulations thereunder, see section 6401 and §301.6401-1 of part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

§1.1402(e)(5)-2   Optional provisions for certain certificates filed on or before April 17, 1967.

(a) In general—(1) General rule. Section 1402(e)(5), as amended by the Social Security Amendments of 1965, applies only in the case of a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church, a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order), or a Christian Science practitioner, who has derived net earnings in any taxable year ending after 1954 from the performance of service in the exercise of his ministry, in the exercise of duties required by his religious order, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, respectively, and who has reported such earnings as self-employment income on a return filed on or before the date prescribed for filing such return (including any extension thereof).

(2) Supplemental certificate. Subject to the conditions stated in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph, a certificate on Form 2031 filed on or before April 15, 1966, by a minister, member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph and which (but for section 1402(e)(5)(A)) is ineffective for the first taxable year ending after 1954 for which a return described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph was filed by such individual, shall be effective for such first taxable year and for all succeeding taxable years, provided a supplemental certificate is filed by such individual or by a fiduciary acting for him or his estate, or by his survivor (within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act), after July 30, 1965 (the date of enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1965), and on or before April 17, 1967.

(3) Certificate filed by survivor. A survivor (within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act) of an individual who:

(i) Died on or before April 15, 1966,

(ii) Was a minister, member of a religious order, or a Christian Science practitioner described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph,

(iii) Has filed a return as described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph for a taxable year ending after 1954, and

(iv) Had not filed a valid waiver certificate on Form 2031,

may file a certificate on Form 2031 on behalf of such individual. The certificate must be filed after July 30, 1965 (the date of enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1965), and on or before April 17, 1967. Subject to the conditions stated in subparagraph (4) of this paragraph, such certificate shall be effective for the first taxable year ending after 1954 for which a return, as described in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, was filed by such individual and for all succeeding taxable years.

(4) Applicable conditions. A supplemental certificate referred to in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph and a certificate referred to in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph shall be effective only if the following conditions are met:

(i) The tax under section 1401 is paid on or before April 17, 1967, in respect of all self-employment income (whether or not attributable to earnings as a minister, member of a religious order, or Christian Science practitioner) for the first taxable year ending after 1954 for which the individual (by or in respect of whom the supplemental certificate or certificate is filed) has filed a return, as described in paragraph (1) of this paragraph, and for each succeeding taxable year ending before January 1, 1966; and

(ii) In any case where refund has been made of any such tax which (but for section 1402(e)(5)) is an overpayment, the amount refunded (including any interest paid under section 6611) is repaid on or before April 17, 1967. For regulations under section 6611 (relating to interest on overpayments), see §301.6611-1 of part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(b) Underpayment of tax. For purposes of this section, any underpayment of the tax which is attributable to an error made in good faith will not invalidate an election which is otherwise valid.

(c) Nonapplicability of section 6401. Any payment or repayment described in paragraph (a)(4) of this section shall not constitute an overpayment within the meaning of section 6401 which relates to amounts treated as overpayments. For the provisions of section 6401 and the regulations thereunder, see section 6401 and §301.6401-1 of part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

(d) Applicability of §§1.1402(e) (5)-1 and 1.1402(e)(6)-1. The provisions of section 1402(e) (5) and (6) (in effect prior to July 30, 1965, the date of enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1965) and §§1.1402(e) (5)-1 and 1.1402(e)(6)-1 shall apply with respect to any certificate filed pursuant to such sections if a supplemental certificate is not filed with respect to such certificate as provided in this section.

[T.D. 6978, 33 FR 15939, Oct. 30, 1968]

§1.1402(e)(6)-1   Certificates filed by fiduciaries or survivors on or before April 15, 1962.

In any case in which an individual whose death has occurred after September 12, 1960, and before April 16, 1962, derived earnings from the performance of services as a duly ordained, commissioned, or licensed minister of a church in the exercise of his ministry, as a member of a religious order (other than a member of a religious order who has taken a vow of poverty as a member of such order) in the exercise of duties required by such order, or in the exercise of his profession as a Christian Science practitioner, a waiver certificate on Form 2031 may be filed after June 30, 1961 (the date of enactment of the Social Security Amendments of 1961), and on or before April 16, 1962, by a fiduciary acting for such individual's estate or by such individual's survivor within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act. Such certificates shall be effective for the period prescribed in section 1402(e)(3)(A) (see §1.1402(e)(3)-1(c)) as if filed by the individual on the date of his death.

§1.1402(f)-1   Computation of partner's net earnings from self-employment for taxable year which ends as result of his death.

(a) Taxable years ending after August 28, 1958—(1) In general. The rules for the computation of a partner's net earnings from self-employment are set forth in paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2. In addition to the net earnings from self-employment computed under such rules for the last taxable year of a deceased partner, if a partner's taxable year ends after August 28, 1958, solely because of death, and on a day other than the last day of the partnership's taxable year, the deceased partner's net earnings from self-employment for such year shall also include so much of the deceased partner's distributive share of partnership ordinary income or loss (see subparagraph (3) of this paragraph) for the taxable year of the partnership in which his death occurs as is attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month of his death.

(2) Computation. (i) The deceased partner's distributive share of partnership ordinary income or loss for the partnership taxable year in which he died shall be determined by applying the rules contained in paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2, except that paragraph (e) shall not apply.

(ii) The portion of such distributive share to be included under this section in the deceased partner's net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year shall be determined by treating the ordinary income or loss constituting such distributive share as having been realized or sustained ratably over the period of the partnership taxable year during which the deceased partner had an interest in the partnership and during which his estate, or any other person succeeding by reason of his death to rights with respect to his partnership interest, held such interest in the partnership or held a right with respect to such interest. The amount to be included under this section in the deceased partner's net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year will, therefore, be determined by multiplying the deceased partner's distributive share of partnership ordinary income or loss for the partnership taxable year in which he died, as determined under subdivision (i) of this subparagraph, by a fraction, the denominator of which is the number of calendar months in the partnership taxable year over which the ordinary income or loss constituting the deceased partner's distributive share of partnership income or loss for such year is treated as having been realized or sustained under the preceding sentence and the numerator of which is the number of calendar months in such partnership taxable year that precede the month following the month of his death.

(3) Definition of “deceased partner's distributive share”. For the purpose of this section, the term “deceased partner's distributive share” includes the distributive share of his estate or of any other person succeeding, by reason of his death, to rights with respect to his partnership interest. It does not include any share attributable to a partnership interest which was not held by the deceased partner at the time of his death. Thus, if a deceased partner's estate should acquire an interest in a partnership additional to the interest to which it succeeded upon the death of the deceased partner, the amount of the distributive share attributable to such additional interest acquired by the estate would not be included in computing the “deceased partner's distributive share” of the partnership's ordinary income or loss for the partnership taxable year.

(4) Examples. The application of this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). B, an individual who files his income tax returns on the calendar year basis, is a member of the ABC partnership, the taxable year of which ends on June 30. B dies on October 17, 1958, and his estate succeeds to his partnership interest and continues as a partner in its own right under local law until June 30, 1959. B's distributive share of the partnership's ordinary income, as determined under paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2, for the taxable year of the partnership ended June 30, 1958 is $2,400. His distributive share, including the share of his estate, of such partnership's ordinary income, as determined under paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2 (with the exception of paragraph (e)), for the taxable year of the partnership ended June 30, 1959 is $4,500. The portion of such $4,500 attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month in which he died is $4,500×4/12 (4 being the number of months in the partnership taxable year in which B died which precede the month following the month of his death and 12 being the number of months in such partnership taxable year in which B and his estate had an interest in the partnership) or $1,500. The amount to be included in the deceased partner's net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year is $3,900 ($2,400 plus $1,500).
Example (2). If in the preceding example B's estate is entitled to only $1,000, the amount of B's distributive share of partnership ordinary income for the period July 1, 1958 through October 17, 1958, such $1,000 is considered to have been realized ratably over the period preceding B's death and will be included in B's net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year.
Example (3). X, who reports his income on a calendar year basis, is a member of a partnership which also reports its income on a calendar year basis. X dies on June 30, 1959, and his estate succeeds to his partnership interest and continues as a partner in its own right under local law. On September 15, 1959, X's estate sells the partnership interest to which it succeeded on the death of X. X's distributive share of partnership income for 1959 is $5,500. $600 of such amount is X's share of the gain from the sale of a capital asset which occurs on May 1, 1959, and $400 of such amount is the estate's share of the gain from the sale of a capital asset which occurs on July 15, 1959. The remainder of such amount is income from services rendered. X's distributive share of partnership ordinary income for 1959, as determined under paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2 (with the exception of paragraph (e)), is $4,500 ($5,500 minus $1,000). The portion of such share attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month of his death is $4,500×6/8.5 (6 being the number of months in the partnership taxable year in which X died as precede the month following the month of his death and 8.5 being the number of months in such partnership taxable year in which X and his estate had an interest in the partnership) or $3,176.47.

(b) Options available to farmers—(1) Special rule. In determining whether the optional method available to a member of a farm partnership in computing his net earnings from self-employment may be applied, and in applying such method, it is necessary to determine the partner's distributive share of partnership gross income and the partner's distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9). See section 1402(a) and §1.1402(a)-15. If section 1402(f) and this section apply, or may be made applicable under section 403(b)(2) of the Social Security Amendments of 1958 and paragraph (c) of this section, for the last taxable year of a deceased partner, such partner's distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) for his last taxable year shall be determined by including therein any amount which is included under section 1402(f) and this section in his net earnings from self-employment for such taxable year. Such a partner's distributive share of partnership gross income for his last taxable year shall be determined by including therein so much of the deceased partner's distributive share (see paragraph (a)(3) of this section) of partnership gross income, as defined in section 1402(a) and paragraph (b) of §1.1402(a)-15, for the partnership taxable year in which he died as is attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month of his death. Such allocation shall be made in the same manner as is prescribed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section for determining the portion of a deceased partner's distributive share of partnership ordinary income or loss to be included under section 1402(f) and this section in his net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year.

(2) Examples. The principles set forth in this paragraph may be illustrated by the following examples:

Example (1). X, an individual who files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis, is a member of the XYZ farm partnership, the taxable year of which ends on March 31. X dies on May 31, 1967, and his estate succeeds to his partnership interest and continues as a partner in its own right under local law until March 31, 1968. X's distributive share of the partnership's ordinary income, determined under paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2, for the taxable year of the partnership ended March 31, 1967, is $1,600. His distributive share, including the share of his estate, of such partnership's ordinary loss as determined under paragraphs (d) to (g), inclusive, of §1.1402(a)-2 (with the exception of paragraph (e)), for the taxable year of the partnership ended March 31, 1968, is $1,200. The portion of such $1,200 attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month in which he died is $1,200×2/12 (2 being the number of months in the partnership taxable year in which X died which precede the month following the month of his death and 12 being the number of months in such partnership taxable year in which X and his estate had an interest in the partnership) or $200. X is also a member of the ABX farm partnership, the taxable year of which ends on May 31. His distributive share of the partnership loss described in section 702(a)(9) for the partnership taxable year ending May 31, 1967, is $300. Section 1402(f) and this section do not apply with respect to such $300 since X's last taxable year ends, as a result of his death, with the taxable year of the ABX partnership. Under this paragraph the $200 loss must be included in determining X's distributive share of XYZ partnership income described in section 702(a)(9) for the purpose of applying the optional method available to farmers for computing net earnings from self-employment. Further, the resulting $1,400 of income must be aggregated, pursuant to paragraph (c) of §1.1402(a)-15, with the $300 loss, X's distributive share of ABX partnership loss described in section 702(a)(9), for purposes of applying such option. The representative of X's estate may exercise the option described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of §1.1402(a)-15, provided the portion of X's distributive share of XYZ partnership gross income for the taxable year ended March 31, 1968, attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month in which he died (the allocation being made in the manner prescribed for allocating his $1,200 distributive share of XYZ partnership loss for such year), when aggregated with his distributive share of XYZ partnership gross income for the partnership taxable year ended March 31, 1967, and with his distributive share of ABX partnership gross income for the partnership taxable year ended May 31, 1967, results in X having more than $2,400 of gross income from the trade or business of farming. If such aggregate amount of gross income is not more than $2,400, the option described in paragraph (a)(2)(i) of §1.1402(a)-15, is available.
Example (2). A, a sole proprietor engaged in the business of farming, files his income tax returns on a calendar year basis. A is also a member of a partnership engaged in an agricultural activity. The partnership files its returns on the basis of a fiscal year ending March 31. A dies June 29, 1967. A's gross income from farming as a sole proprietor for the 6-month period comprising his taxable year which ends because of death is $1,600 and his actual net earnings from self-employment based thereon are $400. As of March 31, 1967, A's distributive share of the gross income of the farm partnership is $2,200 and his distributive share of income described in section 702(a)(9) based thereon is $1,000. The amount of A's distributive share of the partnership's ordinary income for its taxable year ended March 31, 1968, which may be included in his net earnings from self-employment under section 1402(f) and paragraph (a) of this section is $300. The amount of the deceased partner's distributive share of partnership gross income attributable to an interest in the partnership prior to the month following the month of his death as is determined, pursuant to subparagraph (1) of this paragraph, under paragraph (a) of this section is $2,000. An aggregation of the above figures produces a gross income from farming of $5,800 and actual net earnings from self-employment of $1,700. Under these circumstances none of the options provided by section 1402(a) may be used. If the actual net earnings from self-employment had been less than $1,600, the option described in paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of §1.1402(a)-15 would have been available.

(c) Taxable years ending after 1955 and on or before August 28, 1958—(1) Requirement of election. If a partner's taxable year ended, as a result of his death, after 1955 and on or before August 28, 1958, the rules set forth in paragraph (a) of this section may be made applicable in computing the deceased partner's net earnings from self-employment for his last taxable year provided that:

(i) Before January 1, 1960, there is filed, by the person designated in section 6012(b)(1) and paragraph (b)(1) of §1.6012-3, a return (or amended return) of the tax imposed by chapter 2 for the taxable year ending as a result of death, and

(ii) Such return, if filed solely for the purpose of reporting net earnings from self-employment resulting from the enactment of section 1402(f), is accompanied by the amount of tax attributable to such net earnings.

(2) Administrative rule of special application. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 6601, 6651, and 6653 (see such sections and the regulations thereunder) no interest or penalty shall be assessed or collected on the amount of any self-employment tax due solely by reason of the operation of section 1402(f) in the case of an individual who died after 1955 and before August 29, 1958.

[T.D. 6691, 28 FR 12796, Dec. 3, 1963, as amended by T.D. 6993, 34 FR 830, Jan. 18, 1969]

§1.1402(g)-1   Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

(a) General rule. If an amount is erroneously paid as self-employment tax, for any taxable year ending after 1954 and before 1962, with respect to remuneration for service (other than service described in section 3121(b)(8)(A)) performed in the employ of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from income tax under section 501(a), and if such remuneration is reported as self-employment income on a return filed on or before the due date prescribed for filing such return (including any extension thereof), the individual who paid such amount (or a fiduciary acting for such individual or his estate, or his survivor (within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act)), may request that such remuneration be deemed to constitute net earnings from self-employment. If such request is filed during the period September 14, 1960, to April 16, 1962, inclusive, and on or after the date on which the organization which paid such remuneration to such individual for services performed in its employ has filed, pursuant to section 3121(k), a certificate waiving exemption from taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, and if no credit or refund of any portion of the amount erroneously paid for such taxable year as self-employment tax (other than a credit or refund which would be allowable if such tax were applicable with respect to such remuneration) has been obtained before the date on which such request is filed or, if obtained, the amount credited or refunded (including any interest under section 6611) is repaid on or before such date, then, for purposes of the Self-Employment Contributions Act of 1954 and the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, any amount of such remuneration which is paid to such individual before the calendar quarter in which such request is filed (or before the succeeding quarter if such certificate first becomes effective with respect to services performed by such individual in such succeeding quarter) and with respect to which no tax (other than an amount erroneously paid as tax) has been paid under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act, shall be deemed to constitute net earnings from self-employment and not remuneration for employment. If the certificate filed by such organization pursuant to section 3121(k) is not effective with respect to services performed by such individual on or before the first day of the calendar quarter in which the request is filed, then, for purposes of section 3121(b)(8)(B) (ii) and (iii), such individual shall be deemed to have become an employee of such organization (or to have become a member of a group, described in section 3121(k)(1)(E), of employees of such organization) on the first day of the succeeding quarter.

(b) Request for validation. (1) No particular form is prescribed for making a request under paragraph (a) of this section. The request should be in writing, should be signed and dated by the person making the request, and should indicate clearly that it is a request that, pursuant to section 1402(g) of the Code, remuneration for service described in section 3121(b)(8) (other than service described in section 3121(b)(8)(A)) erroneously reported as self-employment income for one or more specified years be deemed to constitute net earnings from self-employment and not remuneration for employment. In addition, the following information shall be shown in connection with the request:

(i) The name, address, and social security account number of the individual with respect to whose remuneration the request is made.

(ii) The taxable year or years (ending after 1954 and before 1962) to which the request relates.

(iii) A statement that the remuneration was erroneously reported as self- employment income on the individual's return for each year specified and that the return was filed on or before its due date (including any extension thereof).

(iv) Location of the office of the district director with whom each return was filed.

(v) A statement that no portion of the amount erroneously paid by the individual as self-employment tax with respect to the remuneration has been credited or refunded (other than a credit or refund which would have been allowable if the tax had been applicable with respect to the remuneration); or, if a credit or refund of any portion of such amount has been obtained, a statement identifying the credit or refund and showing how and when the amount credited or refunded, together with any interest received in connection therewith, was repaid.

(vi) The name and address of the organization which paid the remuneration to the individual.

(vii) The date on which the organization filed a waiver certificate on Form SS-15, and the location of the office of the district director with whom it was filed.

(viii) The date on which the certificate became effective with respect to services performed by the individual.

(ix) If the request is made by a person other than the individual to whom the remuneration was paid, the name and address of that person and evidence which shows the authority of such person to make the request.

(2) The request should be filed with the district director of internal revenue with whom the latest of the returns specified in the request pursuant to subparagraph (1)(iii) of this paragraph was filed.

(c) Cross references. For regulations relating to section 3121 (b)(8) and (k), see §§31.3121(b)(8)-2 and 31.3121(k)-1 of subpart B of part 31 of this chapter (Employment Tax Regulations). For regulations relating to exemption from income tax of an organization described in section 501(c)(3), see §1.501(c)(3)-1.

§1.1402(h)-1   Members of certain religious groups opposed to insurance.

(a) In general. An individual—(1) Who is a member of a recognized religious sect or division thereof and,

(2) Who is an adherent of established tenets or teachings of such sect or division and by reason thereof is conscientiously opposed to acceptance of the benefits of any private or public insurance which makes payments in the event of death, disability, old age, or retirement or makes payments toward the cost of, or provides services for, medical care (including the benefits of any insurance system established by the Social Security Act),

may file an application for exemption from the tax under section 1401. The form of insurance to which section 1402(h) and this section refer does not include liability insurance of a kind that provides only for the protection of other persons, or property of other persons, who may be injured or damaged by or on property belonging to, or by an action of, an individual who otherwise meets the requirements of this section. An application for exemption under section 1402(h) and this section shall be made in the manner provided in paragraph (b) of this section and within the time specified in paragraph (c) of this section. For provisions relating to the filing of an application for exemption by a fiduciary or survivor, see paragraph (d) of this section.

(b) Application for exemption. The application for exemption shall be filed on Form 4029 in duplicate with the internal revenue official or office designated on the form. The filing of a return by a member of a religious group opposed to insurance showing no self-employment income or self-employment tax shall not be construed as an application for exemption referred to in paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Time limitation for filing application for exemption—(1) Taxable years ending before December 31, 1967. A member of a religious group opposed to insurance within the meaning of paragraph (a) of this section:

(i) Who has self-employment income (determined without regard to subsections (c)(6) and (h) of section 1402 and this section) for one or more taxable years ending before December 31, 1967, and

(ii) Who desires to be exempt from the payment of the self-employment tax under section 1401,

must file the application for exemption on or before December 31, 1968.

(2) Taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1967—(i) General rule. Except as provided in subdivision (ii) of this subparagraph, a member of a religious group opposed to insurance within the meaning of paragraph (a) of this section:

(a) Who has no self-employment income (determined without regard to subsections (c)(6) and (h) of section 1402 and this section) for any taxable year ending before December 31, 1967, and

(b) Who desires to be exempt from the payment of the self-employment tax under section 1401 for any taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1967,

must file the application for exemption on or before the due date of the income tax return (see section 6072), including any extension thereof (see section 6081), for the first taxable year ending on or after December 31, 1967, for which he has self-employment income (determined without regard to subsections (c)(6) and (h) of section 1402 and this section.

(ii) Exception to general rule. If an individual to whom subdivision (i) of this subparagraph applies:

(a) Is notified in writing by a district director of internal revenue or the Director of International Operations that he has not filed the application for exemption on or before the date specified in such subdivision (i), and

(b) Files the application for exemption on or before the last day of the third calendar month following the calendar month in which he is so notified,

such application shall be considered a timely filed application for exemption.

(d) Application by fiduciary or survivor. If an individual who was a member of a religious group opposed to insurance dies before the expiration of the time prescribed in section 1402(h)(2) and paragraph (c) of this section during which an application could have been filed by him, an application for exemption with respect to such deceased individual may be filed by a fiduciary acting for such individual's estate or by such individual's survivor within the meaning of section 205(c)(1)(C) of the Social Security Act. An application for exemption with respect to a deceased individual executed by a fiduciary or survivor may be approved only if it could have been approved if the individual were not deceased and had filed the application on the date the application was filed by the fiduciary or executor.

(e) Approval of application for exemption—(1) In general. The filing of an application for exemption on Form 4029 by a member of a religious group opposed to insurance does not constitute an exemption from the payment of the tax on self-employment income. An individual who files such an application is exempt from the payment of the tax only if the application is approved by the official with whom the application is required to be filed (see paragraph (b) of this section).

(2) Conditions relating to approval or disapproval of application. An application for exemption on Form 4029 will not be approved unless the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare finds with respect to the religious sect or division thereof of which the individual filing the application is a member:

(i) That the sect or division thereof has the established tenets or teachings by reason of which the individual applicant is conscientiously opposed to the benefits of insurance of the type referred to in section 1402(h) (see paragraph (a) of this section),

(ii) That it is the practice, and has been for a period of time which the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare deems to be substantial, for members of such sect or division thereof to make provisions for their dependent members which, in the judgment of such Secretary, is reasonable in view of the general level of living of the members of the sect or division thereof; and

(iii) That the sect or division thereof has been in existence continuously since December 31, 1950.

In addition, an application for exemption on Form 4029 will not be approved if any benefit or other payment under title II of title XVIII of the Social Security Act became payable (or, but for section 203, relating to reduction of insurance benefits, or 222(b), relating to reduction of insurance benefits on account of refusal to accept rehabilitation services, of the Social Security Act would have been payable) at or before the time of the filing of the application for exemption. Any determination required to be made pursuant to the preceding sentence will be made by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

(f) Period for which exemption is effective—(1) General rule. An application for exemption shall be in effect (if approved as provided in paragraph (e) of this section) for all taxable years beginning after December 31, 1950, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.

(2) Exceptions. An application for exemption referred to in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall not be effective for any taxable year which:

(i) Begins (a) before the taxable year in which the individual filing the application first met the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph (a) of this section, or (b) before the time as of which the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare finds that the sect or division thereof of which the individual is a member met the requirements of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 1402(h)(1) (see subdivisions (i) and (ii) of paragraph (e)(2) of this section), or

(ii) Ends (a) after the time at which the individual filing the application ceases to meet the requirements of subparagraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph (a) of this section, or (b) after the time as of which the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare finds that the sect or division thereof of which the individual is a member ceases to meet the requirements of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of section 1402(h)(1) (see subdivisions (i) and (ii) of paragraph (e)(2) of this section).

(g) Refund or credit. An application for exemption on Form 4029 filed on or before December 31, 1968 (if approved as provided in paragraph (e) of this section), shall constitute a claim for refund or credit of any tax on self-employment income under section 1401 (or under section 480 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939) paid or incurred in respect of any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1950, and ending before December 31, 1967, for which an exemption is granted. Refund or credit of any tax referred to in the preceding sentence may be made, pursuant to the provisions of section 501(c) of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 (81 Stat. 933), notwithstanding that the refund or credit would otherwise be prevented by operation of any law or rule of law. No interest shall be allowed or paid in respect of any refund or credit made or allowed in connection with a claim for refund or credit made on Form 4029.

[T.D. 6993, 34 FR 831, Jan. 18, 1969]

§1.1403-1   Cross references.

For provisions relating to the requirement for filing returns with respect to net earnings from self-employment, see §1.6017-1. For provisions relating to declarations of estimated tax on self-employment income, see §§1.6015(a) to 1.6015(j)-1, inclusive. For other administrative provisions relating to the tax on self-employment income, see the applicable sections of the regulations in this part (§1.6001-1 et seq.) and the applicable sections of the regulations in part 301 of this chapter (Regulations on Procedure and Administration).

[T.D. 7427, 41 FR 34026, Aug. 12, 1976]

Net Investment Income Tax

§1.1411-0   Table of contents of provisions applicable to section 1411.

This section lists the table of contents for §§1.1411-1 through 1.1411-10.

§1.1411-1   General rules.

(a) General rule.

(b) Adjusted gross income.

(c) Effect of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder for other purposes.

(d) Definitions.

(e) Disallowance of certain credits against the section 1411 tax.

(f) Application to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014.

(1) Retroactive application of regulations.

(2) Reliance and transitional rules.

(g) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-2   Application to individuals.

(a) Individual to whom tax applies.

(1) In general.

(2) Special rules.

(i) Dual resident individuals treated as residents of a foreign country under an income tax treaty.

(ii) Dual-status resident aliens.

(iii) Joint returns in the case of a nonresident alien individual married to a United States citizen or resident.

(A) Default treatment.

(B) Taxpayer election.

(1) Effect of election.

(2) Procedural requirements for making election.

(3) Ineffective elections.

(iv) Joint returns for a year in which nonresident alien married to a United States citizen or resident becomes a United States resident.

(A) Default treatment.

(B) Taxpayer election.

(1) Effect of election.

(2) Procedural requirements for making election.

(v) Grantor trusts.

(vi) Bankruptcy estates.

(vii) Bona fide residents of United States territories.

(A) Applicability.

(B) Coordination with exception for nonresident aliens.

(C) Definitions.

(1) Bona fide resident.

(2) United States territory.

(b) Calculation of tax.

(1) In general.

(2) Example.

(c) Modified adjusted gross income.

(1) General rule.

(2) Rules with respect to CFCs and PFICs.

(d) Threshold amount.

(1) In general.

(2) Taxable year of less than twelve months.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Change of annual accounting period.

(e) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-3   Application to Estates and Trusts

(a) Estates and trusts to which tax applies.

(1) In general.

(i) General application.

(ii) Calculation of tax.

(2) Taxable year of less than twelve months.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Change of annual accounting period.

(3) Rules with respect to CFCs and PFICs.

(b) Application to certain trusts and estates.

(1) Exception for certain trusts and estates.

(2) Special rules for certain taxable trusts and estates.

(i) Qualified funeral trusts.

(ii) Bankruptcy estates.

(c) Application to electing small business trusts (ESBTs).

(1) General application.

(2) Computation of tax.

(i) Step one.

(ii) Step two.

(iii) Step three.

(3) Example.

(d) Application to charitable remainder trusts (CRTs).

(1) Operational rules.

(i) Treatment of annuity or unitrust distributions.

(ii) Apportionment among multiple beneficiaries.

(iii) Accumulated net investment income.

(2) Application of section 664.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Special rules for CRTs with income from CFCs or PFICs [Reserved]

(iii) Examples.

(3) Elective simplified method. [Reserved]

(e) Calculation of undistributed net investment income.

(1) In general.

(2) Undistributed net investment income.

(3) Distributions of net investment income to beneficiaries.

(4) Deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose.

(5) Examples.

(f) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-4   Definition of Net Investment Income

(a) In general.

(b) Ordinary course of a trade or business exception.

(c) Other gross income from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5.

(d) Net gain.

(1) Definition of disposition.

(2) Limitation.

(3) Net gain attributable to the disposition of property.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Examples.

(4) Gains and losses excluded from net investment income.

(i) Exception for gain or loss attributable to property held in a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5.

(A) General rule.

(B) Special rules for determining whether property is held in a trade or business.

(C) Examples.

(ii) Adjustments to gain or loss attributable to the disposition of interests in a partnership or S corporation.

(iii) Adjustment for capital loss carryforwards for previously excluded income. [Reserved]

(e) Net investment income attributable to certain entities.

(1) Distributions from estates and trusts.

(i) In general.

(ii) Distributions of accumulated net investment income from foreign nongrantor trusts to United States beneficiaries. [Reserved]

(2) CFCs and PFICs.

(3) Treatment of income from common trust funds. [Reserved]

(f) Properly allocable deductions.

(1) General rule.

(i) In general.

(ii) Limitations.

(2) Properly allocable deductions described in section 62.

(i) Deductions allocable to gross income from rents and royalties.

(ii) Deductions allocable to gross income from trades or businesses described in §1.1411-5.

(iii) Penalty on early withdrawal of savings.

(iv) Net operating loss.

(v) Examples.

(3) Properly allocable deductions described in section 63(d).

(i) Investment interest expense.

(ii) Investment expenses.

(iii) Taxes described in section 164(a)(3).

(iv) Items described in section 72(b)(3).

(v) Items described in section 691(c).

(vi) Items described in section 212(3).

(vii) Amortizable bond premium.

(viii) Fiduciary expenses.

(4) Loss deductions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Examples.

(5) Ordinary loss deductions for certain debt instruments.

(6) Other deductions.

(7) Application of limitations under sections 67 and 68.

(i) Deductions subject to section 67.

(ii) Deductions subject to section 68.

(iii) Itemized deductions.

(iv) Example.

(g) Special rules.

(1) Deductions allocable to both net investment income and excluded income.

(2) Recoveries of properly allocable deductions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Recoveries of items allocated between net investment income and excluded income.

(iii) Recoveries with no prior year benefit.

(iv) Examples.

(3) Deductions described in section 691(b).

(4) Amounts described in section 642(h).

(5) Treatment of self-charged interest income.

(6) Treatment of certain nonpassive rental activities.

(i) Gross income from rents.

(ii) Gain or loss from the disposition of property.

(7) Treatment of certain real estate professionals.

(i) Safe harbor.

(ii) Definitions.

(A) Participation.

(B) Rental real estate activity.

(iii) Effect of safe harbor.

(8) Treatment of former passive activities.

(i) Section 469(f)(1)(A) losses.

(ii) Section 469(f)(1)(C) losses.

(iii) Examples.

(9) Treatment of section 469(g)(1) losses.

(10) Treatment of section 707(c) guaranteed payments. [Reserved]

(11) Treatment of section 736 payments. [Reserved]

(12) Income and deductions from certain notional principal contracts. [Reserved]

(13) Treatment of income or loss from REMIC residual interests. [Reserved]

(h) Net operating loss.

(1) In general.

(2) Applicable portion of a net operating loss.

(3) Section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss carried to and deducted in a taxable year.

(4) Total section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss deduction.

(5) Examples.

(i) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-5   Trades and Businesses to Which Tax Applies

(a) In general.

(b) Passive activity.

(1) In general.

(2) Application of income recharacterization rules.

(i) Income and gain recharacterization.

(ii) Gain recharacterization.

(iii) Exception for certain portfolio recharacterizations.

(3) Examples.

(c) Trading in financial instruments or commodities.

(1) Definition of financial instruments.

(2) Definition of commodities.

(d) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-6   Income on Investment of Working Capital Subject to Tax

(a) General rule.

(b) Example.

(c) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-7   Exception for Dispositions of Certain Active Interests in Partnerships and S Corporations [Reserved]

§1.1411-8   Exception for Distributions From Qualified Plans

(a) General rule.

(b) Rules relating to distributions.

(1) Actual distributions.

(2) Amounts treated as distributed.

(3) Amounts includible in gross income.

(4) Amounts related to employer securities.

(i) Dividends related to employer securities.

(ii) Amounts related to the net unrealized appreciation in employer securities.

(c) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-9   Exception for Self-Employment Income

(a) General rule.

(b) Special rule for traders.

(c) Examples.

(d) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1411-10   Controlled Foreign Corporations and Passive Foreign Investment Companies

(a) In general.

(b) Amounts derived from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5.

(1) In general.

(2) Coordination rule for changes in trade or business status.

(c) Calculation of net investment income.

(1) Dividends.

(i) Distributions of previously taxed earnings and profits.

(A) Rules when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect with respect to the shareholder.

(1) General rule.

(2) Exception for distributions attributable to earnings and profits previously taken into account for purposes of section 1411.

(B) Rule when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect with respect to the shareholder.

(C) Special rule for certain distributions related to 2013 taxable years.

(1) Scope.

(2) Rule.

(3) Ordering rule.

(ii) Excess distributions that constitute dividends.

(2) Net gain.

(i) Gains treated as excess distributions.

(ii) Inclusions and deductions with respect to section 1296 mark to market elections.

(iii) Gain or loss attributable to the disposition of stock of CFCs and QEFs.

(iv) Gain or loss attributable to the disposition of interests in domestic partnerships or S corporations that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs.

(3) Application of section 1248.

(4) Amounts distributed by an estate or trust.

(5) Properly allocable deductions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Additional rules.

(d) Conforming basis adjustments.

(1) Basis adjustments under sections 961 and 1293.

(i) Stock held by individuals, estates, or trusts.

(ii) Stock held by domestic partnerships or S corporations.

(A) Rule when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect.

(B) Rules when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect.

(2) Special rules for partners that own interests in domestic partnerships that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs.

(3) Special rules for S corporation shareholders that own interests in S corporations that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs.

(4) Special rules for participants in common trust funds.

(e) Conforming adjustments to modified adjusted gross income and adjusted gross income.

(1) Individuals.

(2) Estates and trusts.

(f) Application to estates and trusts.

(g) Election with respect to CFCs and QEFs.

(1) Effect of election.

(2) Years to which election applies.

(i) In general.

(ii) Termination of interest in CFC or QEF.

(iii) Termination of partnership.

(3) Who may make the election.

(4) Time and manner for making the election.

(i) Individuals, estates, and trusts.

(A) General rule.

(B) Special rule for charitable remainder trusts (CRTs).

(ii) Certain domestic passthrough entities.

(iii) Taxable years that begin before January 1, 2014.

(A) Individuals, estates, or trusts.

(B) Certain domestic passthrough entities.

(iv) Time for making election.

(h) Examples.

(i) Effective/applicability date.

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72422, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

§1.1411-1   General rules.

(a) General rule. Except as otherwise provided, all Internal Revenue Code (Code) provisions that apply for chapter 1 purposes in determining taxable income (as defined in section 63(a)) of a taxpayer also apply in determining the tax imposed by section 1411.

(b) Adjusted gross income. All references to an individual's adjusted gross income are treated as references to adjusted gross income as defined in section 62, and all references to an estate's or trust's adjusted gross income are treated as references to adjusted gross income as defined in section 67(e). However, there may be additional adjustments to adjusted gross income because of investments in controlled foreign corporations (CFCs) or passive foreign investment companies (PFICs). See §1.1411-10(e).

(c) Effect of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder for other purposes. The inclusion or exclusion of items of income, gain, loss, or deduction in determining net investment income for purposes of section 1411, and the assignment of items of income, gain, loss, or deduction to a particular category of net investment income under section 1411(c)(1)(A), does not affect the treatment of any item of income, gain, loss, or deduction under any provision of the Code other than section 1411.

(d) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of calculating net investment income under section 1411 and the regulations thereunder—

(1) The term gross income from annuities under section 1411(c)(1)(A) includes the amount received as an annuity under an annuity, endowment, or life insurance contract that is includible in gross income as a result of the application of section 72(a) and section 72(b), and an amount not received as an annuity under an annuity contract that is includible in gross income under section 72(e). In the case of a sale of an annuity, to the extent the sales price of the annuity does not exceed its surrender value, the gain recognized would be treated as gross income from an annuity within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i). However, if the sales price of the annuity exceeds its surrender value, the seller would treat the gain equal to the difference between the basis in the annuity and the surrender value as gross income from an annuity described in section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) and the excess of the sales price over the surrender value as gain from the disposition of property included in section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii). The term gross income from annuities does not include amounts paid in consideration for services rendered. For example, distributions from a foreign retirement plan that are paid in the form of an annuity and include investment income that was earned by the retirement plan does not constitute income from an annuity within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i).

(2) The term controlled foreign corporation (CFC) is as defined in section 953(c)(1)(B) or 957(a).

(3) The term gross income from dividends includes any item treated as a dividend for purposes of chapter 1. See also §1.1411-10 for additional amounts that constitute gross income from dividends. The term gross income from dividends includes, but is not limited to, amounts treated as dividends—

(i) Pursuant to subchapter C that are included in gross income (including constructive dividends);

(ii) Pursuant to section 1248(a), other than as provided in §1.1411-10;

(iii) Pursuant to §1.367(b)-2(e)(2);

(iv) Pursuant to section 1368(c)(2); and

(v) Substitute dividends that represent payments made to the transferor of a security in a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction.

(4) The term excluded income means:

(i) Items of income excluded from gross income in chapter 1. For example, interest on state and local bonds excluded from gross income under section 103 and gain from the sale of a principal residence excluded from gross income under section 121.

(ii) Items of income not included in net investment income, as determined under §§1.1411-4 and 1.1411-10. For example, wages, unemployment compensation, Alaska Permanent Fund Dividends, alimony, and Social Security Benefits.

(iii) Items of gross income and net gain specifically excluded by section 1411, the regulations thereunder, or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. For example, gains from the disposition of property used in a trade of business not described in section 1411(c)(2) under §1.1411-4(d)(4)(i), distributions from certain Qualified Plans described in section 1411(c)(5) and §1.1411-8, income taken into account in determining self-employment income that is subject to tax under section 1401(b) described in section 1411(c)(6) and §1.1411-9, and section 951(a) inclusions from a CFC for which a §1.1411-10(g) election is not in effect.

(5) The term individual means any natural person.

(6) The term gross income from interest includes any item treated as interest income for purposes of chapter 1 and substitute interest that represents payments made to the transferor of a security in a securities lending transaction or a sale-repurchase transaction.

(7) The term married and married taxpayer has the same meaning as in section 7703.

(8) The term net investment income (NII) means net investment income as defined in section 1411(c) and §1.1411-4, as adjusted pursuant to the rules described in §1.1411-10(c).

(9) The term passive foreign investment company (PFIC) is as defined in section 1297(a).

(10) The term gross income from rents includes amounts paid or to be paid principally for the use of (or the right to use) tangible property.

(11) The term gross income from royalties includes amounts received from mineral, oil, and gas royalties, and amounts received for the privilege of using patents, copyrights, secret processes and formulas, goodwill, trademarks, tradebrands, franchises, and other like property.

(12) The term trade or business refers to a trade or business within the meaning of section 162.

(13) The term United States person is as defined in section 7701(a)(30).

(14) The term United States shareholder is as defined in section 951(b).

(e) Disallowance of certain credits against the section 1411 tax. Amounts that may be credited against only the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Code may not be credited against the section 1411 tax imposed by chapter 2A of the Code unless specifically provided in the Code. For example, the foreign income, war profits, and excess profits taxes that are allowed as a foreign tax credit by section 27(a), section 642(a), and section 901, respectively, are not allowed as a credit against the section 1411 tax.

(f) Application to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014—(1) Retroactive application of regulations. Taxpayers that are subject to section 1411, and any other taxpayer to which these regulations may apply (such as partnerships and S corporations), may apply §§1.1411-1 through 1.1411-10 (including the ability to make any election(s) contained therein) in any taxable year that begins after December 31, 2012, but before January 1, 2014, for which the period of limitation under section 6501 has not expired.

(2) Reliance and transitional rules. For taxable years beginning before January 1, 2014, the Internal Revenue Service will not challenge a taxpayer's computation of tax under section 1411 if the taxpayer has made a reasonable, good faith effort to comply with the requirements of section 1411. For example, a taxpayer's compliance with the provisions of the proposed and final regulations under section 1411 (REG-130507-11 or REG-130843-13), generally, will be considered a reasonable, good faith effort to comply with the requirements of section 1411 if reliance on such regulation projects under section 1411 are applied in their entirety, and the taxpayer makes reasonable adjustments to ensure that their section 1411 tax liability in the taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013, is not inappropriately distorted by the positions taken in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, but before January 1, 2014. A similar rule applies to any other taxpayer to which these regulations may apply (such as partnerships and S corporations).

(g) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013]

§1.1411-2   Application to individuals.

(a) Individual to whom tax applies—(1) In general. Section 1411 applies to an individual who is a citizen or resident of the United States (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(30)(A)). Section 1411 does not apply to nonresident alien individuals (within the meaning of section 7701(b)(1)(B)). See paragraph (a)(2)(vi) of this section for special rules regarding bona fide residents of United States territories.

(2) Special rules—(i) Dual resident individuals treated as residents of a foreign country under an income tax treaty. A dual resident taxpayer (as defined in §301.7701(b)-7(a)(1)) who determines that he or she is a resident of a foreign country for treaty purposes pursuant to an income tax treaty between the United States and the foreign country and who claims benefits of the treaty as a nonresident of the United States will be treated as a nonresident alien of the United States for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

(ii) Dual-status resident aliens. A dual-status individual who is a resident of the United States for a portion of a taxable year and a nonresident alien for the other portion of the taxable year will not be subject to section 1411 with respect to the portion of the year for which that individual is treated as a nonresident alien. The only income the individual must take into account for purposes of section 1411 is the income he or she receives during the portion of the year for which he or she is treated as a resident of the United States. The threshold amount under paragraph (d)(1) of this section applies.

(iii) Joint returns in the case of a nonresident alien individual married to a United States citizen or resident—(A) Default treatment. In the case of a United States citizen or resident who is married to a nonresident alien individual, the spouses will be treated as married filing separately for purposes of section 1411. For purposes of calculating the tax imposed under section 1411(a)(1), the United States citizen or resident spouse will be subject to the threshold amount for a married taxpayer filing a separate return in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, and the nonresident alien spouse will not be subject to tax under section 1411. In accordance with the rules for married individuals filing separate returns, the spouse that is a United States citizen or resident must determine his or her own net investment income and modified adjusted gross income.

(B) Taxpayer election. Married taxpayers who file a joint Federal income tax return pursuant to a section 6013(g) election for purposes of chapter 1 and chapter 24 also may elect to be treated as making a section 6013(g) election for purposes of chapter 2A (relating to the tax imposed by section 1411).

(1) Effect of election. For purposes of calculating the tax imposed under section 1411(a)(1), the effect of an election under section 6013(g) is to include the combined income of the United States citizen or resident spouse and the nonresident spouse in the section 1411(a)(1) calculation and to apply the threshold amount for a taxpayer making a joint return as set out in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Procedural requirements for making election. Taxpayers with a section 6013(g) election in effect for chapter 1 and chapter 24 purposes for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012, or taxpayers making a section 6013(g) election for chapter 1 and chapter 24 purposes in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012, who want to apply their section 6013(g) election for purposes of chapter 2A must make the election for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2013, in which the United States taxpayer is subject to tax under section 1411. The determination of whether the United States taxpayer is subject to tax under section 1411 is made without regard to the effect of the section 6013(g) election described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section. The election, if made, must be made in the manner prescribed by forms, instructions, or in other guidance on an original or amended return for the taxable year for which the election is made. An election can be made on an amended return only if the taxable year for which the election is made, and all taxable years that are affected by the election, are not closed by the period of limitations on assessments under section 6501. Further, once made, the duration and termination of the section 6013(g) election for chapter 2A is governed by the rules of section 6013(g)(2) through (g)(6) and the regulations thereunder.

(3) Ineffective elections. In the event a taxpayer makes an election described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B) of this section and subsequently determines that such taxpayer does not meet the criteria for making such election in such tax year described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B)(2) of this section, then such original election will have no effect for that year and all future years. In such a case, the taxpayer should make appropriate adjustments to properly reflect the ineffective election. However, notwithstanding the previous sentence, if a taxpayer meets the criteria for the same election in a subsequent year, such taxpayer is deemed to treat such original election as being made in that subsequent year unless the taxpayer files (or amends) the return for such subsequent year to report the taxpayer's net investment income tax without the original election. Furthermore, this paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B)(3) shall not apply if a taxpayer does not meet the criteria described in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(B)(2) of this section for making such election in such tax year solely as a result of the carryback of a net operating loss pursuant to section 172.

(iv) Joint returns for a year in which nonresident alien married to a United States citizen or resident becomes a United States resident—(A) Default treatment. In the case of a United States citizen or resident who is married to an individual who is a nonresident alien individual at the beginning of any taxable year, but is a United States resident at the close of such taxable year, each spouse will be treated as married filing separately for the entire year for purposes of section 1411. For purposes of calculating the tax imposed under section 1411(a)(1), each spouse will be subject to the threshold amount for a married taxpayer filing a separate return in paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section. The spouse who becomes a United States resident during the tax year will be subject to section 1411 only with respect to income received for the portion of the year for which he or she is treated as a United States resident. Each spouse must determine his or her own net investment income and modified adjusted gross income.

(B) Taxpayer election. Married taxpayers who file a joint Federal income tax return pursuant to a section 6013(h) election for purposes of chapter 1 and chapter 24 also may elect to be treated as making a section 6013(h) election for purposes of chapter 2A for such tax year.

(1) Effect of election. For purposes of calculating the tax imposed under section 1411(a)(1), the effect of an election under section 6013(h) is to include the combined income of the United States citizen or resident spouse and the dual-status resident spouse in the section 1411(a)(1) calculation and to apply the threshold amount for a taxpayer making a joint return as set out in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Procedural requirements for making election. Taxpayers who make a section 6013(h) election for purposes of chapter 1 and chapter 24 for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012, may elect to have their section 6013(h) election apply for purposes of chapter 2A. The election, if made, must be made in the manner prescribed by forms, instructions, or in other guidance on an original or amended return for the taxable year for which the election is made. An election can be made on an amended return only if the taxable year for which the election is made, and all taxable years that are affected by the election, are not closed by the period of limitations on assessments under section 6501. Further, in all cases, once made, the section 6013(h) election is governed by the rules of section 6013(h)(2) and the regulations thereunder.

(iv) Grantor trusts. For rules regarding the treatment of owners of grantor trusts, see §1.1411-3(b)(1)(v).

(v) Bankruptcy estates. A bankruptcy estate administered under chapter 7 (relating to liquidations) or chapter 11 (relating to reorganizations) of the Bankruptcy Code (Title 11 of the United States Code) of a debtor who is an individual is treated as a married taxpayer filing a separate return for purposes of section 1411. See §1.1411-2(d)(1)(ii).

(vi) Bona fide residents of United States territories—(A) Applicability. An individual who is a bona fide resident of a United States territory is subject to the tax imposed by section 1411(a)(1) only if the individual is required to file an income tax return with the United States upon application of section 931, 932, 933, or 935 and the regulations thereunder. With respect to an individual described in this paragraph (a)(2)(vi)(A), the amount excluded from gross income under section 931 or 933 and any deduction properly allocable or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under section 931 or 933, respectively, is not taken into account in computing modified adjusted gross income under paragraph (c) of this section or net investment income (within the meaning of §1.1411-1(d)).

(B) Coordination with exception for nonresident aliens. An individual who is both a bona fide resident of a United States territory and a nonresident alien individual with respect to the United States is not subject to taxation under section 1411(a)(1).

(C) Definitions. For purposes of this section—

(1) Bona fide resident. The term bona fide resident has the meaning provided under section 937(a).

(2) United States territory. The term United States territory means American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or the United States Virgin Islands.

(b) Calculation of tax—(1) In general. In the case of an individual described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the tax imposed by section 1411(a)(1) for each taxable year is equal to 3.8 percent of the lesser of—

(i) Net investment income for such taxable year; or

(ii) The excess (if any) of—

(A) The modified adjusted gross income (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) for such taxable year; over

(B) The threshold amount (as defined in paragraph (d) of this section).

(2) Example. During Year 1 (a year in which section 1411 is in effect), A, an unmarried United States citizen, has modified adjusted gross income (as defined in paragraph (c) of this section) of $190,000, which includes $50,000 of net investment income. A has a zero tax imposed under section 1411 because the threshold amount for a single individual is $200,000 (as provided in paragraph (d)(1)(iii) of this section). If during Year 2, A has modified adjusted gross income of $220,000, which includes $50,000 of net investment income, then the individual has a section 1411 tax of $760 (3.8% multiplied by $20,000, the lesser of $50,000 net investment income or $20,000 excess of modified adjusted gross income over the threshold amount).

(c) Modified adjusted gross income—(1) General rule. For purposes of section 1411, the term modified adjusted gross income means adjusted gross income increased by the excess of—

(i) The amount excluded from gross income under section 911(a)(1); over

(ii) The amount of any deductions (taken into account in computing adjusted gross income) or exclusions disallowed under section 911(d)(6) with respect to the amounts described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) Rules with respect to CFCs and PFICs. Additional rules in §1.1411-10(e)(1) apply to an individual that is a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation (CFC) or that is a United States person that directly or indirectly owns an interest in a passive foreign investment company (PFIC).

(d) Threshold amount—(1) In general. The term threshold amount means—

(i) In the case of a taxpayer making a joint return under section 6013 or a surviving spouse (as defined in section 2(a)), $250,000;

(ii) In the case of a married taxpayer filing a separate return, $125,000; and

(iii) In the case of any other individual, $200,000.

(2) Taxable year of less than twelve months—(i) General rule. In the case of an individual who has a taxable year consisting of less than twelve months (short taxable year), the threshold amount under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is not reduced or prorated. For example, in the case of an unmarried decedent who dies on June 1, the threshold amount is $200,000 for the decedent's short taxable year that begins on January 1 and ends on June 1.

(ii) Change of annual accounting period. Notwithstanding paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section, an individual who has a short taxable year resulting from a change of annual accounting period reduces the threshold amount to an amount that bears the same ratio to the full threshold amount provided under paragraph (d)(1) of this section as the number of months in the short taxable year bears to twelve.

(e) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

§1.1411-3   Application to estates and trusts.

(a) Estates and trusts to which tax applies—(1) In general—(i) General application. Section 1411 and the regulations thereunder apply to all estates and trusts that are subject to the provisions of part I of subchapter J of chapter 1 of subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code, unless specifically exempted under paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Calculation of tax. The tax imposed by section 1411(a)(2) for each taxable year is equal to 3.8 percent of the lesser of—

(A) The estate's or trust's undistributed net investment income for such taxable year; or

(B) The excess (if any) of—

(1) The estate's or trust's adjusted gross income (as defined in section 67(e) and as adjusted under §1.1411-10(e)(2), if applicable) for such taxable year; over

(2) The dollar amount at which the highest tax bracket in section 1(e) begins for such taxable year.

(2) Taxable year of less than twelve months—(i) General rule. In the case of an estate or trust that has a taxable year consisting of less than twelve months (short taxable year), the dollar amount described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B)(2) of this section is not reduced or prorated.

(ii) Change of annual accounting period. Notwithstanding paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section, an estate or trust that has a short taxable year resulting from a change of annual accounting period (but not from an individual's death) reduces the dollar amount described in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B)(2) of this section to an amount that bears the same ratio to that dollar amount as the number of months in the short taxable year bears to twelve.

(3) Rules with respect to CFCs and PFICs. Additional rules in §1.1411-10 apply to an estate or trust that holds an interest in a controlled foreign corporation (CFC) or a passive foreign investment company (PFIC).

(b) Application to certain trusts and estates—(1) Exception for certain trusts and estates. The following trusts are not subject to the tax imposed by section 1411:

(i) A trust or decedent's estate all of the unexpired interests in which are devoted to one or more of the purposes described in section 170(c)(2)(B).

(ii) A trust exempt from tax under section 501.

(iii) A charitable remainder trust described in section 664. However, see paragraph (d) of this section for special rules regarding the treatment of annuity or unitrust distributions from such a trust to persons subject to tax under section 1411.

(iv) Any other trust, fund, or account that is statutorily exempt from taxes imposed in subtitle A. For example, see sections 220(e)(1), 223(e)(1), 529(a), and 530(a).

(v) A trust, or a portion thereof, that is treated as a grantor trust under subpart E of part I of subchapter J of chapter 1. However, in the case of any such trust or portion thereof, each item of income or deduction that is included in computing taxable income of a grantor or another person under section 671 is treated as if it had been received by, or paid directly to, the grantor or other person for purposes of calculating such person's net investment income.

(vi) Electing Alaska Native Settlement Trusts subject to taxation under section 646.

(vii) Cemetery Perpetual Care Funds to which section 642(i) applies.

(viii) Foreign trusts (as defined in section 7701(a)(31)(B) and §301.7701-7(a)(2)) (but see §§1.1411-3(e)(3)(ii) and 1.1411-4(e)(1)(ii) for rules related to distributions from foreign trusts to United States beneficiaries).

(ix) Foreign estates (as defined in section 7701(a)(31)(A)) (but see §1.1411-3(e)(3)(ii) for rules related to distributions from foreign estates to United States beneficiaries).

(2) Special rules for certain taxable trusts and estates—(i) Qualified funeral trusts. For purposes of the calculation of any tax imposed by section 1411, section 1411 and the regulations thereunder are applied to each qualified funeral trust (within the meaning of section 685) by treating each beneficiary's interest in each such trust as a separate trust.

(ii) Bankruptcy estates. A bankruptcy estate in which the debtor is an individual is treated as a married taxpayer filing a separate return for purposes of section 1411. See §1.1411-2(a)(2)(v) and (d)(1)(ii).

(c) Application to electing small business trusts (ESBTs)—(1) General application. The S portion and non-S portion (as defined in §1.641(c)-1(b)(2) and (3), respectively) of a trust that has made an ESBT election under section 1361(e)(3) and §1.1361-1(m)(2) are treated as separate trusts for purposes of the computation of undistributed net investment income in the manner described in paragraph (e) of this section, but are treated as a single trust for purposes of determining the amount subject to tax under section 1411. If a grantor or another person is treated as the owner of a portion of the ESBT, the items of income and deduction attributable to the grantor portion (as defined in §1.641(c)-1(b)(1)) are included in the grantor's calculation of net investment income and are not included in the ESBT's computation of tax described in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section.

(2) Computation of tax. This paragraph (c)(2) provides the method for an ESBT to compute the tax under section 1411.

(i) Step one. The S portion and non-S portion computes each portion's undistributed net investment income as separate trusts in the manner described in paragraph (e) of this section and then combine these amounts to calculate the ESBT's undistributed net investment income.

(ii) Step two. The ESBT calculates its adjusted gross income (as defined in paragraph (a)(1)(ii)(B)(1) of this section). The ESBT's adjusted gross income is the adjusted gross income of the non-S portion, increased or decreased by the net income or net loss of the S portion, after taking into account all deductions, carryovers, and loss limitations applicable to the S portion, as a single item of ordinary income (or ordinary loss).

(iii) Step three. The ESBT pays tax on the lesser of—

(A) The ESBT's total undistributed net investment income; or

(B) The excess of the ESBT's adjusted gross income (as calculated in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section) over the dollar amount at which the highest tax bracket in section 1(e) begins for the taxable year.

(3) Example. (i) In Year 1 (a year that section 1411 is in effect), the non-S portion of Trust, an ESBT, has dividend income of $15,000, interest income of $10,000, and capital loss of $5,000. Trust's S portion has net rental income of $21,000 and a capital gain of $7,000. The Trustee's annual fee of $1,000 is allocated 60% to the non-S portion and 40% to the S portion. Trust makes a distribution from income to a single beneficiary of $9,000.

(ii) Step one. (A) Trust must compute the undistributed net investment income for the S portion and non-S portion in the manner described in paragraph (c) of this section.

The undistributed net investment income for the S portion is $27,600 and is determined as follows:

Net Rental Income$21,000
Capital Gain7,000
Trustee Annual Fee(400)
Total S portion undistributed net investment income27,600

(B) The undistributed net investment income for the non-S portion is $12,400 and is determined as follows:

Dividend Income$15,000
Interest Income10,000
Deductible Capital Loss(3,000)
Trustee Annual Fee(600)
Distributable net income distribution(9,000)
Total non-S portion undistributed net investment income12,400

(C) Trust combines the undistributed net investment income of the S portion and non-S portion from (ii)(A) and (B) to arrive at Trust's combined undistributed net investment income.

S portion's undistributed net investment income$27,600
Non-S portion's undistributed net investment income12,400
Combined undistributed net investment income40,000

(iii) Step two. (A) The ESBT calculates its adjusted gross income. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the ESBT's adjusted gross income is the non-S portion's adjusted gross income increased or decreased by the net income or net loss of the S portion.

(B) The adjusted gross income for the ESBT is $40,000 and is determined as follows:

Dividend Income$15,000
Interest Income10,000
Deductible Capital Loss(3,000)
Trustee Annual Fee(600)
Distributable net income distribution(9,000)
S Portion Income27,600
Adjusted gross income40,000

(C) The S portion's single item of ordinary income used in the ESBT's adjusted gross income calculation is $27,600. This item of income is determined by starting with net rental income of $21,000 and capital gain of $7,000 and reducing it by the S portion's $400 share of the annual trustee fee.

(iv) Step three. Trust pays tax on the lesser of—

(A) The combined undistributed net investment income ($40,000); or

(B) The excess of adjusted gross income ($40,000) over the dollar amount at which the highest tax bracket in section 1(e) applicable to a trust begins for the taxable year.

(d) Application to charitable remainder trusts (CRTs)—(1) Operational rules—(i) Treatment of annuity or unitrust distributions. If one or more items of net investment income comprise all or part of an annuity or unitrust distribution from a CRT, such items retain their character as net investment income in the hands of the recipient of that annuity or unitrust distribution.

(ii) Apportionment among multiple beneficiaries. In the case of a CRT with more than one annuity or unitrust beneficiary, the net investment income is apportioned among such beneficiaries based on their respective shares of the total annuity or unitrust amount paid by the CRT for that taxable year.

(iii) Accumulated net investment income. The accumulated net investment income of a CRT is the total amount of net investment income received by a CRT for all taxable years that begin after December 31, 2012, less the total amount of net investment income distributed for all prior taxable years of the trust that begin after December 31, 2012.

(2) Application of Section 664—(i) General rule. The Federal income tax rate of the item of net investment income, to be used to determine the proper classification of that item within the appropriate income category as described in §1.664-1(d)(1)(i)(b), is the sum of the income tax rate applicable to that item under chapter 1 and the tax rate under section 1411. Thus, the accumulated net investment income and excluded income (as defined in §1.1411-1(d)(4)) of a CRT in the same income category constitute separate classes of income within that category as described in §1.664-1(d)(1)(i)(b).

(ii) Special rules for CRTs with income from CFCs or PFICs. [Reserved]

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (d)(2).

Example 1. (i) In 2009, A formed CRT as a charitable remainder annuity trust. The trust document requires an annual annuity payment of $50,000 to A for 15 years. For purposes of this example, assume that CRT is a valid charitable remainder trust under section 664 and has not received any unrelated business taxable income during any taxable year.

(ii) As of January 1, 2013, CRT has the following items of undistributed income within its §1.664-1(d)(1) categories and classes:

CategoryClassTax rate
(percent)
Amount
Ordinary IncomeInterest39.6$4,000
   Net Rental Income39.68,000
   Non-Qualified Dividend Income39.62,000
   Qualified Dividend Income20.010,000
Capital GainShort-Term39.639,000
   Unrecaptured Section 1250 Gain25.01,000
   Long-Term20.0560,000
Other IncomeNone
Total undistributed income as of January 1, 2013624,000

Pursuant to §1.1411-3(d)(1)(iii), none of the $624,000 of undistributed income is accumulated net investment income (ANII) because none of it was received by CRT after December 31, 2012. Thus, the entire $624,000 of undistributed income is excluded income (as defined in §1.1411-1(d)(4)).

(iii) During 2013, CRT receives $7,000 of interest income, $9,000 of qualified dividend income, $4,000 of short-term capital gain, and $11,000 of long-term capital gain. Prior to the 2013 distribution of $50,000 to A, CRT has the following items of undistributed income within its §1.664-1(d)(1) categories and classes after the application of paragraph (d)(2) of this section:

CategoryClassExcluded/ANIITax rate
(percent)
Amount
Ordinary IncomeInterestNII43.4$7,000
   InterestExcluded39.64,000
   Net Rental IncomeExcluded39.68,000
   Non-Qualified Dividend IncomeExcluded39.62,000
   Qualified Dividend IncomeNII23.89,000
   Qualified Dividend IncomeExcluded20.010,000
Capital GainShort-TermNII43.44,000
   Short-TermExcluded39.639,000
   Unrecaptured Section 1250 GainExcluded25.01,000
   Long-TermNII23.811,000
   Long-TermExcluded20.0560,000
Other IncomeNone

(iv) The $50,000 distribution to A for 2013 will include the following amounts:

CategoryClassExcluded/ANIITax rate
(percent)
Amount
Ordinary IncomeInterestNII43.4$7,000
   InterestExcluded39.64,000
   Net Rental IncomeExcluded39.68,000
   Non-Qualified Dividend IncomeExcluded39.62,000
   Qualified Dividend IncomeNII23.89,000
   Qualified Dividend IncomeExcluded20.010,000
Capital GainShort-TermNII43.44,000
   Short-TermExcluded39.66,000
   Unrecaptured Section 1250 GainExcluded25.0None
   Long-TermNII23.8None
   Long-TermExcluded20.0None

The amount included in A's 2013 net investment income is $20,000. This amount is comprised of $7,000 of interest income, $9,000 of qualified dividend income, and $4,000 of short-term capital gain.

(v) As a result, as of January 1, 2014, CRT has the following items of undistributed income within its §1.664-1(d)(1) categories and classes:

CategoryClassExcluded/ANIITax rate
(percent)
Amount
Ordinary IncomeInterestNone
   Net Rental IncomeNone
   Non-Qualified Dividend IncomeNone
   Qualified Dividend IncomeNone
Capital GainShort-TermExcluded39.6$33,000
   Unrecaptured Section 1250 GainExcluded25.01,000
   Long-TermANII23.811,000
   Long-TermExcluded20.0560,000
Other IncomeNone

Example 2 [Reserved]

(3) Elective simplified method. [Reserved]

(e) Calculation of undistributed net investment income—(1) In general. This paragraph (e) provides special rules for the computation of certain deductions and for the allocation of net investment income between an estate or trust and its beneficiaries. Generally, an estate's or trust's net investment income is calculated in the same manner as that of an individual. See §1.1411-10(c) for special rules regarding CFCs, PFICs, and estates and trusts holding interests in such entities.

(2) Undistributed net investment income. An estate's or trust's undistributed net investment income is the estate's or trust's net investment income reduced by distributions of net investment income to beneficiaries and by deductions under section 642(c) in the manner described in paragraphs (e)(3) and (e)(4) of this section.

(3) Distributions of net investment income to beneficiaries. (i) In computing the estate's or trust's undistributed net investment income, net investment income is reduced by distributions of net investment income made to beneficiaries. The deduction allowed under this paragraph (e)(3) is limited to the lesser of the amount deductible to the estate or trust under section 651 or section 661, as applicable, or the net investment income of the estate or trust. In the case of a deduction under section 651 or section 661 that consists of both net investment income and excluded income (as defined in §1.1411-1(d)(4)), the distribution must be allocated between net investment income and excluded income in a manner similar to §1.661(b)-1 as if net investment income constituted gross income and excluded income constituted amounts not includible in gross income. See §1.661(c)-1 and Example 1 in paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(ii) If one or more items of net investment income comprise all or part of a distribution for which a deduction is allowed under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, such items retain their character as net investment income under section 652(b) or section 662(b), as applicable, for purposes of computing net investment income of the recipient of the distribution who is subject to tax under section 1411. The provisions of this paragraph (e)(3)(ii) also apply to distributions to United States beneficiaries of current year income described in section 652 or section 662, as applicable, from foreign estates and foreign nongrantor trusts.

(4) Deduction for amounts paid or permanently set aside for a charitable purpose. In computing the estate's or trust's undistributed net investment income, the estate or trust is allowed a deduction for amounts of net investment income that are allocated to amounts allowable under section 642(c). In the case of an estate or trust that has items of income consisting of both net investment income and excluded income, the allowable deduction under this paragraph (e)(4) must be allocated between net investment income and excluded income in accordance with §1.642(c)-2(b) as if net investment income constituted gross income and excluded income constituted amounts not includible in gross income. For an estate or trust with deductions under both sections 642(c) and 661, see §1.662(b)-2 and Example 2 in paragraph (e)(5) of this section.

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (e). In each example, Year 1 is a year in which section 1411 is in effect and the taxpayer is not a foreign estate or trust:

Example 1. Calculation of undistributed net investment income (with no deduction under section 642(c)). (i) In Year 1, Trust has dividend income of $15,000, interest income of $10,000, capital gain of $5,000, and $75,000 of taxable income relating to a distribution from an individual retirement account (as defined under section 408). Trust has no expenses. Trust distributes $10,000 of its current year trust accounting income to A, a beneficiary of Trust.

(ii) Trust's distributable net income is $100,000 ($15,000 in dividends plus $10,000 in interest plus $75,000 of taxable income from an individual retirement account), from which the $10,000 distribution to A is paid. Trust's deduction under section 661 is $10,000. Under §1.662(b)-1, the deduction reduces each class of income comprising distributable net income on a proportional basis. The $10,000 distribution equals 10% of distributable net income ($10,000 divided by $100,000). Therefore, the distribution consists of dividend income of $1,500, interest income of $1,000, and ordinary income attributable to the individual retirement account of $7,500. Because the $5,000 of capital gain allocated to principal for trust accounting purposes did not enter into distributable net income, no portion of that amount is included in the $10,000 distribution, nor does it qualify for the deduction under section 661.

(iii) Trust's net investment income is $30,000 ($15,000 in dividends plus $10,000 in interest plus $5,000 in capital gain). Trust's $75,000 of taxable income attributable to the individual retirement account is excluded income under §1.1411-1(d)(4). Trust's undistributed net investment income under paragraph (e)(2) of this section is $27,500, which is Trust's net investment income ($30,000) less the amount of dividend income ($1,500) and interest income ($1,000) distributed to A. The $27,500 of undistributed net investment income is comprised of the capital gain allocated to principal ($5,000), the remaining undistributed dividend income ($13,500), and the remaining undistributed interest income ($9,000).

(iv) Under paragraph (e)(3) of this section and pursuant to §1.1411-4(a)(1), A's net investment income includes dividend income of $1,500 and interest income of $1,000, but does not include the $7,500 of ordinary income attributable to the individual retirement account because it is excluded from net investment income under §1.1411-8.

Example 2. Calculation of undistributed net investment income (with deduction under section 642(c)). (i) Same facts as Example 1, except Trust is required to distribute $30,000 to A. In addition, Trust has a $10,000 deduction under section 642(c) (deduction for amounts paid for a charitable purpose). Trust also makes an additional discretionary distribution of $20,000 to B, a beneficiary of Trust. As in Example 1, Trust's net investment income is $30,000 ($15,000 in dividends plus $10,000 in interest plus $5,000 in capital gain). In accordance with §§1.661(b)-2 and 1.662(b)-2, the items of income must be allocated between the mandatory distribution to A, the discretionary distribution to B, and the $10,000 distribution to a charity.

(ii) For purposes of the mandatory distribution to A, Trust's distributable net income is $100,000. See §1.662(b)-2, Example 1(b). Trust's deduction under section 661 for the distribution to A is $30,000. Under §1.662(b)-1, the deduction reduces each class of income comprising distributable net income on a proportional basis. The $30,000 distribution equals 30% of distributable net income ($30,000 divided by $100,000). Therefore, the distribution consists of dividend income of $4,500, interest income of $3,000, and ordinary income attributable to the individual retirement account of $22,500. A's mandatory distribution thus consists of $7,500 of net investment income and $22,500 of excluded income.

(iii) Trust's remaining distributable net income is $70,000. Trust's remaining undistributed net investment income is $22,500. The $10,000 deduction under section 642(c) is allocated in the same manner as the distribution to A, where the $10,000 distribution equals 10% of distributable net income ($10,000 divided by $100,000). For purposes of determining undistributed net investment income, Trust's net investment income is reduced by $2,500 under paragraph (e)(4) of this section (dividend income of $1,500, interest income of $1,000, but with no reduction for amounts attributable to the individual retirement account of $7,500).

(iv) With respect to the discretionary distribution to B, Trust's remaining distributable net income is $60,000. Trust's remaining undistributed net investment income is $20,000. Trust's deduction under section 661 for the distribution to B is $20,000. The $20,000 distribution equals 20% of distributable net income ($20,000 divided by $100,000). Therefore, the distribution consists of dividend income of $3,000, interest income of $2,000, and ordinary income attributable to the individual retirement account of $15,000. B's distribution consists of $5,000 of net investment income and $15,000 of excluded income.

(v) Trust's undistributed net investment income is $15,000 after taking into account distribution deductions and section 642(c) in accordance with paragraphs (e)(3) and (e)(4) of this section, respectively. To arrive at Trust's undistributed net investment income of $15,000, Trust's net investment income of $30,000 is reduced by $7,500 of the mandatory distribution to A, $2,500 of the section 642(c) deduction, and $5,000 of the discretionary distribution to B. The undistributed net investment income consists of the remaining dividend income of $6,000 ($15,000 less $4,500 less $1,500 less $3,000), interest income of $4,000 ($10,000 less $1,000 less $3,000 less $2,000), and the $5,000 of undistributed capital gain.

Example 3. Fiscal Year Estate. (i) D died in 2011. D's estate (Estate) filed its first return that established its fiscal year ending October 31, 2011. During Estate's fiscal year ending October 31, 2013, it earned $10,000 of interest, $1,000 of dividends, and $15,000 of short-term gains. The Estate distributed its interest and dividends to S, D's spouse and sole beneficiary, on a quarterly basis; the last quarter's payment for that taxable year was made to S on December 5, 2013. Pursuant to §1.662(c)-1, S is deemed to have received the first three payments for that taxable year, regardless of the actual payment dates, on October 31, 2013, the last day of Estate's taxable year. Estate makes a timely section 663(b) election to treat the fourth quarter distribution to S as having been made on October 31, 2013, the last day of Estate's preceding taxable year. Accordingly, S is deemed to have received $10,000 of interest and $1,000 of dividends on October 31, 2013.

(ii) Because Estate's fiscal year ending October 31, 2013, began on November 1, 2012, the Estate is not subject to section 1411 on income received during that taxable year. Therefore, none of the income received by Estate during its fiscal year ending October 31, 2013, is net investment income. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, because none of the distributed interest or dividend income constituted net investment income to Estate, the $10,000 of interest and $1,000 of dividends that Estate distributed to S does not constitute net investment income to S.

(f) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013, except that paragraph (d) of this section applies to taxable years of CRTs that begin after December 31, 2012. However, taxpayers other than CRTs may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

§1.1411-4   Definition of net investment income.

(a) In general. For purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, net investment income means the excess (if any) of—

(1) The sum of—

(i) Gross income from interest, dividends, annuities, royalties, and rents, except to the extent excluded by the ordinary course of a trade or business exception described in paragraph (b) of this section;

(ii) Other gross income derived from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5; and

(iii) Net gain (to the extent taken into account in computing taxable income) attributable to the disposition of property, except to the extent excluded by the exception described in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section for gain or loss attributable to property held in a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5; over

(2) The deductions allowed by subtitle A that are properly allocable to such gross income or net gain (as determined in paragraph (f) of this section).

(b) Ordinary course of a trade or business exception. Gross income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is excluded from net investment income if it is derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5. See §1.1411-6 for rules regarding working capital. To determine whether gross income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is derived in a trade or business, the following rules apply.

(1) In the case of an individual, estate, or trust that owns or engages in a trade or business directly (or indirectly through ownership of an interest in an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under §301.7701-3), the determination of whether gross income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is derived in a trade or business is made at the individual, estate, or trust level.

(2) In the case of an individual, estate, or trust that owns an interest in a passthrough entity (for example, a partnership or S corporation), and that entity is engaged in a trade or business, the determination of whether gross income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is—

(i) Derived in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(1) is made at the owner level; and

(ii) Derived in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2) is made at the entity level.

(3) The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (b). For purposes of these examples, assume that the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Multiple passthrough entities. A, an individual, owns an interest in UTP, a partnership, which is engaged in a trade or business. UTP owns an interest in LTP, also a partnership, which is not engaged in a trade or business. LTP receives $10,000 in dividends, $5,000 of which is allocated to A through UTP. The $5,000 of dividends is not derived in a trade or business because LTP is not engaged in a trade or business. This is true even though UTP is engaged in a trade or business. Accordingly, the ordinary course of a trade or business exception described in paragraph (b) of this section does not apply, and A's $5,000 of dividends is net investment income under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section.
Example 2. Multiple passthrough entities. B, an individual, owns an interest in UTP2, a partnership, which is not engaged in a trade or business. UTP2 owns an interest in LTP2, also a partnership, which is engaged in a commercial lending trade or business. LTP2 is not engaged in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2). LTP2's trade or business is not a passive activity (within the meaning of section 469) with respect to B. LTP2 earns $10,000 of interest income from its trade or business which is allocated to B through UTP2. Although UTP2 is not engaged in a trade or business, the $10,000 of interest income is derived in the ordinary course of LTP2's lending trade or business. Because LTP2 is not engaged in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2) and because LTP2's trade or business is not a passive activity with respect to B (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(1)), the ordinary course of a trade or business exception described in paragraph (b) of this section applies, and B's $10,000 of interest is not included as net investment income under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section.
Example 3. Entity engaged in trading in financial instruments. C, an individual, owns an interest in PRS, a partnership, which is engaged in a trade or business of trading in financial instruments (as defined in §1.1411-5(a)(2)). PRS' trade or business is not a passive activity (within the meaning of section 469) with respect to C. In addition, C is not directly engaged in a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities. PRS earns interest of $50,000, and C's distributive share of the interest is $25,000. Because PRS is engaged in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2), the ordinary course of a trade or business exception described in paragraph (b) of this section does not apply, and C's $25,000 distributive share of the interest is net investment income under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section.
Example 4. Application of ordinary course of a trade or business exception. D, an individual, owns stock in S corporation, S. S is engaged in a banking trade or business (that is not a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities), and S's trade or business is not a passive activity (within the meaning of section 469) with respect to D because D materially participates in the activity. S earns $100,000 of interest in the ordinary course of its trade or business, of which $5,000 is D's pro rata share. For purposes of paragraph (b) of this section, the interest income is derived in the ordinary course of S's banking business because it is not working capital under section 1411(c)(3) and §1.1411-6(a) (because it is considered to be derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business under the principles of §1.469-2T(c)(3)(ii)(A)). Because S is not engaged in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2) and because S's trade or business is not a passive activity with respect to D (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(1)), the ordinary course of a trade or business exception described in paragraph (b) of this section applies, and D's $5,000 of interest is not included under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section.

(c) Other gross income from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5. For a trade or business described in §1.1411-5, paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section includes all other gross income (within the meaning of section 61) that is not gross income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section or net gain described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section.

(d) Net gain. This paragraph (d) describes special rules for purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section.

(1) Definition of disposition. For purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, the term disposition means a sale, exchange, transfer, conversion, cash settlement, cancellation, termination, lapse, expiration, or other disposition (including a deemed disposition, for example, under section 877A).

(2) Limitation. The calculation of net gain may not be less than zero. Losses allowable under section 1211(b) are permitted to offset gain from the disposition of assets other than capital assets that are subject to section 1411.

(3) Net gain attributable to the disposition of property—(i) General rule. Net gain attributable to the disposition of property is the gain described in section 61(a)(3) recognized from the disposition of property reduced, but not below zero, by losses deductible under section 165, including losses attributable to casualty, theft, and abandonment or other worthlessness. The rules in subchapter O of chapter 1 and the regulations thereunder apply. See, for example, §1.61-6(b). For purposes of this paragraph, net gain includes, but is not limited to, gain or loss attributable to the disposition of property from the investment of working capital (as defined in §1.1411-6); gain or loss attributable to the disposition of a life insurance contract; and gain attributable to the disposition of an annuity contract to the extent the sales price of the annuity exceeds the annuity's surrender value.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (d)(3). For purposes of these examples, assume that the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Calculation of net gain. (i) In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual, realizes a capital loss of $40,000 on the sale of P stock and realizes a capital gain of $10,000 on the sale of Q stock, resulting in a net capital loss of $30,000. Both P and Q are C corporations. A has no other capital gain or capital loss in Year 1. In addition, A receives wages of $300,000 and earns $5,000 of gross income from interest. For income tax purposes, under section 1211(b), A may use $3,000 of the net capital loss against other income. Under section 1212(b)(1), the remaining $27,000 is a capital loss carryover. For purposes of determining A's Year 1 net gain under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, A's gain of $10,000 on the sale of the Q stock is reduced by A's loss of $40,000 on the sale of the P stock. In addition, A may reduce net investment income by the $3,000 of the excess of capital losses over capital gains allowed for income tax purposes under section 1211(b).

(ii) In Year 2, A has a capital gain of $30,000 on the sale of Y stock. Y is a C corporation. A has no other capital gain or capital loss in Year 2. For income tax purposes, A may reduce the $30,000 gain by the Year 1 section 1212(b) $27,000 capital loss carryover. For purposes of determining A's Year 2 net gain under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, A's $30,000 gain may also be reduced by the $27,000 capital loss carryover from Year 1. Therefore, in Year 2, A has $3,000 of net gain for purposes of paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section.

Example 2. Calculation of net gain. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that in Year 1, A also realizes a gain of $20,000 on the sale of Rental Property D, all of which is treated as ordinary income under section 1250. For income tax purposes, under section 1211(b), A may use $3,000 of the net capital loss against other income. Under section 1212(b)(1) the remaining $27,000 is a capital loss carryover. For purposes of determining A's net gain under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, A's gain of $10,000 on the sale of the Q stock is reduced by A's loss of $40,000 on the sale of the P stock. A's $20,000 gain on the sale of Rental Property D is reduced to the extent of the $3,000 loss allowed under section 1211(b). Therefore, A's net gain for Year 1 is $17,000 ($20,000 gain treated as ordinary income on the sale of Rental Property D reduced by $3,000 loss allowed under section 1211).
Example 3. Section 121(a) exclusion. (i) In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual, sells a house that A has owned and used as A's principal residence for the five years preceding the sale and realizes $200,000 in gain. In addition to the gain realized from the sale of A's principal residence, A also realizes $7,000 in long-term capital gain. A has a $5,000 short-term capital loss carryover from a year preceding the effective date of section 1411.

(ii) For income tax purposes, under section 121(a), A excludes the $200,000 gain realized from the sale of A's principal residence from A's Year 1 gross income. In determining A's Year 1 adjusted gross income, A also reduces the $7,000 capital gain by the $5,000 capital loss carryover allowed under section 1211(b).

(iii) For section 1411 purposes, under section 121(a), A excludes the $200,000 gain realized from the sale of A's principal residence from A's Year 1 gross income and, consequently, from A's net investment income. In determining A's Year 1 net gain under paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, A reduces the $7,000 capital gain by the $5,000 capital loss carryover allowed under section 1211(b).

Example 4. Section 1031 like-kind exchange. (i) In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual who is not a dealer in real estate, purchases Greenacre, a piece of undeveloped land, for $10,000. A intends to hold Greenacre for investment.

(ii) In Year 3, A enters into an exchange in which A transfers Greenacre, now valued at $20,000, and $5,000 cash for Blackacre, another piece of undeveloped land, which has a fair market value of $25,000. The exchange is a transaction for which no gain or loss is recognized under section 1031.

(iii) In Year 3, for income tax purposes, A does not recognize any gain from the exchange of Greenacre for Blackacre. A's basis in Blackacre is $15,000 ($10,000 substituted basis in Greenacre plus $5,000 additional cost of acquisition). For purposes of section 1411, A's net investment income for Year 3 does not include any realized gain from the exchange of Greenacre for Blackacre.

(iv) In Year 5, A sells Blackacre to an unrelated party for $35,000 in cash.

(v) In Year 5, for income tax purposes, A recognizes capital gain of $20,000 ($35,000 sale price minus $15,000 basis). For purposes of section 1411, A's net investment income includes the $20,000 gain recognized from the sale of Blackacre.

(4) Gains and losses excluded from net investment income—(i) Exception for gain or loss attributable to property held in a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5—(A) General rule. Net gain does not include gain or loss attributable to property (other than property from the investment of working capital (as described in §1.1411-6)) held in a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5.

(B) Special rules for determining whether property is held in a trade or business. To determine whether net gain described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section is from property held in a trade or business—

(1) A partnership interest or S corporation stock generally is not property held in a trade or business. Therefore, gain from the sale of a partnership interest or S corporation stock is generally gain described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section. However, net gain does not include certain gain or loss attributable to the disposition of certain interests in partnerships and S corporations as provided in §1.1411-7.

(2) In the case of an individual, estate, or trust that owns or engages in a trade or business directly (or indirectly through ownership of an interest in an entity that is disregarded as an entity separate from its owner under §301.7701-3), the determination of whether net gain described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section is attributable to property held in a trade or business is made at the individual, estate, or trust level.

(3) In the case of an individual, estate, or trust that owns an interest in a passthrough entity (for example, a partnership or S corporation), and that entity is engaged in a trade or business, the determination of whether net gain described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section from such entity is attributable to—

(i) Property held in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(1) is made at the owner level; and

(ii) Property held in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2) is made at the entity level.

(C) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (d)(4)(i). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Gain from rental activity. A, an unmarried individual, rents a boat to B for $100,000 in Year 1. A's rental activity does not involve the conduct of a section 162 trade or business, and under section 469(c)(2), A's rental activity is a passive activity. In Year 2, A sells the boat to B, and A realizes and recognizes taxable gain attributable to the disposition of the boat of $500,000. Because the exception provided in paragraph (d)(4)(i)(A) of this section requires a trade or business, this exception is inapplicable, and therefore, A's $500,000 gain will be taken into account under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii).
Example 2. Installment sale. (i) PRS, a partnership for Federal income tax purposes, operates an automobile dealership. Therefore, with respect to B and C, PRS is not a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2) and §1.1411-5. D owns the remaining 20% of PRS. Assume, for purposes of this example, that PRS is a passive activity with respect to D, and therefore is a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2)(A) and §1.1411-5(a)(1).

(ii)(A) In Year 0, a year preceding the effective date of section 1411, PRS relocates its dealership to a larger location. As a result of the relocation, PRS sells its old dealership facility to a real estate developer in exchange for $1,000,000 cash and a $4,500,000 promissory note, fully amortizing over the subsequent 15 years, and bearing adequate stated interest. PRS reports the sale transaction under section 453. PRS's adjusted tax basis in the old dealership facility is $1,075,000. Assume for purposes of this example that PRS has $300,000 of recapture income (within the meaning of section 453(i)); the buyer is not related to PRS, B, C, or D; and the buyer is not assuming any liabilities of PRS in the transaction.

(B) For chapter 1 purposes, PRS has realized gain on the transaction of $4,425,000 ($5,500,000 less $1,075,000). Pursuant to section 453(i), PRS will take into account $300,000 of the recapture income in Year 0, and the gain in excess of the recapture income ($4,125,000) will be taken into account under the installment method. For purposes of section 453, PRS's profit percentage is 75% ($4,125,000 gain divided by $5,500,000 gross selling price). In Year 0, PRS will take into account $750,000 of capital gain attributable to the $1,000,000 cash payment. In the subsequent 15 years, PRS will receive annual payments of $300,000 (plus interest). Each payment will result in PRS recognizing $225,000 of capital gain (75% of $300,000).

(iii)(A) In Year 1, PRS receives a payment of $300,000 plus the applicable amount of interest. For purposes of chapter 1, PRS recognizes $225,000 of capital gain. B and C's distributive share of the gain is $90,000 each and D's distributive share of the gain is $45,000.

(B) The old dealership facility constituted property held in PRS's trade or business. In the case of section 453 installment sales, section 453 governs the timing of the gain recognition, but does not alter the character of the gain. See §1.1411-1(a). The determination of whether the gain is attributable to the disposition of property used in a trade or business described in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section constitutes an element of the gain's character for Federal tax purposes. As a result, the applicability of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section is determined in Year 0 and applies to all gain received on the promissory note during the 15 year payment period. This result is consistent with the section 469 determination of the passive or nonpassive classification of the gain under §1.469-2T(c)(2)(i)(A).

(C) In the case of D, PRS's trade or business is described in section 1411(c)(2)(A) and §1.1411-5(a)(1). Therefore, the exclusion in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section does not apply, and D must include the $45,000 of gain in D's net investment income.

(D) In the case of B and C, PRS's trade or business is not described in section 1411(c)(2) or §1.1411-5. Therefore, B and C exclude the $90,000 gain from net investment income pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(iv) In Year 2, C dies and C's 40% interest in PRS passes to Estate.

(v)(A) In Year 3, PRS receives a payment of $300,000 plus the applicable amount of interest. For purposes of chapter 1, PRS recognizes $225,000 of capital gain. B and Estate each have a distributive share of the gain equal to $90,000 and D's distributive share of the gain is $45,000.

(B) The calculation of net investment income for B and D in Year 3 is the same as in (iii) for Year 1.

(C) In the case of Estate, the distributive share of the $90,000 gain constitutes income in respect of a decedent (IRD) under section 691(a)(4) and subchapter K. See §1.1411-1(a). Assume that Estate paid estate taxes of $5,000 that were attributable to the $90,000 of IRD. Pursuant to section 691(c)(4), the amount of gain taken into account in computing Estate's taxable income in Year 3 is $85,000 ($90,000 reduced by the $5,000 of allocable estate taxes). Pursuant to section 691(a)(3) and §1.691(a)-3(a), the character of the gain to the Estate is the same character as the gain would have been if C had survived to receive it. Although the amount of taxable gain for chapter 1 has been reduced, the remaining $85,000 retains its character attributable to the disposition of property used in a trade or business described in paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section. Therefore, Estate may exclude the $85,000 gain from net investment income pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(ii) Other gains and losses excluded from net investment income. Net gain, as determined under paragraph (d) of this section, does not include gains and losses excluded from net investment income by any other provision in §§1.1411-1 through 1.1411-10. For example, see §1.1411-7 (certain gain or loss attributable to the disposition of certain interests in partnerships and S corporations) and §1.1411-8(b)(4)(ii) (net unrealized appreciation attributable to employer securities realized on a disposition of those employer securities).

(iii) Adjustment for capital loss carryforwards for previously excluded income. [Reserved]

(e) Net investment income attributable to certain entities—(1) Distributions from estates and trusts—(i) In general. Net investment income includes a beneficiary's share of distributable net income, as described in sections 652(a) and 662(a), to the extent that, under sections 652(b) and 662(b), the character of such income constitutes gross income from items described in paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section or net gain attributable to items described in paragraph (a)(1)(iii) of this section, with further computations consistent with the principles of this section, as provided in §1.1411-3(e).

(ii) Distributions of accumulated net investment income from foreign nongrantor trusts to United States beneficiaries. [Reserved]

(2) CFCs and PFICs. For purposes of calculating net investment income, additional rules in §1.1411-10(c) apply to an individual, an estate, or a trust that is a United States shareholder that owns an interest in a controlled foreign corporation (CFC) or that is a United States person that directly or indirectly owns an interest in a passive foreign investment company (PFIC).

(3) Treatment of income from common trust funds. [Reserved]

(f) Properly allocable deductions—(1) General rule—(i) In general. Unless provided elsewhere in §§1.1411-1 through 1.1411-10, only properly allocable deductions described in this paragraph (f) may be taken into account in determining net investment income.

(ii) Limitations. Any deductions described in this paragraph (f) in excess of gross income and net gain described in section 1411(c)(1)(A) are not taken into account in determining net investment income in any other taxable year, except as allowed under chapter 1.

(2) Properly allocable deductions described in section 62—(i) Deductions allocable to gross income from rents and royalties. Deductions described in section 62(a)(4) allocable to rents and royalties described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section are taken into account in determining net investment income.

(ii) Deductions allocable to gross income from trades or businesses described in §1.1411-5. Deductions described in section 62(a)(1) allocable to income from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5 are taken into account in determining net investment income to the extent the deductions have not been taken into account in determining self-employment income within the meaning of §1.1411-9.

(iii) Penalty on early withdrawal of savings. Deductions described in section 62(a)(9) are taken into account in determining net investment income.

(iv) Net operating loss. The total section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss deduction allowed under section 172 is allowed as a properly allocable deduction in determining net investment income for any taxable year. See paragraph (h) of this section for the calculation of the total section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss deduction.

(v) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (f)(2). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. (i) A, an individual, is a 40% shareholder in SCo, an S corporation. SCo is engaged in a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2)(A). SCo is the only passive activity owned by A. In Year 1, SCo reported a loss of $11,000 to A which was comprised of gross operating income of $29,000 and operating deductions of $40,000. A's at risk amount at the beginning of Year 1 is $7,000. There were no other events that affected A's at risk amount in Year 1.

(ii) For purposes of calculating A's net investment income, A's $29,000 distributive share of SCo's gross operating income is income within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii).

(iii) As a result of A's at risk limitation, for chapter 1 purposes, A may only deduct $7,000 of the operating deductions in excess of the gross operating income. The remaining $4,000 deductions are suspended because A's amount at risk at the end of Year 1 is zero.

(iv) For purposes of section 469, A has passive activity gross income of $29,000 and passive activity deductions of $36,000 ($40,000 of operating deductions allocable to A less $4,000 suspended under section 465). Because A has no other passive activity income from any other source, section 469 limits A's passive activity deductions to A's passive activity gross income. As a result, section 469 allows A to deduct $29,000 of SCo's operating deductionsand suspends the remaining $7,000.

(v) For purposes of calculating A's net investment income, A has $29,000 of properly allocable deductions allowed by section 1411(c)(1)(B) and paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.

Example 2. (i) Same facts as Example 1. In Year 2, SCo reported net income of $13,000 to A, which was comprised of gross operating income of $43,000 and operating deductions of $30,000. There were no other events that affected A's at risk amount in Year 2.

(ii) For purposes of calculating A's net investment income, A's $43,000 distributive share of gross operating income is income within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii).

(iii) Pursuant to section 465(a)(2), A's deductions attributable to the gross income of SCo include the $30,000 deduction allocable to A in Year 2 plus the $4,000 loss that was suspended and carried over to Year 2 from Year 1 pursuant to section 465(a)(2). Under section 465(a)(2), the $4,000 of losses from Year 1 are treated as deductions from the activity in Year 2. As a result, A's net operating income from SCo in Year 2 is $9,000 ($43,000−$30,000−$4,000) in Year 2. A's amount at risk at the end of Year 2 is $9,000.

(iv) For purposes of section 469, A has passive activity gross income of $43,000. A's passive activity deductions attributable to SCo are the sum of the Year 2 operating deductions allocable to A from S ($30,000), deductions formerly suspended by section 465 ($4,000), and passive activity losses suspended by section 469 ($7,000). Therefore, in Year 2, A has passive activity deductions of $41,000. Because A's passive activity gross income exceeds A's passive activity deductions, section 469 does not limit any of the deductions in Year 2. At the end of Year 2, A has no suspended passive activity losses.

(v) Although A's distributive share of Year 2 deductions allocable to SCo's operating income was $30,000; the operative provisions of sections 465 and 469 do not change the character of the deductions when such amounts are suspended under either section. Furthermore, section 465(a)(2) and §§1.469-1(f)(4) and 1.469-2T(d)(1) treat amounts suspended from prior years as deductions in the current year. See §1.1411-1(a). Therefore, for purposes of calculating A's net investment income, A has $41,000 of properly allocable deductions allowed by section 1411(c)(1)(B) and paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section.

(3) Properly allocable deductions described in section 63(d). In determining net investment income, the following itemized deductions are taken into account:

(i) Investment interest expense. Investment interest (as defined in section 163(d)(3)) to the extent allowed under section 163(d)(1). Any investment interest not allowed under section 163(d)(1) is treated as investment interest paid or accrued by the taxpayer in the succeeding taxable year. The following example illustrates the provisions of this paragraph. For purposes of this example, assume that the taxpayer uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

(A) In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual, pays interest of $4,000 on debt incurred to purchase stock. Under §1.163-8T, this interest is allocable to the stock and is investment interest within the meaning of section 163(d)(3). A has no investment income as defined by section 163(d)(4). A has $10,000 of income from a trade or business that is a passive activity (as defined in §1.1411-5(a)(1)) with respect to A. For income tax purposes, under section 163(d)(1), A may not deduct the $4,000 investment interest in Year 1 because A does not have any section 163(d)(4) net investment income. Under section 163(d)(2), the $4,000 investment interest is a carryforward of disallowed interest that is treated as investment interest paid by A in the succeeding taxable year. Similarly, for purposes of determining A's Year 1 net investment income, A may not deduct the $4,000 investment interest.

(B) In Year 2, A has $5,000 of section 163(d)(4) net investment income. For both income tax purposes and for determining section 1411 net investment income, A's $4,000 carryforward of interest expense disallowed in Year 1 may be deducted in Year 2.

(ii) Investment expenses. Investment expenses (as defined in section 163(d)(4)(C)).

(iii) Taxes described in section 164(a)(3). State, local, and foreign income, war profits, and excess profit taxes described in section 164(a)(3) that are allocable to net investment income pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section. Except to the extent specifically expected from section 275(a)(4), foreign income, war profits, and excess profit taxes are not allowed as deductions under section 164(a)(3) in determining net investment income if the taxpayer claims the benefit of the foreign tax credit under section 901 with respect to the same taxable year. For rules applicable to refunds of taxes described in this paragraph, see paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

(iv) Items described in section 72(b)(3). In the case of an amount allowed as a deduction to the annuitant for the annuitant's last taxable year under section 72(b)(3), such amount is allowed as a properly allocable deduction in the same taxable year if the income from the annuity (had the annuitant lived to receive such income) would have been included in net investment income under paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section (and not excluded from net investment income by reason of §1.1411-8).

(v) Items described in section 691(c). Deductions for estate and generation-skipping taxes allowed by section 691(c) that are allocable to net investment income; provided, however, that any portion of the section 691(c) deduction described in section 691(c)(4) is taken into account instead in computing net gain under paragraph (d) and not under this paragraph (f)(3)(v).

(vi) Items described in section 212(3). Amounts described in section 212(3) and §1.212-1(l) to the extent they are allocable to net investment income pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(vii) Amortizable bond premium. A deduction allowed under section 171(a)(1) for the amortizable bond premium on a taxable bond (for example, see §1.171-2(a)(4)(i)(C) for the treatment of a bond premium carryforward as a deduction under section 171(a)(1)).

(viii) Fiduciary expenses. In the case of an estate or trust, amounts described in §1.212-1(i) to the extent they are allocable to net investment income pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section.

(4) Loss deductions—(i) General rule. Losses described in section 165, whether described in section 62 or section 63(d), are allowed as properly allocable deductions to the extent such losses exceed the amount of gain described in section 61(a)(3) and are not taken into account in computing net gain by reason of paragraph (d) of this section.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (f)(4). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. (i) A, an unmarried individual, owns an interest in PRS, a partnership for Federal income tax purposes. PRS is engaged in a trading business described in section 1411(c)(2)(B) and §1.1411-5(a)(2) and has made a valid and timely election under section 475(f)(2). A's distributive share from PRS in Year 1 consists of $125,000 of interest and dividends and $60,000 of ordinary losses from the trading business. In addition to A's investment in PRS, A sold undeveloped land in Year 1 for a long-term capital gain of $50,000. A has no capital losses carried over from a preceding year.

(ii) For purposes of chapter 1, A includes the $125,000 of interest and dividends, $60,000 of ordinary loss, and $50,000 of long-term capital gain in the computation of A's adjusted gross income.

(iii) For purposes of calculating net investment income, A includes the $125,000 of interest and dividends. Pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, A takes into account the $60,000 at ordinary loss from PRS and the $50,000 of long term capital gain in the computation of A's net gain. A's losses ($60,000) exceed A's gains ($50,000). Therefore, A's net gain under paragraph (d) of this section is zero. Additionally, A is allowed a deduction under paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section for $10,000 (the amount of ordinary losses that were allowable under chapter 1 in excess of the amounts taken into account in computing net gain). A's net investment income in Year 1 is $115,000.

Example 2. (i) In Year 1, T, a nongrantor trust, incurs a capital loss of $5,000 on the sale of publicly traded stocks. In addition, T receives $17,000 of interest and dividend income. T has no capital losses carried over from a preceding year.

(ii) For purposes of chapter 1, T includes the $17,000 of interest and dividends and only $3,000 of the capital loss in the computation of adjusted gross income. The remaining $2,000 capital loss is carried over to Year 2.

(iii) For purposes of calculating net investment income, T includes the $17,000 of interest and dividends in net investment income. Pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, T takes into account the $3,000 capital loss allowed by chapter 1. T's losses ($3,000) exceed T's gains ($0). Therefore, T's net gain under paragraph (d) of this section is zero. However, T is allowed a deduction under paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section for $3,000 (the amount of losses that were allowable under chapter 1 in excess of the amounts taken into account in computing net gain). T's net investment income in Year 1 is $14,000.

Example 3. (i) In Year 1, B, an unmarried individual, incurs a short-term capital loss of $15,000 on the sale of publicly traded stocks. B also receives annuity income of $50,000. In addition, B disposes of property used in his sole proprietorship (which is not a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2) or §1.1411-5(a) for a gain of $21,000. Pursuant to section 1231, the gain of $21,000 is treated as a long-term capital gain for purposes of chapter 1. B has no capital losses carried over from a preceding year.

(ii) For purposes of chapter 1, B includes the $50,000 of annuity income in the computation of adjusted gross income. The $21,000 long-term capital gain is offset by the $15,000 short-term capital loss, so B includes $6,000 of net long-term capital gain in the computation of adjusted gross income.

(iii) For purposes of calculating net investment income, B includes the $50,000 of annuity income in net investment income. Pursuant to paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section, B's net gain does not include the $21,000 long-term capital gain because it is attributable to property held in B's sole proprietorship (a nonpassive activity). Pursuant to paragraph (d) of this section, T takes into account the $15,000 capital loss allowed by chapter 1. B's losses ($15,000) exceed B's gains ($0). Therefore, A's net gain under paragraph (d) of this section is zero. However, B is allowed a deduction under paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section for $15,000 (the amount of losses that were allowable under chapter 1 in excess of the amounts taken into account in computing net gain). B's net investment income in Year 1 is $35,000.

(5) Ordinary loss deductions for certain debt instruments. An amount treated as an ordinary loss by a holder of a contingent payment debt instrument under §1.1275-4(b) or an inflation-indexed debt instrument under §1.1275-7(f)(1).

(6) Other deductions. Any other deduction allowed by subtitle A that is identified in published guidance in the Federal Register or in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see §601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b) of this chapter) as properly allocable to gross income or net gain under this section.

(7) Application of limitations under sections 67 and 68. Any deductions described in this paragraph (f) that are subject to section 67 (the 2-percent floor on miscellaneous itemized deductions) or section 68 (the overall limitation on itemized deductions) are allowed in determining net investment income only to the extent the items are deductible for chapter 1 purposes after the application of sections 67 and 68. For this purpose, section 67 applies before section 68. The amount of deductions subject to sections 67 and 68 that may be deducted in determining net investment income after the application of sections 67 and 68 is determined as described in paragraph (f)(7)(i) and (f)(7)(ii) of this section.

(i) Deductions subject to section 67. The amount of miscellaneous itemized deductions (as defined in section 67(b)) tentatively deductible in determining net investment income after applying section 67 (but before applying section 68) is the lesser of:

(A) The portion of the taxpayer's miscellaneous itemized deductions (before the application of section 67) that is properly allocable to items of income or net gain included in determining net investment income, or

(B) The taxpayer's total miscellaneous itemized deductions allowed after the application of section 67, but before the application of section 68.

(ii) Deductions subject to section 68. The amount of itemized deductions allowed in determining net investment income after applying sections 67 and 68 is the lesser of:

(A) The sum of the amount determined under paragraph (f)(7)(i) of this section and the amount of itemized deductions not subject to section 67 that are properly allocable to items of income or net gain included in determining net investment income, or

(B) The total amount of itemized deductions allowed after the application of sections 67 and 68.

(iii) Itemized deductions. For purposes of paragraph (f)(7)(ii), itemized deductions do not include any deduction described in section 68(c).

(iv) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of this paragraph (f)(7). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

(A) A, an unmarried individual, has adjusted gross income in Year 1 as follows:

Wages$1,600,000
Interest income400,000
Adjusted gross income2,000,000

In addition, A has the following items of expense qualifying as itemized deductions:

Investment expenses$70,000
Job-related expenses30,000
Investment interest expense75,000
State income taxes120,000

A's investment expenses and job-related expenses are miscellaneous itemized deductions. In addition, A's investment interest expense and investment expenses are properly allocable to net investment income (within the meaning of this section). A's job-related expenses are not properly allocable to net investment income. Of the state income tax expense, A applied a reasonable method pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section to properly allocate $20,000 to net investment income.

(B) A's 2-percent floor under section 67 is $40,000 (2% of $2,000,000). For Year 1, assume the section 68 limitation starts at adjusted gross income of $200,000. The section 68 overall limitation disallows $54,000 of A's itemized deductions that are subject to section 68 (3% of the excess of the $2,000,000 adjusted gross income over the $200,000 limitation threshold).

(C)(1) A's total miscellaneous itemized deductions allowable before the application of section 67 is $100,000 ($70,000 in investment expenses plus $30,000 in job-related expenses), and the total miscellaneous deductions allowed after the application of section 67 is $60,000 ($100,000 minus $40,000).

(2) The amount of the miscellaneous itemized deductions properly allocable to net investment income after the application of section 67 is $60,000 (the lesser of $70,000 in investment expenses that are deductible as a miscellaneous itemized deduction and properly allocable to net investment income or $60,000 of miscellaneous itemized deductions allocable to net investment income allowed after the application of section 67).

(D)(1) The amount of itemized deductions allocable to net investment income after applying section 67 to deductions that are also miscellaneous itemized deductions but before applying section 68 is $155,000. This amount is the sum of $60,000 of miscellaneous itemized deductions determined in (C)(2), plus $20,000 in state income tax properly allocable to net investment income, plus $75,000 of investment interest expense. However, under section 68(c)(2), the $75,000 deduction for investment interest expenses is not subject to the section 68 limitation on itemized deductions and is excluded from the computation under §1.1411-4(f)(7). Thus, the amount of itemized deductions allocable to net investment income and subject to section 68, after applying section 67 but before applying section 68, is $80,000.

(2) A's total itemized deductions allowed subject to the limitation under section 68 and after application of section 67, but before the application of section 68, are the following:

Miscellaneous itemized deductions$60,000
State income tax120,000
Deductions subject to section 68180,000

(3) Of A's itemized deductions that are subject to the limitation under section 68, the amount allowed after the application of section 68 is $126,000 ($180,000 minus the $54,000 disallowed in (B)).

(E) Under paragraph (f)(7)(ii) of this section, the amount of itemized deductions allowed in determining net investment income after applying sections 67 and 68 is the lesser of $80,000 (the sum of $60,000 determined under paragraph (C)(2) and $20,000 state income tax allocable to net investment income) or $126,000 (determined under (D)(3)). Therefore, A's itemized deductions that are properly allocable to net investment income are $155,000 ($80,000 of properly allocable itemized deductions subject to section 67 or 68 plus $75,000 of investment interest expense (which is not subject to either section 67 or section 68 limitations)).

(g) Special rules—(1) Deductions allocable to both net investment income and excluded income. In the case of a properly allocable deduction described in section 1411(c)(1)(B) and paragraph (f) of this section that is allocable to both net investment income and excluded income, the portion of the deduction that is properly allocable to net investment income may be determined by taxpayers using any reasonable method. Examples of reasonable methods of allocation include, but are not limited to, an allocation of the deduction based on the ratio of the amount of a taxpayer's gross income (including net gain) described in §1.1411-4(a)(1) to the amount of the taxpayer's adjusted gross income (as defined under section 62 (or section 67(e) in the case of an estate or trust)). In the case of an estate or trust, an allocation of a deduction pursuant to rules described in §1.652(b)-3(b) (and §1.641(c)-1(h) in the case of an ESBT) is also a reasonable method.

(2) Recoveries of properly allocable deductions—(i) General rule. If a taxpayer is refunded, reimbursed, or otherwise recovers any portion of an amount deducted as a section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deduction in a prior year, and such amount is not otherwise included in net investment income in the year of recovery under section 1411(c)(1)(A), the amount of the recovery will reduce the taxpayer's total section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions in the year of recovery (but not below zero). The preceding sentence applies regardless of whether the amount of the recovery is excluded from gross income by reason of section 111.

(ii) Recoveries of items allocated between net investment income and excluded income. In the case of a refund of any item that was deducted under section 1411(c)(1)(B) in a prior year and the gross amount of the deduction was allocated between items of net investment income and excluded income pursuant to paragraph (g)(1) of this section, the amount of the reduction in section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions in the year of receipt under this paragraph (g)(2) is the total amount of the refund multiplied by a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is the amount of the total deduction allocable to net investment income in the prior year to which the refund relates. The denominator of the fraction is the total amount of the deduction in the prior year to which the refund relates.

(iii) Recoveries with no prior year benefit. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), section 111 applies to reduce the amount of any reduction required by paragraph (g)(2)(i) of this section to the extent that such previously deducted amount did not reduce the tax imposed by section 1411. To the extent a deduction is taken into account in computing a taxpayer's net operating loss deduction under paragraph (h) of this section, section 111(c) applies. Except as provided in the preceding sentence, for purposes of this paragraph (g)(2), no reduction of section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions is required in a year when such recovered item is attributable to an amount deducted in a taxable year—

(A) Preceding the effective date of section 1411, or

(B) In which the taxpayer was not subject to section 1411 solely because that individual's (as defined in §1.1411-2(a)) modified adjusted gross income (as defined in §1.1411-2(c)) does not exceed the applicable threshold in §1.1411-2(d) or such estate's or trust's (as defined in §1.1411-3(a)(1)(i)) adjusted gross income does not exceed the amount described in section 1411(a)(2)(B)(ii) and §1.1411-3(a)(1)(ii)(B)(2).

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (g)(2). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Recovery of amount included in income. A, an individual, is a 40% limited partner in LP. LP is a passive activity to A. In Year 1, A's distributable share of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii) income and properly allocable deductions described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii) were $50,000 and $37,000, respectively. In Year 2, LP received a refund of a properly allocable deduction described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii). A's distributable share of the recovered deduction is $2,000. Since the $2,000 recovery constitutes gross income described in section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii) in Year 2, A does not reduce any properly allocable deductions attributable to Year 2.
Example 2. State income tax refund. In Year 1, D, an individual, allocated $15,000 of taxes out of a total of $75,000 to net investment income under paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section. D received no tax benefit from the deduction in Year 1 for chapter 1 purposes due to the alternative minimum tax, but it did reduce D's section 1411 tax. In Year 3, D received a refund of $5,000. For chapter 1 purposes, D excludes the $5,000 refund from gross income in Year 3 by reason of section 111. In Year 3, D allocated $30,000 of state income taxes out of a total of $90,000 to net investment income under paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section. Although the refund is excluded from D's gross income, D must nonetheless reduce Year 3's section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions by $1,000 ($5,000 × ($15,000/$75,000)). D's allocation of 3313% of section 164(a)(3) taxes in Year 3 to net investment income is irrelevant to the calculation of the amount of the reduction required by this paragraph (g)(2).
Example 3. State income tax refund with no prior year benefit. Same facts as Example 2, except in Year 1, D's section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions exceeded D's section 1411(c)(1)(A) income by $300. As a result, D was not subject to section 1411 in Year 1. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(2)(iii) of this section, D does not reduce Year 3's section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions for recoveries of amounts to the extent that such deductions did not reduce the tax imposed by section 1411. Therefore, D must reduce Year 3's section 1411(c)(1)(B) properly allocable deductions by $700 ($1,000 less $300).

(3) Deductions described in section 691(b). For purposes of paragraph (f) of this section, properly allocable deductions include items of deduction described in section 691(b), provided that the item otherwise would have been deductible to the decedent under §1.1411-4(f). For example, an estate may deduct the decedent's unpaid investment interest expense in computing its net investment income because section 691(b) specifically allows the deduction under section 163, and §1.1411-4(f)(3)(i) allows those deductions as well. However, an estate or trust may not deduct a payment of real estate taxes on the decedent's principal residence that were unpaid at death in computing its net investment income because, although real estate taxes are deductible under section 164 and specifically are allowed by section 691(b), the real estate taxes would not have been a properly allocable deduction of the decedent under §1.1411-4(f).

(4) Amounts described in section 642(h). For purposes of the calculation of net investment income under this section, one or more beneficiaries succeeding to the property of the estate or trust, within the meaning of section 642(h), shall—

(i) Treat excess capital losses of the estate or trust described in section 642(h)(1) as capital losses of the beneficiary in the calculation of net gain in paragraph (d) and paragraph (f)(4) of this section, as applicable, in a manner consistent with section 642(h)(1);

(ii) Treat excess net operating losses of the estate or trust described in section 642(h)(1) as net operating losses of the beneficiary in the calculation of net investment income in paragraphs (f)(2)(iv) and (h) of this section in a manner consistent with section 642(h)(1); and

(iii) Treat the deductions described in paragraph (f) of this section (other than those taken into account under paragraph (g)(4)(i) or (ii) of this section) that exceed the gross investment income described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section (after taking into account any modifications, adjustments, and special rules for calculating net investment income in section 1411 and the regulations thereunder) of a terminating estate or trust as a section 1411(c)(1)(B) deduction of the beneficiary in a manner consistent with section 642(h)(2).

(5) Treatment of self-charged interest income. Gross income from interest (within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section) that is received by the taxpayer from a nonpassive activity of such taxpayer, solely for purposes of section 1411, is treated as derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5. The amount of interest income that is treated as derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business not described in §1.1411-5, and thus excluded from the calculation of net investment income, under this paragraph (g)(5) is limited to the amount that would have been considered passive activity gross income under the rules of §1.469-7 if the payor was a passive activity of the taxpayer. For purposes of this rule, the term nonpassive activity does not include a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(2). However, this rule does not apply to the extent the corresponding deduction is taken into account in determining self-employment income that is subject to tax under section 1401(b).

(6) Treatment of certain nonpassive rental activities—(i) Gross income from rents. To the extent that gross rental income described in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is treated as not derived from a passive activity by reason of §1.469-2(f)(6) or as a consequence of a taxpayer grouping a rental activity with a trade or business activity under §1.469-4(d)(1), such gross rental income is deemed to be derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section.

(ii) Gain or loss from the disposition of property. To the extent that gain or loss resulting from the disposition of property is treated as nonpassive gain or loss by reason of §1.469-2(f)(6) or as a consequence of a taxpayer grouping a rental activity with a trade or business activity under §1.469-4(d)(1), then such gain or loss is deemed to be derived from property used in the ordinary course of a trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(7) Treatment of certain real estate professionals—(i) Safe Harbor. In the case of a real estate professional (as defined in section 469(c)(7)(B)) that participates in a rental real estate activity for more than 500 hours during such year, or has participated in such real estate activities for more than 500 hours in any five taxable years (whether or not consecutive) during the ten taxable years that immediately precede the taxable year, then—

(A) Such gross rental income from that rental activity is deemed to be derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section; and

(B) Gain or loss resulting from the disposition of property used in such rental real estate activity is deemed to be derived from property used in the ordinary course of a trade or business within the meaning of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this section.

(ii) Definitions—(A) Participation. For purposes of establishing participation under this paragraph (g)(7), any participation in the activity that would count towards establishing material participation under section 469 shall be considered.

(B) Rental real estate activity. The term rental real estate activity used in this paragraph (g)(7) is a rental activity within the meaning of §1.469-1T(e)(3). An election to treat all rental real estate as a single rental activity under §1.469-9(g) also applies for purposes of this paragraph (g)(7). However, any rental real estate that the taxpayer grouped with a trade or business activity under §1.469-4(d)(1)(i)(A) or (d)(1)(i)(C) is not a rental real estate activity.

(iii) Effect of safe harbor. The inability of a real estate professional to satisfy the safe harbor in this paragraph (g)(7) does not preclude such taxpayer from establishing that such gross rental income and gain or loss from the disposition of property, as applicable, is not included in net investment income under any other provision of section 1411.

(8) Treatment of former passive activities—(i) Section 469(f)(1)(A) losses. Losses allowed in computing taxable income by reason of the rules governing former passive activities in section 469(f)(1)(A) are taken into account in computing net gain under paragraph (d) of this section or as properly allocable deductions under paragraph (f) of this section, as applicable, in the same manner as such losses are taken into account in computing taxable income (as defined in section 63). The preceding sentence applies only to the extent the net income or net gain from the former passive activity (as defined in section 469(f)(3)) is included in net investment income.

(ii) Section 469(f)(1)(C) losses. Losses allowed in computing taxable income by reason of section 469(f)(1)(C) are taken into account in computing net gain under paragraph (d) of this section or as properly allocable deductions under paragraph (f) of this section, as applicable, in the same manner as such losses are taken into account in computing taxable income (as defined in section 63).

(iii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (g)(8). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. (i) B, an individual taxpayer, owns a 50% interest in SCorp, an S corporation engaged in the trade or business of retail clothing sales. B also owns a single family rental property, a passive activity. B materially participates in the retail sales activity of SCorp, but B has $10,000 of suspended losses from prior years when the retail sales activity of SCorp was a passive activity of B. Therefore, the retail sales activity of SCorp is a former passive activity within the meaning of section 469(f)(3).

(ii) In Year 1, B reports $205,000 of wages, $7,000 of nonpassive net income, $500 of interest income (attributable to working capital) from SCorp's retail sales activity, and $1,000 of net rental income from the single family rental property. B's Year 1 modified adjusted gross income (as defined in §1.1411-2(c)) is $205,500; which includes $205,000 of wages, $500 of interest income, $7,000 of nonpassive income from SCorp, $7,000 of section 469(f)(1)(A) losses, $1,000 of passive income from the single family rental property and $1,000 of section 469(f)(1)(C) losses.

(iii) For purposes of the calculation of B's Year 1 net investment income, B includes the $500 of interest income and $1,000 of net passive income from the single family rental property. The $7,000 of nonpassive income from SCorp's retail sales activity is excluded from net investment income because the income is not attributable to a trade or business described in §1.1411-5. Therefore, pursuant to the rules of paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section, the $7,000 of section 469(f)(1)(A) losses are not taken into account in computing B's net investment income. However, pursuant to the rules of paragraph (g)(8)(ii) of this section, the $1,000 of passive losses allowed by reason of section 469(f)(1)(C), which are allowed as a deduction in Year 1 by reason of B's $1,000 of passive income from the single family rental property are allowed in computing B's net investment income. As a result, B's net investment income is $500 ($500 of interest income plus $1,000 of passive rental income less $1,000 of section 469(f)(1)(C) losses). Although the $500 of interest income is attributable to SCorp and includable in B's net investment income, such income is not taken into account when calculating the amount of section 469(f)(1)(A) losses allowed in the current year. Therefore, such income is not taken into account in computing the amount of section 469(f)(1)(A) losses allowed by reason of paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section. Pursuant to section 469(b), B carries forward $2,000 of suspended passive losses attributable to SCorp's retail sales activity to Year 2.

Example 2. Same facts as Example 1. In Year 2, B materially participates in the retail sales activity of SCorp, and disposes of his entire interest in SCorp for a $9,000 long-term capital gain. Pursuant to §1.469-2T(e)(3), the $9,000 gain is characterized as nonpassive income. Pursuant to section 469(f)(1)(A), the remaining $2,000 of suspended passive loss is allowed because the $9,000 gain is treated as nonpassive income. Assume that under section 1411(c)(4) and §1.1411-7, B takes into account only $700 of the $9,000 gain in computing net investment income for Year 2. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section, B may take into account $700 of the $2,000 loss allowed by section 469(f)(1)(A) in computing net investment income for Year 2. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(8)(i) of this section, B may not deduct the remaining $1,300 passive loss allowed for chapter 1 in calculating net investment income for Year 2.

(9) Treatment of section 469(g)(1) losses. Losses allowed in computing taxable income by reason of section 469(g) are taken into account in computing net gain under paragraph (d) of this section or as properly allocable deductions under paragraph (f) of this section, as applicable, in the same manner as such losses are taken into account in computing taxable income (as defined in section 63).

(10) Treatment of section 707(c) guaranteed payments. [Reserved]

(11) Treatment of section 736 payments. [Reserved]

(12) Income and deductions from certain notional principal contracts. [Reserved]

(13) Treatment of income or loss from REMIC residual interests. [Reserved]

(h) Net operating loss—(1) General rule. For purposes of paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section, the total section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss deduction for a taxable year is calculated by first determining the applicable portion of the taxpayer's net operating loss for each loss year under paragraph (h)(2) of this section. Next, the applicable portion for each loss year is used to determine the section 1411 NOL amount for each net operating loss carried from a loss year and deducted in the taxable year as provided in paragraph (h)(3) of this section. The section 1411 NOL amounts of each net operating loss carried from a loss year and deducted in the taxable year are then added together as provided in paragraph (h)(4) of this section. This sum is the total section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss deduction for the taxable year that is allowed as a properly allocable deduction in determining net investment income for the taxable year. For purposes of this paragraph (h), both the amount of a net operating loss for a loss year and the amount of a net operating loss deduction refer to such amounts as determined for purposes of chapter 1.

(2) Applicable portion of a net operating loss. In any taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012, in which a taxpayer incurs a net operating loss, the applicable portion of such loss is the lesser of:

(i) The amount of the net operating loss for the loss year that the taxpayer would incur if only items of gross income that are used to determine net investment income and only properly allocable deductions are taken into account in determining the net operating loss in accordance with section 172(c) and (d); or

(ii) The amount of the taxpayer's net operating loss for the loss year.

(3) Section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss carried to and deducted in a taxable year. The section 1411 NOL amount of each net operating loss that is carried from a loss year that is allowed as a deduction is the total amount of such net operating loss carried from the loss year allowed as a deduction under section 172(a) in the taxable year multiplied by a fraction. The numerator of the fraction is the applicable portion of the net operating loss for that loss year, as determined under paragraph (h)(2) of this section. The denominator of the fraction is the total amount of the net operating loss for the same loss year.

(4) Total section 1411 NOL amount of a net operating loss deduction. The section 1411 NOL amounts of each net operating loss carried to and deducted in the taxable year as determined under paragraph (h)(3) of this section are added together to determine the total section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss deduction for the taxable year that is properly allocable to net investment income.

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this paragraph (h). For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. (i)(A) In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual, has the following items of income and deduction: $200,000 in wages, $50,000 in gross income from a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities (as defined in §1.1411-5(a)(2)) (trading activity), $10,000 of dividends, $1,000,000 in loss from his sole proprietorship (which is not a trade or business described in §1.1411-5), $12,000 of non-business investment expenses, and $250,000 in trading loss deductions. As a result, for income tax purposes A sustains a section 172(c) net operating loss of $1,000,000. A makes an election under section 172(b)(3) to waive the carryback period for this net operating loss.

(B) For purposes of section 1411, A's net investment income for Year 1 is the excess (if any) of $60,000 ($50,000 trading activity gross income plus $10,000 dividend income) over $262,000 ($250,000 trading loss deductions plus $12,000 nonbusiness expenses).

(C) The amount of the net operating loss for Year 1 determined under section 172 that A would incur if only items of gross income that are used to determine net investment income and only properly allocable deductions are taken into account is $200,000. This amount is the excess of $250,000 trading loss deductions, over $50,000 trading activity gross income. Under section 172(d)(4), in determining the net operating loss, the $12,000 nonbusiness expenses are allowed only to the extent of the $10,000 dividend income. The $200,000 net operating loss determined using only properly allocable deductions and gross income items used in determining net investment income is less than A's actual net operating loss for Year 1 of $1,000,000, and accordingly the applicable portion for Year 1 is $200,000. The ratio used to calculate section 1411 NOL amounts of A's Year 1 net operating loss is $200,000 (net operating loss determined using only properly allocable deductions and gross income items used in determining net investment income)/$1,000,000 (net operating loss), or 0.2.

(ii) For Year 2, A has $250,000 of wages, no gross income from the trading activity, $300,000 of income from his sole proprietorship, and $10,000 in trading loss deductions. For income tax purposes, A deducts $540,000 of the net operating loss carried over from Year 1. In addition, under §1.1411-2(c), the $540,000 net operating loss will be allowed as a deduction in computing A's Year 2 modified adjusted gross income. Because A's modified adjusted gross income is $0, A is not subject to net investment income tax. For purposes of A's net investment income calculation, the section 1411 NOL amount of the $540,000 net operating loss from Year 1 that A deducts in Year 2 is $108,000 ($540,000 multiplied by 0.2 (the fraction determined based on the applicable portion of the net operating loss in the loss year)). The amount of the Year 1 net operating loss carried over to Year 3 is $460,000. For purposes of A's net investment income calculation, this net operating loss carryover amount includes a section 1411 NOL amount of $92,000 ($460,000 multiplied by 0.2). The section 1411 NOL amount may be applied in determining A's net investment income in Year 3.

(iii)(A) For Year 3, A has $400,000 of wages, $200,000 in trading gains which are gross income from the trading activity, $250,000 of income from his sole proprietorship, and $10,000 in trading loss deductions. For income tax purposes, A deducts the remaining $460,000 of the net operating loss from Year 1. In addition, under §1.1411-2(c), the $460,000 net operating loss deduction reduces A's Year 3 modified adjusted gross income to $380,000.

(B) A's section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss deduction for Year 3 is $92,000, which is the $460,000 net operating loss deduction for Year 3 multiplied by 0.2.

(C) A's net investment income for Year 3 before the application of paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section is $190,000 ($200,000 in gross income from the trading activity, minus $10,000 in trading loss deductions). After the application of paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section, A's net investment income for Year 3 is $98,000 ($190,000 minus $92,000, the total section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss deduction).

Example 2. (i) The facts for Year 1 are the same as in Example 1.

(ii)(A) For Year 2, A has $100,000 in wages, $200,000 in gross income from the trading activity, $15,000 of dividends, $250,000 in losses from the sole proprietorship, $10,000 of non-business investment expenses, and $355,000 in trading loss deductions. As a result, for income tax purposes A sustains a section 172(c) net operating loss of $300,000. A makes an election under section 172(b)(3) to waive the carryback period for the Year 2 net operating loss.

(B) For purposes of section 1411, A's net investment income for Year 2 is the excess (if any) of $215,000 ($200,000 trading activity gross income plus $15,000 dividend income) over $365,000 ($355,000 trading loss deductions plus $10,000 nonbusiness expenses).

(C) The amount of the net operating loss for Year 2 determined under section 172 that A would incur if only items of gross income that are used to determine net investment income and only properly allocable deductions are taken into account is $150,000. This amount is the excess of $365,000 ($355,000 trading loss deductions plus $10,000 nonbusiness expenses) over $215,000 ($200,000 trading activity gross income plus $15,000 dividend income). Under section 172(d)(4), in determining the net operating loss, the $10,000 nonbusiness expenses are allowed in full against the $15,000 dividend income. The $150,000 net operating loss determined using only properly allocable deductions and gross income items used in determining net investment income is less than A's actual net operating loss for Year 2 of $300,000, and accordingly the applicable portion is $150,000. The ratio used to calculate the section 1411 NOL amount of A's Year 2 net operating loss is $150,000 (the applicable portion)/$300,000 (net operating loss), or 0.5.

(iii) For Year 3, A has $250,000 of wages, no gross income from the trading activity, $300,000 of income from his sole proprietorship, and $10,000 in trading loss deductions. For income tax purposes, A deducts $540,000 of the net operating loss from Year 1. In addition, under §1.1411-2(c), the $540,000 net operating loss will be allowed as a deduction in computing A's Year 3 modified adjusted gross income. Because A's modified adjusted gross income is $0, A is not subject to net investment income tax. The section 1411 NOL amount of the $540,000 net operating loss from Year 1 that A deducts in Year 3 is $108,000 ($540,000 multiplied by 0.2 (the fraction used to calculate the section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss)), and this is also the total section 1411 NOL amount for Year 3. The amount of the Year 1 net operating loss carried over to Year 4 is $460,000. This net operating loss carryover amount includes a section 1411 NOL amount of $92,000 ($460,000 multiplied by 0.2) that may be applied in determining net investment income in Year 4. None of the Year 2 net operating loss is deducted in Year 3 so that the $300,000 Year 2 net operating loss (including the section 1411 NOL amount of $150,000) is carried to Year 4.

(iv)(A) For Year 4, A has $150,000 of wages, $450,000 in trading gains which are gross income from the trading activity, $250,000 of income from his sole proprietorship, and $10,000 in trading loss deductions. For income tax purposes, A deducts the remaining $460,000 of the net operating loss carryover from Year 1 and the $300,000 net operating loss carryover from Year 2, for a total net operating loss deduction in Year 4 of $760,000. In addition, under §1.1411-2(c), the $760,000 net operating loss deduction reduces A's Year 4 modified adjusted gross income to $80,000.

(B) A's total section 1411 NOL amount of the net operating loss deduction for Year 4 is $242,000, which is the sum of the $92,000 ($460,000 net operating loss carryover from Year 1 and deducted in Year 4 multiplied by 0.2 (the ratio used to calculate the section 1411 NOL amount of the Year 1 net operating loss)) plus $150,000 ($300,000 net operating loss carryover from Year 2 and deducted in Year 4 multiplied by 0.5 (the ratio used to calculate the section 1411 NOL amount of the Year 2 net operating loss)).

(C) A's net investment income for Year 4 before the application of paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section is $440,000 ($450,000 in gross income from the trading activity, minus $10,000 in trading loss deductions). After the application of paragraph (f)(2)(iv) of this section, A's net investment income for Year 4 is $198,000 ($440,000 minus $242,000, the total section 1411 NOL amount of the Year 4 net operating loss deduction).

(i) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

§1.1411-5   Trades or businesses to which tax applies.

(a) In general. A trade or business is described in this section if such trade or business involves the conduct of a trade or business, and such trade or business is either—

(1) A passive activity (within the meaning of paragraph (b) of this section) with respect to the taxpayer; or

(2) The trade or business of a trader trading in financial instruments (as defined in paragraph (c)(1) of this section) or commodities (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section).

(b) Passive activity—(1) In general. A passive activity is described in this section if—

(i) Such activity is a trade or business; and

(ii) Such trade or business is a passive activity with respect to the taxpayer within the meaning of section 469 and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Application of income recharacterization rules—(i) Income and gain recharacterization. To the extent that any income or gain from a trade or business is recharaterized as “not from a passive activity” by reason of §1.469-2T(f)(2), §1.469-2(f)(5), or §1.469-2(f)(6), such trade or business does not constitute a passive activity within the meaning of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section solely with respect to such recharaterized income or gain.

(ii) Gain recharacterization. To the extent that any gain from a trade or business is recharacterized as “not from a passive activity” by reason of §1.469-2(c)(2)(iii) and does not constitute portfolio income under §1.469-2(c)(2)(iii)(F), such trade or business does not constitute a passive activity within the meaning of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section solely with respect to such recharacterized gain.

(iii) Exception for certain portfolio recharacterizations. To the extent that any income or gain from a trade or business is recharacterized as “not from a passive activity” and is further characterized as portfolio income under §1.469-2(f)(10) or §1.469-2(c)(2)(iii)(F), then such trade or business constitutes a passive activity within the meaning of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section solely with respect to such recharacterized income or gain.

(3) Examples. The following examples illustrate the principles of paragraph (b)(1) of this section and the ordinary course of a trade or business exception in §1.1411-4(b). In each example, unless otherwise indicated, the taxpayer uses a calendar taxable year, the taxpayer is a United States citizen, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Rental activity. A, an unmarried individual, rents a commercial building to B for $50,000 in Year 1. A is not involved in the activity of the commercial building on a regular and continuous basis, therefore, A's rental activity does not involve the conduct of a trade or business, and under section 469(c)(2), A's rental activity is a passive activity. Because paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section is not satisfied, A's rental income of $50,000 is not derived from a trade or business described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. However, A's rental income of $50,000 still constitutes gross income from rents within the meaning of §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) because rents are included in the determination of net investment income under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) whether or not derived from a trade or business described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
Example 2. Application of grouping rules under section 469. In Year 1, A, an unmarried individual, owns an interest in PRS, a partnership for Federal income tax purposes. PRS is engaged in two activities, X and Y, which constitute trades or businesses, and neither of which constitute trading in financial instruments or commodities (within the meaning of paragraph (a)(2) of this section). Pursuant to §1.469-4, A has properly grouped X and Y together as one activity (the grouped activity). A participates in X for more than 500 hours during Year 1 and would be treated as materially participating in activity X within the meaning of §1.469-5T(a)(1) if A's material participation were determined only with respect to activity X. A only participates in Y for 50 hours during Year 1. If not for the grouping of the X and Y activities together, A would not be treated as materially participating in Y within the meaning of §1.469-5T(a). However, pursuant to §§1.469-4 and 1.469-5T(a)(1), A materially participates in the grouped activity. Therefore, for purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section, neither X nor Y is a passive activity with respect to A. Accordingly, with respect to A, neither X nor Y is a trade or business described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
Example 3. Application of the rental activity exceptions. B, an unmarried individual, is a partner in PRS, which is engaged in an equipment leasing activity. The average period of customer use of the equipment is seven days or less (and therefore meets the exception in §1.469-1T(e)(3)(ii)(A)). B materially participates in the equipment leasing activity (within the meaning of §1.469-5T(a)). The equipment leasing activity constitutes a trade or business. In Year 1, B has modified adjusted gross income (as defined in §1.1411-2(c)) of $300,000, all of which is derived from PRS. All of the income from PRS is derived in the ordinary course of the equipment leasing activity, and all of PRS's property is held in the equipment leasing activity. Of B's allocable share of income from PRS, $275,000 constitutes gross income from rents (within the meaning of §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i)). While $275,000 of the gross income from the equipment leasing activity meets the definition of rents in §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i), the activity meets one of the exceptions to rental activity in §1.469-1T(e)(3)(ii) and B materially participates in the activity. Therefore, the trade or business is not a passive activity with respect to B for purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section. Because the rents are derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business not described in paragraph (a) of this section, the ordinary course of a trade or business exception in §1.1411-4(b) applies, and the rents are not described in §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i). Furthermore, because the equipment leasing trade or business is not a trade or business described in paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, the $25,000 of other gross income is not net investment income under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii). However, the $25,000 of other gross income may be net investment income by reason of section 1411(c)(3) and §1.1411-6 if it is attributable to PRS's working capital. Finally, gain or loss from the sale of the property held in the equipment leasing activity will not be subject to §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii) because, although it is attributable to a trade or business, it is not a trade or business to which the section 1411 tax applies.
Example 4. Application of section 469 and other gross income under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii). Same facts as Example 3, except B does not materially participate in the equipment leasing trade or business and therefore the trade or business is a passive activity with respect to B for purposes of paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section. Accordingly, the $275,000 of gross income from rents is described in §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) because the rents are derived from a trade or business that is a passive activity with respect to B. Furthermore, the $25,000 of other gross income from the equipment leasing trade or business is described in §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii) because the gross income is derived from a trade or business described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. Finally, gain or loss from the sale of the property used in the equipment leasing trade or business is subject to §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii) because the trade or business is a passive activity with respect to B, as described in paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section.
Example 5. Application of the portfolio income rule and section 469. C, an unmarried individual, is a partner in PRS, a partnership engaged in a trade or business that does not involve a rental activity. C does not materially participate in PRS within the meaning of §1.469-5T(a). Therefore, the trade or business of PRS is a passive activity with respect to C for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section. C's $500,000 allocable share of PRS's income consists of $450,000 of gross income from a trade or business and $50,000 of gross income from dividends and interest (within the meaning of §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i)) that is not derived in the ordinary course of the trade or business of PRS. Therefore, C's $500,000 allocable share of PRS's income is subject to section 1411. C's $50,000 allocable share of PRS's income from dividends and interest is subject to §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) because the share is gross income from dividends and interest that is not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business (that is, the ordinary course of a trade or business exception in §1.1411-4(b) is inapplicable). C's $450,000 allocable share of PRS's income is subject to §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii) because it is gross income from a trade or business that is a passive activity.

(c) Trading in financial instruments or commodities—(1) Definition of financial instruments. For purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, the term financial instruments includes stocks and other equity interests, evidences of indebtedness, options, forward or futures contracts, notional principal contracts, any other derivatives, or any evidence of an interest in any of the items described in this paragraph (c)(1). An evidence of an interest in any of the items described in this paragraph (c)(1) includes, but is not limited to, short positions or partial units in any of the items described in this paragraph (c)(1).

(2) Definition of commodities. For purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, the term commodities refers to items described in section 475(e)(2).

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

§1.1411-6   Income on investment of working capital subject to tax.

(a) General rule. For purposes of section 1411, any item of gross income from the investment of working capital will be treated as not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business, and any net gain that is attributable to the investment of working capital will be treated as not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business. In determining whether any item is gross income from or net gain attributable to an investment of working capital, principles similar to those described in §1.469-2T(c)(3)(ii) apply. See §1.1411-4(f) for rules regarding properly allocable deductions with respect to an investment of working capital and §1.1411-7 for rules relating to the adjustment to net gain on the disposition of interests in a partnership or S corporation.

(b) Example. The following example illustrates the principles of this section. Assume for purposes of the example that the taxpayer uses a calendar taxable year, the taxpayer is a United States citizen, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example. (i) A, an unmarried individual, operates a restaurant, which is a section 162 trade or business but is not a trade or business described in §1.1411-5(a)(1) with respect to A. A owns and conducts the restaurant business through S, an S corporation wholly-owned by A. S is able to pay all of the restaurant's current obligations with cash flow generated by the restaurant. S utilizes an interest-bearing checking account at a local bank to make daily deposits of cash receipts generated by the restaurant, and also to pay the recurring ordinary and necessary business expenses of the restaurant. The average daily balance of the checking account is approximately $2,500, but at any given time the balance may be significantly more or less than this amount depending on the short-term cash flow needs of the business. In addition, S has set aside $20,000 for the potential future needs of the business in case the daily cash flow into and from the checking account becomes insufficient to pay the restaurant's recurring business expenses. S does not currently need to spend or use the $20,000 capital to conduct the restaurant business, and S deposits and maintains the $20,000 in an interest-bearing savings account at a local bank.

(ii) Both the $2,500 average daily balance of the checking account and the $20,000 savings account balance constitute working capital under §1.469-2T(c)(3)(ii) and, pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section, the interest generated by this working capital will not be treated as derived in the ordinary course of S's restaurant business. Accordingly, the interest income derived by S from its checking and savings accounts and allocated to A under section 1366 constitutes gross income from interest under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i).

(c) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013]

§1.1411-7   Exception for dispositions of interests in partnerships and S corporations. [Reserved]

§1.1411-8   Exception for distributions from qualified plans.

(a) General rule. Net investment income does not include any distribution from a qualified plan or arrangement. For this purpose, the term qualified plan or arrangement means any plan or arrangement described in section 401(a), 403(a), 403(b), 408, 408A, or 457(b).

(b) Rules relating to distributions. This paragraph (b) provides rules for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section. For purposes of section 1411(c)(5) and this section, a distribution means the following:

(1) Actual distributions. Any amount actually distributed from a qualified plan or arrangement, as defined in paragraph (a) of this section, is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income. Examples include a rollover to an eligible retirement plan within the meaning of section 402(c)(8)(B), a distribution of a plan loan offset amount within the meaning of Q&A-13(b) of §1.72(p)-1, and certain corrective distributions under the Internal Revenue Code (Code).

(2) Amounts treated as distributed. Any amount that is treated as distributed from a qualified plan or arrangement under the Code for purposes of income tax is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income. Examples include a conversion to a Roth IRA described in section 408A and a deemed distribution under section 72(p).

(3) Amounts includible in gross income. Any amount that is not treated as a distribution but is otherwise includible in gross income pursuant to a rule relating to amounts held in a qualified plan or arrangement described in paragraph (a) of this section is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income. For example, any income of the trust of a qualified plan or arrangement that is applied to purchase a participant's life insurance coverage (the P.S. 58 costs) is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income.

(4) Amounts related to employer securities—(i) Dividends related to employer securities. Any dividend that is deductible under section 404(k) and is paid in cash directly to plan participants or beneficiaries is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income. However, any amount paid as a dividend after the employer securities have been distributed from a qualified plan is not a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is included in net investment income.

(ii) Amounts related to the net unrealized appreciation in employer securities. The amount of any net unrealized appreciation attributable to employer securities (within the meaning of section 402(e)(4)) realized on a disposition of those employer securities is a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and thus is not included in net investment income. However, any appreciation in value of the employer securities after the distribution from the qualified plan is not a distribution within the meaning of section 1411(c)(5), and is included in net investment income.

(c) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013]

§1.1411-9   Exception for self-employment income.

(a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, net investment income does not include any item taken into account in determining self-employment income that is subject to tax under section 1401(b) for such taxable year. For purposes of section 1411(c)(6) and this section, taken into account means income included and deductions allowed in determining net earnings from self-employment. However, amounts excepted in determining net earnings from self-employment under section 1402(a)(1)-(17), and thus excluded from self-employment income under section 1402(b), are not taken into account in determining self-employment income and thus may be included in net investment income if such amounts are described in §1.1411-4. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, if net earnings from self-employment consist of income or loss from more than one trade or business, all items taken into account in determining the net earnings from self-employment with respect to these trades or businesses (see §1.1402(a)-2(c)) are considered taken into account in determining the amount of self-employment income that is subject to tax under section 1401(b) and therefore not included in net investment income.

(b) Special rule for traders. In the case of gross income described in §§1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) derived from a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(2)), the deductions described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii) properly allocable to the taxpayer's trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities are taken into account in determining the taxpayer's self-employment income only to the extent that such deductions reduce the taxpayer's net earnings from self-employment (after aggregating under §1.1402(a)-2(c) the net earnings from self-employment from any trade or business carried on by the taxpayer as an individual or as a member of a partnership). Any deductions described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii) that exceed the amount of net earnings from self-employment, in the aggregate (if applicable), are allowed in determining the taxpayer's net investment income under section 1411 and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Examples. The following examples illustrate the provisions of this section. For purposes of these examples, assume the taxpayer is a United States citizen, uses a calendar taxable year, and Year 1 and all subsequent years are taxable years in which section 1411 is in effect:

Example 1. Exclusion from self-employment income. A is a general partner in PRS, a partnership carrying on a trade or business that is not a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities (within the meaning of §1.1411-5(a)(2)). During Year 1, A's distributive share from PRS is $1 million, $300,000 of which is attributable to the gain on the sale of PRS's capital assets. Section 1402(a)(3)(A) provides an exclusion from net earnings from self-employment for any gain or loss from the sale or exchange of a capital asset. For Year 1, A has $700,000 self-employment income subject to self-employment tax. This $700,000 subject to self-employment tax is not included as part of net investment income under paragraph (a) of this section. However, the $300,000 attributable to the gain on PRS's sale of a capital asset is excluded from net earnings from self-employment, and from self-employment income, and thus is not covered by the exception in section 1411(c)(6). Therefore, the $300,000 attributable to the gain on PRS's sale of a capital asset is included as net investment income if the other requirements of section 1411 are satisfied.
Example 2. Two trades or businesses. B is an individual engaged in two trades or businesses, Business X and Business Y, neither of which is the trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(2)). B carries on Business X as a sole proprietor and B is also a general partner in a partnership that carries on Business Y. Business Y is a nonpassive activity of B. During Year 1, B had net earnings from self-employment consisting of the aggregate of a $50,000 loss (that is, after application of the exclusions under section 1402(a)(1)-(17)) from Business X, and $70,000 in income (after application of the exclusions under section 1402(a)(1)-(17)) from B's distributive share from the partnership from carrying on Business Y. Thus, B's net earnings from self-employment in Year 1 are $20,000. For Year 1, all of B's income, deductions, gains, and losses from Business X and distributive share from the partnership carrying on Business Y, other than those amounts excluded due to application of section 1402(a)(1)-(17), are taken into account in determining B's net earnings from self-employment and self-employment income for such taxable year. Accordingly, in calculating B's net investment income (as defined in §1.1411-4) for Year 1, B will not take into account the items of income, loss, gain, and deduction that comprise B's $50,000 loss attributable to Business X (after application of the exclusions under section 1402(a)(1)-(17)), and the items of income, loss, gain, and deduction that comprise B's $70,000 distributable share attributable to B's general partnership interest (after application of the exclusions under section 1402(a)(1)-(17)). Rather, only items of income, loss, gain, and deduction from the two separate businesses that were excluded from the calculation of B's net earnings from self-employment income due to the application of the exclusions under section 1402(a)(1)-(17), such as any capital gains and losses excluded under section 1402(a)(3), are considered for purposes of calculating B's net investment income for Year 1 in connection with these two trades or businesses.
Example 3. Special rule for trader with single trade or business. D is an individual engaged in the trade or business of trading in commodities (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(2)). D made a valid and timely election under section 475(f)(2). D derives $400,000 of trading gains, which are gross income described in §1.1411-4(a)(1) and $15,000 of expenses described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii) from carrying on the trade or business. Pursuant to sections 475(f)(1)(D) and 1402(a)(3)(A), none of the gross income is taken into account in determining D's net earnings from self-employment and self-employment income. Therefore, under paragraph (a) of this section, the $400,000 of gross income is not covered by the exception in section 1411(c)(6). Because D had $0 net earnings from self-employment, the $15,000 of deductions did not reduce D's net earnings from self-employment under paragraph (b) of this section and §1.1411-(4)(f)(2)(ii). Therefore, the $15,000 of deductions may reduce D's gross income of $400,000 for purposes of section 1411.
Example 4. Special rule for trader with multiple trades or businesses. E is an individual engaged in two trades or businesses, Business X (which is not a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities) and Business Y (which is a trade or business of trading in financial instruments or commodities (as described in §1.1411-5(a)(2)). E made a valid and timely election under section 475(f) with respect to Business Y. During Year 1, E had net earnings from self-employment from Business X of $35,000. During Year 1, E also had $300,000 of trading gains, which are gross income described in §1.1411-4(a)(1) and $40,000 of expenses described in §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii) from Business Y. E's $300,000 of gross income from Business Y is excluded from net earnings from self-employment and self-employment income pursuant to sections 475(f)(1)(D) and 1402(a)(3)(A). E's $40,000 of deductions from Business Y reduce E's $35,000 of net earnings from self-employment from Business X to $0. Pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section and §1.1411-4(f)(2)(ii), the remaining $5,000 of deductions from Business Y are taken into account in determining E's net investment income (by reducing E's gross income of $300,000 from Business Y to $295,000) for purposes of section 1411.

(d) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013]

§1.1411-10   Controlled foreign corporations and passive foreign investment companies.

(a) In general. This section provides rules that apply to an individual, estate, or trust that is a United States shareholder of a controlled foreign corporation (CFC), or that is a United States person that directly or indirectly owns an interest in a passive foreign investment company (PFIC). In addition, this section provides rules that apply to an individual, estate, or trust that owns an interest in a domestic partnership or an S corporation that is either a United States shareholder of a CFC or that has made an election under section 1295 to treat a PFIC as a qualified electing fund (QEF). References in this section to an election under paragraph (g) of this section being in effect relate to an election that is applicable to the person that is determining the section 1411 consequences with respect to holding a particular CFC or QEF.

(b) Amounts derived from a trade or business described in §1.1411-5—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, an amount included in gross income under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) that is also income derived from a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2) and §1.1411-5 (applying the relevant rules in §1.1411-4(b)) is taken into account as net investment income under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii) for purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder when it is taken into account for purposes of chapter 1, and the rules in paragraphs (c) through (g) of this section do not apply to that amount. For purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, an amount included in gross income under section 1296(a) that is also income derived from a trade or business described in section 1411(c)(2) and §1.1411-5 (applying the relevant rules in §1.1411-4(b)), is net investment income within the meaning of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(ii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(ii), and the rules in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section do not apply to that amount.

(2) Coordination rule for changes in trade or business status. With respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, the rules in paragraphs (c) through (f) of this section apply to a distribution of earnings and profits described in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(A) of this section that was not taken into account as net investment income under paragraph (b) of this section.

(c) Calculation of net investment income—(1) Dividends. For purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i), net investment income is calculated by taking into account the amount of dividends described in this paragraph (c)(1).

(i) Distributions of previously taxed earnings and profits—(A) Rules when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect with respect to the shareholder—(1) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(1)(i), with respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, a distribution of earnings and profits that is not treated as a dividend for chapter 1 purposes under section 959(d) or section 1293(c) is a dividend for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) if the distribution is attributable to amounts that are or have been included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012. Solely, for this purpose, distributions of earnings and profits attributable to amounts that are or have been included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) are considered first attributable to those earnings and profits, if any, derived from the current taxable year, and then from prior taxable years beginning with the most recent prior taxable year, and with respect to amounts included under section 951(a), without regard to whether the earnings and profits are described in section 959(c)(1) or section 959(c)(2).

(2) Exception for distributions attributable to earnings and profits previously taken into account for purposes of section 1411. A distribution of earnings and profits that is not treated as a dividend for chapter 1 purposes under section 959(d) or section 1293(c) is not treated as a dividend for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i), to the extent that an individual, estate, or trust establishes, by providing information that is similar to, and in the same manner as, the information described in §1.959-1(d) (relating to previously taxed earnings and profits), that the distribution is attributable to—

(i) Amounts included in gross income by any person for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) that have been taken into account by any person as net investment income by reason of paragraph (b) of this section or an election under paragraph (g) of this section; or

(ii) Amounts included in gross income by any person as a dividend pursuant to section 1248(a) that, by reason of paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section, have been taken into account by any person as net investment income under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i).

(B) Rule when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect with respect to the shareholder. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(1)(i), if an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect, a distribution of earnings and profits that is not treated as a dividend for chapter 1 purposes under section 959(d) or section 1293(c) is not treated as a dividend for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i).

(C) Special rule for certain distributions related to 2013 taxable years—(1) Scope. The rule in this paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C) applies to individuals, estates, and trusts that were subject to section 1411 during a taxable year that began after December 31, 2012, and before January 1, 2014, and that satisfy all of the conditions set forth in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C)(2) of this section. This rule also applies to all domestic partnerships and S corporations that satisfy all of the conditions set forth in paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C)(2) of this section.

(2) Rule. A distribution of earnings and profits from a CFC or QEF, with respect to which an election under paragraph (g) is in effect, that is not treated as a dividend for chapter 1 purposes under section 959(d) or section 1293(c) is a dividend for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) to the extent that—

(i) The distribution of earnings and profits is attributable to an amount included by an individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation or common trust fund in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) with respect to the CFC or QEF for a taxable year that began after December 31, 2012, and before January 1, 2014;

(ii) The individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund made the election under paragraph (g) of this section with respect to the CFC or QEF in a taxable year that began after December 31, 2013; and

(iii) The individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund did not make the election described in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section (concerning making an election under paragraph (g) of this section for a taxable year that begins before January 1, 2014).

(3) Ordering rule. Solely, for purposes of this paragraph (c)(1)(i)(C)(3), distributions of earnings and profits attributable to amounts that have been included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) are considered first attributable to the earnings and profits derived from a taxable year that began after December 31, 2012, and before January 1, 2014.

(ii) Excess distributions that constitute dividends. To the extent an excess distribution within the meaning of section 1291(b) constitutes a dividend within the meaning of section 316(a), the amount is included in net investment income for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i).

(2) Net gain. For purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii), the rules in this paragraph (c)(2) apply in determining net gain attributable to the disposition of property.

(i) Gains treated as excess distributions. Gains treated as excess distributions under section 1291(a)(2) are included in determining net gain attributable to the disposition of property for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii).

(ii) Inclusions and deductions with respect to section 1296 mark to market elections. Amounts included in gross income under section 1296(a)(1) and amounts allowed as a deduction under section 1296(a)(2) are taken into account in determining net gain attributable to the disposition of property for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii).

(iii) Gain or loss attributable to the disposition of stock of CFCs and QEFs. With respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, for purposes of calculating the net gain under §§1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii) and 1.1411-4(d) that is attributable to the direct or indirect disposition of that stock (including for purposes of determining gain or loss on the direct or indirect disposition of that stock by a domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund), basis is determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section.

(iv) Gain or loss attributable to the disposition of interests in domestic partnerships or S corporations that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs. With respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, for purposes of calculating the net gain under §§1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii) and 1.1411-4(d) that is attributable to the disposition of an interest in a domestic partnership or S corporation that directly or indirectly owns that stock, basis is determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section.

(3) Application of section 1248. With respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, for purposes of section 1411 and §1.1411-4—

(i) In determining the gain recognized on the sale or exchange of stock of a foreign corporation for section 1248(a) purposes, basis is determined in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section; and

(ii) Section 1248(a) applies without regard to the exclusion for certain earnings and profits under sections 1248(d)(1) and (d)(6), except that those exclusions will apply with respect to the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation that are attributable to:

(A) Amounts taken into account as net investment income under paragraph (b) of this section; and

(B) Amounts previously included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) in a taxable year beginning before December 31, 2012, and that have not yet been distributed. For this purpose, the determination of whether earnings and profits that are attributable to amounts previously taxed in a taxable year beginning before December 31, 2012, have been distributed is determined based on the rules described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section.

(4) Amounts distributed by an estate or trust. Net investment income of a beneficiary of an estate or trust includes the beneficiary's share of distributable net income, as described in sections 652 and 662 and as modified by paragraph (f) of this section, to the extent that the beneficiary's share of distributable net income includes items that, if they had been received directly by the beneficiary, would have been described in this paragraph (c).

(5) Properly allocable deductions—(i) General rule. For purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(B) and §1.1411-4(f), the section 163(d)(1) investment expense deduction may be calculated by—

(A) Increasing the amount of investment income determined for chapter 1 purposes under section 163(d)(4)(B) by the amount of dividends described in §1.1411-10(c) that are derived from a CFC or QEF with respect to which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect;

(B) Decreasing the amount of investment income determined for chapter 1 purposes under section 163(d)(4)(B) by the amount included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) that is attributable to a CFC or QEF with respect to which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect; and

(C) Increasing or decreasing, as applicable, the amount of investment income for chapter 1 purposes under section 163(d)(4)(B) by the difference between the amount calculated with respect to a disposition under paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) and (c)(2)(iv) of this section and the amount of the gain or loss attributable to the relevant disposition as calculated for chapter 1 purposes.

(ii) Additional rules. For purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(B) and §1.1411-4(f), if the method of calculation described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section is applied:

(A) The amount of investment interest not allowed as a deduction under section 163(d)(2) must be calculated consistent with the method of calculation described in paragraph (c)(5)(i).

(B) The method of calculation must be adopted by an individual, estate, or trust no later than the first year in which the individual, estate, or trust is subject to section 1411.

(C) The method of calculation must be applied with respect to all CFCs and QEFs for all taxable years with respect to which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect.

(D) A method of calculation under this paragraph is a method of accounting, which must be applied consistently, and may only be changed by the taxpayer by securing the consent of the Commissioner in accordance with §1.446-1(e) and following the administrative procedures issued under §1.446-1(e)(3)(ii).

(d) Conforming basis adjustments—(1) Basis adjustments under sections 961 and 1293—(i) Stock held by individuals, estates, or trusts. With respect to stock of a CFC or QEF which is held by an individual, estate, or trust, either directly or indirectly through one or more entities each of which is foreign, for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect—

(A) The basis increases made pursuant to sections 961(a) and 1293(d) for amounts included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under sections 951(a) and 1293(a) in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, are not taken into account for purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder; and

(B) The basis decreases made pursuant to sections 961(b) and 1293(d) attributable to amounts treated as dividends for purposes of section 1411 under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section are not taken into account for purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder.

(ii) Stock held by domestic partnerships or S corporations—(A) Rule when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect. The rules of this paragraph (d)(1)(ii)(A) apply with respect to stock of a CFC or QEF held directly by a domestic partnership or S corporation, or indirectly through one or more entities each of which is foreign, for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect. If an individual, estate, or trust is a shareholder of an S corporation, or if an individual, estate, or trust directly, or through one or more tiers of passthrough entities (including an S corporation), owns an interest in a domestic partnership, the S corporation or domestic partnership, as the case may be, will not take into account for purposes of section 1411 and the regulations thereunder the basis increases made by the domestic partnership or S corporation pursuant to sections 961(a) and 1293(d) for amounts included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under sections 951(a) and 1293(a) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, and the basis decreases made by the domestic partnership or S corporation pursuant to sections 961(b) and 1293(d) attributable to amounts treated as dividends for purposes of section 1411 under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section (the section 1411 recalculated basis). If the domestic partnership or S corporation disposes of the stock of a CFC or QEF, the section 1411 recalculated basis will be used to determine the distributive share or pro rata share of the gain or loss for purposes of section 1411 for partners or shareholders.

(B) Rules when an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect. If an election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect with respect to stock of a CFC or QEF held directly or indirectly by a domestic partnership or S corporation, the partner's distributive share or the shareholder's pro rata share of the gain or loss for purposes of section 1411 is the same as the distributive share or pro rata share of the gain or loss for purposes of chapter 1. See Example 6 of paragraph (h) of this section.

(2) Special rules for partners that own interests in domestic partnerships that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs. The rules of this paragraph (d)(2) apply with respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, and that is held by a domestic partnership, either directly or indirectly through one or more entities each of which is foreign. In such a case, the basis increases provided under section 705(a)(1)(A) to the partners for purposes of chapter 1 that are attributable to amounts that the domestic partnership includes or included in gross income under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) for a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2012, are not taken into account for purposes of section 1411. Instead, each partner's adjusted basis in the partnership interest is increased by its share of any distributions to the partnership from the CFC or QEF that are treated as dividends for purposes of section 1411 under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Similar rules apply when the stock of the CFC or QEF is held in a tiered partnership structure. For purposes of determining net investment income under section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, the partner's adjusted basis in the partnership interest as calculated under this paragraph (d)(2) is used to determine all tax consequences related to tax basis (for example, loss limitation rules and the characterization of partnership distributions).

(3) Special rules for S corporation shareholders that own interests in S corporations that own directly or indirectly stock of CFCs or QEFs. The rules of this paragraph (d)(3) apply with respect to stock of a CFC or QEF for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section is not in effect, and that is held by an S corporation, directly or indirectly through one or more entities each of which is foreign. In such case, the basis increases provided in section 1367(a)(1)(A) to its shareholders for chapter 1 purposes that are attributable to amounts that the S corporation includes or included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, are not taken into account for purposes of section 1411. Instead, each shareholder's adjusted basis of stock in the S corporation is increased by its share of the distributions to the S corporation from the CFC or QEF that are treated as dividends for purposes of section 1411 under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. Similar rules apply when the S corporation holds an interest in a CFC or QEF through a partnership. For purposes of determining net investment income under section 1411 and the regulations thereunder, the shareholder's adjusted basis in the stock of the S corporation as calculated under this paragraph (d)(3) is used to determine all tax consequences related to tax basis (for example, loss limitation rules and the characterization of S corporation distributions).

(4) Special rules for participants in common trust funds. Rules similar to the rules in paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section apply to ownership interests in common trust funds (as defined in section 584).

(e) Conforming adjustments to modified adjusted gross income and adjusted gross income—(1) Individuals. Solely for purposes of section 1411(a)(1)(B)(i) and the regulations thereunder, the term modified adjusted gross income means modified adjusted gross income as defined in §1.1411-2(c)(1)—

(i) Increased by amounts included in net investment income under paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), (c)(2)(i), and (c)(4) of this section that are not otherwise included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes;

(ii) Increased or decreased, as applicable, by the difference between the amount calculated with respect to a disposition under paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) and (iv) of this section and the amount of the gain or loss attributable to the relevant disposition as calculated for chapter 1 purposes;

(iii) Decreased by any amount included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) attributable to a CFC or QEF with respect to which no election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect; and

(iv) To the extent the section 163(d)(1) investment interest expense deduction is calculated using the method of calculation set forth in paragraph (c)(5) of this section and the deduction is taken into account under §1.1411-4(f)(2), increased or decreased, as appropriate, by the difference between the amount of the section 163(d)(1) investment interest expense deduction calculated under paragraph (c)(5) of this section and the amount calculated for chapter 1 purposes.

(2) Estates and trusts. Solely for purposes of section 1411(a)(2)(B)(i) and the regulations thereunder, the term adjusted gross income means adjusted gross income as defined in §1.1411-3(a)(1)(ii)(B)(1) adjusted by the following amounts to the extent those amounts are not distributed by the estate or trust—

(i) Increased by amounts included in net investment income under paragraphs (c)(1)(i), (c)(1)(ii), (c)(2)(i), and (c)(4) of this section that are not otherwise included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes;

(ii) Increased or decreased, as applicable, by the difference between the amount calculated with respect to a disposition under paragraphs (c)(2)(iii) and (iv) of this section and the amount of the gain or loss attributable to the relevant disposition as calculated for chapter 1 purposes;

(iii) Decreased by any amount included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) attributable to a CFC or QEF with respect to which no election under paragraph (g) of this section is in effect; and

(iv) To the extent the section 163(d)(1) investment interest expense deduction is calculated using the method of calculation set forth in paragraph (c)(5) of this section and taken into account under §1.1411-4(f)(2), increased or decreased, as appropriate, by the difference between the amount of the section 163(d)(1) investment interest expense deduction calculated under paragraph (c)(5) of this section and the amount calculated for chapter 1 purposes.

(f) Application to estates and trusts. All of the items described in paragraph (c) of this section are included in the net investment income of an estate or trust or its beneficiaries. The amounts described in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) through (iv) of this section, regardless of whether the estate or trust receives those amounts directly or indirectly through another estate or trust, increase or decrease, as applicable, the estate's or trust's distributable net income for purposes of section 1411. The estate or trust, or the beneficiaries thereof, must take those amounts into account in a manner reasonably consistent with the general operating rules for estates and trusts in §1.1411-3 and subchapter J in computing the undistributed net investment income of the estate or trust and the net investment income of the beneficiaries.

(g) Election with respect to CFCs and QEFs—(1) Effect of election. If an election under paragraph (g) of this section is made with respect to a CFC or QEF, amounts included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a)(1)(A) with respect to the CFC or QEF in taxable years beginning with the taxable year for which the election is made are treated as net investment income for purposes of §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i), and amounts included in gross income under section 1293(a)(1)(B) with respect to the QEF in taxable years beginning with the taxable year for which the election is made are taken into account in calculating net gain attributable to the disposition of property under §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii). See paragraphs (c)(1)(i)(B) and (c)(1)(i)(C) of this section for the effect of this election on certain distributions of previously taxed earnings and profits.

(2) Years to which election applies—(i) In general. An election under paragraph (g) of this section applies to the taxable year for which it is made and all subsequent taxable years, and applies to all subsequently acquired interests in the CFC or QEF. An election under paragraph (g) of this section is irrevocable.

(ii) Termination of interest in CFC or QEF. Complete termination of a person's interest in the CFC or QEF does not terminate the person's election under paragraph (g) of this section with respect to the CFC or QEF. Thus, if the person reacquires stock of the CFC or QEF, that stock is considered to be stock for which an election under paragraph (g) of this section has been made and is in effect.

(iii) Termination of partnership. If a domestic partnership that makes the election under paragraph (g) of this section is terminated pursuant to section 708(b)(1)(B), the election is binding on the new partnership.

(3) Who may make the election. An individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund may make an election under paragraph (g) of this section with respect to each CFC or QEF that it holds directly or indirectly through one or more entities, each of which is foreign. In addition, an individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund may make an election under paragraph (g) of this section with respect to a CFC or QEF that it holds indirectly through a domestic partnership, S corporation, estate, trust, or common trust fund if the domestic partnership, S corporation, estate, trust, or common trust fund does not make the election. The election, if made, for an estate or trust must be made by the fiduciary of that estate or trust.

(4) Time and manner for making the election—(i) Individuals, estates, and trusts—(A) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, in order for an election under paragraph (g) of this section by an individual, estate, or trust (other than a CRT) with respect to a CFC or QEF to be effective, the election must be made no later than the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2013, during which the individual, estate, or trust—

(1) Includes an amount in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) with respect to the CFC or QEF; and

(2) Is subject to tax under section 1411 or would be subject to tax under section 1411 if the election were made with respect to the stock of the CFC or QEF.

(B) Special rule for charitable remainder trusts (CRTs). Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, in order for an election under paragraph (g) of this section by a CRT with respect to a CFC or QEF to be effective, the election must be made no later than the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2013, during which the CRT includes an amount in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) with respect to the CFC or QEF.

(ii) Certain domestic passthrough entities. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, in order for an election under paragraph (g) of this section by a domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund with respect to a CFC or a QEF to be effective, the election must be made no later than the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2013, during which the domestic partnership S corporation, or common trust fund—

(A) Includes an amount in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) or section 1293(a) with respect to the CFC or QEF; and

(B) Has a direct or indirect owner that is subject to tax under section 1411 or would be subject to tax under section 1411 if the election were made.

(iii) Taxable years that begin before January 1, 2014—(A) Individuals, estates, or trusts. An individual, estate, or trust may make an election under paragraph (g) of this section for a taxable year that begins before January 1, 2014.

(B) Certain domestic passthrough entities. A domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund may make an election under paragraph (g) of this section for a taxable year that begins before January 1, 2014, provided that all of its partners, shareholders, or participants, as the case may be, consent to the election. In the case of a partner, shareholder, or participant that is a partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund, all of the partners, shareholders, and participants also must consent to the election.

(iv) Time for making election. In all cases, the election under paragraph (g) of this section must be made in the manner prescribed by forms, instructions, or in other guidance on the individual's, estate's, trust's, domestic partnership's, S corporation's, or common trust fund's original or amended return for the taxable year for which the election is made. An election can be made on an amended return only if the taxable year for which the election is made, and all taxable years that are affected by the election, are not closed by the period of limitations on assessments under section 6501. An individual, estate, trust, domestic partnership, S corporation, or common trust fund may not seek an extension of time to make the election under any other provision of the law, including §301.9100 of this chapter.

(h) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this section. In each example, unless otherwise indicated, the individuals, the foreign corporation (FC), the QEF (QEF), and the partnership (PRS) use a calendar taxable year. Further, the gross income or gain with respect to an interest in FC is not derived in a trade or business described in §1.1411-5.

Example 1. (i) Facts. A, a United States citizen, is the sole shareholder of FC, a controlled foreign corporation (within the meaning of section 957). A is a United States shareholder (within the meaning of section 951(b)) with respect to FC. In 2012, A includes $40,000 in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a)(1)(A) with respect to FC. On December 31, 2012, A's basis in the stock of FC for chapter 1 purposes is $500,000, which includes an increase to basis under section 961(a) of $40,000. The amount of FC's earnings and profits that are described in section 959(c)(2) is $40,000, the amount of FC's earnings and profits that are described in section 959(c)(3) is $20,000, and FC does not have any earnings and profits that are described in section 959(c)(1). No election is made under paragraph (g) of this section. During 2013, A does not include any amounts in income under section 951(a) with respect to FC, A does not receive any distributions from FC, and there is no change in the amount of FC's earnings and profits. In 2014, A includes $10,000 in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a)(1)(A) with respect to FC. As a result, A's basis in the stock of FC for chapter 1 purposes increases by $10,000 to $510,000 pursuant to section 961(a). During 2015, FC distributes $30,000 to A, which is not treated as a dividend for purposes of chapter 1 under section 959(d). As a result, A's basis in the stock of FC for chapter 1 purposes is decreased by $30,000 to $480,000 pursuant to section 961(b).

(ii) Results for section 1411 purposes. In 2014, A does not include the $10,000 section 951(a) income inclusion in A's net investment income under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(iii) of this section, A decreases A's modified adjusted gross income for section 1411 purposes by $10,000 in 2014, and pursuant to paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, A's adjusted basis is not increased by $10,000 and remains at $500,000. In 2015, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, A includes $10,000 of the distribution of previously taxed earnings and profits as a dividend for purposes of determining A's net investment income because $10,000 of the $30,000 distribution is attributable to amounts that A included in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) in a tax year that began after December 31, 2012. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, A increases A's modified adjusted gross income for section 1411 purposes by $10,000 in 2015. Under paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, A's adjusted basis is not decreased by the $10,000 that is treated as a dividend for section 1411 purposes, and thus, A's adjusted basis in FC for section 1411 purposes is decreased under section 961 only by $20,000 to $480,000.

Example 2. (i) Facts. Same facts as Example 1. In addition, during 2016, A includes $15,000 in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a)(1)(A) with respect to FC. As a result, A's basis in the stock of FC for chapter 1 purposes increases by $15,000 to $495,000 pursuant to section 961(a). During 2017, A sells all of A's shares of FC for $550,000 and, prior to the application of section 1248, recognizes $55,000 ($550,000 minus $495,000) of long-term capital gain for chapter 1 purposes. For purposes of calculating the amount included in income as a dividend pursuant to section 1248(a) for chapter 1 purposes, the earnings and profits of FC attributable to A's shares in FC which were accumulated after December 31,1962 and during the period which A held the stock while FC was a controlled foreign corporation is $55,000, $35,000 of which is excluded pursuant to section 1248(d)(1). Therefore, after the application of section 1248, for chapter 1 purposes, upon the sale of the FC stock, A recognizes $35,000 of long-term capital gain and a $20,000 dividend.

(ii) Results for section 1411 purposes. (A) In 2016, A does not include the $15,000 section 951(a)(1)(A) income inclusion in A's net investment income under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-1(a)(1)(i). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, A decreases A's modified adjusted gross income for section 1411 purposes by $15,000, and, pursuant to paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, A's adjusted basis remains at $480,000.

(B) During 2017, prior to the application of section 1248, A recognizes $70,000 ($550,000 minus $480,000) of gain for section 1411 purposes. Pursuant to paragraph (c)(3) of this section, for section 1411 purposes, section 1248(a) applies to the gain on the sale of FC calculated for section 1411 purposes ($70,000) and section 1248(d)(1) does not apply, except with respect to the $20,000 of earnings and profits of FC that are attributable to amounts previously included in income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951 for a taxable year beginning before December 31, 2012. Accordingly, for purposes of calculating the amount of income includible as a dividend under section 1248(a), A has $55,000 of earnings and profits, $20,000 of which is excluded pursuant to section 1248(d)(1). Therefore, after the application of section 1248, for section 1411 purposes A has $35,000 of long-term capital gain and a $35,000 dividend. For purposes of calculating net investment income in 2017, A includes $35,000 as a dividend under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i) and $35,000 as a gain under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii).

Example 3. (i) Facts. Same facts as Example 2, except that A timely makes an election under paragraph (g)(4)(i) of this section for 2014 (and thus for all subsequent years).

(ii) Results for section 1411 purposes. A does not have any adjustments to A's modified adjusted gross income for section 1411 purposes for 2014, 2015, 2016 or 2017 because the election under paragraph (g)(4)(i) of this section was timely made. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, for purposes of calculating A's net investment income in 2014, the $10,000 that A included in income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) is net investment income for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i). A has no amount of net investment income with respect to FC in 2015. Pursuant to paragraph (g)(2) of this section, for purposes of calculating A's net investment income in 2016, the $15,000 that A included in income for chapter 1 purposes under section 951(a) is net investment income for purposes of section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i). For purposes of calculating A's net investment income in 2017, the amount of gain on the disposition of the FC shares is the same as the amount calculated for chapter 1 purposes. Applying section 1248, A includes $35,000 as a gain under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(iii) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(iii), and $20,000 as a dividend under section 1411(c)(1)(A)(i) and §1.1411-4(a)(1)(i).

Example 4. Domestic partnership holding QEF stock. (i) Facts. (A) C, a United States citizen, owns a 50% interest in PRS, a domestic partnership. D, a United States citizen, and E, a United States citizen, each own a 25% interest in PRS. All allocations of partnership income and losses are pro rata based on ownership interests. PRS owns an interest in QEF, a foreign corporation that is a passive foreign investment company (within the meaning of section 1297(a)). PRS, a United States person, made an election under section 1295 with respect to QEF applicable to the first year of its holding period in QEF. As of December 31, 2012, for chapter 1 purposes, C's basis in his partnership interest is $100,000, D's basis in his partnership interest is $50,000, E's basis in his partnership interest is $50,000, and PRS's adjusted basis in its QEF stock is $80,000, which includes an increase in basis under section 1293(d) of $40,000. As of December 31, 2012, the amount of QEF's earnings that have been included in income by PRS under section 1293(a), but have not been distributed by QEF, is $40,000. PRS also has cash of $60,000 and domestic C corporation stock with an adjusted basis of $60,000. During 2013, PRS does not include any amounts in income under section 1293(a) with respect to QEF, PRS does not receive any distributions from QEF, and there are no adjustments to the basis of C, D, or E in their interests in PRS.

(B) During 2014, PRS has income of $40,000 under section 1293(a) with respect to QEF and has no other partnership income. PRS does not make an election under paragraph (g) of this section.

(C) During 2015, QEF distributes $60,000 to PRS. PRS has no income for the year.

(ii) Results for 2014. (A) For chapter 1 purposes, as a result of the $40,000 income inclusion under section 1293(a), PRS's basis in its QEF stock is increased by $40,000 under section 1293(d)(1) to $120,000. Under §1.1293-1(c)(1) and section 702, C's, D's, and E's distributive shares of the section 1293(a) income inclusion are $20,000, $10,000, and $10,000, respectively. Under section 705(a)(1)(A), C increases his adjusted basis in his partnership interest by $20,000 to $120,000, and D and E each increase his adjusted basis in his partnership interest by $10,000 to $60,000.

(B) For section 1411 purposes, pursuant to paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, PRS's basis in QEF is not increased by the $40,000 income inclusion (it remains at $80,000). Because PRS did not make an election under paragraph (g) of this section, C, D and E do not have net investment income with respect to the income inclusion, and pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section, they do not increase their adjusted bases in their interests in PRS (each remains at $50,000). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, C reduces his modified adjusted gross income by $20,000, and D and E each reduce their modified adjusted gross income by $10,000.

(iii) Results for 2015. (A) For chapter 1 purposes, the distribution of $60,000 from QEF to PRS is not a dividend under section 1293(c), and PRS decreases its basis in QEF by $60,000 under section 1293(d)(2) to $60,000.

(B) Pursuant to paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, $40,000 of the distribution is a dividend for section 1411 purposes because PRS included $40,000 in gross income for chapter 1 purposes under section 1293(a) in a tax year that began after December 31, 2012. For section 1411 purposes, pursuant to paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, section 1293(d) will not apply to reduce PRS's basis in QEF to the extent of the $40,000 of the distribution that is treated as a dividend under paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section. Thus, PRS's basis in QEF is decreased only by $20,000 for purposes of section 1411 and is $60,000. The $40,000 distribution of previously taxed earnings and profits that is treated as a dividend for section 1411 purposes is allocated $20,000 to C, $10,000 to D, and $10,000 to E. Because PRS did not make an election under paragraph (g) of this section, pursuant to paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, C has $20,000 of net investment income, and D and E each has $10,000 of net investment income as a result of the distribution by QEF, and pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section, C increases his adjusted basis in PRS by $20,000 to $120,000, and D and E each increases his adjusted basis in PRS by $10,000 to $60,000. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section, C increases his modified adjusted gross income by $20,000, and D and E each increases his modified adjusted gross income by $10,000.

Example 5. Sale of partnership interest. (i) Facts. Same facts as Example 4. In addition, in 2016, D sells his entire interest in PRS to F for $100,000.

(ii) Results for 2016. For chapter 1 purposes, D has a gain of $40,000 ($100,000 minus $60,000). For section 1411 purposes, D has a gain of $40,000 ($100,000 minus $60,000), and thus, has net investment income of $40,000. No adjustments to modified adjusted gross income are necessary under paragraph (e) of this section.

Example 6. Domestic partnership's sale of QEF stock. (i) Facts. Same facts as Example 4. In addition, in 2016 PRS has income of $60,000 under section 1293(a) with respect to QEF, and in 2017, PRS sells its entire interest in QEF for $170,000.

(ii) Results for 2016. (A) For chapter 1 purposes, as a result of the $60,000 income inclusion under section 1293(a), PRS's basis in its QEF stock is increased by $60,000 under section 1293(d)(1) to $120,000. Under §1.1293-1(c)(1) and section 702, C's, D's, and E's distributive shares of the section 1293(a) income inclusion are $30,000, $15,000, and $15,000 respectively. Under section 705(a)(1)(A), C increases his adjusted basis in his partnership interest by $30,000 to $150,000, and D and E each increases his adjusted basis in his partnership interest by $15,000 to $75,000.

(B) For section 1411 purposes, pursuant to paragraph (d)(1)(ii) of this section, PRS's basis in QEF is not increased by the $60,000 income inclusion (it remains at $60,000). Because PRS did not make an election under paragraph (g) of this section, C, D and E do not have net investment income with respect to the income inclusion, and pursuant to paragraph (d)(2) of this section, they do not increase their adjusted bases in their interests in PRS (C remains at $120,000, and D and E each remain at $60,000). Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, C reduces his modified adjusted gross income by $30,000, and D and E each reduce their modified adjusted gross income by $15,000.

(iii) Results for 2017. (A) For chapter 1 purposes, PRS has a gain of $50,000 ($170,000 minus $120,000), which is allocated 50% ($25,000) to C, 25% ($12,500) to D, and 25% ($12,500) to E.

(B) Based on PRS's basis in the stock of QEF for section 1411 purposes, PRS has a gain for section 1411 purposes of $110,000 ($170,000 minus $60,000), which in the absence of an election by PRS under paragraph (g) of this section, results in gain of $55,000 to C, $27,500 to D, and $27,500 to E. Therefore, C has net investment income of $55,000, and D and E each have net investment income of $27,500. Pursuant to paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, C increases his modified adjusted gross income by $30,000, and D and E each increase their modified adjusted gross income by $15,000.

(i) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013. However, taxpayers may apply this section to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012, in accordance with §1.1411-1(f).

[T.D. 9644, 78 FR 72424, Dec. 2, 2013, as amended at 79 FR 18160, Apr. 1, 2014]

Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax-Free Covenant Bonds

NONRESIDENT ALIENS AND FOREIGN CORPORATIONS

§1.1441-0   Outline of regulation provisions for section 1441.

This section lists captions contained in §§1.1441-1 through 1.1441-9.

§1.1441-1   Requirement for the deduction and withholding of tax on payments to foreign persons.

(a) Purpose and scope.

(b) General rules of withholding.

(1) Requirement to withhold on payments to foreign persons.

(2) Determination of payee and payee's status.

(i) In general.

(ii) Payments to a U.S. agent of a foreign person.

(iii) Payments to wholly-owned entities.

(A) Foreign-owned domestic entity.

(B) Foreign entity.

(iv) Payments to a U.S. branch of certain foreign banks or foreign insurance companies.

(A) U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person in certain cases.

(B) Consequences to the withholding agent.

(C) Consequences to the U.S. branch.

(D) Definition of payment to a U.S. branch.

(E) Payments to other U.S. branches.

(v) Payments to a foreign intermediary.

(A) Payments treated as made to persons for whom the intermediary collects the payment.

(B) Payments treated as made to foreign intermediary.

(vi) Other payees.

(vii) Rules for reliably associating a payment with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation.

(A) Generally.

(B) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate from a nonqualified intermediary or flow-through entity.

(C) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that does not assume primary withholding responsibility.

(D) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(E) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility but not primary withholding under chapter 3.

(F) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 and primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility and a withholding certificate provided by a withholding foreign partnership.

(3) Presumptions regarding payee's status in the absence of documentation.

(i) General rules.

(ii) Presumptions of classification as individual, corporation, partnership, etc.

(A) In general.

(B) No documentation provided.

(C) Documentary evidence furnished for offshore account.

(iii) Presumption of U.S. or foreign status.

(A) Payments to exempt recipients.

(B) Scholarships and grants.

(C) Pensions, annuities, etc.

(D) Certain payments to offshore accounts.

(iv) Grace period.

(v) Special rules applicable to payments to foreign intermediaries.

(A) Reliance on claim of status as foreign intermediary.

(B) Beneficial owner documentation or allocation information is lacking or unreliable.

(C) Information regarding allocation of payment is lacking or unreliable.

(D) Certification that the foreign intermediary has furnished documentation for all of the persons to whom the intermediary certificate relates is lacking or unreliable.

(vi) U.S. branches.

(vii) Joint payees.

(A) In general.

(B) Special rule for offshore accounts.

(viii) Rebuttal of presumptions.

(ix) Effect of reliance on presumptions and of actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise.

(A) General rule.

(B) Actual knowledge or reason to know that amount of withholding is greater than is required under the presumptions or that reporting of the payment is required.

(x) Examples.

(4) List of exemptions from, or reduced rates of, withholding under chapter 3 of the Code.

(5) Establishing foreign status under applicable provisions of chapter 61 of the Code.

(6) Rules of withholding for payments by a foreign intermediary or certain U.S. branches.

(i) In general.

(ii) Example.

(7) Liability for failure to obtain documentation timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Proof that tax liability has been satisfied.

(iii) Liability for interest and penalties.

(iv) Special effective date.

(v) Examples.

(8) Adjustments, refunds, or credits of overwithheld amounts.

(9) Payments to joint owners.

(c) Definitions.

(1) Withholding.

(2) Foreign and U.S. person.

(3) Individual.

(i) Alien individual.

(ii) Nonresident alien individual.

(4) Certain foreign corporations.

(5) Financial institution and foreign financial institution.

(6) Beneficial owner.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Special rules.

(A) General rule.

(B) Foreign partnerships.

(C) Foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts.

(D) Other foreign trusts and foreign estates.

(7) Withholding agent.

(8) Person.

(9) Source of income.

(10) Chapter 3 of the Code.

(11) Reduced rate.

(12) Payee.

(13) Intermediary.

(14) Nonqualified intermediary.

(15) Qualified intermediary.

(16) Withholding certificate.

(17) Documentary evidence; other appropriate documentation.

(18) Documentation.

(19) Payor.

(20) Exempt recipient.

(21) Non-exempt recipient.

(22) Reportable amounts.

(23) Flow-through entity.

(24) Foreign simple trust.

(25) Foreign complex trust.

(26) Foreign grantor trust.

(27) Partnership.

(28) Nonwithholding foreign partnership.

(29) Withholding foreign partnership.

(d) Beneficial owner's or payee's claim of U.S. status.

(1) In general.

(2) Payments for which a Form W-9 is otherwise required.

(3) Payments for which a Form W-9 is not otherwise required.

(4) When a payment to an intermediary or flow-through entity may be treated as made to a U.S. payee.

(e) Beneficial owner's claim of foreign status.

(1) Withholding agent's reliance.

(i) In general.

(ii) Payments that a withholding agent may treat as made to a foreign person that is a beneficial owner.

(A) General rule.

(B) Additional requirements.

(2) Beneficial owner withholding certificate.

(i) In general.

(ii) Requirements for validity of certificate.

(3) Intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch withholding certificate.

(i) In general.

(ii) Intermediary withholding certificate from a qualified intermediary.

(iii) Intermediary withholding certificate from a nonqualified intermediary.

(iv) Withholding statement provided by nonqualified Intermediary.

(A) In general.

(B) General requirements.

(C) Content of withholding statement.

(D) Alternative procedures.

(E) Notice procedures.

(v) Withholding certificate from certain U.S. branches.

(vi) Reportable amounts.

(4) Applicable rules.

(i) Who may sign the certificate.

(ii) Period of validity.

(A) Three-year period.

(B) Indefinite validity period.

(C) Withholding certificate for effectively connected income.

(D) Change in circumstances.

(iii) Retention of withholding certificate.

(iv) Electronic transmission of information.

(A) In general.

(B) Requirements.

(C) Special requirements for transmission of Forms W-8 by an intermediary. [Reserved]

(v) Electronic confirmation of taxpayer identifying number on withholding certificate.

(vi) Acceptable substitute form.

(vii) Requirement of taxpayer identifying number.

(viii) Reliance rules.

(A) Classification.

(B) Status of payee as an intermediary or as a person acting for its own account.

(ix) Certificates to be furnished for each account unless exception applies.

(A) Coordinated account information system in effect.

(B) Family of mutual funds.

(C) Special rule for brokers.

(5) Qualified intermediaries.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Definition of qualified intermediary.

(iii) Withholding agreement.

(A) In general.

(B) Terms of the withholding agreement.

(iv) Assignment of primary withholding responsibility.

(v) Withholding statement.

(A) General rule.

(B) Content of withholding statement.

(C) Withholding rate pools.

(f) Effective date.

(1) In general.

(2) Transition rules.

(i) Special rules for existing documentation.

(ii) Lack of documentation for past years.

§1.1441-2   Amounts subject to withholding.

(a) In general.

(b) Fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(1) In general.

(i) Definition.

(ii) Manner of payment.

(iii) Determinability of amount.

(2) Exceptions.

(3) Original issue discount.

(i) Amount subject to tax.

(ii) Amounts subject to withholding.

(4) Securities lending transactions and equivalent transactions.

(5) REMIC residual interests.

(c) Other income subject to withholding.

(d) Exceptions to withholding where no money or property is paid or lack of knowledge.

(1) General rule.

(2) Cancellation of debt.

(3) Satisfaction of liability following underwithholding by withholding agent.

(4) Withholding exemption inapplicable.

(e) Payment.

(1) General rule.

(2) Income allocated under section 482.

(3) Blocked income.

(4) Special rules for dividends.

(5) Certain interest accrued by a foreign corporation.

(6) Payments other than in U.S. dollars.

(f) Effective/applicability date.

§1.1441-3   Determination of amounts to be withheld.

(a) Withholding on gross amount.

(b) Withholding on payments on certain obligations.

(1) Withholding at time of payment of interest.

(2) No withholding between interest payment dates.

(i) In general.

(ii) Anti-abuse rule.

(c) Corporate distributions.

(1) General rule.

(2) Exception to withholding on distributions.

(i) In general.

(ii) Reasonable estimate of accumulated and current earnings and profits on the date of payment.

(A) General rule.

(B) Procedures in case of underwithholding.

(C) Reliance by intermediary on reasonable estimate.

(D) Example.

(3) Special rules in the case of distributions from a regulated investment company.

(i) General rule

(ii) Reliance by intermediary on reasonable estimate.

(4) Coordination with withholding under section 1445.

(i) In general.

(A) Withholding under section 1441.

(B) Withholding under both sections 1441 and 1445.

(C) Coordination with REIT withholding.

(ii) Intermediary reliance rule.

(d) Withholding on payments that include an undetermined amount of income.

(1) In general.

(2) Withholding on certain gains.

(e) Payments other than in U.S. dollars.

(1) In general.

(2) Payments in foreign currency.

(f) Tax liability of beneficial owner satisfied by withholding agent.

(1) General rule.

(2) Example.

(g) Conduit financing arrangements

(h) Effective date.

§1.1441-4   Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts.

(a) Certain income connected with a U.S. trade or business.

(1) In general.

(2) Withholding agent's reliance on a claim of effectively connected income.

(i) In general.

(ii) Special rules for U.S. branches of foreign persons.

(A) U.S. branches of certain foreign banks or foreign insurance companies.

(B) Other U.S. branches.

(3) Income on notional principal contracts.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Exception for certain payments.

(b) Compensation for personal services of an individual.

(1) Exemption from withholding.

(2) Manner of obtaining withholding exemption under tax treaty.

(i) In general.

(ii) Withholding certificate claiming withholding exemption.

(iii) Review by withholding agent.

(iv) Acceptance by withholding agent.

(v) Copies of Form 8233.

(3) Withholding agreements.

(4) Final payments exemption.

(i) General rule.

(ii) Final payment of compensation for personal services.

(iii) Manner of applying for final payment exemption.

(iv) Letter to withholding agent.

(5) Requirement of return.

(6) Personal exemption.

(i) In general.

(ii) Multiple exemptions.

(iii) Special rule where both certain scholarship and compensation income are received.

(c) Special rules for scholarship and fellowship income.

(1) In general.

(2) Alternate withholding election.

(d) Annuities received under qualified plans.

(e) Per diem of certain alien trainees.

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificates timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions.

(g) Effective date.

(1) General rule.

(2) Transition rules.

§1.1441-5   Withholding on payments to partnerships, trusts, and estates.

(a) In general.

(b) Rules applicable to U.S. partnerships, trusts, and estates.

(1) Payments to U.S. partnerships, trusts, and estates.

(2) Withholding by U.S. payees.

(i) U.S. partnerships.

(A) In general.

(B) Effectively connected income of partners.

(ii) U.S. simple trusts.

(iii) U.S. complex trusts and U.S. estates.

(iv) U.S. grantor trusts.

(v) Subsequent distribution.

(c) Foreign partnerships.

(1) Determination of payee.

(i) Payments treated as made to partners.

(ii) Payments treated as made to the partnership.

(iii) Rules for reliably associating a payment with documentation.

(iv) Examples.

(2) Withholding foreign partnerships.

(i) Reliance on claim of withholding foreign partnership status.

(ii) Withholding agreement.

(iii) Withholding responsibility.

(iv) Withholding certificate from a withholding foreign partnership.

(3) Nonwithholding foreign partnerships.

(i) Reliance on claim of foreign partnership status.

(ii) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding by a partnership for its partners.

(iii) Withholding certificate from a nonwithholding foreign partnership.

(iv) Withholding statement provided by nonwithholding foreign partnership.

(v) Withholding and reporting by a foreign partnership.

(d) Presumption rules.

(1) In general.

(2) Determination of partnership's status as domestic or foreign in the absence of documentation.

(3) Determination of partners' status in the absence of certain documentation.

(4) Determination by a withholding foreign partnership of the status of its partners.

(e) Foreign trusts and estates.

(1) In general.

(2) Payments to foreign complex trusts and estates.

(3) Payees of payments to foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts.

(i) Payments for which beneficiaries and owners are payees.

(ii) Payments for which trust is payee.

(4) Reliance on claim of foreign complex trust or foreign estate status.

(5) Foreign simple trust and foreign grantor trust.

(i) Reliance on claim of foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust status.

(ii) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding by a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust for its beneficiaries or owners.

(iii) Withholding certificate from foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust.

(iv) Withholding statement provided by a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust.

(v) Withholding foreign trusts.

(6) Presumption rules.

(i) In general.

(ii) Determination of status as U.S. or foreign trust or estate in the absence of documentation.

(iii) Determination of beneficiary or owner's status in the absence of certain documentation.

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions.

(g) Effective date.

(1) General rule.

(2) Transition rules.

§1.1441-6   Claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty.

(a) In general.

(b) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty.

(1) In general.

(2) Payment to fiscally transparent entity.

(i) In general.

(ii) Certification by qualified intermediary.

(iii) Dual treatment.

(iv) Examples.

(3) Certified TIN.

(4) Claim of benefits under an income tax treaty by a U.S. person.

(c) Exemption from requirement to furnish a taxpayer identifying number and special documentary evidence rules for certain income.

(1) In general.

(2) Income to which special rules apply.

(3) Certificate of residence.

(4) Documentary evidence establishing residence in the treaty country.

(i) Individuals.

(ii) Persons other than individuals.

(5) Statements regarding entitlement to treaty benefits.

(i) Statement regarding conditions under a limitation on benefits provision.

(ii) Statement regarding whether the taxpayer derives the income.

(d) Joint owners.

(e) Competent authority.

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely.

(g) Special taxpayer identifying number rule for certain foreign individuals claiming treaty benefits.

(1) General rule.

(2) Special rule.

(3) Requirement that an ITIN be requested during the first business day following payment.

(4) Definition of unexpected payment.

(5) Examples.

(h) Effective dates.

(1) General rule.

(2) Transition rules.

§1.1441-7   General provisions relating to withholding agents.

(a) Withholding agent defined.

(1) In general.

(2) Examples.

(b) Standards of knowledge.

(1) In general.

(2) Reason to know.

(3) Financial institutions—limits on reason to know.

(4) Rules applicable to withholding certificates.

(i) In general.

(ii) Examples.

(5) Withholding certificate—establishment of foreign status.

(6) Withholding certificate—claim of reduced rate of withholding under treaty.

(7) Documentary evidence.

(8) Documentary evidence—establishment of foreign status.

(9) Documentary evidence—claim of reduced rate of withholding under treaty.

(10) Limits on reason to know—indirect account holders.

(11) Additional guidance.

(c) Authorized agent.

(1) In general.

(2) Authorized foreign agent.

(3) Notification.

(4) Liability of U.S. withholding agent.

(5) Filing of returns.

(d) United States obligations.

(e) Assumed obligations.

(f) Conduit financing arrangements.

(g) Effective date.

§1.1441-8   Exemption from withholding for payments to foreign governments, international organizations, foreign central banks of issue, and the Bank for International Settlements.

(a) Foreign governments.

(b) Reliance on claim of exemption by foreign government.

(c) Income of a foreign central bank of issue or the Bank for International

Settlements.

(1) Certain interest income.

(2) Bankers' acceptances.

(d) Exemption for payments to international organizations.

(e) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely and other applicable procedures.

(f) Effective date.

(1) In general.

(2) Transition rules.

§1.1441-9   Exemption from withholding on exempt income of a foreign tax-exempt organization, including foreign private foundations.

(a) Exemption from withholding for exempt income.

(b) Reliance on foreign organization's claim of exemption from withholding.

(1) General rule.

(2) Withholding certificate.

(3) Presumptions in the absence of documentation.

(4) Reason to know.

(c) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely and other applicable procedures.

(d) Effective date.

(1) In general.

(2) Transition rules.

[T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53421, Oct. 14, 1997, as amended by T.D. 8881, 66 FR 32168, May 22, 2000; T.D. 9023, 67 FR 70312, Nov. 22, 2002; T.D. 9272, 71 FR 43366, Aug. 1, 2006; T.D. 9415, 73 FR 40172, July 14, 2008]

§1.1441-1   Requirement for the deduction and withholding of tax on payments to foreign persons.

(a) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(a).

(b) General rules of withholding—(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(1).

(2) Determination of payee and payee's status—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(i).

(ii) Payments to a U.S. agent of a foreign person. A withholding agent making a payment to a U.S. person (other than to a U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section) and who has actual knowledge that the U.S. person receives the payment as an agent of a foreign person must treat the payment as made to the foreign person. However, the withholding agent may treat the payment as made to the U.S. person if the U.S. person is a financial institution and the withholding agent has no reason to believe that the financial institution will not comply with its obligation to withhold. See paragraph (c)(5) of this section for the definition of a financial institution.

(iii) Payments to wholly-owned entities—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(iii)(A).

(B) Foreign entity. A payment to a wholly-owned foreign entity that is disregarded under §301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter as an entity separate from its owner shall be treated as a payment to the single owner of the entity, subject to the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section if the foreign entity has a U.S. branch in the United States. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(B), a foreign entity means a person that would be treated as a foreign person if it had an election in effect under §301.7701-3(c)(1)(i) of this chapter to be treated as a corporation. See §§1.894-1T(d) and 1.1441-6(b)(2) for special rules where the foreign entity or its owner is claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty. Thus, for example, if the foreign entity's single owner is a U.S. person, the payment shall be treated as a payment to a U.S. person. Therefore, based on the saving clause in U.S. income tax treaties, such an entity may not claim benefits under an income tax treaty even if the entity is organized in a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect and treats the entity as a non-fiscally transparent entity. See §1.894-1T(d)(6), Example 10. Unless it has actual knowledge or reason to know that the foreign entity to whom the payment is made is disregarded under §301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter, a withholding agent may treat a foreign entity as an entity separate from its owner unless it can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate from the entity's owner.

(iv) Payments to a U.S. branch of certain foreign banks or foreign insurance companies—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(iv)(A).

(B) Consequences to the withholding agent. Any person that is otherwise a withholding agent regarding a payment to a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section shall treat the payment in one of the following ways—

(1) As a payment to a U.S. person, in which case the withholding agent is not responsible for withholding on such payment to the extent it can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section that has been furnished by the U.S. branch under its agreement with the withholding agent to be treated as a U.S. person;

(2) through (4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(iv)(B)(2) through (b)(2)(iv)(B)(4).

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(iv)(C).

(D) Definition of payment to a U.S. branch. A payment is treated as a payment to a U.S. branch of a foreign bank or foreign insurance company if the payment is credited to an account maintained in the United States in the name of a U.S. branch of the foreign person, or the payment is made to an address in the United States where the U.S. branch is located and the name of the U.S. branch appears on documents (in written or electronic form) associated with the payment (e.g., the check mailed or a letter addressed to the branch).

(E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(iv)(E).

(v) Payments to a foreign intermediary—(A) Payments treated as made to persons for whom the intermediary collects the payment. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(2)(v)(B) of this section, the payee of a payment to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a foreign intermediary in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C) or (b)(3)(v)(A) of this section is the person or persons for whom the intermediary collects the payment. Thus, for example, the payee of a payment that the withholding agent can reliably associate with a withholding certificate from a qualified intermediary (defined in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section) that does not assume primary withholding responsibility or a payment to a nonqualified intermediary are the persons for whom the qualified intermediary or nonqualified intermediary acts and not to the intermediary itself. See paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section for presumptions that apply if the payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation. For similar rules for payments to flow-through entities, see §1.1441-5(c)(1) and (e)(3).

(B) Payments treated as made to foreign intermediary. The payee of a payment to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a qualified intermediary is the qualified intermediary to the extent that the qualified intermediary assumes primary withholding responsibility under paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section for the payment. For example if a qualified intermediary assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code but does not assume primary reporting or withholding responsibility under chapter 61 or section 3406 of the Internal Revenue Code and therefore provides Forms W-9 for U.S. non-exempt recipients, the qualified intermediary is the payee except to the extent the payment is reliably associated with a Form W-9 from a U.S. non-exempt recipient.

(vi) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(vi).

(vii) Rules for reliably associating a payment with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation—(A) Generally. The presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6) and 1.6049-5(d) apply to any payment, or portion of a payment, that a withholding agent cannot reliably associate with valid documentation. Generally, a withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with valid documentation if, prior to the payment, it holds valid documentation (either directly or through an agent), it can reliably determine how much of the payment relates to the valid documentation, and it has no actual knowledge or reason to know that any of the information, certifications, or statements in, or associated with, the documentation are incorrect. Special rules apply for payments made to intermediaries, flow-through entities, and certain U.S. branches. See paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(B) through (F) of this section. The documentation referred to in this paragraph (b)(2)(vii) is documentation described in paragraphs (c)(16) and (17) of this section upon which a withholding agent may rely to treat the payment as a payment made to a payee or beneficial owner, and to ascertain the characteristics of the payee or beneficial owner that are relevant to withholding or reporting under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder. A withholding agent that is not required to obtain documentation with respect to a payment is considered to lack documentation for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(vii). For example, a withholding agent paying U.S. source interest to a person that is an exempt recipient, as defined in §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii), is not required to obtain documentation from that person in order to determine whether an amount paid to that person is reportable under an applicable information reporting provision under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code. The withholding agent must, however, treat the payment as made to an undocumented person for purposes of chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code. Therefore, the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section apply to determine whether the person is presumed to be a U.S. person (in which case, no withholding is required under this section), or whether the person is presumed to be a foreign person (in which case 30-percent withholding is required under this section). See paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section for special reliance rules in the case of a payment to a foreign intermediary and §1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6) for special reliance rules in the case of a payment to a flow-through entity.

(B) through (F) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(2)(vii)(B) through (F).

(3) Presumptions regarding payee's status in the absence of documentation—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(i).

(ii) Presumptions of classification as individual, corporation, partnership, etc. (A) through (C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(ii)(A) trough (b)(3)(ii)(C).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iii).

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iii)(A).

(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iii)(A)(1).

(B) Scholarships and grants. A payment representing taxable scholarship or fellowship grant income that does not represent compensation for services (but is not excluded from tax under section 117) and that a withholding agent cannot reliably associate with documentation is presumed to be made to a foreign person if the withholding agent has a record that the payee has a U.S. visa that is not an immigrant visa. See section 871(c) and §1.1441-4(c) for applicable tax rate and withholding rules.

(C) Pensions, annuities, etc. A payment from a trust described in section 401(a), an annuity plan described in section 403(a), a payment with respect to any annuity, custodial account, or retirement income account described in section 403(b), or a payment from an individual retirement account or individual retirement annuity described in section 408 that a withholding agent cannot reliably associate with documentation is presumed to be made to a U.S. person only if the withholding agent has a record of a Social Security number for the payee and relies on a mailing address described in the following sentence. A mailing address is an address used for purposes of information reporting or otherwise communicating with the payee that is an address in the United States or in a foreign country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect and the treaty provides that the payee, if an individual resident in that country, would be entitled to an exemption from U.S. tax on amounts described in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C). Any payment described in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) that is not presumed to be made to a U.S. person is presumed to be made to a foreign person. A withholding agent making a payment to a person presumed to be a foreign person may not reduce the 30-percent amount of withholding required on such payment unless it receives a withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section furnished by the beneficial owner. For reduction in the 30-percent rate, see §§1.1441-4(e) or 1.1441-6(b).

(D) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iii)(D).

(E) Certain payments for services. A payment for services is presumed to be made to a foreign person if—

(1) The payee is an individual;

(2) The withholding agent does not know, or have reason to know, that the payee is a U.S. citizen or resident;

(3) The withholding agent does not know, or have reason to know, that the income is (or may be) effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States; and

(4) All of the services for which the payment is made were performed by the payee outside of the United States.

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iv).

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(iv)(A).

(B) If, at the end of the grace period, the documentation is not furnished in the manner required under this section, or if documentation is furnished that does not support the claimed rate reduction, and the account holder is presumed to be a foreign person then adjustments must be made to correct any underwithholding on amounts credited to the account during the grace period, based on the adjustment procedures described in §1.1461-2.

(v) Special rules applicable to payments to foreign intermediaries—(A) Reliance on claim of status as foreign intermediary. The presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v)(B) of this section apply to a payment made to an intermediary (whether the intermediary is a qualified or nonqualified intermediary) that has provided a valid withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(3)(ii) or (iii) of this section (or has provided documentary evidence described in paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C) of this section that indicates it is a bank, broker, custodian, intermediary, or other agent) to the extent the withholding agent cannot treat the payment as being reliably associated with valid documentation under the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section. For this purpose, a U.S. person's foreign branch that is a qualified intermediary defined in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section shall be treated as a foreign intermediary. A payee that the withholding agent may not reliably treat as a foreign intermediary under this paragraph (b)(3)(v)(A) is presumed to be a payee other than an intermediary whose classification as an individual, corporation, partnership, etc., must be determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section to the extent relevant. In addition, such payee is presumed to be a U.S. or a foreign payee based upon the presumptions described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section. The provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(v)(B) of this section are not relevant to a withholding agent that can reliably associate a payment with a withholding certificate from a person representing to be a qualified intermediary to the extent the qualified intermediary has assumed primary withholding responsibility in accordance with paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(v)(B).

(vi) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(vi).

(vii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(vii).

(viii) Rebuttal of presumptions. A payee or beneficial owner may rebut the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3) by providing reliable documentation to the withholding agent or, if applicable, to the IRS.

(ix) Effect of reliance on presumptions and of actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(ix)(A).

(B) Actual knowledge or reason to know that amount of withholding is greater than is required under the presumptions or that reporting of the payment is required. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(ix)(A) of this section, a withholding agent may not rely on the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3) to the extent it has actual knowledge or reason to know that the status or characteristics of the payee or of the beneficial owner are other than what is presumed under this paragraph (b)(3) and, if based on such knowledge or reason to know, it should withhold (under this section or another withholding provision of the Code) an amount greater than would be the case if it relied on the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3) or it should report (under this section or under another provision of the Code) an amount that would not otherwise be reportable if it relied on the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3). In such a case, the withholding agent must rely on its actual knowledge or reason to know rather than on the presumptions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3). Failure to do so and, as a result, failure to withhold the higher amount or to report the payment, shall result in liability for tax, interest, and penalties to the extent provided under sections 1461 and 1463 and the regulations under those sections.

(x) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(3)(x).

(4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(4).

(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(4)(i).

(ii) Bank deposit interest and similar types of deposit interest (including original issue discount) described in section 871(i)(2)(A) or 881(d) that are from sources within the United States are exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(10). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6049 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.6049-5(d)(3)(iii) for exceptions to the foreign payee and exempt recipient rules regarding this type of income. See also §1.6049-5(b)(11) for applicable documentation exemptions for certain bank deposit interest paid on obligations in bearer form.

(iii) Bank deposit interest (including original issue discount) described in section 861(a)(1)(B) is exempt from withholding under sections 1441(a) as income that is not from U.S. sources. Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6049 and backup withholding under section 3406. Reporting requirements for payments of such interest are governed by section 6049 and the regulations under that section. See §1.6049-5(b)(12) and alternative documentation rules under §1.6049-5(c)(1).

(iv) Interest or original issue discount from sources within the United States on certain short-term obligations described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(a)(3) is exempt from withholding under sections 1441(a). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6049 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.6049-5(b)(12) for applicable documentation for establishing foreign status and §1.6049-5(d)(3)(iii) for exceptions to the foreign payee and exempt recipient rules regarding this type of income. See also §1.6049-5(b)(10) for applicable documentation exemptions for certain obligations in bearer form.

(v) Income from sources without the United States is exempt from withholding under sections 1441(a). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6049 or other applicable provisions of chapter 61 of the Code and backup withholding under section 3406. See, for example, §1.6049-5(b) (6) and (12) and alternative documentation rules under §1.6049-5(c). See also paragraph (b)(5) of this section for cross references to other applicable provisions of the regulations under chapter 61 of the Code.

(vi) Distributions from certain domestic corporations described in section 871(i)(2)(B) or 881(d) are exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(10). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6042 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.6042-3(b)(1) (iii) through (vi).

(vii) Dividends paid by certain foreign corporations that are treated as income from sources within the United States by reason of section 861(a)(2)(B) are exempt from withholding under section 884(e)(3) to the extent that the distributions are paid out of earnings and profits in any taxable year that the corporation was subject to branch profits tax for that year. Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6042 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.6042-3(b)(1) (iii) through (vii).

(viii) Certain income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business is exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(1). Documentation establishing foreign status and status of the income as effectively connected must be furnished for purposes of this withholding exemption to the extent required under the provisions of §1.1441-4(a). Documentation furnished for this purpose also serves as documentation establishing foreign status for purposes of applicable information reporting provisions under chapter 61 of the Code and for backup withholding under section 3406. See, for example, §1.6041-4(a)(1).

(ix) Certain income with respect to compensation for personal services of an individual that are performed in the United States is exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(4) and §1.1441-4(b). However, such income may be subject to withholding as wages under section 3402. Documentation establishing foreign status must be furnished for purposes of any withholding exemption or reduction to the extent required under §1.1441-4(b) or 31.3401(a)(6)-1 (e) and (f) of this chapter. Documentation furnished for this purpose also serves as documentation establishing foreign status for purposes of information reporting under section 6041. See §1.6041-4(a)(1).

(x) Amounts described in section 871(f) that are received as annuities from certain qualified plans are exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(7). Documentation establishing foreign status must be furnished for purposes of the withholding exemption as required under §1.1441-4(d). Documentation furnished for this purpose also serves as documentation establishing foreign status for purposes of information reporting under section 6041. See §1.6041-4(a)(1).

(xi) Payments to a foreign government (including a foreign central bank of issue) that are excludable from gross income under section 892(a) are exempt from withholding under section 1442. See §1.1441-8(b). Documentation establishing status as a foreign government is required for purposes of this withholding exemption. Payments to a foreign government are exempt from information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code (see §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(F)).

(xii) Payments of certain interest income to a foreign central bank of issue or the Bank for International Settlements that are exempt from tax under section 895 are exempt from withholding under section 1442. Documentation establishing eligibility for such exemption is required to the extent provided in §1.1441-8(c)(1). Payments to a foreign central bank of issue or to the Bank for International Settlements are exempt from information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code (see §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) (H) and (M)).

(xiii) Amounts derived by a foreign central bank of issue from bankers' acceptances described in section 871(i)(2)(C) or 881(d) are exempt from tax and, therefore, from withholding. See section 1441(c)(10). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this withholding exemption if the name of the payee and other facts surrounding the payment reasonably indicate that the beneficial owner of the payment is a foreign central bank of issue as defined in §1.861-2(b)(4). See §1.1441-8(c)(2) for withholding procedures. See also §§1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(H) and 1.6041-3(q)(8) for a similar exemption from information reporting.

(xiv) Payments to an international organization from investments in the United States of stocks, bonds, or other domestic securities or from interest on deposits in banks in the United States of funds belonging to such international organization are exempt from tax under section 892(b) and, thus, from withholding. Documentation establishing status as an international organization is not required if the name of the payee and other facts surrounding the payment reasonably indicate that the beneficial owner of the payment is an international organization within the meaning of section 7701(a)(18). See §1.1441-8(d). Payments to an international organization are exempt from information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code (see §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(G)).

(xv) Amounts may be exempt from, or subject to a reduced rate of, withholding under an income tax treaty. Documentation establishing eligibility for benefits under an income tax treaty is required for this purpose as provided under §§1.1441-6. Documentation furnished for this purpose also serves as documentation establishing foreign status for purposes of applicable information reporting provisions under chapter 61 of the Code and for backup withholding under section 3406. See, for example, §1.6041-4(a)(1).

(xvi) Amounts of scholarships and grants paid to certain exchange or training program participants that do not represent compensation for services but are not excluded from tax under section 117 are subject to a reduced rate of withholding of 14-percent under section 1441(b). Documentation establishing foreign status is required for purposes of this reduction in rate as provided under §1.1441-4(c). This income is not subject to information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code nor to backup withholding under section 3406. The compensatory portion of a scholarship or grant is reportable as wage income. See §1.6041-3(o).

(xvii) Amounts paid to a foreign organization described in section 501(c) are exempt from withholding under section 1441 to the extent that the amounts are not income includible under section 512 in computing the organization's unrelated business taxable income and are not subject to the tax imposed by section 4948(a). Documentation establishing status as a tax-exempt organization is required for purposes of this exemption to the extent provided in §1.1441-9. Amounts includible under section 512 in computing the organization's unrelated business taxable income are subject to withholding to the extent provided in section 1443(a) and §1.1443-1(a). Gross investment income (as defined in section 4940(c)(2)) of a private foundation is subject to withholding at a 4-percent rate to the extent provided in section 1443(b) and §1.1443-1(b). Payments to a tax-exempt organization are exempt from information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code and the regulations thereunder (see §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B)(1)).

(xviii) Per diem amounts for subsistence paid by the U.S. government to a nonresident alien individual who is engaged in any program of training in the United States under the Mutual Security Act of 1954 are exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(6). Documentation of foreign status is not required under §1.1441-4(e) for purposes of establishing eligibility for this exemption. See §1.6041-3(p).

(xix) Interest with respect to tax-free covenant bonds issued prior to 1934 is subject to special withholding procedures set forth in §1.1461-1 in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see §1.1461-1 as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999).

(xx) Income from certain gambling winnings of a nonresident alien individual is exempt from tax under section 871(j) and from withholding under section 1441(a). See section 1441(c)(11). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for purposes of this exemption but may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6041 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §§1.6041-1 and 1.6041-4(a)(1).

(xxi) Any payments not otherwise mentioned in this paragraph (b)(4) shall be subject to withholding at the rate of 30-percent if it is an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) unless and to the extent the IRS may otherwise prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) or unless otherwise provided in regulations under chapter 3 of the Code.

(5) Establishing foreign status under applicable provisions of chapter 61 of the Code. This paragraph (b)(5) identifies relevant provisions of the regulations under chapter 61 of the Code that exempt payments from information reporting, and therefore, from backup withholding under section 3406, based on the payee's status as a foreign person. Many of these exemptions require that the payee's foreign status be established in order for the exemption to apply. The regulations under applicable provisions of chapter 61 of the Code generally provide that the documentation described in this section may be relied upon for purposes of determining foreign status.

(i) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6041 (dealing with certain trade or business income) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6041-4(a).

(ii) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6041A (dealing with remuneration for services and certain sales) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6041A-1(d)(3).

(iii) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6042 (dealing with dividends) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6042-3(b)(1) (iii) through (vi).

(iv) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6044 (dealing with patronage dividends) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6044-3(c)(1).

(v) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6045 (dealing with broker proceeds) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6045-1(g).

(vi) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6049 (dealing with interest) to a foreign person are exempt from information reporting under §1.6049-5(b) (6) through (15).

(vii) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6050N (dealing with royalties) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6050N-1(c).

(viii) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6050P (dealing with income from cancellation of debt) are exempt from information reporting under section 6050P or the regulations under that section except to the extent provided in Notice 96-61 (1996-2 C.B. 227); see also §601.601(b)(2) of this chapter.

(ix) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(5)(ix).

(6) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(6).

(7) Liability for failure to obtain documentation timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(7)(i).

(A) through (C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(7)(i)(A) through (b)(7)(i)(C).

(D) The withholding agent has complied with the provisions of §1.1441-6(c) or (g).

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(7)(ii).

(iii) Liability for interest and penalties. For payments made after December 31, 2000, if a withholding agent fails to deduct and withhold any tax imposed under sections 1441 or 1442, and the tax against which such tax may be credited under section 1462 is paid, then the amount of tax required to be deducted and withheld shall not be collected from the withholding agent. However, the withholding agent is not relieved from liability for interest or any penalties or additions to the tax otherwise applicable in respect of the failure to deduct and withhold. See section 1463. Further, in the event that a tax liability is assessed against the beneficial owner under section 871, 881, or 882 and interest under section 6601(a) is assessed against, and collected from, the beneficial owner, the interest charge imposed on the withholding agent shall be abated to that extent so as to avoid the imposition of a double interest charge.

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(7)(iv).

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(b)(7)(v).

(8) Adjustments, refunds, or credits of overwithheld amounts. If the amount withheld under section 1441, 1442, or 1443 is greater than the tax due by the withholding agent or the taxpayer, adjustments may be made in accordance with the procedures described in §1.1461-2(a). Alternatively, refunds or credits may be claimed in accordance with the procedures described in §1.1464-1, relating to refunds or credits claimed by the beneficial owner, or §1.6414-1, relating to refunds or credits claimed by the withholding agent. If an amount was withheld under section 3406 or is subsequently determined to have been paid to a foreign person, see paragraph (b)(3)(vii) of this section and §31.6413(a)-3(a)(1) of this chapter.

(9) Payments to joint owners. A payment to joint owners that requires documentation in order to reduce the rate of withholding under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder does not qualify for such reduced rate unless the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with documentation from each owner. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a payment to joint owners qualifies as a payment exempt from withholding under this section if any one of the owners provides a certificate of U.S. status on a Form W-9 in accordance with paragraph (d) (2) or (3) of this section or the withholding agent can associate the payment with an intermediary or flow-through withholding certificate upon which it can rely to treat the payment as made to a U.S. payee under paragraph (d)(4) of this section. See §31.3406(h)-2(a)(3)(i)(B) of this chapter.

(c) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c).

(1) Withholding. The term withholding means the deduction and withholding of tax at the applicable rate from the payment.

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(2).

(3) Individual—(i) Alien individual. The term alien individual means an individual who is not a citizen or a national of the United States. See §1.1-1(c).

(ii) Nonresident alien individual. The term nonresident alien individual means a person described in section 7701(b)(1)(B), an alien individual who is a resident of a foreign country under the residence article of an income tax treaty and §301.7701(b)-7(a)(1) of this chapter, or an alien individual who is a resident of Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, or American Samoa as determined under §301.7701(b)-1(d) of this chapter. An alien individual who has made an election under section 6013 (g) or (h) to be treated as a resident of the United States is nevertheless treated as a nonresident alien individual for purposes of withholding under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder.

(4) Certain foreign corporations. For purposes of this section, a corporation created or organized in Guam, the Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and American Samoa, is not treated as a foreign corporation if the requirements of sections 881(b)(1) (A), (B), and (C) are met for such corporation. Further, a payment made to a foreign government or an international organization shall be treated as a payment made to a foreign corporation for purposes of withholding under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder.

(5) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(5).

(6) Beneficial owner—(i) General rule. This paragraph (c)(6) defines the term beneficial owner for payments of income other than a payment for which a reduced rate of withholding is claimed under an income tax treaty. The term beneficial owner means the person who is the owner of the income for tax purposes and who beneficially owns that income. A person shall be treated as the owner of the income to the extent that it is required under U.S. tax principles to include the amount paid in gross income under section 61 (determined without regard to an exclusion or exemption from gross income under the Internal Revenue Code). Beneficial ownership of income is determined under the provisions of section 7701(l) and the regulations under that section and any other applicable general U.S. tax principles, including principles governing the determination of whether a transaction is a conduit transaction. Thus, a person receiving income in a capacity as a nominee, agent, or custodian for another person is not the beneficial owner of the income. In the case of a scholarship, the student receiving the scholarship is the beneficial owner of that scholarship. In the case of a payment of an amount that is not income, the beneficial owner determination shall be made under this paragraph (c)(6) as if the amount were income.

(ii) Special rules—(A) General rule. The beneficial owners of income paid to an entity described in this paragraph (c)(6)(ii) are those persons described in paragraphs (c)(6)(ii)(B) through (D) of this section.

(B) Foreign partnerships. The beneficial owners of income paid to a foreign partnership (whether a nonwithholding or a withholding foreign partnership) are the partners in the partnership, unless they themselves are not the beneficial owners of the income under this paragraph (c)(6). For example, a partnership (first tier) that is a partner in another partnership (second tier) is not the beneficial owner of income paid to the second tier partnership since the first tier partnership is not the owner of the income under U.S. tax principles. Rather, the partners of the first tier partnership are the beneficial owners (to the extent they are not themselves persons that are not beneficial owners under this paragraph (c)(6)). See §1.1441-5(b) for applicable withholding procedures for payments to a domestic partnership. See also §1.1441-5(c)(3)(ii) for applicable withholding procedures for payments to a foreign partnership where one of the partners (at any level in the chain of tiers) is a domestic partnership.

(C) Foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts. The beneficial owners of income paid to a foreign simple trust, as described in paragraph (c)(23) of this section, are the beneficiaries of the trust, unless they themselves are not the beneficial owners of the income under this paragraph (c)(6). The beneficial owners of income paid to a foreign grantor trust, as described in paragraph (c)(26) of this section, are the persons treated as the owners of the trust, unless they themselves are not the beneficial owners of the income under this paragraph (c)(6).

(D) Other foreign trusts and foreign estates. The beneficial owner of income paid to a foreign complex trust as defined in paragraph (c)(25) of this section or to a foreign estate is the foreign complex trust or estate itself.

(7) Withholding agent. For a definition of the term withholding agent and applicable rules, see §1.1441-7.

(8) Person. For purposes of the regulations under chapter 3 of the Code, the term person shall mean a person described in section 7701(a)(1) and the regulations under that section and a U.S. branch to the extent treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. For purposes of the regulations under chapter 3 of the Code, the term person does not include a wholly-owned entity that is disregarded for federal tax purposes under §301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter as an entity separate from its owner. See paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section for procedures applicable to payments to such entities.

(9) Source of income. The source of income is determined under the provisions of part I (section 861 and following) , subchapter N, chapter 1 of the Code and the regulations under those provisions.

(10) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(10).

(11) Reduced rate. For purposes of regulations under chapter 3 of the Code, and other withholding provisions of the Code, the term reduced rate, when used in regulations under chapter 3 of the Code, shall include an exemption from tax.

(12) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(12).

(13) Intermediary. An intermediary means, with respect to a payment that it receives, a person that, for that payment, acts as a custodian, broker, nominee, or otherwise as an agent for another person, regardless of whether such other person is the beneficial owner of the amount paid, a flow-through entity, or another intermediary.

(14) Nonqualified intermediary. A nonqualified intermediary means any intermediary that is not a U.S. person and not a qualified intermediary, as defined in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, or a qualified intermediary that is not acting in its capacity as a qualified intermediary with respect to a payment. For example, to the extent an entity that is a qualified intermediary provides another withholding agent with a foreign beneficial owner withholding certificate as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, the entity is not acting in its capacity as a qualified intermediary. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a qualified intermediary is acting as a qualified intermediary to the extent it provides another withholding agent with Forms W-9, or other information regarding U.S. non-exempt recipients pursuant to its qualified intermediary agreement with the IRS.

(15) Qualified intermediary. The term qualified intermediary is defined in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section.

(c)(16) through (c)(17) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(16) through (c)(17).

(18) Documentation. The term documentation refers to both withholding certificates, as defined in paragraph (c)(16) of this section, and documentary evidence or other appropriate documentation, as defined in paragraph (c)(17) of this section.

(19) Payor. The term payor is defined in §31.3406(a)-2 of this chapter and §1.6049-4(a)(2) and generally includes a withholding agent, as defined in §1.1441-7(a). The term also includes any person that makes a payment to an intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch that is not treated as a U.S. person to the extent the intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch provides a Form W-9 or other appropriate information relating to a payee so that the payment can be reported under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code and, if required, subject to backup withholding under section 3406. This latter rule does not preclude the intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch from also being a payor.

(20) Exempt recipient. The term exempt recipient means a person that is exempt from reporting under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code and backup withholding under section 3406 and that is described in §§1.6041-3(q), 1.6045-2(b)(2)(i), and 1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii), and §5f.6045-1(c)(3)(i)(B) of this chapter. Exempt recipients are not exempt from withholding under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code unless they are U.S. persons or foreign persons entitled to an exemption from withholding under chapter 3.

(21) Non-exempt recipient. A non-exempt recipient is any person that is not an exempt recipient under paragraph (c)(20) of this section.

(22) Reportable amounts. Reportable amounts are defined in paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section.

(23) Flow-through entity. A flow-through entity means any entity that is described in this paragraph (c)(23) and that may provide documentation on behalf of others to a withholding agent. The entities described in this paragraph are a foreign partnership (other than a withholding foreign partnership), a foreign simple trust (other than a withholding foreign trust) that is described in paragraph (c)(24) of this section, a foreign grantor trust (other than a withholding foreign trust) that is described in paragraph (c)(25) of this section, or, for any payments for which a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty is claimed, any entity to the extent the entity is considered to be fiscally transparent under section 894 with respect to the payment by an interest holder's jurisdiction.

(24) Foreign simple trust. A foreign simple trust is a foreign trust that is described in section 651(a).

(25) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(25).

(26) Foreign grantor trust. A foreign grantor trust is a foreign trust but only to the extent all or a portion of the income of the trust is treated as owned by the grantor or another person under sections 671 through 679.

(27) Partnership. The term partnership means any entity treated as a partnership under §301.7701-2 or -3 of this chapter.

(c)(28) through (c)(56) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(c)(28) through (c)(56).

(d) Beneficial owner's or payee's claim of U.S. status—(1) In general. Under paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a withholding agent is not required to withhold under chapter 3 of the Code on payments to a U.S. payee, to a person presumed to be a U.S. payee in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, or to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a U.S. beneficial owner of the payment. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may rely on the provisions of this paragraph (d) in order to determine whether to treat a payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. person.

(2) Payments for which a Form W-9 is otherwise required. A withholding agent may treat as a U.S. payee any person who is required to furnish a Form W-9 and who furnishes it in accordance with the procedures described in §§31.3406(d)-1 through 31.3406(d)-5 of this chapter (including the requirement that the payee furnish its taxpayer identifying number (TIN)) if the withholding agent meets all the requirements described in §31.3406(h)-3(e) of this chapter regarding reliance by a payor on a Form W-9. Providing a Form W-9 or valid substitute form shall serve as a statement that the person whose name is on the form is a U.S. person. Therefore, a foreign person, including a U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section, shall not provide a Form W-9. A U.S. branch of a foreign person may establish its status as a foreign person exempt from reporting under chapter 61 and backup withholding under section 3406 by providing a withholding certificate on Form W-8.

(3) Payments for which a Form W-9 is not otherwise required. In the case of a payee who is not required to furnish a Form W-9 under section 3406 (e.g., a person exempt from reporting under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code), the withholding agent may treat the payee as a U.S. payee if the payee provides the withholding agent with a Form W-9 or a substitute form described in §31.3406(h)-3(c)(2) of this chapter (relating to forms for exempt recipients) that contains the payee's name, address, and TIN. The form must be signed under penalties of perjury by the payee if so required by the form or by §31.3406(h)-3 of this chapter. Providing a Form W-9 or valid substitute form shall serve as a statement that the person whose name is on the certificate is a U.S. person. A Form W-9 or valid substitute form shall not be provided by a foreign person, including any U.S. branch of a foreign person whether or not the branch is treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. See paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section for withholding certificates provided by U.S. branches described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. The procedures described in §31.3406(h)-2(a) of this chapter shall apply to payments to joint payees. A withholding agent that receives a Form W-9 to satisfy this paragraph (d)(3) must retain the form in accordance with the provisions of §31.3406(h)-3(g) of this chapter, if applicable, or of paragraph (e)(4)(iii) of this section (relating to the retention of withholding certificates) if §31.3406(h)-3(g) of this chapter does not apply. The rules of this paragraph (d)(3) are only intended to provide a method by which a withholding agent may determine that a payee is a U.S. person and do not otherwise impose a requirement that documentation be furnished by a person who is otherwise treated as an exempt recipient for purposes of the applicable information reporting provisions under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code (e.g., §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) for payments of interest).

(4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(d)(4).

(e) Beneficial owner's claim of foreign status—(1) Withholding agent's reliance—(i) In general. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may treat a payment as made to a foreign beneficial owner in accordance with the provisions of paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. See paragraph (e)(4)(viii) of this section for applicable reliance rules. See paragraph (b)(4) of this section for a description of payments for which a claim of foreign status is relevant for purposes of claiming a reduced rate of withholding for purposes of section 1441, 1442, or 1443. See paragraph (b)(5) of this section for a list of payments for which a claim of foreign status is relevant for other purposes, such as claiming an exemption from information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code.

(ii) Payments that a withholding agent may treat as made to a foreign person that is a beneficial owner—(A) General rule. The withholding agent may treat a payment as made to a foreign person that is a beneficial owner if it complies with the requirements described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(B) of this section and, then, only to the extent—

(1) That the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a beneficial owner withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(2) of this section furnished by the person whose name is on the certificate or attached to a valid foreign intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch withholding certificate;

(2) through (e)(1)(ii)(A)(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(1)(ii)(A)(2) through (e)(1)(ii)(A)(3).

(4) That the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate described in §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii) or (e)(5)(iii) from a flow-through entity claiming the income is effectively connected income;

(5) That the withholding agent identifies the payee as a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section, the payment to which it treats as effectively connected income in accordance with §1.1441-4(a) (2)(ii) or (3);

(6) That the withholding agent identifies the payee as an international organization (or any wholly-owned agency or instrumentality thereof) as defined in section 7701(a)(18) that has been designated as such by executive order (pursuant to 22 U.S.C. 288 through 288(f)); or

(7) That the withholding agent pays interest from bankers' acceptances and identifies the payee as a foreign central bank of issue (as defined in §1.861-2(b)(4)).

(B) Additional requirements. In order for a payment described in paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(A) of this section to be treated as made to a foreign beneficial owner, the withholding agent must hold the documentation (if required) prior to the payment, comply with the electronic confirmation procedures described in paragraph (e)(4)(v) of this section (if required), and must not have been notified by the IRS that any of the information on the withholding certificate or other documentation is incorrect or unreliable. If the withholding agent has been so notified, it may rely on the withholding certificate or other documentation only to the extent provided under procedures prescribed by the IRS (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). See paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section for rules regarding reliable association of a payment with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation.

(2) Beneficial owner withholding certificate—(i) In general. A beneficial owner withholding certificate is a statement by which the beneficial owner of the payment represents that it is a foreign person and, if applicable, claims a reduced rate of withholding under section 1441. A separate withholding certificate must be submitted to each withholding agent. If the beneficial owner receives more than one type of payment from a single withholding agent, the beneficial owner may have to submit more than one withholding certificate to the single withholding agent for the different types of payments as may be required by the applicable forms and instructions, or as the withholding agent may require (such as to facilitate the withholding agent's compliance with its obligations to determine withholding under this section or the reporting of the amounts under §1.1461-1 (b) and (c)). For example, if a beneficial owner claims that some but not all of the income it receives is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, it may be required to submit two separate withholding certificates, one for income that is not effectively connected and one for income that is so connected. See §1.1441-6(b)(2) for special rules for determining who must furnish a beneficial owner withholding certificate when a benefit is claimed under an income tax treaty. See paragraph (e)(4)(ix) of this section for reliance rules in the case of certificates held by another person or at a different branch location of the same person.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(2)(ii).

(3) Intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch withholding certificate—(i) In general. An intermediary withholding certificate is a Form W-8 by which a payee represents that it is a foreign person and that it is an intermediary (whether a qualified or nonqualified intermediary) with respect to a payment and not the beneficial owner. See paragraphs (e)(3)(ii) and (iii) of this section. A flow-through withholding certificate is a Form W-8 used by a flow-through entity as defined in paragraph (c)(23) of this section. See §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii) (a nonwithholding foreign partnership), §1.1441-5(e)(5)(iii) (a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust) or §1.1441-6(b)(2) (foreign entity presenting claims on behalf of its interest holders for a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty). A U.S. branch certificate is a Form W-8 furnished under paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section by a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. See paragraph (e)(4)(viii) of this section for applicable reliance rules.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(ii).

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(ii)(A).

(B) A certification that, with respect to accounts it identifies on its withholding statement (as described in paragraph (e)(5)(v) of this section), the qualified intermediary is not acting for its own account but is acting as a qualified intermediary;

(C) through (E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(ii)(C) through (e)(3)(ii)(E).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iii).

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iii)(A).

(B) A certification that the nonqualified intermediary is not acting for its own account;

(C) through (E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iii)(C) through (e)(3)(iii)(E).

(iv) Withholding statement provided by nonqualified intermediary—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(A) through (C).

(D) Alternative procedures—(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(1).

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(2).

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(3).

(4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(4).

(5) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(5).

(6) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(D)(6).

(7) Liability for tax, interest, and penalties. If a nonqualified intermediary fails to provide allocation information by February 14 following the year of payment for all or a portion of the payments made to any withholding rate pool, the withholding agent from whom the nonqualified intermediary received payments of reportable amounts shall not be liable for any tax, interest, or penalties, due solely to the errors or omissions of the nonqualified intermediary. See §1.1441-7(b)(2) through (10) for the due diligence requirements of a withholding agent. Because failure by the nonqualified intermediary to provide allocation information results in a payment not being reliably associated with valid documentation, the beneficial owners for whom the nonqualified intermediary acts are not entitled to a reduced rate of withholding. Therefore, the nonqualified intermediary, as a withholding agent, shall be liable for any tax not withheld by the withholding agent in accordance with the presumption rules, interest on the under withheld tax if the nonqualified intermediary fails to pay the tax timely, and any applicable penalties, including the penalties under sections 6656 (failure to deposit), 6721 (failure to file information returns) and 6722 (failure to file payee statements). Failure to provide allocation information for more than 10 percent of the payments made to a particular withholding rate pool will be presumed to be an intentional failure within the meaning of sections 6721(e) and 6722(c). The nonqualified intermediary may rebut the presumption.

(8) Applicability to flow-through entities and certain U.S. branches. See paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section and §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iv) and (e)(5)(iv) for the applicability of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) to U.S. branches described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section (other than U.S. branches treated as U.S. persons) and flow-through entities.

(E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(iv)(E).

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(3)(v).

(vi) Reportable amounts. For purposes of chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, a nonqualified intermediary, qualified intermediary, flow-through entity, and U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section (other than a U.S. branch that agrees to be treated as a U.S. person) must provide a withholding certificate and associated documentation and other information with respect to reportable amounts. For purposes of the regulations under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, the term reportable amount means an amount subject to withholding within the meaning of §1.1441-2(a), bank deposit interest (including original issue discount) and similar types of deposit interest described in section 871(i)(2)(A) or 881(d) that are from sources within the United States, and any amount of interest or original issue discount from sources within the United States on the redemption of certain short-term obligations described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(e). Reportable amounts shall not include amounts received on the sale or exchange (other than a redemption) of an obligation described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(e) that is effected at an office outside the United States. See §1.6045-1(g)(3) to determine whether a sale is effected at an office outside the United States. Reportable amounts also do not include payments with respect to deposits with banks and other financial institutions that remain on deposit for a period of two weeks or less, to amounts of original issue discount arising from a sale and repurchase transaction that is completed within a period of two weeks or less, or to amounts described in §1.6049-5(b)(7), (10) or (11) (relating to certain obligations issued in bearer form). While short-term OID and bank deposit interest are not subject to withholding under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, such amounts may be subject to information reporting under section 6049 if paid to a U.S. person who is not an exempt recipient described in §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) and to backup withholding under section 3406 in the absence of documentation. See §1.6049-5(d)(3)(iii) for applicable procedures when such amounts are paid to a foreign intermediary.

(4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4).

(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(i).

(ii) Period of validity—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(A).

(B) [Reserved]. For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B).

(1-6) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B).

(7) A certificate furnished by a person representing to be an integral part of a foreign government (within the meaning of §1.892-2T(a)(2)) in accordance with §1.1441-8(b), or by a person representing to be a foreign central bank of issue (within the meaning of §1.861-2(b)(4)) or the Bank for International Settlements in accordance with §1.1441-8(c)(1).

(8) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B)(8).

(9) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B)(9).

(10) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B)(10).

(11) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B)(11).

(12) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(B)(12).

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(C).

(D) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ii)(D).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(iii).

(iv) Electronic transmission of information—(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(iv)(A).

(B) Requirements—(1) In general. The electronic system must ensure that the information received is the information sent, and must document all occasions of user access that result in the submission renewal, or modification of a Form W-8. In addition, the design and operation of the electronic system, including access procedures, must make it reasonably certain that the person accessing the system and furnishing Form W-8 is the person named in the Form.

(2) Same information as paper Form W-8. The electronic transmission must provide the withholding agent or payor with exactly the same information as the paper Form W-8.

(3) Perjury statement and signature requirements. The electronic transmission must contain an electronic signature by the person whose name is on the Form W-8 and the signature must be under penalties of perjury in the manner described in this paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(B)(3).

(i) Perjury statement. The perjury statement must contain the language that appears on the paper Form W-8. The electronic system must inform the person whose name is on the Form W-8 that the person must make the declaration contained in the perjury statement and that the declaration is made by signing the Form W-8. The instructions and the language of the perjury statement must immediately follow the person's certifying statements and immediately precede the person's electronic signature.

(ii) Electronic signature. The act of the electronic signature must be effected by the person whose name is on the electronic Form W-8. The signature must also authenticate and verify the submission. For this purpose, the terms authenticate and verify have the same meanings as they do when applied to a written signature on a paper Form W-8. An electronic signature can be in any form that satisfies the foregoing requirements. The electronic signature must be the final entry in the person's Form W-8 submission.

(4) Requests for electronic Form W-8 data. Upon request by the Internal Revenue Service during an examination, the withholding agent must supply a hard copy of the electronic Form W-8 and a statement that, to the best of the withholding agent's knowledge, the electronic Form W-8 was filed by the person whose name is on the form. The hard copy of the electronic Form W-8 must provide exactly the same information as, but need not be identical to, the paper Form W-8.

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(iv)(C).

(v) through (vii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(v) through (e)(4)(vii).

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(vii)(A).

(B) A withholding certificate on which a beneficial owner is claiming exemption from withholding because income is effectively connected with a U.S. trade or business;

(C) A withholding certificate on which a beneficial owner is claiming exemption from withholding under section 871(f) for certain annuities received under qualified plans;

(D) A withholding certificate on which a beneficial owner is claiming an exemption based solely on a foreign organization's claim of tax exempt status under section 501(c) or private foundation status (however, a TIN is not required from a foreign private foundation that is subject to the 4-percent tax under section 4948(a) on income if that income would be exempt from withholding but for section 4948(a) (e.g., portfolio interest));

(E) A withholding certificate from a person representing to be a qualified intermediary described in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section;

(F) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(vii)(F).

(G) A withholding certificate provided by a foreign organization that is described in section 501(c);

(H) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(vii)(H).

(I) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(vii)(I).

(viii) Reliance rules. A withholding agent may rely on the information and certifications stated on withholding certificates or other documentation without having to inquire into the truthfulness of this information or certification, unless it has actual knowledge or reason to know that the same is untrue. In the case of amounts described in §1.1441-6(c)(2), a withholding agent described in §1.1441-7(b)(2)(ii) has reason to know that the information or certifications on a certificate are untrue only to the extent provided in §1.1441-7(b)(2)(ii). See §1.1441-6(b)(1) for reliance on representations regarding eligibility for a reduced rate under an income tax treaty. Paragraphs (e)(4)(viii) (A) and (B) of this section provide examples of such reliance.

(A) Classification. A withholding agent may rely on the claim of entity classification indicated on the withholding certificate that it receives from or for the beneficial owner, unless it has actual knowledge or reason to know that the classification claimed is incorrect. A withholding agent may not rely on a person's claim of classification other than as a corporation if the name of the corporation indicates that the person is a per se corporation described in §301.7701-2(b)(8)(i) of this chapter unless the certificate contains a statement that the person is a grandfathered per se corporation described in §301.7701-2(b)(8) of this chapter and that its grandfathered status has not been terminated. In the absence of reliable representation or information regarding the classification of the payee or beneficial owner, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(ii) for applicable presumptions.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(viii)(B).

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(viii)(C).

(ix) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(4)(ix).

(5) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(e)(5).

(f) Effective date—(1) In general. This section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000.

(2) Transition rules—(i) Special rules for existing documentation. For purposes of paragraphs (d)(3) and (e)(2)(i) of this section, the validity of a withholding certificate (namely, Form W-8, 8233, 1001, 4224, or 1078 , or a statement described in §1.1441-5 in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see §1.1441-5 as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999)) that was valid on January 1, 1998 under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and expired, or will expire, at any time during 1998, is extended until December 31, 1998. The validity of a withholding certificate that is valid on or after January 1, 1999, remains valid until its validity expires under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) but in no event will such withholding certificate remain valid after December 31, 2000. The rule in this paragraph (f)(2)(i), however, does not apply to extend the validity period of a withholding certificate that expires solely by reason of changes in the circumstances of the person whose name is on the certificate. Notwithstanding the first three sentences of this paragraph (f)(2)(i), a withholding agent may choose to not take advantage of the transition rule in this paragraph (f)(2)(i) with respect to one or more withholding certificates valid under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and, therefore, to require withholding certificates conforming to the requirements described in this section (new withholding certificates). For purposes of this section, a new withholding certificate is deemed to satisfy the documentation requirement under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999). Further, a new withholding certificate remains valid for the period specified in paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section, regardless of when the certificate is obtained.

(ii) Lack of documentation for past years. A taxpayer may elect to apply the provisions of paragraphs (b)(7)(i)(B), (ii), and (iii) of this section, dealing with liability for failure to obtain documentation timely, to all of its open tax years, including tax years that are currently under examination by the IRS. The election is made by simply taking action under those provisions in the same manner as the taxpayer would take action for payments made after December 31, 2000.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1T(f)(3).

[T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53424, Oct. 14, 1997, as amended by T.D. 8804, 63 FR 72184, 72187, Dec. 31, 1998; T.D. 8856, 64 FR 73409, 73412, Dec. 30, 1999; T.D. 8881, 65 FR 32170, 32211, May 22, 2000; 66 FR 18188, Apr. 6, 2001; T.D. 9023, 67 FR 70312, Nov. 22, 2002; T.D. 9253, 71 FR 13005, Mar. 14, 2006; T.D. 9323, 72 FR 18388, Apr. 12, 2007; T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12747, Mar. 6, 2014; 79 FR 37182, July 1, 2014]

§1.1441-1T   Requirement for the deduction and withholding of tax on payments to foreign persons (temporary).

(a) Purpose and scope. This section, §§1.1441-2 through 1.1441-9, and 1.1443-1 provide rules for withholding under sections 1441, 1442, and 1443 when a payment is made to a foreign person. This section provides definitions of terms used in chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) and regulations thereunder. It prescribes procedures to determine whether an amount must be withheld under chapter 3 of the Code and documentation that a withholding agent may rely upon to determine the status of a payee or a beneficial owner as a U.S. person or as a foreign person and other relevant characteristics of the payee that may affect a withholding agent's obligation to withhold under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder. Special procedures regarding payments to foreign persons that act as intermediaries are also provided. Section 1.1441-2 defines the income subject to withholding under section 1441, 1442, and 1443 and the regulations under these sections. Section 1.1441-3 provides rules regarding the amount subject to withholding and rules for coordinating withholding under this section with withholding under section 1445 and under chapter 4 of the Code. Section 1.1441-4 provides exemptions from withholding for, among other things, certain income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, including certain compensation for the personal services of an individual. Section 1.1441-5 provides rules for withholding on payments made to flow-through entities and other similar arrangements. Section 1.1441-6 provides rules for claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty. Section 1.1441-7 defines the term withholding agent and provides due diligence rules governing a withholding agent's obligation to withhold. Section 1.1441-8 provides rules for relying on claims of exemption from withholding for payments to a foreign government, an international organization, a foreign central bank of issue, or the Bank for International Settlements. Sections 1.1441-9 and 1.1443-1 provide rules for relying on claims of exemption from withholding for payments to foreign tax exempt organizations and foreign private foundations.

(b) General rules of withholding—(1) Requirement to withhold on payments to foreign persons. A withholding agent must withhold 30-percent of any payment of an amount subject to withholding made to a payee that is a foreign person unless it can reliably associate the payment with documentation upon which it can rely to treat the payment as made to a payee that is a U.S. person or as made to a beneficial owner that is a foreign person entitled to a reduced rate of withholding. However, a withholding agent making a payment to a foreign person need not withhold where the foreign person assumes responsibility for withholding on the payment under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder as a qualified intermediary (see paragraph (e)(5) of this section), as a U.S. branch of a foreign person (see paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section), as a withholding foreign partnership (see §1.1441-5(c)(2)(i)), or as a withholding foreign trust (see §1.1441-5(e)(5)(v)). Withholding is also not required under this section when withholding under chapter 4 was applied to the payment. See §1.1441-3(a)(2). This section (dealing with general rules of withholding and claims of foreign or U.S. status by a payee or a beneficial owner), and §§1.1441-4, 1.1441-5, 1.1441-6, 1.1441-8, 1.1441-9, and 1.1443-1 provide rules for determining whether documentation is required as a condition for reducing the rate of withholding on a payment to a foreign beneficial owner or to a U.S. payee and if so, the nature of the documentation upon which a withholding agent may rely in order to reduce such rate. Paragraph (b)(2) of this section prescribes the rules for determining who the payee is, the extent to which a payment is treated as made to a foreign payee, and reliable association of a payment with documentation. Paragraph (b)(3) of this section describes the applicable presumptions for determining the payee's status as U.S. or foreign and the payee's other characteristics (i.e., as an owner or intermediary, as an individual, partnership, corporation, etc.). Paragraph (b)(4) of this section lists the types of payments for which the 30-percent withholding rate may be reduced. Because the treatment of a payee as a U.S. or a foreign person also has consequences for purposes of making an information return under the provisions of chapter 61 of the Code and for withholding under other provisions of the Code, such as sections 3402, 3405 or 3406, paragraph (b)(5) of this section lists applicable provisions outside chapter 3 of the Code that require certain payees to establish their foreign status (for example, in order to be exempt from information reporting). Paragraph (b)(6) of this section describes the withholding obligations of a foreign person making a payment that it has received in its capacity as an intermediary. Paragraph (b)(7) of this section describes the liability of a withholding agent that fails to withhold at the required 30-percent rate in the absence of documentation. Paragraph (b)(8) of this section deals with adjustments and refunds in the case of overwithholding. Paragraph (b)(9) of this section deals with determining the status of the payee when the payment is jointly owned. See paragraph (c)(6) of this section for a definition of beneficial owner. See §1.1441-7(a) for a definition of withholding agent. See §1.1441-2(a) for the determination of an amount subject to withholding. See §1.1441-2(e) for the definition of a payment and when it is considered made. Except as otherwise provided, the provisions of this section apply only for purposes of determining a withholding agent's obligation to withhold under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder.

(2) Determination of payee and payee's status—(i) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(2) and §1.1441-5(c)(1) and (e)(3), a payee is the person to whom a payment is made, regardless of whether such person is the beneficial owner of the amount (as defined in paragraph (c)(6) of this section). A foreign payee is a payee who is a foreign person. A U.S. payee is a payee who is a U.S. person. Generally, the determination by a withholding agent of the U.S. or foreign status of a payee and of its other relevant characteristics (e.g., as a beneficial owner or intermediary, or as an individual, corporation, or flow-through entity) is made on the basis of a withholding certificate that is a Form W-8 or a Form 8233 (indicating foreign status of the payee or beneficial owner) or a Form W-9 (indicating U.S. status of the payee). The provisions of this paragraph (b)(2), paragraph (b)(3) of this section, and §1.1441-5 (c), (d), and (e) dealing with determinations of payee and applicable presumptions in the absence of documentation, apply only to payments of amounts subject to withholding under chapter 3 of the Code (within the meaning of §1.1441-2(a)). However, for a payment that is both an amount subject to withholding under chapter 3 and a withholdable payment under chapter 4, first apply the rules of §1.1471-3 for determining the payee of a withholdable payment under chapter 4 and applicable presumptions in the absence of documentation applicable to such payments. See also §1.6049-5(d) for payments of amounts that are not subject to withholding under chapter 3 of the Code (or the regulations thereunder) but that may be reportable under provisions of chapter 61 of the Code (and the regulations thereunder). See paragraph (d) of this section for documentation upon which the withholding agent may rely in order to treat the payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. person. See paragraph (e) of this section for documentation upon which the withholding agent may rely in order to treat the payee or beneficial owner as a foreign person. For applicable presumptions of status in the absence of documentation, see paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §1.1441-5(d). For definitions of a foreign person and U.S. person, see paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(ii).

(iii) Payments to wholly-owned entities—(A) Foreign-owned domestic entity. A payment to a wholly-owned domestic entity that is disregarded for federal tax purposes under §301.7701-2(c)(2) of this chapter as an entity separate from its owner and whose single owner is a foreign person shall be treated as a payment to the owner of the entity, subject to the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iii)(A), a domestic entity means a person that would be treated as a U.S. person if it had an election in effect under §301.7701-3(c)(1)(i) of this chapter to be treated as a corporation. For example, a limited liability company, A, organized under the laws of the State of Delaware, opens an account at a U.S. bank. Upon opening of the account, the bank requests A to furnish a Form W-9 as required under section 6049(a) and the regulations under that section. A does not have an election in effect under §301.7701-3(c)(1)(i) of this chapter and, therefore, is not treated as an organization taxable as a corporation, including for purposes of the exempt recipient provisions in §1.6049-4(c)(1). If A has a single owner and the owner is a foreign person (as defined in paragraph (c)(2) of this section), then A may not furnish a Form W-9 because it may not represent that it is a U.S. person for purposes of the provisions of chapters 3, 4, and 61 of the Code, and section 3406. Therefore, A must furnish a Form W-8 with the name, address, and taxpayer identifying number (TIN) (if required) of the foreign person who is the single owner in the same manner as if the account were opened directly by the foreign single owner. See §§1.894-1T(d) and 1.1441-6(b)(2) for special rules where the entity's owner is claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iii)(B).

(iv) Payments to a U.S. branch of certain foreign banks or foreign insurance companies—(A) U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person in certain cases. A payment to a U.S. branch of a foreign person is a payment to a foreign person. However, a U.S. branch of a participating FFI, registered deemed compliant FFI or NFFE that is described in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) may agree to be treated as a U.S. person for purposes of withholding on specified payments to the U.S. branch. See §1.1471-3(d) for rules regarding how a withholding agent may determine the chapter 4 status of an entity. If a U.S. branch agrees to be treated as a U.S. person with a withholding agent, it is required to act as a U.S. person with respect to all other withholding agents, including when acting as an intermediary with respect to withholdable payments for purposes of chapter 4. See §1.1471-3(a)(3)(iv). In such cases, the U.S. branch is treated as a payee that is a U.S. person. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, a withholding agent making a payment to a U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) shall not treat the branch as a U.S. person for purposes of reporting the payment made to the branch. Therefore, a payment to such U.S. branch shall be reported on Form 1042-S under §1.1461-1(c) and §1.1474-1(d)(1)(i) for a payment of U.S. source FDAP income that is a chapter 4 reportable amount as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(18). Further, a U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) shall not be treated as a U.S. person for purposes of the withholding certificate it provides to a withholding agent. Therefore, the U.S. branch must furnish a U.S. branch withholding certificate on a Form W-8IMY as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section and not a Form W-9. An agreement to treat a U.S. branch as a U.S. person must be evidenced by a U.S. branch withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section furnished by the U.S. branch to the withholding agent. A U.S. branch described in this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) is any U.S. branch of a foreign bank subject to regulatory supervision by the Federal Reserve Board or a U.S. branch of a foreign insurance company required to file an annual statement on a form approved by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners with the Insurance Department of a State, a Territory, or the District of Columbia. In addition, a territory financial institution (including a territory financial institution that is a flow-through entity) will be treated as a U.S. branch for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A). The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may approve a list of U.S. branches that may qualify for treatment as a U.S. person under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). See §1.6049-5(c)(5)(vi) for the treatment of U.S. branches as U.S. payors if they make a payment that is subject to reporting under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code. Also see §1.6049-5(d)(1)(ii) for the treatment of U.S. branches as foreign payees under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv)(B).

(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv)(B)(1).

(2) As a payment directly to the persons whose names are on withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation forwarded by the U.S. branch to the withholding agent when no agreement is in effect to treat the U.S. branch as a U.S. person for such payment, to the extent the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with such certificates or documentation;

(3) As a payment to a foreign person of income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States if the withholding agent has obtained an EIN for the branch and cannot reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate from a U.S. branch (or any other certificate or other appropriate documentation from another person). See §1.1441-4(a)(2)(ii); or

(4) As a payment to a foreign person of income that is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States if the withholding agent has not obtained an EIN for the branch and cannot reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate from the U.S. branch.

(C) Consequences to the U.S. branch. A U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section shall be treated as a separate person for purposes of section 1441(a) and all other provisions of chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder (other than for purposes of reporting the payment to the U.S. branch under §1.1461-1(c) and §1.1474-1(d)(1)(i) for a chapter 4 reportable amount) or for purposes of the documentation such a branch must furnish under paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section) for any payment that it receives as such. Thus, the U.S. branch shall be responsible for withholding on the payment in accordance with the provisions under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder and other applicable withholding provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. For this purpose, it shall obtain and retain documentation from payees or beneficial owners of the payments that it receives as a U.S. person in the same manner as if it were a separate entity. For example, if a U.S. branch receives a payment on behalf of its home office and the home office is a qualified intermediary, the U.S. branch must obtain a qualified intermediary withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section from its home office. In addition, a U.S. branch that has not provided documentation to the withholding agent for a payment that is, in fact, not effectively connected income is a withholding agent with respect to that payment. See paragraph (b)(6) of this section and §1.1441-4(a)(2)(ii).

(D) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv)(D).

(E) Payments to other U.S. branches. Similar withholding procedures may apply to payments to U.S. branches that are not described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section to the extent permitted by the IRS. Any such branch must establish that its situation is analogous to that of a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section. In the alternative, the branch must establish that the withholding and reporting requirements under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder impose an undue administrative burden and that the collection of the tax imposed by section 871(a) or 881(a) on the foreign person (or its members in the case of a foreign partnership) will not be jeopardized by the exemption from withholding. Generally, an undue administrative burden will be found to exist in a case where the person entitled to the income, such as a foreign insurance company, receives from the withholding agent income on securities issued by a single corporation, some of which is, and some of which is not, effectively connected with conduct of a trade or business within the United States and the criteria for determining the effective connection are unduly difficult to apply because of the circumstances under which such securities are held. No exemption from withholding shall be granted under this paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(E) unless the person entitled to the income complies with such other requirements as may be imposed by the IRS and unless the IRS is satisfied that the collection of the tax on the income involved will not be jeopardized by the exemption from withholding. The IRS may prescribe such procedures as are necessary to make these determinations (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(v).

(vi) Other payees. A payment to a person described in §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) that the withholding agent would treat as a payment to a foreign person without obtaining documentation for purposes of information reporting under section 6049 (if the payment were interest) is treated as a payment to a foreign payee for purposes of chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder (or to a foreign beneficial owner to the extent provided in paragraph (e)(1)(ii)(A) (6) or (7) of this section). Further, a payment that the withholding agent can reliably associate with documentary evidence described in §1.6049-5(c)(1) relating to the payee is treated as a payment to a foreign payee. See §1.1441-5(b)(1) and (c)(1) for payee determinations for payments to partnerships. See §1.1441-5(e) for payee determinations for payments to foreign trusts or foreign estates.

(vii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii) introductory text and (b)(2)(vii)(A).

(B) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate from a nonqualified intermediary or flow-through entity—(1) In the case of a payment made to a nonqualified intermediary, a flow-through entity (as defined in paragraph (c)(23) of this section), or a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section (other than a U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person), a withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation only to the extent that, prior to the payment, the withholding agent can allocate the payment to a valid nonqualified intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch withholding certificate (and a withholding certificate provided by a nonparticipating FFI with respect to a portion of a payment that is a withholdable payment allocated to an exempt beneficial owner as described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(4)); the withholding agent can reliably determine how much of the payment relates to valid documentation provided by a payee as determined under paragraph (c)(12) of this section (i.e., a person that is not itself an intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch); and the withholding agent has sufficient information to report the payment on Form 1042-S or Form 1099, if reporting is required. See, however, paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section for when a nonqualified intermediary may report payees to the withholding agent in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool, in which case a withholding agent need not associate the portion of the payment attributable to such payees with documentation from each such payee. See also paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section for the requirements of a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate, paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section for the requirements of a U.S. branch certificate, and §§1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii) and (e)(5)(iii) for the requirements of a flow-through withholding certificate (including the requirements for a withholding certificate associated with a withholdable payment). Thus, a payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation provided by a payee to the extent such documentation is lacking or unreliable, or to the extent that information required to allocate and report all or a portion of the payment to each payee is lacking or unreliable. If a withholding certificate attached to an intermediary, U.S. branch, or flow-through withholding certificate is another intermediary, U.S. branch, or flow-through withholding certificate, the rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(B) apply by treating the share of the payment allocable to the other intermediary, U.S. branch, or flow-through entity as if the payment were made directly to such other entity. See paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) of this section for rules permitting information allocating a payment to documentation to be received after the payment is made.

(2) The rules of paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(B)(1) of this section are illustrated by the following examples. Each example illustrates a payment that is not a withholdable payment and, therefore, neither the chapter 4 status of the NQI nor payee specific documentation is required to be provided to the withholding agent (and no withholding applies under chapter 4 on each payment). See paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section for the requirements of a withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary that receives a withholdable payment and for an example illustrating the requirements of an NQI providing a withholding statement to a withholding agent for a withholdable payment.

Example 1. WA, a withholding agent, makes a payment of U.S. source interest with respect to a grandfathered obligation as described in §1.1471-2(b) (and thus the payment is not a withholdable payment) to NQI, an intermediary that is a nonqualified intermediary. NQI provides a valid intermediary withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section. NQI does not, however, provide valid documentation from the persons on whose behalf it receives the interest payment, and, therefore, the interest payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation provided by a payee. WA must apply the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section to the payment.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that NQI does attach valid beneficial owner withholding certificates (as defined in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section) from A, B, C, and D establishing their status as foreign persons. NQI does not, however, provide WA with any information allocating the payment among A, B, C, and D and, therefore, WA cannot determine the portion of the payment that relates to each beneficial owner withholding certificate. The interest payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation from a payee and WA must apply the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section to the payment. See, however, paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) of this section providing for alternative procedures that allow a nonqualified intermediary to provide allocation information after a payment is made.
Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 2, except that NQI provides allocation information associated with its intermediary withholding certificate indicating that 25% of the interest payment is allocable to A and 25% to B. NQI does not provide any allocation information regarding the remaining 50% of the payment. WA may treat 25% of the payment as made to A and 25% as made to B. The remaining 50% of the payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation from a payee, however, since NQI did not provide information allocating the payment. Thus, the remaining 50% of the payment is subject to the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section.
Example 4. WA makes a payment of U.S. source interest to NQI1, an intermediary that is not a qualified intermediary. NQI1 provides WA with a valid nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate as well valid beneficial owner withholding certificates from A and B and a valid nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate from NQI2. NQI2 has provided valid beneficial owner documentation from C sufficient to establish C's status as a foreign person. Based on information provided by NQI1, WA can allocate 20% of the interest payment to A, and 20% to B. Based on information that NQI2 provided NQI1 and that NQI1 provides to WA, WA can allocate 60% of the payment to NQI2, but can only allocate one half of that payment (30%) to C. Therefore, WA cannot reliably associate the remainder of the payment made to NQI2 (30% of the total payment) with valid documentation and must apply the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section to that portion of the payment.

(C) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that does not assume primary withholding responsibility—(1) If a payment is made to a qualified intermediary that does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code or primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406 of the Internal Revenue Code for the payment, a withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation only to the extent that, prior to the payment, the withholding agent has received a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section and the withholding agent can reliably determine the portion of the payment that relates to a chapter 3 withholding rate pool, as defined in paragraph (c)(44) of this section, a chapter 4 withholding rate pool (including for a withholdable payment as described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) of this section) as defined in paragraph (c)(48) of this section, or a pool attributable to U.S. exempt recipients. In the case of a withholding rate pool attributable to a U.S. non-exempt recipient, a payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation unless, prior to the payment, the qualified intermediary has provided the U.S. person's Form W-9 (or, in the absence of the form, the name, address, and TIN, if available, of the U.S. person) and sufficient information for the withholding agent to report the payment on Form 1099. See, however, paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(3) of this section for alternative procedures for allocating payments among U.S. non-exempt recipients and paragraphs (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) and (2) of this section for when a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees may be provided by a qualified intermediary instead of documentation with respect to each U.S. non-exempt recipient.

(2) The rules of this paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(C) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. WA, a withholding agent, makes a payment of U.S. source dividends that is a withholdable payment to QI. QI provides WA with a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate on which it indicates that it does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 or primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406. QI does not provide any information allocating the dividend to withholding rate pools. WA cannot reliably associate the payment with valid payee documentation and therefore must apply the presumption rules applicable to a withholdable payment under §1.1471-3(f)(5) to determine the status of the payee for purposes of chapter 4. See Example 2 for an application of the presumption rules under §1.1471-3(f).
Example 2. WA makes a payment of U.S. source dividends that is a withholdable payment to QI, which is an NFFE. QI has 5 customers: A, B, C, D, and E, all of whom are individuals except for C. QI has obtained valid documentation from A and B establishing their entitlement to a 15% rate of tax on U.S. source dividends under an income tax treaty. C is a U.S. person that is an exempt recipient as defined in paragraph (c)(20) of this section. D and E are U.S. non-exempt recipients who have provided Forms W-9 to QI. A, B, C, D, and E are each entitled to 20% of the dividend payment. QI provides WA with a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate as described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section with which it associates the Forms W-9 from D and E. QI associates the following allocation information with its qualified intermediary withholding certificate: 40% of the payment is allocable to the 15% chapter 3 withholding rate pool, and 20% is allocable to each of D and E. QI does not provide any allocation information regarding the remaining 20% of the payment. WA cannot reliably associate 20% of the payment with valid documentation and, therefore, must apply the presumption rules applicable to a withholdable payment. Because QI is receiving a withholdable payment as an intermediary, under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section WA must apply the presumption rule of §1.1471-3(f)(5) to treat the portion of the payment that cannot reliably be associated with valid documentation as made to a nonparticipating FFI account holder of QI. As a result, WA is required to withhold at a 30% rate of tax under chapter 4. See §1.1441-3(a)(2) permitting WA to credit the amount withheld under chapter 4 against the liability for tax due on the payment under section 1441. The 40% of the payment allocable to the 15% withholding rate pool, and the portion of the payments allocable to D and E are payments that can be reliably associated with documentation.

(D) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code—(1) In the case of a payment made to a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to that payment (but does not assume primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 of the Internal Code and section 3406), a withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation only to the extent that, prior to the payment, the withholding agent has received a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate and the withholding agent can reliably determine the portion of the payment that relates to the withholding rate pool for which the qualified intermediary assumes primary withholding responsibility and the portion of the payment attributable to withholding rate pools for each U.S. non-exempt recipient for whom the qualified intermediary has provided a Form W-9 (or, in absence of the form, the name, address, and TIN, if available, of the U.S. non-exempt recipient). See paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section (requiring a qualified intermediary assuming primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 to assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 4). See also paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(3) of this section for alternative allocation procedures for payments made to U.S. persons that are not exempt recipients and paragraphs (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) and (2) of this section for when a qualified intermediary may provide a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees to a withholding agent instead of documentation with respect to each U.S. non-exempt recipient.

(2) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(D)(1) of this section. However, see the example in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(D) for rules for reporting of U.S. non-exempt recipients when a qualified intermediary that is an FFI reports a U.S. account under chapter 4.

Example 1. WA makes a payment of U.S. source interest that is a withholdable payment to QI, a qualified intermediary that is an NFFE. QI provides WA with a withholding certificate that indicates that QI will assume primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code with respect to the payment. In addition, QI attaches a Form W-9 from A, a U.S. non-exempt recipient, as defined in paragraph (c)(21) of this section, and provides the name, address, and TIN of B, a U.S. person that is also a non-exempt recipient but who has not provided a Form W-9. QI associates a withholding statement with its qualified intermediary withholding certificate indicating that 10% of the payment is attributable to A, and 10% to B, and that QI will assume primary withholding responsibility for chapters 3 and 4 with respect to the remaining 80% of the payment. WA can reliably associate the entire payment with valid documentation. Although under the presumption rule of paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section, an undocumented person receiving U.S. source interest is generally presumed to be a foreign person, WA has actual knowledge that B is a U.S. non-exempt recipient and therefore must report the payment on Form 1099 and backup withhold on the interest payment under section 3406.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that no information has been provided for the 20% of the payment that is allocable to A and B. Thus, QI has accepted withholding responsibility for 80% of the payment, but has provided no information for the remaining 20%. In this case, 20% of the payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation, and, under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, WA must apply the presumption rule of §1.1471-3(f)(5) (because the payment is a withholdable payment). See the Example 2 in paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(C)(2).

(E) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility but not primary withholding under chapter 3—(1) If a payment is made to a qualified intermediary that assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility for the payment (but does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code), a withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation only to the extent that, prior to the payment, the withholding agent has received a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate and the withholding agent can reliably determine the portion of the payment that relates to a withholding rate pool or pools provided as part of the qualified intermediary's withholding statement and the portion of the payment for which the qualified intermediary assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility. See paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) of this section for when a qualified intermediary may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool on a withholding statement provided to a withholding agent with respect to a withholdable payment.

(2) The following example illustrates the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(vii)(D)(1) of this section:

Example. WA, a withholding agent, makes a payment of U.S. source dividends that is a withholdable payment to QI, a qualified intermediary and participating FFI. QI has provided WA with a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate. QI states on its withholding statement accompanying the certificate that it assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility but does not assume primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code. QI represents that 15% of the dividend is subject to a 30% rate of withholding, 75% of the dividend is subject to a 15% rate of withholding. QI represents that it assumes primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding for the remaining 10% of the payment, and therefore need not provide a chapter 4 withholding rate pool with respect to this portion of the payment or documentation with respect to U.S. non-exempt recipients. The entire payment can be reliably associated with valid documentation.

(F) Special rules applicable to a withholding certificate provided by a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 and primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility and a withholding certificate provided by a withholding foreign partnership or a withholding foreign trust. If a payment is made to a qualified intermediary that assumes both primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code and primary Form 1099 reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406 of the Internal Revenue Code for the payment, a withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with valid documentation provided that it receives a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate as described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section. In the case of a payment made to a withholding foreign partnership or a withholding foreign trust, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation to the extent it can associate the payment with a valid withholding certificate described in §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv) or in §1.1441-5(e)(5)(v) (respectively). See paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section, providing that a qualified intermediary assuming primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 must also assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 4 with respect to a withholdable payment.

(3) Presumptions regarding payee's status in the absence of documentation—(i) General rules. A withholding agent that cannot, prior to the payment, reliably associate (within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section) a payment of an amount subject to withholding (as described in §1.1441-2(a)) with valid documentation may rely on the presumptions of this paragraph (b)(3) to determine the status of the person receiving the payment as a U.S. or a foreign person and the person's other relevant characteristics (for example, as an owner or intermediary, as an individual, trust, partnership, or corporation). The determination of withholding and reporting requirements applicable to payments to a person presumed to be a foreign person is governed only by the provisions of chapters 3 and 4 of the Code and the regulations thereunder. For the determination of withholding and reporting requirements applicable to payments to a person presumed to be a U.S. person, see chapter 61 of the Code, section 3402, 3405, or 3406, and, with respect to the reporting requirements of a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI, see chapter 4 of the Code and the related regulations. A presumption that a payee is a foreign payee is not a presumption that the payee is a foreign beneficial owner. Therefore, the provisions of this paragraph (b)(3) have no effect for purposes of reducing the withholding rate if associating the payment with documentation of foreign beneficial ownership is required as a condition for such rate reduction. See paragraph (b)(3)(ix) of this section for consequences to a withholding agent that fails to withhold in accordance with the presumptions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3) or if the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know of facts that are contrary to the presumptions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3). See paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section for rules regarding the extent to which a withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with documentation.

(ii) Presumptions of classification as individual, corporation, partnership, etc.—(A) In general. A withholding agent that cannot reliably associate a payment with a valid withholding certificate or that has received valid documentary evidence under §§1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii)(A)(2) and 1.6049-5(c)(1) or (4) but cannot determine a payee's classification from the documentary evidence must apply the rules of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii) to determine the payee's classification as an individual, trust, estate, corporation, or partnership. The fact that a payee is presumed to have a certain status under the provisions of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii) does not mean that it is excused from furnishing documentation if documentation is otherwise required to obtain a reduced rate of withholding under this section. For example, if, for purposes of this paragraph (b)(3)(ii), a payee is presumed to be a tax-exempt organization based on §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B), the withholding agent cannot rely on this presumption to reduce the rate of withholding on payments to such person (if such person is also presumed to be a foreign person under paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A) of this section) because a reduction in the rate of withholding for payments to a foreign tax-exempt organization generally requires that a valid Form W-8 described in §1.1441-9(b)(2) be furnished to the withholding agent.

(B) No documentation provided. If the withholding agent cannot reliably associate a payment with a valid withholding certificate or valid documentary evidence, it must presume that the payee is an individual, a trust, or an estate, if the payee appears to be such person (for example, based on the payee's name or information in the customer file). In the absence of reliable indications that the payee is an individual, trust, or an estate, the withholding agent must presume that the payee is a corporation or one of the persons enumerated under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B) through (Q) if it can be so treated under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(A)(1) or any one of the paragraphs under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B) through (Q) without the need to furnish documentation. If the withholding agent cannot treat a payee as a person described in §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(A)(1) through (Q), then the payee shall be presumed to be a partnership. If such a partnership is presumed to be foreign, it is not the beneficial owner of the income paid to it. See paragraph (c)(6) of this section. If such a partnership is presumed to be domestic, it is a U.S. non-exempt recipient for purposes of chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code.

(C) Documentary evidence furnished for offshore obligation. If the withholding agent receives valid documentary evidence, as described in §1.6049-5(c)(1) or (c)(4), with respect to an offshore obligation from an entity but the documentary evidence does not establish the entity's classification as a corporation, trust, estate, or partnership, the withholding agent may presume (in the absence of actual knowledge otherwise) that the entity is the type of person enumerated under §1.6049-4 (c)(1)(ii)(B) through (Q) if it can be so treated under any one of those paragraphs without the need to furnish documentation. If the withholding agent cannot treat a payee as a person described in §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B) through (Q), then the payee shall be presumed to be a corporation unless the withholding agent knows, or has reason to know, that the entity is not classified as a corporation for U.S. tax purposes. If a payee is, or is presumed to be, a corporation under this paragraph (b)(3)(ii)(C) and a foreign person under paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, a withholding agent shall not treat the payee as the beneficial owner of income if the withholding agent knows, or has reason to know, that the payee is not the beneficial owner of the income. For this purpose, a withholding agent will have reason to know that the payee is not a beneficial owner if the documentary evidence indicates that the payee is a bank, broker, intermediary, custodian, or other agent, or is treated under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(B) through (Q) as such a person. A withholding agent may, however, treat such a person as a beneficial owner if the foreign person provides a statement, in writing and signed by a person with authority to sign the statement, that is attached to the documentary evidence stating it is the beneficial owner of the income.

(iii) Presumption of U.S. or foreign status. A payment that the withholding agent cannot reliably associate with documentation is presumed to be made to a U.S. person, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii), in paragraphs (b)(3) (iv) and (v) of this section, or in §1.1441-5 (d) or (e). A withholding agent must treat a payee that is presumed or known to be a trust but for which the withholding agent cannot determine the type of trust in accordance with the presumptions specified in §1.1441-5(e)(6)(ii). In the case of a payment that is a withholdable payment, a withholding agent must apply the presumption rule under §1.1471-3(f) for purposes of chapter 4.

(A) Payments to exempt recipients—(1) In general. If a withholding agent cannot reliably associate a payment with documentation from the payee and the payee is an exempt recipient (as determined under the provisions of §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii) in the case of interest, or under similar provisions under chapter 61 of the Code applicable to the type of payment involved, but not including a payee that the withholding agent may treat as a foreign intermediary in accordance with paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section), the payee is presumed to be a foreign person and not a U.S. person—

(i) If the withholding agent has actual knowledge of the payee's employer identification number and that number begins with the two digits “98”;

(ii) If the withholding agent's communications with the payee are mailed to an address in a foreign country;

(iii) If the name of the payee indicates that the entity is the type of entity that is on the per se list of foreign corporations contained in §301.7701-2(b)(8)(i) of this chapter (other than a name which contains the designation “corporation” or “company”);

(iv) If the payment is made with respect to an offshore obligation (as defined in paragraph (c)(37) of this section); or

(v) Only with respect to an account opened after July 1, 2014, if the withholding agent has a telephone number for the person outside of the United States.

(2) Special rule for withholdable payments made to exempt recipients. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) of this section, a payment that is also a withholdable payment made to an entity determined to be an exempt recipient under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(A)(1), (F), (G), (H), (M), (O), (P), or (Q) in the case of interest (or under similar provisions in chapter 61 applicable to the type of income) shall be presumed made to a foreign payee in the absence of documentation (including documentary evidence) establishing the entity as a U.S. person. Additionally, a withholding agent may apply the rule provided in this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(2) instead of the rule in provided in paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) of this section for all payments with respect to an obligation. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(2) will not apply, however, to a withholdable payment made with respect to a preexisting obligation to a payee that the withholding agent determined prior to July 1, 2014 to be a U.S. exempt recipient.

(B) and (C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iii)(B) and (C).

(D) Payments with respect to offshore obligations. A payment is presumed made to a foreign payee if the payment is made outside the United States (as defined in §1.6049-5(e)) with respect to an offshore obligation (as defined in paragraph (c)(37) of this section) and the withholding agent does not have actual knowledge that the payee is a U.S. person. See §1.6049-5(d)(2) and (3) for exceptions to this rule.

(E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iii)(E).

(iv) Grace period. A withholding agent may choose to apply the provisions of §1.6049-5(d)(2)(ii) regarding a 90-day grace period for purposes of this paragraph (b)(3) (by applying the term withholding agent instead of the term payor) to amounts described in §1.1441-6(c)(2) and to amounts covered by a Form 8233 described in §1.1441-4(b)(2)(ii). Thus, for these amounts, a withholding agent may choose to treat the payee as a foreign person and withhold under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code (and the regulations thereunder) while awaiting documentation. For purposes of determining the rate of withholding under this section, the withholding agent must withhold at the unreduced 30-percent rate at the time that the amounts are credited to an account. For reporting of amounts credited both before and after the grace period, see §1.1461-1(c)(4)(i)(A). The following adjustments shall be made at the expiration of the grace period:

(A) If, at the end of the grace period, the documentation is not furnished in the manner required under this section and the account holder is presumed to be a U.S. non-exempt recipient, then backup withholding only applies to amounts credited to the account after the expiration of the grace period. Amounts credited to the account during the grace period shall be treated as owned by a foreign payee and adjustments must be made to correct any underwithholding on such amounts in the manner described in §1.1461-2.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv)(B).

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(v) introductory text and (b)(3)(v)(A).

(B) Beneficial owner documentation or allocation information is lacking or unreliable. Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(3)(v)(B), any portion of a payment that the withholding agent may treat as made to a foreign intermediary (whether a nonqualified or a qualified intermediary) but that the withholding agent cannot treat as reliably associated with valid documentation under the rules of paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section is presumed made to an unknown, undocumented foreign payee. As a result, a withholding agent must deduct and withhold 30 percent from any payment of an amount subject to withholding. If a withholding certificate attached to an intermediary certificate is another intermediary withholding certificate or a flow-through withholding certificate, the rules of this paragraph (b)(3)(v)(B) (or §1.1441-5(d)(3) or (e)(6)(iii)) apply by treating the portion of the payment allocable to the other intermediary or flow-through entity as if it were made directly to the other intermediary or flow-through entity. Any payment of an amount subject to withholding that is presumed made to an undocumented foreign person must be reported on Form 1042-S. See §1.1461-1(c). See §1.6049-5(d) for payments that are not subject to withholding under chapter 3. However, in the case of a payment that is a withholdable payment made to a foreign intermediary, the presumption rules under §1.1471-3(f)(5) shall apply.

(vi) U.S. branches and territory financial institutions not treated as a U.S. person. The rules of paragraph (b)(3)(v)(B) of this section shall apply to payments to a U.S. branch or a territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section that has provided a withholding certificate as described in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section on which it has not agreed to be treated as a U.S. person.

(vii) Joint payees—(A) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(B) of this section and this paragraph (b)(3)(vii)(A), if a withholding agent makes a payment to joint payees and cannot reliably associate a payment with valid documentation from all payees, the payment is presumed made to an unidentified U.S. person. If, however, a withholding agent makes a payment that is a withholdable payment and any joint payee does not appear, by its name and other information contained in the account file, to be an individual, then the entire amount of the payment will be treated as made to an undocumented foreign person. See paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section for presumption rules that apply in the case of a payment that is a withholdable payment. However, if one of the joint payees provides a Form W-9 furnished in accordance with the procedures described in §§31.3406(d)-1 through 31.3406(d)-5 of this chapter, the payment shall be treated as made to that payee. See §31.3406(h)-2 of this chapter for rules to determine the relevant payee if more than one Form W-9 is provided. For purposes of applying this paragraph (b)(3), the grace period rules in paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section shall apply only if each payee meets the conditions described in paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section.

(B) Special rule for offshore obligations. If a withholding agent makes a payment to joint payees and cannot reliably associate a payment with valid documentation from all payees, the payment is presumed made to an unknown foreign payee if the payment is made outside the United States (as defined in §1.6049-5(e)) with respect to an offshore obligation (as defined in §1.6049-5(c)(1)).

(viii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(viii).

(ix) Effect of reliance on presumptions and of actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise—(A) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)(3)(ix)(B) of this section, a withholding agent that withholds on a payment under section 3402, 3405 or 3406 in accordance with the presumptions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3) shall not be liable for withholding under this section even if it is later established that the beneficial owner of the payment is, in fact, a foreign person. Similarly, a withholding agent that withholds on a payment under this section in accordance with the presumptions set forth in this paragraph (b)(3) shall not be liable for withholding under section 3402 or 3405 or for backup withholding under section 3406 even if it is later established that the payee or beneficial owner is, in fact, a U.S. person. A withholding agent that, instead of relying on the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3), relies on its own actual knowledge to withhold a lesser amount, not withhold, or not report a payment, even though reporting of the payment or withholding a greater amount would be required if the withholding agent relied on the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3), shall be liable for tax, interest, and penalties to the extent provided under section 1461 and the regulations under that section. See paragraph (b)(7) of this section for provisions regarding such liability if the withholding agent fails to withhold in accordance with the presumptions described in this paragraph (b)(3).

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(3)(ix)(B).

(x) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (b)(3) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. A withholding agent, W, makes a payment of U.S. source interest with respect to a grandfathered obligation as described in §1.1471-2(b) (and thus the payment is not a withholdable payment) to person X, Inc. with respect to an account W maintains for X, Inc. outside the United States. W cannot reliably associate the payment to X, Inc. with documentation. Under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii)(A)(1), W may treat X, Inc. as a corporation that is an exempt recipient under chapter 61. Thus, under the presumptions described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section as applicable to a payment to an exempt recipient that is not a withholdable payment, W must presume that X, Inc. is a foreign person (because the payment is made with respect to an offshore obligation). However, W knows that X, Inc. is a U.S. person who is an exempt recipient. W may not rely on its actual knowledge to not withhold under this section. If W's knowledge is, in fact, incorrect, W would be liable for tax, interest, and, if applicable, penalties, under section 1461. W would be permitted to reduce or eliminate its liability for the tax by establishing, in accordance with paragraph (b)(7) of this section, that the tax is not due or has been satisfied. If W's actual knowledge is, in fact, correct, W may nevertheless be liable for tax, interest, or penalties under section 1461 for the amount that W should have withheld based upon the presumptions. W would be permitted to reduce or eliminate its liability for the tax by establishing, in accordance with paragraph (b)(7) of this section, that its actual knowledge was, in fact, correct and that no tax or a lesser amount of tax was due.
Example 2. A withholding agent, W, makes a payment of U.S. source interest with respect to a grandfathered obligation as described in §1.1471-2(b) (and thus the payment is not a withholdable payment) to Y who does not qualify as an exempt recipient under §1.6049-4(c)(1)(ii). W cannot reliably associate the payment to Y with documentation. Under the presumptions described in paragraph (b)(3)(iii) of this section, W must presume that Y is a U.S. person who is not an exempt recipient for purposes of section 6049. However, W knows that Y is a foreign person. W may not rely on its actual knowledge to withhold under this section rather than backup withhold under section 3406. If W's knowledge is, in fact, incorrect, W would be liable for tax, interest, and, if applicable, penalties, under section 3403. If W's actual knowledge is, in fact, correct, W may nevertheless be liable for tax, interest, or penalties under section 3403 for the amount that W should have withheld based upon the presumptions. Paragraph (b)(7) of this section does not apply to provide relief from liability under section 3403.
Example 3. A withholding agent, W, makes a payment of U.S. source dividends to X, Inc. with respect to an account that X, Inc. opened with W after June 30, 2014. W cannot reliably associate the payment to X, Inc. with documentation but may treat X, Inc. as an exempt recipient for purposes of this section applying the rules of §1.6042-3(b)(1)(vii). However, because the dividend payment is a withholdable payment and W did not determine the chapter 3 status of X, Inc. before July 1, 2014, W may treat X, Inc. as a U.S. person that is an exempt recipient only if W obtains documentary evidence supporting X, Inc.'s status as a U.S. person. See paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(A)(2) of this section.
Example 4. A withholding agent, W, is a plan administrator who makes pension payments to person X with a mailing address in a foreign country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect. Under that treaty, the type of pension income paid to X is taxable solely in the country of residence. The plan administrator has a record of X's U.S. social security number. W has no actual knowledge or reason to know that X is a foreign person. W may rely on the presumption of paragraph (b)(3)(iii)(C) of this section in order to treat X as a U.S. person. Therefore, any withholding and reporting requirements for the payment are governed by the provisions of section 3405 and the regulations under that section.

(4) List of exemptions from, or reduced rates of, withholding under chapter 3 of the Code. A withholding agent that has determined that the payee is a foreign person for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section must determine whether the payee is entitled to a reduced rate of withholding under section 1441, 1442, or 1443. This paragraph (b)(4) identifies items for which a reduction in the rate of withholding may apply and whether the rate reduction is conditioned upon documentation being furnished to the withholding agent. Documentation required under this paragraph (b)(4) is documentation that a withholding agent must be able to associate with a payment upon which it can rely to treat the payment as made to a foreign person that is the beneficial owner of the payment in accordance with paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section. This paragraph (b)(4) also cross-references other sections of the Code and applicable regulations in which some of these exceptions, exemptions, or reductions are further explained. See, for example, paragraph (b)(4)(viii) of this section, dealing with effectively connected income, that cross-references §1.1441-4(a); see paragraph (b)(4)(xv) of this section, dealing with exemptions from, or reductions of, withholding under an income tax treaty, that cross-references §1.1441-6. This paragraph (b)(4) is not an exclusive list of items to which a reduction of the rate of withholding may apply and, thus, does not preclude an exemption from, or reduction in, the rate of withholding that may otherwise be allowed under the regulations under the provisions of chapter 3 of the Code for a particular item of income identified in this paragraph (b)(4). The exclusions and limitations specified in this paragraph (b)(4) apply for purposes of chapter 3. Additional withholding and documentation requirements may apply to withholding agents under chapter 4 with respect to payments that are withholdable payments. See, for example, §1.1471-2(a) requiring withholding on withholdable payments made to certain FFIs and §1.1471-2(a)(4) for payments exempted from withholding under section 1471(a).

(i) Portfolio interest described in section 871(h) or 881(c) and substitute interest payments described in §1.871-7(b)(2) or 1.881-2(b)(2) are exempt from withholding under section 1441(a). See §1.871-14 for regulations regarding portfolio interest and section 1441(c)(9) for the exemption from withholding for portfolio interest. Documentation establishing foreign status is required for interest on an obligation in registered form to qualify as portfolio interest. See section 871(h)(2)(B)(ii) and §1.871-14(c)(1)(ii)(C). For special documentation rules regarding foreign-targeted registered obligations described in §1.871-14(e)(2) (and issued before January 1, 2016), see §1.871-14(e) (3) and (4) and, in particular, §1.871-14(e)(4)(i)(A) and (ii)(A) regarding when the withholding agent must receive the documentation. The documentation furnished for purposes of qualifying interest as portfolio interest serves as the basis for the withholding exemption for purposes of this section and establishing foreign status for purposes of section 6049. See §1.6049-5(b)(8). Documentation establishing foreign status is not required for qualifying interest on an obligation in bearer form described in §1.871-14(b)(1) (and issued before March 19, 2012) as portfolio interest. However, in certain cases, documentation for portfolio interest on a bearer obligation may have to be furnished in order to establish foreign status for purposes of the information reporting provisions of section 6049 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.6049-5(b)(7).

(ii) through (xxi) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(4)(ii) through (xxi).

(5)(i) through (viii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(5)(i) through (viii).

(ix) Payments to a foreign person that are governed by section 6050W (dealing with payment card and third party network transactions) are exempt from information reporting under §1.6050W-1(a)(5)(ii).

(6) Rules of withholding for payments by a foreign intermediary or certain U.S. branches—(i) In general. A foreign intermediary described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section or a U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section that receives an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) shall be required to withhold (if another withholding agent has not withheld the full amount required) and report such payment under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (b)(6). A nonqualified intermediary, U.S. branch, or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section (other than a U.S. branch or territory financial institution that is treated as a U.S. person) shall not be required to withhold or report if it has provided a valid nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate or a U.S. branch withholding certificate, it has provided all of the information required by paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (withholding statement), and it does not know, and has no reason to know, that another withholding agent failed to withhold the correct amount or failed to report the payment correctly under §1.1461-1(c). The withholding requirement of a nonqualified intermediary under the previous sentence also excludes a case in which withholding under chapter 4 was applied by a withholding agent on the payment. See §1.1441-3(a)(2) (coordinating withholding under chapter 3 with withholding applied under chapter 4 of the Code). A qualified intermediary's obligations to withhold and report shall be determined in accordance with its qualified intermediary withholding agreement.

(ii) Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section and coordinate rules for withholding that apply under chapter 4 with those that apply under chapter 3. See also paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section for the requirements of withholding statements provided by nonqualified intermediaries.

Example 1. FB, a foreign bank, acts as intermediary for five different individuals, A, B, C, D, and E, each of whom owns U.S. securities that generate U.S. source dividends (that are withholdable payments). The dividends are paid by USWA, a U.S. withholding agent. FB furnished USWA with a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate, described in paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section, on which FB certifies its status as a participating FFI (such that withholding under chapter 4 does not apply), to which it attached valid withholding certificates for A, B, C, D, and E. The withholding certificates from A and B claim a 15% reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty. C, D, and E claim no reduced rate of withholding. FB provides a withholding statement that meets all of the requirements of paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section, including information allocating 20% of each dividend payment to each of A, B, C, D, and E. FB does not have actual knowledge or reason to know that USWA did not withhold the correct amounts or report the dividends on Forms 1042-S to each of A, B, C, D, and E. FB is not required to withhold or to report the dividends to A, B, C, D, and E.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that FB did not provide any information for USWA to determine how much of the dividend payments were made to A, B, C, D, and E. Because USWA could not reliably associate the dividend payments with documentation under paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section with respect to a payment that is a withholdable payment, USWA applied the presumption rule of §1.1471-3(f)(5) and withheld 30% from all dividend payments under chapter 4 and filed a Form 1042-S reporting the payment to an account holder of FB that is a non-participating FFI. FB is deemed to know that USWA did not report the payment to A, B, C, D, and E because it did not provide all of the information required on a withholding statement under paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (that is, allocation information). Although FB is not required to withhold on the payment under this section because the full 30% withholding was imposed by USWA, it is required to report the payments on Forms 1042-S to A, B, C, D, and E. FB's intentional failure to do so will subject it to intentional disregard penalties under sections 6721 and 6722.

(7) Liability for failure to obtain documentation timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions—(i) General rule. A withholding agent that cannot reliably associate a payment with valid documentation on the date of payment and that does not withhold under this section, or withholds at less than the 30-percent rate prescribed under section 1441(a) and paragraph (b)(1) of this section, is liable under section 1461 for the tax required to be withheld under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder, without the benefit of a reduced rate unless—

(A) The withholding agent has appropriately relied on the presumptions described in paragraph (b)(3) of this section (including the grace period described in paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section) in order to treat the payee as a U.S. person or, if applicable, on the presumptions described in §1.1441-4(a) (2)(ii) or (3)(i) to treat the payment as effectively connected income;

(B) The withholding agent can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the district director or the Assistant Commissioner (International) that the proper amount of tax, if any, was in fact paid to the IRS;

(C) No documentation is required under section 1441 or this section in order for a reduced rate of withholding to apply; or

(D) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(7)(i)(D).

(ii) Proof that tax liability has been satisfied. Proof of payment of tax may be established for purposes of paragraph (b)(7)(i)(B) of this section on the basis of a Form 4669 (or such other form as the IRS may prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter)), establishing the amount of tax, if any, actually paid by or for the beneficial owner on the income. Proof that a reduced rate of withholding was, in fact, appropriate under the provisions of chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder may also be established after the date of payment by the withholding agent on the basis of a valid withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation furnished after that date that was effective as of the date of payment. A withholding certificate furnished after the date of payment will be considered effective as of the date of the payment if the certificate contains a signed affidavit (either at the bottom of the form or on an attached page) that states that the information and representations contained on the certificate were accurate as of the time of the payment. A certificate obtained within 30 days after the date of the payment will not be considered to be unreliable solely because it does not contain an affidavit. However, in the case of a withholding certificate of an individual received more than a year after the date of payment, the withholding agent will be required to obtain, in addition to the withholding certificate and affidavit, documentary evidence, as described in §1.1471-3(c)(5)(i), that supports the individual's claim of foreign status or documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(4)(i) to support any treaty claim made on the certificate. In the case of a withholding certificate of an entity received more than a year after the date of payment, the withholding agent will be required to obtain, in addition to the withholding certificate and affidavit, documentary evidence described in §1.1471-3(c)(5)(i) that supports the entity's claim of foreign status or documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(4)(ii) to support any treaty claim made on the certificate. If documentation other than a withholding certificate is submitted from a payee more than a year after the date of payment, the withholding agent will be required to obtain from the payee a withholding certificate and affidavit supporting the claim of chapter 3 status as of the time of the payment. See §1.1471-3(c)(7)(ii) for additional requirements that may apply under chapter 4 for documentation obtained after the date of payment of a withholdable payment.

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(7)(iii).

(iv) Special rule for determining validity of withholding certificate containing inconsequential errors. A withholding agent may treat a withholding certificate as valid when the certificate includes an error described as an inconsequential error in §1.1471-3(c)(7)(i) for which the withholding agent obtains documentation sufficient for supporting a payee's claim of status as a foreign person or, for a payee that is an entity, its classification to the extent permitted under §1.1471-3(c)(7)(i). For example, if the country of residence is abbreviated in an ambiguous way on a beneficial owner withholding certificate provided to establish the beneficial owner's foreign status, a withholding agent may treat the withholding certificate as valid if it has obtained documentary evidence supporting that the beneficial owner's residence is in a country other than the United States.

(v) Special effective date. See paragraph (f)(2)(ii) of this section for the special effective date applicable to this paragraph (b)(7).

(8) and (9) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(b)(8) and (9).

(c) Definitions. The following definitions apply for purposes of sections 1441 through 1443, 1461, and regulations under those sections. For definitions of terms used in these regulations that are defined under sections 1471 through 1474, see subparagraphs (43) through (56) of this paragraph.

(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(1).

(2) Foreign and U.S. person. The term foreign person means any person that is not a U.S. person, including a QI branch of a U.S. financial institution (as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(109). Such a branch continues to be a U.S. payor for purposes of chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code. See §1.6049-5(c)(4). A U.S. person is a person described in section 7701(a)(30), the U.S. government (including an agency or instrumentality thereof), a State (including an agency or instrumentality thereof), or the District of Columbia (including an agency or instrumentality thereof).

(3) and (4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(3) and (4).

(5) Financial institution and foreign financial institution (FFI). The term financial institution means a person described in §1.1471-5(e). The term foreign financial institution or FFI has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-5(d).

(6) through (9) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(6) through (9).

(10) Chapter 3 of the Code (or chapter 3). For purposes of the regulations under sections 1441, 1442, and 1443, any reference to chapter 3 of the Code (or chapter 3) shall not include references to sections 1445 and 1446, unless the context indicates otherwise.

(11) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(11).

(12) Payee. For purposes of chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, the term payee of a payment is determined under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, §1.1441-5(c)(1) (relating to partnerships), and §1.1441-5(e)(2) and (3) (relating to trusts and estates) and includes foreign persons, U.S. exempt recipients, and U.S. non-exempt recipients. A nonqualified intermediary and a qualified intermediary (to the extent it does not assume primary withholding responsibility) are not payees if they are acting as intermediaries and not the beneficial owner of income. In addition, a flow-through entity (other than a withholding foreign partnership, withholding foreign trust, or qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility) is not a payee unless the income is (or is deemed to be) effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. See §1.6049-5(d)(1) for rules to determine the payee for purposes of chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code. See §§1.1441-1(b)(3), 1.1441-5(d), and (e)(6) and §1.6049-5(d)(3) for presumption rules that apply if a payee's identity cannot be determined on the basis of valid documentation. For purposes of chapter 4, the term payee has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-3(a) with respect to a withholdable payment.

(13) through (15) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(13) through (15).

(16) Withholding certificate. The term withholding certificate means a Form W-8 described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section (relating to foreign beneficial owners), paragraphs (e)(3)(i) or (e)(5)(i) of this section (relating to foreign intermediaries), §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv), (c)(3)(iii), and (e)(5)(iii) (relating to flow-through entities), a Form 8233 described in §1.1441-4(b)(2), a Form W-9 as described in paragraph (d) of this section, a statement described in §1.871-14(c)(2)(v) (relating to portfolio interest), or any other certificates that under the Internal Revenue Code or regulations certifies or establishes the status of a payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. or a foreign person.

(17) Documentary evidence; other appropriate documentation. The terms documentary evidence or other appropriate documentation refer to documentary evidence that may be provided for payments made outside the United States with respect to offshore obligations in accordance with §1.6049-5(c)(1) or any other evidence that under the Internal Revenue Code or regulations certifies or establishes the status of a payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. or foreign person. See §§1.1441-6(b)(2), (c)(3) and (4) (relating to treaty benefits), and 1.6049-5(c)(1) and (4) (relating to chapter 61 reporting). Also see §1.1441-4(a)(3)(ii) regarding documentary evidence for notional principal contracts.

(18) through (24) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(18) through (c)(24).

(25) Foreign complex trust. A foreign complex trust is a foreign trust other than a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust.

(26) through (27) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(c)(26) through (c)(27).

(28) Nonwithholding foreign partnership (or NWP). A nonwithholding foreign partnership is a foreign partnership that is not a withholding foreign partnership, as defined in §1.1441-5(c)(2)(i).

(29) Withholding foreign partnership (or WP). A withholding foreign partnership is defined in §1.1441-5(c)(2)(i).

(30) Possessions of the United States or U.S. territory. For purposes of the regulations under chapters 3 and 61 of the Internal Revenue Code, the term possessions of the United States or U.S. territory means Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands.

(31) Amount subject to chapter 3 withholding. An amount subject to withholding under chapter 3 is an amount described in §1.1441-2(a).

(32) EIN. The term EIN means an employer identification number (also known as a federal tax identification number) described in §301.6109-1(a)(1)(i).

(33) Flow-through withholding certificate. The term flow-through withholding certificate means a Form W-8IMY submitted by a foreign partnership, foreign simple trust, or foreign grantor trust.

(34) Foreign payee. The term foreign payee means any payee other than a U.S. payee.

(35) Intermediary withholding certificate. The term intermediary withholding certificate means a Form W-8IMY submitted by an intermediary.

(36) Nonwithholding foreign trust (or NWT). The term nonwithholding foreign trust or NWT means a foreign trust as defined in section 7701(a)(31)(B) that is a simple trust or grantor trust and is not a withholding foreign trust.

(37) Payment with respect to an offshore obligation. The term payment with respect to an offshore obligation means a payment made outside of the United States, within the meaning of §1.6049-5(e), with respect to an offshore obligation (as defined in §§1.6049-5(c)(1)), 1.6041-1(d), or 1.6042-3(b) (depending on the type of payment).

(38) Permanent residence address. The term permanent residence address is the address in the country of which the person claims to be a resident for purposes of that country's income tax. In the case of a withholding certificate furnished in order to claim a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty, the residence must be determined in the manner prescribed under the applicable treaty. See §1.1441-6(b). The address of a financial institution with which the person maintains an account, a post office box, or an address used solely for mailing purposes is not a permanent residence address unless such address is the only permanent address used by the person and appears as the person's registered address in the person's organizational documents. Further, an address that is provided subject to instructions to hold all mail to that address is not a permanent residence address. If the person is an individual who does not have a tax residence in any country, the permanent address is the place at which the person normally resides. If the person is an entity and does not have a tax residence in any country, then the permanent residence address of the entity is the place at which the person maintains its principal office.

(39) Standing instructions to pay amounts. The term standing instructions to pay amounts has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-1(b)(126).

(40) Territory financial institution. The term territory financial institution has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-1(b)(130).

(41) TIN. The term TIN means the tax identifying number assigned to a person under section 6109.

(42) Withholding foreign trust (or WT). The term withholding foreign trust (or WT) means a foreign grantor trust or foreign simple trust that has executed the agreement described in §1.1441-5(e)(5)(v).

(43) Certified deemed-compliant FFI. The term certified deemed-compliant FFI means an FFI described in §1.1471-5(f)(2).

(44) Chapter 3 withholding rate pool. The term chapter 3 withholding rate pool has the meaning described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) of this section.

(45) Chapter 3 status. The term chapter 3 status refers to the attributes of a payee relevant for determining the rate of withholding with respect to a payment made to the payee for purposes of chapter 3.

(46) Chapter 4 of the Code (or chapter 4). The term chapter 4 of the Code (or chapter 4) means sections 1471 through 1474 and the regulations thereunder.

(47) Chapter 4 status. The term chapter 4 status means a person's status as a U.S. person, a specified U.S. person, an individual that is a foreign person, a participating FFI, a deemed-compliant FFI, a restricted distributor, an exempt beneficial owner, a nonparticipating FFI, a territory financial institution, an excepted NFFE, or a passive NFFE.

(48) Chapter 4 withholding rate pool. The term chapter 4 withholding rate pool has the meaning set forth §1.1471-1(b)(20). For when a withholding statement may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees for purposes of this section and §1.1441-5, however, see paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section (for a withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary) or paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) of this section (for a withholding statement provided by a qualified intermediary).

(49) Deemed-compliant FFI. The term deemed-compliant FFI means an FFI that is treated, pursuant to section 1471(b)(2) and §1.1471-5(f), as meeting the requirements of section 1471(b). The term deemed-compliant FFI also includes a QI branch of a U.S. financial institution that is a reporting Model 1 FFI.

(50) GIIN (or Global Intermediary Identification Number). The term GIIN or Global Intermediary Identification Number means the identification number that is assigned to a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI. The term GIIN or Global Intermediary Identification Number also includes the identification number assigned to a reporting Model 1 FFI (as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(114)) for purposes of identifying such entity to withholding agents. All GIINs will appear on the IRS FFI list.

(51) NFFE. The term NFFE or non-financial foreign entity has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-1(b)(80).

(52) Nonparticipating FFI. The term nonparticipating FFI means an FFI other than a participating FFI, a deemed-compliant FFI, or an exempt beneficial owner.

(53) Participating FFI. The term participating FFI has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-1(b)(91).

(54) Preexisting obligation. The term preexisting obligation has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-1(b)(104).

(55) Registered deemed-compliant FFI. The term registered deemed- compliant FFI has the meaning set forth in §1.1471-5(f)(1).

(56) Withholdable payment. The term withholdable payment has the meaning set forth in §1.1473-1(a).

(d) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(d) introductory text through (d)(3).

(4) When a payment to an intermediary or flow-through entity may be treated as made to a U.S. payee. A withholding agent that makes a payment to an intermediary (whether a qualified intermediary or nonqualified intermediary), a flow-through entity, or a U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section may treat the payment as made to a U.S. payee to the extent that, prior to the payment, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a Form W-9 described in paragraph (d)(2) or (3) of this section attached to a valid intermediary, flow-through, or U.S. branch withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section or to the extent the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a Form W-8 described in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section that evidences an agreement to treat a U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section as a U.S. person. In addition, a withholding agent may treat the payment as made to a U.S. payee only if it complies with the electronic confirmation procedures described in paragraph (e)(4)(v) of this section, if required, and it has not been notified by the IRS that any of the information on the withholding certificate or other documentation is incorrect or unreliable. In the case of a Form W-9 that is required to be furnished for a reportable payment that may be subject to backup withholding, the withholding agent may be notified in accordance with section 3406(a)(1)(B) and the regulations under that section. See applicable procedures under section 3406(a)(1)(B) and the regulations under that section for payors who have been notified with regard to such a Form W-9. Withholding agents who have been notified in relation to other Forms W-9, including under section 6724(b) pursuant to section 6721, may rely on the withholding certificate or other documentation only to the extent provided under procedures as prescribed by the IRS (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(e) through (e)(1)(ii)(A)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e) introductory text through (e)(1)(ii)(A)(1).

(2) That the payment is made outside the United States (within the meaning of §1.6049-5(e)) with respect to an offshore obligation (within the meaning of paragraph (c)(37) of this section) and the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with documentary evidence described in §§1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4), or 1.6049-5(c)(1) relating to the beneficial owner;

(3) That the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a valid qualified intermediary withholding certificate, as described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, and the qualified intermediary has provided sufficient information for the withholding agent to allocate the payment to a chapter 3 withholding rate pool;

(4) through (7) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii)(A)(4) through (7).

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii)(B).

(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(2) introductory text through (e)(2)(i).

(ii) Requirements for validity of certificate. A beneficial owner withholding certificate is valid for purposes of a payment of an amount subject to chapter 3 withholding only if it is provided on a Form W-8, or a Form 8233 in the case of personal services income described in §1.1441-4(b) or certain scholarship or grant amounts described in §1.1441-4(c) (or a substitute form described in paragraph (e)(4)(vi) of this section or such other form as the IRS may prescribe). A Form W-8 is valid only if its validity period has not expired, it is signed under penalties of perjury by the beneficial owner, and it contains all of the information required on the form. The required information is the beneficial owner's name, permanent residence address (as defined in §1.1441-1(c)(38)), TIN (if required), a certification that the person is not a U.S. citizen (if the person is an individual) or a certification of the country under the laws of which the beneficial owner is created, incorporated, or governed (if a person other than an individual), the classification of the entity, and such other information as may be required by the regulations under section 1441 or by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information described in this paragraph (e)(2)(ii) (including when a foreign TIN and an individual's date of birth are required). A beneficial owner withholding certificate must also include the chapter 4 status of a beneficial owner when required for chapter 4 purposes in order to be valid. See paragraph (e)(4)(vii) of this section for circumstances in which a TIN is required on a beneficial owner withholding certificate.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(3) introductory text and (e)(3)(i).

(ii) Intermediary withholding certificate from a qualified intermediary. A qualified intermediary shall provide a qualified intermediary withholding certificate for withholdable payments or reportable amounts received by the qualified intermediary. See paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section for the definition of reportable amount. A qualified intermediary withholding certificate is valid only if it is furnished on a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a person with authority to sign for the qualified intermediary, its validity has not expired, and it contains the following information, statement, and certifications—

(A) The name, permanent residence address, qualified intermediary employer identification number (QI-EIN), and the country under the laws of which the intermediary is created, incorporated, or governed. If required for purposes of chapter 4 or if the qualified intermediary is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI and certifies that it is providing (or will provide) a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees under §1.6049-4(c)(4) with respect to accounts that the qualified intermediary maintains, the withholding certificate must also include the chapter 4 status of the qualified intermediary and its GIIN (if applicable). See paragraph (e)(5)(ii) for the chapter 4 status required of a qualified intermediary, including when a qualified intermediary withholding certificate may include a chapter 4 status of limited FFI (as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(77)). A qualified intermediary that does not act in its capacity as a qualified intermediary must not use its QI-EIN. Rather, the intermediary should provide a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate, if it is acting as an intermediary, and should use the taxpayer identification number (if any) and GIIN (if applicable) that it uses for all other purposes;

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(3)(ii)(B).

(C) A certification that the qualified intermediary has provided, or will provide, a withholding statement as required by paragraph (e)(5)(v) of this section;

(D) A certification that the qualified intermediary meets the requirements of §1.6049-4(c)(4) when the qualified intermediary provides (or will provide) a withholding statement associated with its Form W-8 that allocates a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees that hold accounts with the qualified intermediary. Additionally, when the qualified intermediary provides a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees that do not hold accounts maintained by the qualified intermediary, the qualified intermediary provides a certification on the Form W-8 that the qualified intermediary has obtained (or will obtain) documentation from the intermediary or flow through entity allocating the payment to the pool to establish that the entity's status is as a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or qualified intermediary under §1.1471-3(d)(4) (or, as applicable, §1.1471-3(e)(4)(vi)(B) or §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)); and

(E) Any other information, certifications, or statements as may be required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information and certifications described in this paragraph (e)(3)(ii) or paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section. See paragraph (e)(5)(v) of this section for the requirements of a withholding statement associated with the qualified intermediary withholding certificate.

(iii) Intermediary withholding certificate from a nonqualified intermediary. A nonqualified intermediary shall provide a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate for reportable amounts received by the nonqualified intermediary. See paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section for the definition of reportable amount. A nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate is valid only to the extent it is furnished on a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a person authorized to sign for the nonqualified intermediary, it contains the information, statements, and certifications described in this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) and paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section, its validity has not expired, and it contains the withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation for all persons to whom the certificate relates are associated with the certificate. Withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation consist of beneficial owner withholding certificates described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, intermediary and flow-through withholding certificates described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, withholding foreign partnership and withholding foreign trust certificates described in §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv) and (e)(5)(iii), documentary evidence described in §§1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4) and 1.6049-5(c)(1), and any other documentation or certificates applicable under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations that certify or establish the status of the payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. or a foreign person. If a nonqualified intermediary is acting on behalf of another nonqualified intermediary or a flow-through entity, then the nonqualified intermediary must associate with its own withholding certificate the other nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate or the flow-through withholding certificate and separately identify all of the withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation that are associated with the withholding certificate of the other nonqualified intermediary or flow-through entity. Nothing in this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) shall require an intermediary to furnish original documentation. Copies of certificates or documentary evidence may be transmitted to the U.S. withholding agent, in which case the nonqualified intermediary must retain the original documentation for the same time period that the copy is required to be retained by the withholding agent under paragraph (e)(4)(iii) of this section and must provide it to the withholding agent upon request. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(iii), a valid intermediary withholding certificate also includes a statement described in §1.871-14(c)(2)(v) furnished for interest to qualify as portfolio interest for purposes of sections 871(h) and 881(c). The information and certifications required on a Form W-8 described in this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) are as follows—

(A) The name and permanent resident address of the nonqualified intermediary, chapter 4 status (if required for chapter 4 purposes or if the nonqualified intermediary provides the certification described in paragraph (e)(3)(iii)(D) of this section,), GIIN (if applicable), and the country under the laws of which the nonqualified intermediary is created, incorporated, or governed;

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iii)(B).

(C) If the nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate is used to transmit withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation for more than one person on whose behalf the nonqualified intermediary is acting, a withholding statement associated with the Form W-8 that provides all the information required by paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section;

(D) If the nonqualified intermediary provides a withholding statement associated with the Form W-8 allocating a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees, a certification that the nonqualified intermediary meets the requirements of §1.6049-4(c)(4) with respect to any payees included in such pool that hold accounts maintained (as defined in §1.1471-5(b)(5)) by the nonqualified intermediary; and

(E) Any other information, certifications, or statements as may be required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information, certifications, and statements described in this paragraph (e)(3)(iii) or paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section.

(iv) Withholding statement provided by nonqualified intermediary—(A) In general. A nonqualified intermediary shall provide a withholding statement required by this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) to the extent the nonqualified intermediary is required to furnish, or does furnish, documentation for payees on whose behalf it receives reportable amounts (as defined in paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section) or to the extent it otherwise provides the documentation of such payees to a withholding agent. A nonqualified intermediary, however, that is subject to withholding under chapter 4 due to its chapter 4 status as a nonparticipating FFI need not provide a withholding statement unless it is providing documentation with respect to an exempt beneficial owner as described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(4). A nonqualified intermediary is not required to disclose to the withholding agent information regarding persons for whom it collects reportable amounts unless it has actual knowledge that any such person is a U.S. non-exempt recipient as defined in paragraph (c)(21) of this section. Information regarding U.S. non-exempt recipients required under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) must be provided irrespective of any requirement under foreign law that prohibits the disclosure of the identity of an account holder of a nonqualified intermediary or financial information relating to such account holder. A nonqualified intermediary is not required to provide information on a withholding statement regarding U.S. non-exempt recipients, provided that the nonqualified intermediary is a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI) that identifies on the withholding statement the portion of a payment allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees to the extent that the nonqualified intermediary is permitted to include such U.S. payees in a pool under §1.6049-4(c)(4)(iii). See §1.1471-3(d)(4) for the requirements of an entity to identify itself as a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI to a withholding agent for purposes of chapter 4. Although a nonqualified intermediary is not required to provide documentation and other information required by this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) for persons other than U.S. non-exempt recipients not included in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees, a withholding agent that does not receive documentation and such information must apply the presumption rules of paragraph (b) of this section, §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and 1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment) or the withholding agent shall be liable for tax, interest, and penalties. A withholding agent must apply the presumption rules even if it is not required under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code to obtain documentation to treat a payee as an exempt recipient and even though it has actual knowledge that the payee is a U.S. person. For example, if a nonqualified intermediary receives a payment that is not a withholdable payment and fails to provide a withholding agent with a Form W-9 for an account holder that is a U.S. exempt recipient that is not included in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees to the extent permitted in this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A), the withholding agent must presume (even if it has actual knowledge that the account holder is a U.S. exempt recipient) that the account holder is an undocumented foreign person with respect to amounts subject to chapter 3 withholding. See paragraph (b)(3)(v) of this section for applicable presumptions. Therefore, the withholding agent must withhold 30 percent from the payment even though if a Form W-9 had been provided, no withholding or reporting on the payment attributable to a U.S. exempt recipient would apply. Further, a nonqualified intermediary that fails to provide the documentation and the information under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) for another withholding agent to report the payments on Forms 1042-S (including under the requirements of §1.1474-1(d)(2) for a payment of a chapter 4 reportable amount) and Forms 1099 is not relieved of its responsibility to file information returns. See paragraph (b)(6) of this section. Therefore, unless the nonqualified intermediary itself files such returns and provides copies to the payees, it shall be liable for penalties under sections 6721 (failure to file information returns), and 6722 (failure to furnish payee statements), including the penalties under those sections for intentional failure to file information returns. In addition, failure to provide either the documentation or the information required by this paragraph (e)(3)(iv) results in a payment not being reliably associated with valid documentation. Therefore, the beneficial owners of the payment are not entitled to reduced rates of withholding and if the full amount required to be held under the presumption rules is not withheld by the withholding agent, the nonqualified intermediary must withhold the difference between the amount withheld by the withholding agent and the amount required to be withheld. Failure to withhold shall result in the nonqualified intermediary being liable for tax under section 1461, interest, and penalties, including penalties under section 6656 (failure to deposit) and section 6672 (failure to collect and pay over tax).

(B) General requirements. A withholding statement must be provided prior to the payment of a reportable amount and must contain the information specified in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section. The statement must be updated as often as required to keep the information in the withholding statement correct prior to each subsequent payment. The withholding statement forms an integral part of the withholding certificate provided under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section, and the penalties of perjury statement provided on the withholding certificate shall apply to the withholding statement. The withholding statement may be provided in any manner the nonqualified intermediary and the withholding agent mutually agree, including electronically. If the withholding statement is provided electronically as part of a system established by the withholding agent or nonqualified intermediary to provide the statement, however, there must be sufficient safeguards to ensure that the information received by the withholding agent is the information sent by the nonqualified intermediary and all occasions of user access that result in the submission or modification of the withholding statement information must be recorded. In addition, the electronic system must be capable of providing a hard copy of all withholding statements provided by the nonqualified intermediary. A withholding statement may otherwise be transmitted by a nonqualified intermediary via email or facsimile to a withholding agent under the requirements specified in paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(C) of this section (substituting the term withholding statement for the term Form W-8 or the term document, as applicable). A withholding agent will be liable for tax, interest, and penalties in accordance with paragraph (b)(7) of this section to the extent it does not follow the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section or §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), and 1.6049-5(d) for any payment of a reportable amount, or portion thereof, for which it does not have a valid withholding statement prior to making a payment. A withholding agent may not treat as valid an allocation of a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section or an allocation of a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of recalcitrant account holders described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) of this section unless the withholding agent identifies the nonqualified intermediary maintaining the account (as described in §1.1471-5(b)(5)) as a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI) by applying the rules of §1.1471-3(d)(4).

(C) Content of withholding statement. The withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary must contain the information required by this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C).

(1) In general. The withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary must contain the information required by this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C).

(i) Except as otherwise provided in (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section (which excludes reporting of information with respect to certain U.S. persons on the withholding statement), the withholding statement must contain the name, address, TIN (if any) and the type of documentation (documentary evidence, Form W-9, or type of Form W-8) for every person from whom documentation has been received by the nonqualified intermediary and provided to the withholding agent and whether that person is a U.S. exempt recipient, a U.S. non-exempt recipient, or a foreign person. See paragraphs (c)(2), (20), and (21) of this section for the definitions of foreign person, U.S. exempt recipient, and U.S. non-exempt recipient. In the case of a foreign person, the statement must indicate whether the foreign person is a beneficial owner or an intermediary, flow-through entity, U.S. branch, or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section and include the type of recipient, based on recipient codes applicable for chapter 3 purposes used for filing Forms 1042-S, if the foreign person is a recipient as defined in §1.1461-1(c)(1)(ii).

(ii) The withholding statement must allocate each payment, by income type, to every payee required to be reported on the withholding statement for whom documentation has been provided (including U.S. exempt recipients except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section). Any payment that cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation from a payee shall be treated as made to an unknown payee in accordance with the presumption rules of paragraph (b) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6) and 1.6049-5(d). For this purpose, a type of income is determined by the types of income required to be reported on Forms 1042-S or 1099, as appropriate. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, deposit interest (including original issue discount) described in section 871(i)(2)(A) or 881(d) and interest or original issue discount on short-term obligations as described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(e) is only required to be allocated to the extent it is required to be reported on Form 1099 or Form 1042-S. See §1.6049-8 (regarding reporting of bank deposit interest to certain foreign persons). If a payee receives income through another nonqualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (e)(2)(iv) of this section (other than a U.S. branch or territory financial institution treated as a U.S. person), the withholding statement must also state, with respect to the payee, the name, address, and TIN, if known, of the other nonqualified intermediary or U.S. branch from which the payee directly receives the payment or the flow-through entity in which the payee has a direct ownership interest. If another nonqualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch fails to allocate a payment, the name of the nonqualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch that failed to allocate the payment shall be provided with respect to such payment.

(iii) If a payee is identified as a foreign person, the nonqualified intermediary must specify the rate of withholding to which the payee is subject, the payee's country of residence and, if a reduced rate of withholding is claimed, the basis for that reduced rate (e.g., treaty benefit, portfolio interest, exempt under section 501(c)(3), 892, or 895). The allocation statement must also include the taxpayer identification numbers of those foreign persons for whom such a number is required under paragraph (e)(4)(vii) of this section or §1.1441-6(b)(1) (regarding claims for treaty benefits for which a TIN is provided unless a foreign tax identifying number described in §1.1441-6(b)(1) is provided). In the case of a claim of treaty benefits, the nonqualified intermediary's withholding statement must also state whether the limitation on benefits and section 894 statements required by §1.1441-6(c)(5) have been provided, if required, in the beneficial owner's Form W-8 or associated with such owner's documentary evidence.

(iv) The withholding statement must also contain any other information the withholding agent reasonably requests in order to fulfill its obligations under chapter 3, chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code, and section 3406.

(2) Nonqualified intermediary withholding statement for withholdable payments. This paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) modifies the requirements of a withholding statement described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(1) of this section that is provided by a nonqualified intermediary with respect to a reportable amount that is a withholdable payment. For such a payment, the requirements applicable to a withholding statement described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) through (e)(3)(iv)(C)(1) of this section shall apply, except that—

(i) The withholding statement must include the chapter 4 status (using the applicable status code used for filing Form 1042-S) and GIIN (when required for chapter 4 purposes under §1.1471-3(d)) of each other intermediary or flow-through entity that is a foreign person and that receives the payment, excluding an intermediary or flow-through entity that is an account holder of or interest holder in a withholding foreign partnership, withholding foreign trust, or qualified intermediary;

(ii) If the nonqualified intermediary that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI provides a withholding statement described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(2) (describing an FFI withholding statement), the withholding statement may include chapter 4 withholding rate pools with respect to the portions of the payment allocated to nonparticipating FFIs and recalcitrant account holders (to the extent permitted on an FFI withholding statement described in that paragraph) in lieu of providing specific payee information with respect to such persons reported on the statement (including persons subject to chapter 4 withholding) as described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(1) of this section;

(iii) If the nonqualified intermediary provides a withholding statement described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(3) (describing a chapter 4 withholding statement), the withholding statement may include chapter 4 withholding rate pools with respect to the portions of the payment allocated to nonparticipating FFIs; and

(iv) For a payment allocated to a payee that is a foreign person (other than a person included in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool described in paragraphs (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section) that is reported on a withholding statement described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(2) or (c)(3)(iii)(B)(3), the withholding statement must include the chapter 4 status of the payee (unless an exception applies for purposes of providing such status under chapter 4) and, for a payee other than an individual, the recipient code for chapter 4 purposes used for filing Form 1042-S.

(3) Example. This example illustrates the principles of paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section. WA makes a withholdable payment of U.S. source dividends to NQI, a nonqualified intermediary. NQI provides WA with a valid intermediary withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section that includes NQI's certification of its status for chapter 4 purposes as a participating FFI. NQI provides a withholding statement on which NQI allocates 20% of the payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of recalcitrant account holders of NQI for purposes of chapter 4 and allocates 80% of the payment equally to A and B, individuals that are account holders of NQI. NQI also provides WA with valid beneficial owner withholding certificates from A and B establishing their status as foreign persons entitled to a 15% rate of withholding under an applicable income tax treaty. Because NQI has certified its status as a participating FFI, withholding under chapter 4 is not required with respect to NQI. See §1.1471-2(a)(4). Based on the documentation NQI provided to WA with respect to A and B, WA can reliably associate the payment with valid documentation on the portion of the payment allocated to them and, because the payment is a withholdable payment, may rely on the allocation of the payment for NQI's recalcitrant account holders in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of payee information with respect to such account holders. See paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) of this section for the special rules for a withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary for a withholdable payment. Also see §1.1471-2(a) for WA's withholding requirements under chapter 4 with respect to the portion of the payment allocated to NQI's recalcitrant account holders and §1.1441-3(a)(2) for coordinating withholding under chapter 3 for payments to which withholding is applied under chapter 4.

(D) Alternative procedures—(1) In general. Under the alternative procedures of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D), a nonqualified intermediary may provide information allocating a payment of a reportable amount to each payee (including U.S. exempt recipients) otherwise required under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(B)(2) of this section after a payment is made. To use the alternative procedure of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D), the nonqualified intermediary must inform the withholding agent on a statement associated with its nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate that it is using the procedure under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) and the withholding agent must agree to the procedure. If the requirements of the alternative procedure are met, a withholding agent, including the nonqualified intermediary using the procedures, can treat the payment as reliably associated with documentation and, therefore, the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6) and 1.6049-5(d) do not apply even though information allocating the payment to each payee has not been received prior to the payment. See paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(7) of this section, however, for a nonqualified intermediary's liability for tax and penalties if the requirements of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) are not met. These alternative procedures shall not be used for payments that are allocable to U.S. non-exempt recipients except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(ii) of this section. Therefore, a nonqualified intermediary is required to provide a withholding agent with information allocating payments of reportable amounts to U.S. non-exempt recipients prior to the payment being made by the withholding agent.

(2) Withholding rate pools—(i) In general. In place of the information required in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) of this section allocating payments to each payee, the nonqualified intermediary must provide a withholding agent with withholding rate pool information prior to the payment of a reportable amount. The withholding statement must contain all other information required by paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section. Further, each payee listed in the withholding statement must be assigned to an identified withholding rate pool. To the extent a nonqualified intermediary is required to, or does provide, documentation, the alternative procedures do not relieve the nonqualified intermediary from the requirement to provide documentation prior to the payment being made. Therefore, withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation and all information required by paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(C) of this section (other than allocation information) must be provided to a withholding agent before any new payee receives a reportable amount. In addition, the withholding statement must be updated by assigning a new payee to a withholding rate pool prior to the payment of a reportable amount. A withholding rate pool is a payment of a single type of income, determined in accordance with the categories of income used to file Form 1042-S, that is subject to a single rate of withholding. A withholding rate pool may be established by any reasonable method to which the nonqualified intermediary and a withholding agent agree (e.g., by establishing a separate account for a single withholding rate pool, or by dividing a payment made to a single account into portions allocable to each withholding rate pool). The nonqualified intermediary shall determine withholding rate pools based on valid documentation or, to the extent a payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation, the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6) and 1.6049-5(d).

(ii) Withholding rate pools for chapter 4 purposes. This paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(ii) modifies the provisions of paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(i) of this section with respect to the withholding rate pools permitted for the alternative procedures described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(1) of this section in the case of a payment that is allocable on a withholding statement to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool as described in this paragraph. In the case of a withholdable payment, a nonqualified intermediary may include reportable amounts allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool (other than a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees) in a 30-percent rate pool together with a withholding rate pool for amounts subject to chapter 3 withholding at the 30-percent rate. For a payment of a reportable amount that is allocable to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees on a withholding statement, a nonqualified intermediary may include such amount in a single withholding rate pool with the amount of the payment that is exempt from withholding under chapter 3 instead of providing documentation regarding U.S. non-exempt recipients included in the pool or separately allocating the amount to the chapter 4 withholding rate pool. To the extent that a nonqualified intermediary allocates an amount to any chapter 4 withholding rate pool, the nonqualified intermediary is required to notify the withholding agent of the allocation before receiving the payment and is not required to provide documentation with respect to the payees included in such pool. The nonqualified intermediary shall determine the chapter 4 withholding rate pools permitted to be used under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(ii) in accordance with the nonqualified intermediary's applicable chapter 4 status and under §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(2) (for an FFI withholding statement) or (c)(3)(iii)(B)(3) (for a chapter 4 withholding statement) or under §1.6049-4(c)(4) for a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees (or similar applicable coordination rule in chapter 61 for payments other than interest). Additionally, the nonqualified intermediary shall identify those payees to which withholding under chapter 4 applies that are not included in a chapter 4 reporting pool (including payees that could be included in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool for whom the nonqualified intermediary chooses to provide payee specific information).

(3) Allocation information. The nonqualified intermediary must provide the withholding agent with sufficient information to allocate the income in each withholding rate pool to each payee (including U.S. exempt recipients or any chapter 4 withholding rate pool identified by the withholding agent under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(ii) of this section) within the pool no later than January 31 of the year following the year of payment. Any payments that are not allocated to payees for whom documentation has been provided or a chapter 4 withholding rate pool referred to in the previous sentence shall be allocated to an undocumented payee in accordance with the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and 1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment for chapter 4 purposes). Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, deposit interest (including original issue discount) described in section 871(i)(2)(A) or 881(d) and interest or original issue discount on short-term obligations as described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(e) is not required to be allocated to a U.S. exempt recipient or a foreign payee, except as required under §1.6049-8 (regarding reporting of deposit interest paid to certain foreign persons).

(4) Failure to provide allocation information. Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(5) of this section, if a nonqualified intermediary fails to provide allocation information, if required, by January 31 for any withholding rate pool to the extent required in paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(3) of this section, a withholding agent shall not apply the alternative procedures of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) to any payments of reportable amounts paid after January 31 in the taxable year following the calendar year for which allocation information was not given and any subsequent taxable year. Further, the alternative procedures shall be unavailable for any other withholding rate pool (other than a chapter 4 withholding rate pool as otherwise permitted) even though allocation information was given for that other pool. Therefore, the withholding agent must withhold on a payment of a reportable amount in accordance with the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and 1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment for chapter 4 purposes), unless the nonqualified intermediary provides all of the information, including information sufficient to allocate the payment to each specific payee or chapter 4 withholding rate pool (as permitted), required by paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) through (C) of this section prior to the payment. A nonqualified intermediary must allocate at least 90 percent of the income required to be allocated for each withholding rate pool as required under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(4) or the nonqualified intermediary will be treated as having failed to provide allocation information for purposes of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D). For purposes of the allocation, a nonqualified intermediary is required to identify by January 31 the portion of the payment that is allocated to each chapter 4 withholding rate pool (rather than the payees included in each such pool). See paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(7) of this section for liability for tax and penalties if a nonqualified intermediary fails to provide allocation information in whole or in part.

(5) Cure provision. A nonqualified intermediary may cure any failure to provide allocation information by providing the required allocation information to the withholding agent no later than February 14 following the calendar year of payment. If the withholding agent receives the allocation information by that date, it may apply the adjustment procedures of §1.1461-2 (or of §1.1474-2 for an amount withheld under chapter 4) to any excess withholding for payments made on or after February 1 and on or before February 14. Any nonqualified intermediary that fails to cure by February 14, may request the ability to use the alternative procedures of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) by submitting a request, in writing, to the. The request must state the reason that the nonqualified intermediary did not comply with the alternative procedures of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) and steps that the nonqualified intermediary has taken, or will take, to ensure that no failures occur in the future. If the IRS determines that the alternative procedures of this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) may apply, a determination to that effect will be issued by the IRS to the nonqualified intermediary.

(6) Form 1042-S reporting in case of allocation failure. If a nonqualified intermediary fails to provide allocation information by February 14 following the year of payment for a withholding rate pool, the withholding agent must file Forms 1042-S for payments made to each payee in that pool (other than U.S. exempt recipients) in the prior calendar year by pro rating the payment to each payee (including U.S. exempt recipients) listed in the withholding statement for that withholding rate pool, treating as a payee for this purpose each chapter 4 withholding rate pool identified by the nonqualified intermediary under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D)(2)(ii) of this section. If the nonqualified intermediary fails to allocate 10 percent or less of an amount required to be allocated for a withholding rate pool, a withholding agent shall report the unallocated amount as paid to a single unknown payee in accordance with the presumption rules of paragraph (b) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and §1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment for chapter 4 purposes). The portion of the payment that can be allocated to specific recipients, as defined in §1.1461-1(c)(1)(ii), shall be reported to each recipient in accordance with the rules of §1.1461-1(c) and §1.1474-1(d)(2) (for a withholdable payment).

(7) and (8) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(iv)(D)(7) and (8).

(E) Notice procedures. The IRS may notify a withholding agent that the alternative procedures of paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) of this section are not applicable to a specified nonqualified intermediary, a U.S. branch described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section, or a flow-through entity. If a withholding agent receives such a notice, it must commence withholding under this section or chapter 4 (if applicable) in accordance with the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment for chapter 4 purposes) unless the nonqualified intermediary, U.S. branch, or flow-through entity complies with the procedures in paragraphs (e)(3)(iv)(A) through (C) of this section. In addition, the IRS may notify a withholding agent, in appropriate circumstances, that it must apply the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section and §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), 1.6049-5(d), and §1.1471-3(f)(5) (for a withholdable payment for chapter 4 purposes) to payments made to a nonqualified intermediary, a U.S. branch, or a flow-through entity even if the nonqualified intermediary, U.S. branch or flow-through entity provides allocation information prior to the payment. A withholding agent that receives a notice under this paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(E) must commence withholding in accordance with the presumption rules within 30 days of the date of the notice. The IRS may withdraw its prohibition against using the alternative procedures of paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(D) of this section, or its requirement to follow the presumption rules, if the nonqualified intermediary, U.S. branch, or flow-through entity can demonstrate to the satisfaction of the IRS that it is capable of complying with the rules under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code and any other conditions required by the IRS.

(v) Withholding certificate from certain U.S. branches (including territory financial institutions). A U.S. branch certificate is a withholding certificate provided by a U.S. branch (including a territory financial institution) described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section that is not the beneficial owner of the income. The withholding certificate is provided with respect to reportable amounts and must state that such amounts are not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. The withholding certificate must either transmit the appropriate documentation for the persons for whom the branch receives the payment (i.e., as an intermediary) or be provided as evidence of its agreement with the withholding agent to be treated as a U.S. person with respect to any payment associated with the certificate. A U.S. branch withholding certificate is valid only if it is furnished on a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a person authorized to sign for the branch, its validity has not expired, and it contains the information, statements, and certifications described in this paragraph (e)(3)(v). If the certificate is furnished to transmit withholding certificates and other documentation, it must contain the information, certifications, and statements described in paragraphs (e)(3)(v)(A) through (C) of this section and in paragraphs (e)(3)(iii) and (iv) (alternative procedures) of this section, applying the term U.S. branch instead of the term nonqualified intermediary. If the certificate is furnished pursuant to an agreement to treat the U.S. branch or territory financial institution as a U.S. person (which agreement must be for purposes of chapter 4 in addition to this section in the case of a payment that is a withholdable payment), the information and certifications required on the withholding certificate are limited to the following—

(A) The name of the territory financial institution or person of which the U.S. branch is a part, the address of the territory financial institution or U.S. branch, and, for a withholding certificate provided by a U.S. branch, a certification that the person of which the branch is a part is a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or NFFE;

(B) A certification that the payments associated with the certificate are not effectively connected with the conduct of its trade or business in the United States;

(C) The EIN of the U.S. branch or territory financial institution;

(D) When required for chapter 4 purposes, the chapter 4 status and GIIN (if applicable) of the entity of which the U.S. branch is a part; and

(E) Any other information, certifications, or statements as may be required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information and certification described in this paragraph (e)(3)(v).

(vi) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(3)(vi).

(4) Applicable rules. The provisions in this paragraph (e)(4) describe procedures applicable to withholding certificates on Form W-8 or Form 8233 (or a substitute form) or documentary evidence furnished to establish foreign status. These provisions do not apply to Forms W-9 (or their substitutes). For corresponding provisions regarding Form W-9 (or a substitute form), see section 3406 and the regulations under that section.

(i) Who may sign the certificate. A withholding certificate (including an acceptable substitute) may be signed by any person authorized to sign a declaration under penalties of perjury on behalf of the person whose name is on the certificate as provided in section 6061 and the regulations under that section (relating to who may sign generally for an individual, estate, or trust, which includes certain agents who may sign returns and other documents), section 6062 and the regulations under that section (relating to who may sign corporate returns), and section 6063 and the regulations under that section (relating to who may sign partnership returns). A person authorized to sign a withholding certificate includes an officer or director of a corporation, a partner of a partnership, a trustee of a trust, an executor of an estate, any foreign equivalent of the former titles, and any other person that has been provided written authorization by the individual or entity named on the certificate to sign documentation on such person's behalf.

(ii) Period of validity—(A) General rule. Except as provided otherwise in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section and this paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A), a withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section, or a certificate described in §1.871-14(c)(2)(v) (furnished to qualify interest as portfolio interest for purposes of sections 871(h) and 881(c)), will remain valid until the [earlier of the] last day of the third calendar year following the year in which the withholding certificate is signed [or the day that a change in circumstances occurs that makes any information on the certificate incorrect]. For example, a withholding certificate signed on September 30, 2015, remains valid through December 31, 2018, unless circumstances change that make the information on the form no longer correct. Documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4) or §1.6049-5(c)(1) shall remain valid until the last day of the third calendar year following the year in which the documentary evidence is provided to the withholding agent except as provided in paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(B) of this section. Documentary evidence described in §1.6049-5(c)(1) provided to establish a payee's foreign status that contains an expiration date may, however, be treated as valid until that expiration date if doing so would provide a longer period of validity than the three-year period. Additionally, a withholding certificate or documentary evidence with a period of validity that is valid on December 31, 2013 will not be treated as invalid based solely on the period described in this paragraph (e)(4)(ii) before January 1, 2015. Notwithstanding the validity periods prescribed by this paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A) and paragraphs (e)(4)(ii)(B) and (C) of this section, a withholding certificate and documentary evidence will cease to be valid if a change in circumstances makes the information on the documentation incorrect.

(B) Indefinite validity period. Notwithstanding paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A) of this section, the following certificates (or parts of certificates) and documentary evidence described in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii)(B)(1) through (11) of this section shall remain valid until a change in circumstances makes the information on the documentation incorrect under paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(D)(3). See, however, §1.1471-3(c)(6)(ii) for when a withholding certificate or documentary evidence remains valid (or is subject to renewal) when also provided with respect to a withholdable payment made to an entity (including an intermediary) for purposes of whether a withholding agent may continue to rely on the entity's claim of chapter 4 status. Additionally, the provisions of paragraphs (e)(4)(ii)(B)(1), (2), and (12) of this section do not apply to documentary evidence or a withholding certificate furnished prior to July 1, 2014. (For documentary evidence or a withholding certificate furnished after December 31, 2000, and before July 1, 2014, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2013.)

(1) A beneficial owner withholding certificate (other than the portion of the certificate making a claim for treaty benefits) and documentary evidence supporting a claim of foreign status when both are provided together by an individual claiming foreign status if the withholding agent does not have a current U.S. residence address or U.S. mailing address for the payee, does not have one or more current U.S. telephone numbers that are the only telephone numbers the withholding agent has for the payee, and, for a payment described in §1.6049-5(c)(1), the withholding agent has not been provided standing instructions to make a payment to an account in the United States for the obligation.

(2) A beneficial owner withholding certificate (other than the portion of the certificate making a claim for treaty benefits) described in §1.1471-3(c)(6)(ii)(C)(2) and documentary evidence provided by an entity supporting the entity's claim of foreign status when both are provided together.

(3) A beneficial owner withholding certificate provided by an entity claiming status as a tax-exempt entity under section 501(c) that is not a foreign private foundation under section 509, provided that the withholding agent reports at least one payment annually to the entity under §1.1461-1(c).

(4) A certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section (a qualified intermediary withholding certificate) but not including the withholding certificates, documentary evidence, statements or other information associated with the certificate.

(5) A certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(iii) of this section (a nonqualified intermediary certificate), but not including the withholding certificates, documentary evidence, statements or other information associated with the certificate.

(6) A certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(v) of this section (a U.S. branch (including a territory financial institution) withholding certificate that is not provided by the beneficial owner), but not including the withholding certificates, documentary evidence, statements or other information associated with the certificate.

(7) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(B)(7).

(8) A withholding certificate provided by a withholding foreign trust described in §1.1441-5(e)(5)(v).

(9) A certificate described in §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv) (dealing with a certificate from a person representing to be a withholding foreign partnership).

(10) A certificate described in §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii) (a withholding certificate from a nonwithholding foreign partnership) but not including the withholding certificates, documentary evidence, statements or other information required to be associated with the certificate.

(11) A certificate furnished by a person representing to be an integral part of a foreign government (within the meaning of §1.892-2T(a)(2)) in accordance with §1.1441-8(b), or by a person representing to be a foreign central bank of issue (within the meaning of §1.861-2(b)(4)) or the Bank for International Settlements in accordance with §1.1441-8(c)(1); and

(12) Documentary evidence that is not generally renewed or amended (such as a certificate of incorporation).

(C) Withholding certificate for effectively connected income. Notwithstanding paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(B) of this section, the period of validity of a withholding certificate furnished to a withholding agent to claim a reduced rate of withholding for income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall be limited to the three-year period described in paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(A) of this section.

(D) Change in circumstances—(1) Defined. A certificate or documentation becomes invalid from the date of a change in circumstances affecting the correctness of the certificate or documentation to the extent provided in this paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(D). For purposes of this section, a person is considered to have a change in circumstances only if such change affects the person's claim of chapter 3 status. Thus, for example, a change of address is not a change in circumstances with respect to a claim of only foreign status under this paragraph (e)(4)(ii)(D) if the change is to another address outside the United States, but is a change in circumstances if the change is to an address in the U.S.

(2) Obligation to notify a withholding agent of a change in circumstances. If a change in circumstances makes any information on a certificate or other documentary evidence incorrect, then the person whose name is on the certificate or other documentation must inform the withholding agent within 30 days of the change and furnish a new certificate or new documentary evidence. If an intermediary (including a U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section) or a flow-through entity becomes aware that a certificate or other appropriate documentation it has furnished to the person from whom it collects a payment is no longer valid because of a change in the circumstances of the person who issued the certificate or furnished the other appropriate documentation, then the intermediary or flow-through entity must notify the person from whom it collects the payment of the change of circumstances within 30 days of the date that it knows or has reason to know of the change in circumstances. It must also obtain a new withholding certificate or new appropriate documentation to replace the existing certificate or documentation the validity of which has expired due to the change in circumstances to continue to treat the person who provided the certificate or documentary evidence under its claimed chapter 3 status.

(3) Withholding agent's obligation with respect to a change in circumstances. A withholding agent may rely on a certificate without having to inquire into possible changes of circumstances that may affect the validity of the statement, unless it knows or has reason to know that circumstances have changed, as permitted under paragraph (e)(4)(viii) of this section. A withholding agent is required to notify any person providing documentary evidence (in lieu of a withholding certificate) of the person's obligation to notify the withholding agent of a change in circumstances. However, a withholding agent may choose to apply the provisions of paragraph (b)(3)(iv) of this section regarding the 90-day grace period as of that date while awaiting a new certificate or documentation or while seeking information regarding changes, or suspected changes, in the person's circumstances. A withholding agent may also require a new certificate at any time prior to a payment, even though the withholding agent has no actual knowledge or reason to know that any information stated on the certificate has changed.

(iii) Retention of documentation. A withholding agent must retain each withholding certificate and other documentation for purposes of this section for as long as it may be relevant to the determination of the withholding agent's tax liability under section 1461 and §1.1461-1. A withholding agent may retain a withholding certificate or documentary evidence that is an original, certified copy, or a scanned document (as described in paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(C) of this section). A withholding agent may also retain a withholding certificate by other means (such as microfiche) that allows a reproduction of the document provided that the withholding agent has recorded its receipt of a form described in the preceding sentence and is able to produce a hard copy of the form. See §1.6049-5(c)(1) for the requirements for maintaining documentary evidence that also apply for purposes of determining a payee's U.S. or foreign status for purposes of chapter 3.

(iv) Electronic transmission of information—(A) In general. A withholding agent may establish a system for a beneficial owner or payee to electronically furnish a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute Form W-8, or such other form as the Internal Revenue Service may prescribe. The system must meet the requirements described in paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(B) of this section. See paragraph (e)(iv)(4)(C) of this section for other cases in which a Form W-8 (or other documentation) may be furnished electronically.

(B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(4)(iv)(B).

(C) Forms and documentary evidence received by facsimile or email. A withholding agent may rely upon an otherwise valid Form W-8 (or documentary evidence) received by facsimile or a form or document scanned and received electronically, such as, for example, an image embedded in an email or as a Portable Document Format (.pdf) attached to an email. A withholding agent may not rely on a form or document received by such means, however, if the withholding agent knows that the form or document was transmitted to the withholding agent by a person not authorized to do so by the person required to execute the form. A withholding agent may establish other procedures to authenticate and verify a form or document sent by such means and may reject any form or document that fails to satisfy the requirements of such procedures. Notwithstanding the effective date of this section, the provisions of this paragraph apply for payments made on or after March 6, 2014.

(v) Additional procedures for certificates provided electronically. The IRS may prescribe procedures in a revenue procedure (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter) or may issue other appropriate guidance (including a written directive for revenue agents) to further prescribe the conditions by which the IRS will determine that a system developed by a withholding agent to permit beneficial owners and payees to provide Forms W-8 electronically satisfies the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(iv)(B) of this section.

(vi) Acceptable substitute form. A withholding agent may substitute its own form instead of an official Form W-8 or 8233 (or such other official form as the IRS may prescribe). Such a substitute for an official form will be acceptable if it contains provisions that are substantially similar to those of the official form, it contains the same certifications relevant to the transactions as are contained on the official form and these certifications are clearly set forth, and the substitute form includes a signature-under-penalties-of-perjury statement identical to the one stated on the official form. The substitute form is acceptable even if it does not contain all of the provisions contained on the official form, so long as it contains those provisions that are relevant to the transaction for which it is furnished (including those required for purposes of chapter 4). For example, a withholding agent that pays no income for which treaty benefits are claimed may develop a substitute form that is identical to the official form, except that it does not include information regarding claims of benefits under an income tax treaty. Similarly, a withholding agent that is not required to determine the chapter 4 status of a payee providing a form may develop a substitute form that does not contain chapter 4 statuses. A withholding agent who uses a substitute form must furnish instructions relevant to the substitute form only to the extent and in the manner specified in the instructions to the official form. A withholding agent may use a substitute form that is written in a language other than English and may accept a form that is filled out in a language other than English, but the withholding agent must make available an English translation of the form and its contents to the IRS upon request. A withholding agent may refuse to accept a certificate from a payee or beneficial owner (including the official Form W-8 or 8233) if the certificate provided is not an acceptable substitute form provided by the withholding agent, but only if the withholding agent furnishes the payee or beneficial owner with an acceptable substitute form within 5 business days of receipt of an unacceptable form from the payee or beneficial owner. In that case, the substitute form is acceptable only if it contains a notice that the withholding agent has refused to accept the form submitted by the payee or beneficial owner and that the payee or beneficial owner must submit the acceptable form provided by the withholding agent in order for the payee or beneficial owner to be treated as having furnished the required withholding certificate.

(vii) Requirement of taxpayer identifying number. A TIN must be stated on a withholding certificate when required by this paragraph (e)(4)(vii) for the withholding certificate to be valid for purposes of this section. A TIN is required to be stated on—

(A) A withholding certificate on which a beneficial owner is claiming the benefit of a reduced rate under an income tax treaty (other than for amounts described in §1.1441-6(c)(2) or amounts for which a foreign tax identifying number has been provided, as described in §1.1441-6(c)(2));

(B) through (E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(4)(vii)(B) through (E).

(F) A withholding certificate from a person representing to be a withholding foreign partnership or a withholding foreign trust;

(G) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(4)(vii)(G).

(H) A withholding certificate from a person representing to be a U.S. branch or territory financial institution described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section; and

(I) A withholding certificate provided by an entity acting as a qualified securities lender, as defined for purposes of chapter 3, with respect to a substitute dividend paid in a securities lending or similar transaction.

(viii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(e)(4)(viii) introductory text and (e)(4)(viii)(A).

(B) Status of payee as an intermediary or as a person acting for its own account. A withholding agent may rely on the type of certificate furnished as indicative of the payee's status as an intermediary or as an owner, unless the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise. For example, a withholding agent that receives a beneficial owner withholding certificate from a foreign financial institution may treat the institution as the beneficial owner, unless it has information in its records that would indicate otherwise or the certificate contains information that is not consistent with beneficial owner status (e.g., sub-account numbers that do not correspond to accounts maintained by the withholding agent for such person or names of one or more persons other than the person submitting the withholding certificate). If the financial institution also acts as an intermediary, the withholding agent may request that the institution furnish two certificates, i.e., a beneficial owner certificate described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section for the amounts that it receives as a beneficial owner, and an intermediary withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section for the amounts that it receives as an intermediary. In the absence of reliable representation or information regarding the status of the payee as an owner or as an intermediary, see paragraph (b)(3)(v)(A) for applicable presumptions.

(C) Reliance on a prior version of a withholding certificate. Upon the issuance by the IRS of an updated version of a withholding certificate, a withholding agent may continue to accept the prior version of the withholding certificate for six months after the revision date shown on the updated withholding certificate, unless the IRS has issued guidance that indicates otherwise, and may continue to rely upon a previously signed prior version of the withholding certificate until its period of validity expires.

(ix) Certificates to be furnished to withholding agent for each obligation unless exception applies. Unless otherwise provided in paragraphs (e)(4)(ix)(A) through (D) of this section, a withholding agent that is a financial institution with which a customer may open an account shall obtain a withholding certificate or documentary evidence on an obligation-by-obligation basis and may not rely upon such documentation collected by another person or another branch of the withholding agent.

(A) Exception for certain branch or account systems or system maintained by agent. A withholding agent may rely on a withholding certificate or documentary evidence furnished by a customer as part of a single branch system, universal account system, or shared account system described in §1.1471-3(c)(8) (substituting the term chapter 3 status for chapter 4 status each place it appears in that paragraph). Furthermore, a withholding agent may rely on a shared documentation system maintained by an agent as described in §1.1471-3(c)(9)(i) (also substituting the term chapter 3 status for chapter 4 status each place it appears in that paragraph).

(B) Reliance on certification provided by introducing brokers—(1) In general. A withholding agent may rely on the certification of a broker indicating the broker's determination of a payee's chapter 3 status and that the broker holds a valid beneficial owner withholding certificate described in paragraph (e)(2)(i) of this section or other appropriate documentation for that beneficial owner with respect to any readily tradable instrument, as defined in §31.3406(h)-1(d) of this chapter, if the broker is a United States person (including a U.S. branch treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section) that is acting as the agent of a beneficial owner. A withholding agent may also rely on a certification described in the preceding sentence that is provided by a qualified intermediary that makes payments to beneficial owners that it receives from the withholding agent. The certification must be in writing or in electronic form and contain all of the information required of a nonqualified intermediary under paragraphs (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C) of this section. If a broker chooses to use this paragraph (e)(4)(ix)(B), that broker will be solely responsible for applying the rules of §1.1441-7(b) to the withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation and shall be liable for any underwithholding as a result of the broker's failure to apply such rules. See §1.1471-3(c)(9)(iii) for a similar allowance that applies to a broker's determination of a payee's chapter 4 status for purposes of chapter 4. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(4)(ix)(B), the term broker means a person treated as a broker under §1.6045-1(a).

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the rules of this paragraph (e)(4)(x)(B) with respect to a U.S. broker:

Example. SCO is a U.S. securities clearing organization that provides clearing services for correspondent broker, CB, a U.S. corporation. Pursuant to a fully disclosed clearing agreement, CB fully discloses the identity of each of its customers to SCO. Part of SCO's clearing duties include the crediting of income and gross proceeds of readily tradable instruments (as defined in §31.3406(h)-1(d)) to each customer's account. For each disclosed customer that is a foreign beneficial owner, CB provides SCO with information required under paragraphs (e)(3)(iv)(B) and (C) of this section that is necessary to apply the correct rate of withholding and to file Forms 1042-S. SCO may use the representations and beneficial owner information provided by CB to determine the proper amount of withholding and to file Forms 1042-S. CB is responsible for determining the validity of the withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation under §1.1441-1(b).

(C) Reliance on documentation and certifications provided between principals and agents—(1) Withholding agent as agent. A withholding agent that acts on behalf of a principal may rely upon documentation (or copies of documentation) obtained from the principal, and, with respect to a principal that is a U.S. withholding agent, a qualified intermediary (when acting as such for determining a payee's status), or a withholding foreign partnership or withholding foreign trust with respect to a partner, owner, or beneficiary in the partnership or trust, the withholding agent may rely upon certification provided by the principal for purposes of determining a payee's chapter 3 status. Thus an agent (such as a paying agent or transfer agent) may not rely upon a certification provided by a principal that is a participating FFI but is not also a qualified intermediary, withholding foreign partnership, or withholding foreign trust for purposes of this section, even though it may rely on the certification when provided solely for purposes of chapter 4 under §1.1471-3(c)(9)(iv).

(2) Withholding agent as principal. A withholding agent may also rely on documentation collected by an agent of the withholding agent in order to fulfill its chapter 3 obligations because such agent's actions are imputed to the principal (the withholding agent). For example, a withholding agent may contract an agent to collect Forms W-8 from account holders, but the withholding agent remains liable for any tax liability resulting from a failure of the agent to comply with the requirements of chapter 3.

(D) Reliance upon documentation for accounts acquired in merger or bulk acquisition for value. A withholding agent that acquires an account from a predecessor or transferor in a merger or bulk acquisition of accounts for value is permitted to rely upon valid documentation (or copies of valid documentation) collected by the predecessor or transferor for determining the chapter 3 status of an account holder of such an account. In addition, a withholding agent that acquires an account in a merger or bulk acquisition of accounts for value, other than a related party transaction, from a U.S. withholding agent (or a qualified intermediary when the withholding agent is also a qualified intermediary) may also rely upon the predecessor's or transferor's determination of the account holder's chapter 3 status for a transition period of the lesser of six months from the date of the merger or until the acquirer knows that the claim of entity classification and status is inaccurate or a change in circumstances occurs with respect to the account. At the end of the transition period, the acquirer will be permitted to rely upon the predecessor's determination as to the chapter 3 status of the account holder only if the documentation that the acquirer has for the account holder, including documentation obtained from the predecessor or transferor, supports the status claimed. An acquirer that discovers at the end of the transition period that the chapter 3 status assigned by the predecessor or transferor to the account holder was incorrect and has not withheld as it would have been required to but for its reliance upon the predecessor's determination, will be required to withhold on future payments, if any, made to the account holder the amount of tax that should have been withheld during the transition period but for the erroneous classification as to the account holder's status. For purposes of this paragraph (e)(4)(ix)(D), a related party transaction is a merger or sale of accounts in which the acquirer is in the same expanded affiliated group, within the meaning of §1.1471-5(i)(2), as the predecessor or transferor either prior to or after the merger or acquisition or the predecessor or transferor (or shareholders of the predecessor or transferor) obtain a controlling interest in the acquirer or in a newly formed entity created for purposes of the merger or acquisition. See §1.1471-3(c)(v) for a similar reliance rule that applies for purposes of chapter 4. Notwithstanding the effective date of this section, the provisions of this paragraph apply for payments made on or after March 6, 2014.

(5) Qualified intermediaries—(i) General rule. A qualified intermediary, as defined in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section, may furnish a qualified intermediary withholding certificate to a withholding agent. The withholding certificate provides certifications on behalf of other persons for the purpose of claiming and verifying reduced rates of withholding under section 1441 or 1442 and for the purpose of reporting and withholding under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, such as the provisions under chapters 4 and 61 and section 3406 (and the regulations under those provisions). Furnishing such a certificate is in lieu of transmitting to a withholding agent withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation for the persons for whom the qualified intermediary receives the payment, including interest holders in a qualified intermediary that is fiscally transparent under the regulations under section 894. Although the qualified intermediary is required to obtain withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation from beneficial owners, payees, or interest holders pursuant to its agreement with the IRS, it is generally not required to attach such documentation to the intermediary withholding certificate. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence a qualified intermediary must provide a withholding agent with the Forms W-9, or disclose the names, addresses, and taxpayer identifying numbers, if known, of those U.S. non-exempt recipients for whom the qualified intermediary receives reportable amounts (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(3)(vi) of this section) to the extent required in the qualified intermediary's agreement with the IRS and except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) of this section.

(ii) Definition of qualified intermediary. With respect to a payment to a foreign person, the term qualified intermediary means a person that is a party to a withholding agreement with the IRS and such person is—

(A) A foreign financial institution that is a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI), a registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI), an FFI treated as a deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA that is subject to due diligence and reporting requirements with respect to its U.S. accounts similar to those applicable to a registered deemed-compliant FFI under §1.1471-5(f)(1), excluding a U.S. branch of any of the foregoing entities, or any other category of FFI identified in a qualified intermediary agreement as eligible to act as a qualified intermediary;

(B) A foreign branch or office of a U.S. financial institution or a foreign branch or office of a U.S. clearing organization that is either a reporting Model 1 FFI or agrees to the reporting requirements applicable to a participating FFI with respect to its U.S. accounts;

(C) A foreign corporation for purposes of presenting claims of benefits under an income tax treaty on behalf of its shareholders to the extent permitted to act as a qualified intermediary by the IRS; or

(D) Any other person acceptable to the IRS.

(iii) Withholding agreement—(A) In general. The IRS may, upon request, enter into a withholding agreement with a foreign person described in paragraph (e)(5)(ii) of this section pursuant to such procedures as the IRS may prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). Under the withholding agreement, a qualified intermediary shall generally be subject to the applicable withholding and reporting provisions applicable to withholding agents and payors under chapters 3, 4, and 61 of the Internal Revenue Code, section 3406, the regulations under those provisions, and other withholding provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, except to the extent provided under the agreement.

(B) Terms of the withholding agreement. The agreement shall specify the obligations of the qualified intermediary under chapters 3 and 4 and, for a qualified intermediary that is an FFI, require the qualified intermediary to satisfy the documentation, withholding, and reporting obligations required of a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(114)) with respect to each branch of the qualified intermediary other than a U.S. branch that is treated as a U.S. person under paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of this section. The agreement will specify the type of certifications and documentation upon which the qualified intermediary may rely to ascertain the classification (e.g., corporation or partnership), status (i.e., U.S. or foreign and chapter 4 status) of beneficial owners and payees who receive reportable amounts and reportable payments collected by the qualified intermediary for purposes of chapters 3 and 61, section 3406, and, if necessary, entitlement to the benefits of a reduced rate under an income tax treaty. The agreement shall specify if, and to what extent, the qualified intermediary may assume primary withholding responsibility in accordance with paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section. It shall also specify the extent to which applicable return filing and information reporting requirements are modified so that, in appropriate cases, the qualified intermediary may report payments to the IRS on an aggregated basis, without having to disclose the identity of beneficial owners and payees. However, the qualified intermediary may be required to provide to the IRS the name and address of those foreign customers who benefit from a reduced rate under an income tax treaty pursuant to the qualified intermediary arrangement for purposes of verifying entitlement to such benefits, particularly under an applicable limitation on benefits provision. Under the agreement, a qualified intermediary may agree to act as an acceptance agent to perform the duties described in §301.6109-1(d)(3)(iv)(A) of this chapter. The agreement may specify the manner in which applicable procedures for adjustments for underwithholding and overwithholding, including refund procedures, apply in the context of a qualified intermediary arrangement and the extent to which applicable procedures may be modified. In particular, a withholding agreement may allow a qualified intermediary to claim refunds of overwithheld amounts. The agreement shall specify the manner in which the qualified intermediary may deal with payments to other intermediaries and flow-through entities and the obligations of a qualified intermediary that acts as a qualified securities lender with respect to payments of substitute dividends under chapters 3 and 4. In addition, the agreement shall specify the manner in which the IRS will verify compliance with the agreement, including the time and manner for which a qualified intermediary will be required to certify to the IRS regarding its compliance with the agreement (including its performance of a periodic review) and the types of information required to be disclosed as part of the certification. In appropriate cases, the IRS may require review procedures be performed by an approved auditor (in addition to those performed as part of the periodic review) and may conduct a review of the auditor's findings. The agreement may include provisions for the assessment and collection of tax in the event that failure to comply with the terms of the agreement results in the failure by the withholding agent or the qualified intermediary to withhold and deposit the required amount of tax. Further, the agreement may specify the procedures by which amounts withheld are to be deposited, if different from the deposit procedures under the Internal Revenue Code and applicable regulations. To determine whether to enter a qualified intermediary withholding agreement and the terms of any particular withholding agreement, the IRS will consider the type of local know-your-customer laws and practices to which the entity is subject, as well as the extent and nature of supervisory and regulatory control exercised under the laws of the foreign country over the foreign entity.

(iv) Assignment of primary withholding responsibility. Any person who meets the definition of a withholding agent under §1.1441-7(a) (for payments subject to chapter 3 withholding) and §1.1473-1(d) (for withholdable payments) (whether a U.S. person or a foreign person) is required to withhold and deposit any amount withheld under §§1.1461-1(a) and 1.1474-1(b) and to make the returns prescribed by §§1.1461-1(b) and (c), and by 1.1474-1(c), and (d). Under its qualified intermediary agreement, a qualified intermediary may, however, inform a withholding agent from which it receives a payment that it will assume the primary obligation to withhold, deposit, and report amounts under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code and/or under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code and section 3406. For assuming withholding obligations as described in the previous sentence, a qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility for payments made to an account under chapter 3 is also required to assume primary withholding responsibility under chapter 4 for payments made to the account that are withholdable payments. Additionally, a qualified intermediary may represent that it assumes chapter 61 reporting and section 3406 obligations for a payment when the qualified intermediary meets the requirements to have provided a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees with respect to the payment under §1.6049-4(c)(4)(iii) had the qualified intermediary not assumed these obligations. If a withholding agent makes a payment of an amount subject to withholding under chapter 3, a reportable payment (as defined in section 3406(b)), or a withholdable payment to a qualified intermediary that represents to the withholding agent that it has assumed primary withholding responsibility for the payment, the withholding agent is not required to withhold on the payment. The withholding agent is not required to determine that the qualified intermediary actually performs its primary withholding responsibilities. A qualified intermediary that assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 or primary reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406 is not required to assume primary withholding responsibility for all accounts it has with a withholding agent but must assume primary withholding responsibility for all payments made to any one account that it has with the withholding agent.

(v) Withholding statement—(A) In general. A qualified intermediary must provide each withholding agent from which it receives reportable amounts as a qualified intermediary with a written statement (the withholding statement) containing the information specified in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(B) of this section. A withholding statement is not required, however, if all of the information a withholding agent needs to fulfill its withholding and reporting requirements is contained in the withholding certificate. The qualified intermediary agreement will require the qualified intermediary to include information in its withholding statement relating to withholdable payments for purposes of withholding under chapter 4 as described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) of this section. The withholding statement forms an integral part of the qualified intermediary's qualified intermediary withholding certificate and the penalties of perjury statement provided on the withholding certificate shall apply to the withholding statement as well. The withholding statement may be provided in any manner, and in any form, to which qualified intermediary and the withholding agent mutually agree, including electronically. If the withholding statement is provided electronically, the statement must satisfy the requirements described in paragraph (e)(3)(iv) of this section (applicable to a withholding statement provided by a nonqualified intermediary). The withholding statement shall be updated as often as necessary for the withholding agent to meet its reporting and withholding obligations under chapters 3, 4, and 61 and section 3406. For purposes of this section, a withholding agent will be liable for tax, interest, and penalties in accordance with paragraph (b)(7) of this section to the extent it does not follow the presumption rules of paragraph (b)(3) of this section, §§1.1441-5(d) and (e)(6), and 1.6049-5(d) for a payment, or portion thereof, for which it does not have a valid withholding statement prior to making a payment.

(B) Content of withholding statement. The withholding statement must contain sufficient information for a withholding agent to apply the correct rate of withholding on payments from the accounts identified on the statement and to properly report such payments on Forms 1042-S and Forms 1099, as applicable. The withholding statement must—

(1) Designate those accounts for which the qualified intermediary acts as a qualified intermediary;

(2) Designate those accounts for which qualified intermediary assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapter 3 and chapter 4 of the Code and/or primary reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406;

(3) If applicable, designate those accounts for which the qualified intermediary is acting as a qualified securities lender with respect to a substitute dividend paid in a securities lending or similar transaction; and

(4) Provide information regarding withholding rate pools, as described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C) of this section.

(C) Withholding rate pools—(1) In general. Except to the extent it has assumed both primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 of the Internal Revenue Code and primary reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406 with respect to a payment, a qualified intermediary shall provide as part of its withholding statement the chapter 3 withholding rate pool information that is required for the withholding agent to meet its withholding and reporting obligations under chapters 3 and 61 of the Internal Revenue Code and section 3406. See, however, paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) of this section for when a qualified intermediary may provide a chapter 4 withholding rate pool (as described in paragraph (c)(48) of this section) with respect to a payment that is a withholdable payment. A chapter 3 withholding rate pool is a payment of a single type of income, determined in accordance with the categories of income reported on Form 1042-S, that is subject to a single rate of withholding paid to a payee that is a foreign person and for which withholding under chapter 4 does not apply. A chapter 3 withholding rate pool may be established by any reasonable method on which the qualified intermediary and a withholding agent agree (e.g., by establishing a separate account for a single chapter 3 withholding rate pool, or by dividing a payment made to a single account into portions allocable to each chapter 3 withholding rate pool). A qualified intermediary may include a separate pool for account holders that are U.S. exempt recipients or may include such accounts in a chapter 3 withholding rate pool to which withholding does not apply. The withholding statement must identify the chapter 4 exemption code (as provided in the instructions to Form 1042-S) applicable to the chapter 3 withholding rate pools contained on the withholding statement. To the extent a qualified intermediary does not assume primary reporting and backup withholding responsibility under chapter 61 and section 3406, a qualified intermediary's withholding statement must establish a separate withholding rate pool for each U.S. non-exempt recipient account holder that the qualified intermediary has disclosed to the withholding agent unless the qualified intermediary uses the alternative procedures in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(3) of this section or the account holder is a payee that the qualified intermediary is permitted to include in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees. A qualified intermediary that is a participating FFI or registered deemed-compliant FFI may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees on a withholding statement by applying the rules under paragraph (e)(3)(iv)(A) of this section (by substituting “qualified intermediary” for “nonqualified intermediary”) with respect to an account that it maintains (as described in §1.1471-5(b)(5)) for the payee of the payment. A qualified intermediary shall determine withholding rate pools based on valid documentation that it obtains under its withholding agreement with the IRS, or if a payment cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation, under the applicable presumption rules. If a qualified intermediary has an account holder that is another intermediary (whether a qualified intermediary or a nonqualified intermediary) or a flow-through entity, the qualified intermediary may combine the account holder information provided by the other intermediary or flow-through entity with the qualified intermediary's direct account holder information to determine the qualified intermediary's chapter 3 withholding rate pools and each of the qualified intermediary's chapter 4 withholding rate pools to the extent provided in the agreement described in (e)(5)(iii) of this section.

(2) Withholding rate pool requirements for a withholdable payment. This paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(2) modifies the requirements of a withholding statement described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) provided by a qualified intermediary with respect to a withholdable payment (including a reportable amount that is a withholdable payment). For such a payment, the regulations applicable to a withholding statement described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) of this section shall apply, except that—

(i) If the qualified intermediary provides a withholding statement described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(2) (describing an FFI withholding statement), the withholding statement may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool with respect to the portion of the payment allocated to a single pool of recalcitrant account holders (without the need to subdivide into the pools described in §1.1471-4(d)(6)), including both account holders of the qualified intermediary and of any participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or other qualified intermediary for whom the first-mentioned qualified intermediary receives the payment, and nonparticipating FFIs (to the extent permitted) in lieu of reporting chapter 3 withholding rate pools with respect to such persons as described in paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(1) of this section); or

(ii) If the qualified intermediary provides a withholding statement described in §1.1471-3(c)(3)(iii)(B)(3) (describing a chapter 4 withholding statement), the withholding statement may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool with respect to the portion of the payment allocated to nonparticipating FFIs.

(3) Alternative procedure for U.S. non-exempt recipients. If permitted under its agreement with the IRS, a qualified intermediary may, by mutual agreement with a withholding agent, establish a single zero withholding rate pool that includes U.S. non-exempt recipient account holders for whom the qualified intermediary has provided Forms W-9 prior to the withholding agent paying any reportable payments, as defined in the qualified intermediary agreement, and a separate withholding rate pool (subject to 28-percent withholding, or other applicable statutory back-up withholding tax rate) that includes only U.S. non-exempt recipient account holders for whom a qualified intermediary has not provided Forms W-9 prior to the withholding agent paying any reportable payments. If a qualified intermediary chooses the alternative procedure of this paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(3), the qualified intermediary must provide the information required by its qualified intermediary agreement to the withholding agent no later than January 15 of the year following the year in which the payments are paid. Failure to provide such information will result in the application of penalties to the qualified intermediary under sections 6721 and 6722, as well as any other applicable penalties, and may result in the termination of the qualified intermediary's withholding agreement with the IRS. A withholding agent shall not be liable for tax, interest, or penalties for failure to backup withhold or report information under chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code due solely to the errors or omissions of the qualified intermediary. If a qualified intermediary fails to provide the allocation information required by this paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C)(3), with respect to U.S. non-exempt recipients, the withholding agent shall report the unallocated amount paid from the withholding rate pool to an unknown recipient, or otherwise in accordance with the appropriate Form 1099 and the instructions accompanying the form.

(D) Example. The following example illustrates the application of paragraph (e)(5)(v)(C) for a qualified intermediary providing chapter 4 withholding rate pools on an FFI withholding statement provided to a withholding agent. WA makes a payment of U.S. source interest that is a withholdable payment to QI, a qualified intermediary that is an FFI and a non-U.S. payor (as defined in §1.6049-5(c)(5)), and A and B are account holders of QI (as defined under §1.1471-5(a)) and are both U.S. non-exempt recipients (as defined paragraph (c)(21) of this section). Ten percent of the payment is attributable to both A and B. A has provided WA with a Form W-9, but B has not provided WA with a Form W-9. QI assumes primary withholding responsibility under chapters 3 and 4 with respect to the payment, 80-percent of which is allocable to foreign payees who are account holders other than A and B. As a participating FFI, QI is required to report with respect to its U.S. accounts under §1.1471-4(d) (as incorporated into the agreement described in paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section). Provided that QI reports A's account as a U.S. account under the requirements referenced in the preceding sentence, QI is not required to provide WA with a Form W-9 from A and may instead include A in a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees, allocating 10% of the payment to this pool. See §1.6049-4(c)(4)(iii) concerning when reporting under section 6049 for a payment of interest is not required when an FFI that is a non-U.S. payor reports an account holder receiving the payment under its chapter 4 requirements. With respect to B, the interest payment is subject to backup withholding under section 3406. Because B is a recalcitrant account holder of QI for withholdable payments and because QI assumes primary chapter 4 withholding responsibility, however, QI may include the portion of the payment allocated to B with the remaining 80% of the payment for which QI assumes primary withholding responsibility. WA can reliably associate the full amount of the payment based on the withholding statement and does so regardless of whether WA knows B is a U.S. non-exempt recipient that is receiving a portion of the payment. See §31.3406(g)-1(e) (providing exemption to backup withholding when withholding was applied under chapter 4).

(f) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-1(f)(1) and (2).

(3) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made after June 30, 2014. (For payments made after December 31, 2000, and before July 1, 2014, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1, as revised April 1, 2013.)

(g) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on February 28, 2017.

[T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12747, Mar. 6, 2014; 79 FR 37182, July 1, 2014]

§1.1441-2   Amounts subject to withholding.

(a) In general. For purposes of the regulations under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code, the term amounts subject to withholding means amounts from sources within the United States that constitute either fixed or determinable annual or periodical income described in paragraph (b) of this section or other amounts subject to withholding described in paragraph (c) of this section. For purposes of this paragraph (a), an amount shall be treated as being from sources within the United States if the source of the amount cannot be determined at the time of payment. See §1.1441-3(d)(1) for determining the amount to be withheld from a payment in the absence of information at the time of payment regarding the source of the amount. Amounts subject to withholding include amounts that are not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income and upon which withholding is specifically required under a provision of this section or another section of the regulations under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code (such as corporate distributions upon which withholding is required under §1.1441-3(c)(1) that do not constitute dividend income). Amounts subject to withholding do not include—

(1) Amounts described in §1.1441-1(b)(4)(i) to the extent they involve interest on obligations in bearer form or on foreign-targeted registered obligations (but, in the case of a foreign-targeted registered obligation, only to the extent of those amounts paid to a registered owner that is a financial institution within the meaning of section 871(h)(5)(B) or a member of a clearing organization which member is the beneficial owner of the obligation);

(2) Amounts described in §1.1441-1(b)(4)(ii) (dealing with bank deposit interest and similar types of interest (including original issue discount) described in section 871(i)(2)(A) or 881(d));

(3) Amounts described in §1.1441-1(b)(4)(iv) (dealing with interest or original issue discount on certain short-term obligations described in section 871(g)(1)(B) or 881(e));

(4) Amounts described in §1.1441-1(b)(4)(xx) (dealing with income from certain gambling winnings exempt from tax under section 871(j));

(5) Amounts paid as part of the purchase price of an obligation sold or exchanged between interest payment dates, unless the sale or exchange is part of a plan the principal purpose of which is to avoid tax and the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know of such plan;

(6) Original issue discount paid as part of the purchase price of an obligation sold or exchanged in a transaction other than a redemption of such obligation, unless the purchase is part of a plan the principal purpose of which is to avoid tax and the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know of such plan; and

(7) Insurance premiums paid with respect to a contract that is subject to the section 4371 excise tax.

(b) Fixed or determinable annual or periodical income—(1) In general—(i) Definition. For purposes of chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code and the regulations thereunder, fixed or determinable annual or periodical income includes all income included in gross income under section 61 (including original issue discount) except for the items specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section. Items of income that are excluded from gross income under a provision of law without regard to the U.S. or foreign status of the owner of the income, such as interest excluded from gross income under section 103(a) or qualified scholarship income under section 117, shall not be treated as fixed or determinable annual or periodical income under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code. Income excluded from gross income under section 892 (income of foreign governments) or section 115 (income of a U.S. possession) is fixed or determinable annual or periodical income since the exclusion from gross income under those sections is dependent on the foreign status of the owner of the income. See §1.306-3(h) for treating income from the disposition of section 306 stock as fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(ii) Manner of payment. The term fixed or determinable annual or periodical is merely descriptive of the character of a class of income. If an item of income falls within the class of income contemplated in the statute and described in paragraph (a) of this section, it is immaterial whether payment of that item is made in a series of payments or in a single lump sum. Further, the income need not be paid annually if it is paid periodically; that is to say, from time to time, whether or not at regular intervals. The fact that a payment is not made annually or periodically does not, however, prevent it from being fixed or determinable annual or periodical income (e.g., a lump sum payment). In addition, the fact that the length of time during which the payments are to be made may be increased or diminished in accordance with someone's will or with the happening of an event does not disqualify the payment as determinable or periodical. For this purpose, the share of the fixed or determinable annual or periodical income of an estate or trust from sources within the United States which is required to be distributed currently, or which has been paid or credited during the taxable year, to a nonresident alien beneficiary of such estate or trust constitutes fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(iii) Determinability of amount. An item of income is fixed when it is to be paid in amounts definitely pre-determined. An item of income is determinable if the amount to be paid is not known but there is a basis of calculation by which the amount may be ascertained at a later time. For example, interest is determinable even if it is contingent in that its amount cannot be determined at the time of payment of an amount with respect to a loan because the calculation of the interest portion of the payment is contingent upon factors that are not fixed at the time of the payment. For purposes of this section, an amount of income does not have to be determined at the time that the payment is made in order to be determinable. An amount of income described in paragraph (a) of this section which the withholding agent knows is part of a payment it makes but which it cannot calculate exactly at the time of payment, is nevertheless determinable if the determination of the exact amount depends upon events expected to occur at a future date. In contrast, a payment which may be income in the future based upon events that are not anticipated at the time the payment is made is not determinable. For example, loan proceeds may become income to the borrower when and to the extent the loan is canceled without repayment. While the cancellation of the debt is income to the borrower when it occurs, it is not determinable at the time the loan proceeds are disbursed to the borrower if the lack of repayment leading to the cancellation of part or all of the debt was not anticipated at the time of disbursement. The fact that the source of an item of income cannot be determined at the time that the payment is made does not render a payment not determinable. See §1.1441-3(d)(1) for determining the amount to be withheld from a payment in the absence of information at the time of payment regarding the source of the amount.

(2) Exceptions. For purposes of chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder, the items of income described in this paragraph (b)(2) are not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income—

(i) Gains derived from the sale of property (including market discount and option premiums), except for gains described in paragraph (b)(3) or (c) of this section; and

(ii) Any other income that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may determine, in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), is not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(3) Original issue discount—(i) Amount subject to tax. An amount representing original issue discount is fixed or determinable annual or periodical income that is subject to tax under sections 871(a)(1)(C) and 881(a)(3) to the extent provided in those sections and this paragraph (b)(3) if not otherwise excluded under paragraph (a) of this section. An amount of original issue discount is subject to tax with respect to a foreign beneficial owner of an obligation carrying original issue discount upon a sale or exchange of the obligation or when a payment is made on such obligation. The amount taxable is the amount of original issue discount that accrued while the foreign person held the obligation up to the time that the obligation is sold or exchanged or that a payment is made on the obligation, reduced by any amount of original issue discount that was taken into account prior to that time (due to a payment made on the obligation). In the case of a payment made on the obligation, the tax due on the amount of original issue discount may not exceed the amount of the payment reduced by the tax imposed on any portion of the payment that is qualified stated interest.

(ii) Amounts subject to withholding. A withholding agent must withhold on the taxable amount of original issue discount paid on the redemption of an original issue discount obligation unless an exception to withholding applies (e.g., portfolio interest or treaty exception). In addition, withholding is required on the taxable amount of original issue discount upon the sale or exchange of an original issue discount obligation, other than in a redemption, to the extent the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know that the sale or exchange is part of a plan the principal purpose of which is to avoid tax. If a withholding agent cannot determine the taxable amount of original issue discount on the redemption of an original issue discount obligation (or on the sale or exchange of such an obligation if the principal purpose of the sale is to avoid tax), then it must withhold on the entire amount of original issue discount accrued from the date of issue until the date of redemption (or the date the obligation is sold or exchanged) determined on the basis of the most recently published “List of Original Issue Discount Instruments” (IRS Publication 1212, available from the IRS Forms Distribution Center) or similar list published by the IRS as if the beneficial owner of the obligation had held the obligation since its original issue.

(iii) Exceptions to withholding. To the extent that this paragraph (b)(3) applies to require withholding by a person other than an issuer of an original issue discount obligation, or the issuer's agent, it shall apply only to obligations issued after December 31, 2000.

(4) Securities lending transactions and equivalent transactions. See §§1.871-7(b)(2) and 1.881-2(b)(2) regarding the character of substitute payments as fixed and determinable annual or periodical income. Such amounts constitute income subject to withholding to the extent they are from sources within the United States, as determined under section §§1.861-2(a)(7) and 1.861-3(a)(6). See §§1.6042-3(a)(2) and 1.6049-5(a)(5) for reporting requirements applicable to substitute dividend and interest payments, respectively.

(5) REMIC residual interests. Amounts subject to withholding include an excess inclusion described in §1.860G-3(b)(2) and the portion of an amount described in §1.860G-3(b)(1) that is an excess inclusion.

(6) Dividend equivalents. Amounts subject to withholding include a dividend equivalent described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder. For this purpose, the amount of a dividend equivalent includes any gross amount that is used in computing any net amount that is transferred to or from the taxpayer under the terms of the transaction or any other payment described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder.

(c) Other income subject to withholding. Withholding is also required on the following items of income—

(1) Gains described in sections 631 (b) or (c), relating to treatment of gain on disposal of timber, coal, or domestic iron ore with a retained economic interest; and

(2) Gains subject to the 30-percent tax under section 871(a)(1)(D) or 881(a)(4), relating to contingent payments received from the sale or exchange of patents, copyrights, and similar intangible property.

(d) Exceptions to withholding where no money or property is paid or lack of knowledge—(1) General rule. A withholding agent who is not related to the recipient or beneficial owner has an obligation to withhold under section 1441 only to the extent that, at any time between the date that the obligation to withhold would arise (but for the provisions of this paragraph (d)) and the due date for the filing of return on Form 1042 (including extensions) for the year in which the payment occurs, it has control over, or custody of money or property owned by the recipient or beneficial owner from which to withhold an amount and has knowledge of the facts that give rise to the payment. The exemption from the obligation to withhold under this paragraph (d) shall not apply, however, to distributions with respect to stock or if the lack of control or custody of money or property from which to withhold is part of a pre-arranged plan known to the withholding agent to avoid withholding under section 1441, 1442, or 1443. For purposes of this paragraph (d), a withholding agent is related to the recipient or beneficial owner if it is related within the meaning of section 482. Any exemption from withholding pursuant to this paragraph (d) applies without a requirement that documentation be furnished to the withholding agent. However, documentation may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions under chapter 61 of the Code and backup withholding under section 3406. The exemption from withholding under this paragraph (d) is not a determination that the amounts are not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income, nor does it constitute an exemption from reporting the amount under §1.1461-1 (b) and (c).

(2) Cancellation of debt. A lender of funds who forgives any portion of the loan is deemed to have made a payment of income to the borrower under §1.61-12 at the time the event of forgiveness occurs. However, based on the rules of paragraph (d)(1) of this section, the lender shall have no obligation to withhold on such amount to the extent that it does not have custody or control over money or property of the borrower at any time between the time that the loan is forgiven and the due date (including extensions) of the Form 1042 for the year in which the payment is deemed to occur. A payment received by the lender from the borrower in partial settlement of the debt obligation does not, for this purpose, constitute an amount of money or property belonging to the borrower from which the withholding tax liability can be satisfied.

(3) Satisfaction of liability following underwithholding by withholding agent. A withholding agent who, after failing to withhold the proper amount from a payment, satisfies the underwithheld amount out of its own funds may cause the beneficial owner to realize income to the extent of such satisfaction or may be considered to have advanced funds to the beneficial owner. Such determination depends upon the contractual arrangements governing the satisfaction of such tax liability (e.g., arrangements in which the withholding agent agrees to pay the amount due under section 1441 for the beneficial owner) or applicable laws governing the transaction. If the satisfaction of the tax liability is considered to constitute an advance of funds by the withholding agent to the beneficial owner and the withholding agent fails to collect the amount from the beneficial owner, a cancellation of indebtedness may result, giving rise to income to the beneficial owner under §1.61-12. While such income is annual or periodical fixed or determinable, the withholding agent shall have no liability to withhold on such income to the extent the conditions set forth in paragraphs (d) (1) and (2) of this section are satisfied with respect to this income. Contrast the rules of this paragraph (d)(3) with the rules in §1.1441-3(f)(1) dealing with a situation in which the satisfaction of the beneficial owner's tax liability itself constitutes additional income to the beneficial owner. See, also, §1.1441-3(c)(2)(ii)(B) for a special rule regarding underwithholding on corporate distributions due to underestimating an amount of earnings and profits.

(4) Withholding exemption inapplicable. The exemption in §1.1441-2(d) from the obligation to withhold shall not apply to amounts described in §1.860G-3(b)(1) (regarding certain partnership allocations of REMIC net income with respect to a REMIC residual interest).

(e) Payment—(1) General rule. A payment is considered made to a person if that person realizes income whether or not such income results from an actual transfer of cash or other property. For example, realization of income from cancellation of debt results in a deemed payment. A payment is considered made when the amount would be includible in the income of the beneficial owner under the U.S. tax principles governing the cash basis method of accounting. A payment is considered made whether it is made directly to the beneficial owner or to another person for the benefit of the beneficial owner (e.g., to the agent of the beneficial owner). Thus, a payment of income is considered made to a beneficial owner if it is paid in complete or partial satisfaction of the beneficial owner's debt to a creditor. In the event of a conflict between the rules of this paragraph (e)(1) governing whether a payment has occurred and its timing and the rules of §31.3406(a)-4 of this chapter, the rules in §31.3406(a)-4 of this chapter shall apply to the extent that the application of section 3406 is relevant to the transaction at issue.

(2) Income allocated under section 482. A payment is considered made to the extent income subject to withholding is allocated under section 482. Further, income arising as a result of a secondary adjustment made in conjunction with a reallocation of income under section 482 from a foreign person to a related U.S. person is considered paid to a foreign person unless the taxpayer to whom the income is reallocated has entered into a repatriation agreement with the IRS and the agreement eliminates the liability for withholding under this section. For purposes of determining the liability for withholding, the payment of income is deemed to have occurred on the last day of the taxable year in which the transactions that give rise to the allocation of income and the secondary adjustments, if any, took place.

(3) Blocked income. Income is not considered paid if it is blocked under executive authority, such as the President's exercise of emergency power under the Trading with the Enemy Act (50 U.S.C. App. 5), or the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). However, on the date that the blocking restrictions are removed, the income that was blocked is considered constructively received by the beneficial owner (and therefore paid for purposes of this section) and subject to withholding under §1.1441-1. Any exemption from withholding pursuant to this paragraph (e)(3) applies without a requirement that documentation be furnished to the withholding agent. However, documentation may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions under chapter 61 of the Code and backup withholding under section 3406. The exemption from withholding granted by this paragraph (e)(3) is not a determination that the amounts are not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(4) Special rules for dividends. For purposes of sections 1441 and 6042, in the case of stock for which the record date is earlier than the payment date, dividends are considered paid on the payment date. In the case of a corporate reorganization, if a beneficial owner is required to exchange stock held in a former corporation for stock in a new corporation before dividends that are to be paid with respect to the stock in the new corporation will be paid on such stock, the dividend is considered paid on the date that the payee or beneficial owner actually exchanges the stock and receives the dividend. See §31.3406(a)-4(a)(2) of this chapter.

(5) Certain interest accrued by a foreign corporation. For purposes of sections 1441 and 6049, a foreign corporation shall be treated as having made a payment of interest as of the last day of the taxable year if it has made an election under §1.884-4(c)(1) to treat accrued interest as if it were paid in that taxable year.

(6) Payments other than in U.S. dollars. For purposes of section 1441, a payment includes amounts paid in a medium other than U.S. dollars. See §1.1441-3(e) for rules regarding the amount subject to withholding in the case of such payments.

(7) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-2T(e)(7).

(f) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000. Paragraphs (b)(5) and (d)(4) of this section apply to payments made after August 1, 2006. Paragraph (b)(6) of this section applies to payments made on or after January 23, 2012.

[T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53444, Oct. 14, 1997, as amended by T.D. 8804, 63 FR 72187, Dec. 31, 1998; T.D. 8856, 64 FR 73412, Dec. 30, 1999; T.D. 8881, 65 FR 32186, May 22, 2000; T.D. 9272, 71 FR 43366, Aug. 1, 2006; T.D. 9415, 73 FR 40172, July 14, 2008; 73 FR 45612, Aug. 6, 2008; T.D. 9572, 77 FR 3109, Jan. 23, 2012; T.D. 9648, 78 FR 73081, Dec. 5, 2013]

§1.1441-3   Determination of amounts to be withheld.

(a) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3T(a).

(b) Withholding on payments on certain obligations—(1) Withholding at time of payment of interest. When making a payment on an interest-bearing obligation, a withholding agent must withhold under §1.1441-1 upon the gross amount of stated interest payable on the interest payment date, regardless of whether the payment constitutes a return of capital or the payment of income within the meaning of section 61. To the extent an amount was withheld on an amount of capital rather than interest, see the rules for adjustments, refunds, or credits under §1.1441-1(b)(8).

(2) No withholding between interest payment dates—(i) In general. A withholding agent is not required to withhold under §1.1441-1 upon interest accrued on the date of a sale or exchange of a debt obligation when that sale occurs between two interest payment dates (even though the amount is treated as interest under §1.61-7(c) or (d) and is subject to tax under section 871 or 881). See §1.6045-1(c) for reporting requirements by brokers with respect to sale proceeds. See §1.61-7(c) regarding the character of payments received by the acquirer of an obligation subsequent to such acquisition (that is, as a return of capital or interest accrued after the acquisition). Any exemption from withholding pursuant to this paragraph (b)(2)(i) applies without a requirement that documentation be furnished to the withholding agent. However, documentation may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions under section 6045 or 6049 and backup withholding under section 3406. The exemption from withholding granted by this paragraph (b)(2) is not a determination that the accrued interest is not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income under section 871(a) or 881(a).

(ii) Anti-abuse rule. The exemption in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section does not apply if the sale of securities is part of a plan the principal purpose of which is to avoid tax by selling and repurchasing securities and the withholding agent has actual knowledge or reason to know of such plan.

(c) Corporate distributions—(1) General rule. A corporation making a distribution with respect to its stock or any intermediary (described in §1.1441-1(c)(13)) making a payment of such a distribution is required to withhold under section 1441, 1442, or 1443 on the entire amount of the distribution, unless it elects to reduce the amount of withholding under the provisions of this paragraph (c). Any exceptions from withholding provided by this paragraph (c) apply without any requirement to furnish documentation to the withholding agent. However, documentation may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions under section 6042 or 6045 and backup withholding under section 3406. See §1.1461-1(c) to determine whether amounts excepted from withholding under this section are considered amounts that are subject to reporting.

(2) Exception to withholding on distributions—(i) In general. An election described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section is made by actually reducing the amount of withholding at the time that the payment is made. An intermediary that makes a payment of a distribution is not required to reduce the withholding based on the distributing corporation's estimates under this paragraph (c)(2) even if the distributing corporation itself elects to reduce the withholding on payments of distributions that it itself makes to foreign persons. Conversely, an intermediary may elect to reduce the amount of withholding with respect to the payment of a distribution even if the distributing corporation does not so elect for the payments of distributions that it itself makes of distributions to foreign persons. The amounts with respect to which a distributing corporation or intermediary may elect to reduce the withholding are as follows:

(A) A distributing corporation or intermediary may elect to not withhold on a distribution to the extent it represents a nontaxable distribution payable in stock or stock rights.

(B) A distributing corporation or intermediary may elect to not withhold on a distribution to the extent it represents a distribution in part or full payment in exchange for stock.

(C) A distributing corporation or intermediary may elect to not withhold on a distribution (actual or deemed) to the extent it is not paid out of accumulated earnings and profits or current earnings and profits, based on a reasonable estimate determined under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section.

(D) A regulated investment company or intermediary may elect to not withhold on a distribution representing a capital gain dividend (as defined in section 852(b)(3)(C)) or an exempt interest dividend (as defined in section 852(b)(5)(A)) based on the applicable procedures described under paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(E) A U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation (defined in section 897(c)(2)) or a real estate investment trust (defined in section 856) or intermediary may elect to not withhold on a distribution to the extent it is subject to withholding under section 1445 and the regulations under that section. See paragraph (c)(4) of this section for applicable procedures.

(ii) Reasonable estimate of accumulated and current earnings and profits on the date of payment—(A) General rule. A reasonable estimate for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(i)(C) of this section is a determination made by the distributing corporation at a time reasonably close to the date of payment of the extent to which the distribution will constitute a dividend, as defined in section 316. The determination is based upon the anticipated amount of accumulated earnings and profits and current earnings and profits for the taxable year in which the distribution is made, the distributions made prior to the distribution for which the estimate is made and all other relevant facts and circumstances. A reasonable estimate may be made based on the procedures described in §31.3406(b)(2)-4(c)(2) of this chapter.

(B) Procedures in case of underwithholding. A distributing corporation or intermediary that is a withholding agent with respect to a distribution and that determines at the end of the taxable year in which the distribution is made that it underwithheld under section 1441 on the distribution shall be liable for the amount underwithheld as a withholding agent under section 1461. However, for purposes of this section and §1.1461-1, any amount underwithheld paid by a distributing corporation, its paying agent, or an intermediary shall not be treated as income subject to additional withholding even if that amount is treated as additional income to the shareholders unless the additional amount is income to the shareholder as a result of a contractual arrangement between the parties regarding the satisfaction of the shareholder's tax liabilities. In addition, no penalties shall be imposed for failure to withhold and deposit the tax if—

(1) The distributing corporation made a reasonable estimate as provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section; and

(2) Either—

(i) The corporation or intermediary pays over the underwithheld amount on or before the due date for filing a Form 1042 for the calendar year in which the distribution is made, pursuant to §1.1461-2(b); or

(ii) The corporation or intermediary is not a calendar year taxpayer and it files an amended return on Form 1042X (or such other form as the Commissioner may prescribe) for the calendar year in which the distribution is made and pays the underwithheld amount and interest within 60 days after the close of the taxable year in which the distribution is made.

(C) Reliance by intermediary on reasonable estimate. For purposes of determining whether the payment of a corporate distribution is a dividend, a withholding agent that is not the distributing corporation may, absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, rely on representations made by the distributing corporation regarding the reasonable estimate of the anticipated accumulated and current earnings and profits made in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Failure by the withholding agent to withhold the required amount due to a failure by the distributing corporation to reasonably estimate the portion of the distribution treated as a dividend or to properly communicate the information to the withholding agent shall be imputed to the distributing corporation. In such a case, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may collect from the distributing corporation any underwithheld amount and subject the distributing corporation to applicable interest and penalties as a withholding agent.

(D) Example. The rules of this paragraph (c)(2) are illustrated by the following example:

Example. (i) Facts. Corporation X, a publicly traded corporation with both U.S. and foreign shareholders and a calendar year taxpayer, has an accumulated deficit in earnings and profits at the close of 2000. In 2001, Corporation X generates $1 million of current earnings and profits each month and makes an $18 million distribution, resulting in a $12 million dividend. Corporation X plans to make an additional $18 million distribution on October 1, 2002. Approximately one month before that date, Corporation X's management receives an internal report from its legal and accounting department concerning Corporation X's estimated current earnings and profits. The report states that Corporation X should generate only $5.1 million of current earnings and profits by the close of the third quarter due to costs relating to substantial organizational and product changes, but these changes will enable Corporation X to generate $1.3 million of earnings and profits monthly for the last quarter of the 2002 fiscal year. Thus, the total amount of current and earnings and profits for 2002 is estimated to be $9 million.

(ii) Analysis. Based on the facts in paragraph (i) of this Example, including the fact that earnings and profits estimate was made within a reasonable time before the distribution, Corporation X can rely on the estimate under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section. Therefore, Corporation X may treat $9 million of the $18 million of the October 1, 2002, distribution to foreign shareholders as a non-dividend distribution.

(3) Special rules in the case of distributions from a regulated investment company—(i) General rule. If the amount of any distributions designated as being subject to section 852(b)(3)(C) or 5(A), or 871(k)(1)(C) or (2)(C), exceeds the amount that may be designated under those sections for the taxable year, then no penalties will be asserted for any resulting underwithholding if the designations were based on a reasonable estimate (made pursuant to the same procedures as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section) and the adjustments to the amount withheld are made within the time period described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section. Any adjustment to the amount of tax due and paid to the IRS by the withholding agent as a result of underwithholding shall not be treated as a distribution for purposes of section 562(c) and the regulations thereunder. Any amount of U.S. tax that a foreign shareholder is treated as having paid on the undistributed capital gain of a regulated investment company under section 852(b)(3)(D) may be claimed by the foreign shareholder as a credit or refund under §1.1464-1.

(ii) Reliance by intermediary on reasonable estimate. For purposes of determining whether a payment is a distribution designated as subject to section 852(b)(3)(C) or (5)(A), or 871(k)(1)(C) or (2)(C), a withholding agent that is not the distributing regulated investment company may, absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, rely on the designations that the distributing company represents have been made in accordance with paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. Failure by the withholding agent to withhold the required amount due to a failure by the regulated investment company to reasonably estimate the required amounts or to properly communicate the relevant information to the withholding agent shall be imputed to the distributing company. In such a case, the IRS may collect from the distributing company any underwithheld amount and subject the company to applicable interest and penalties as a withholding agent.

(4) Coordination with withholding under section 1445—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3T(c)(4)(i).

(ii) Intermediary reliance rule. A withholding agent that is not the distributing USRPHC must withhold under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section, but may, absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, rely on representations made by the USRPHC regarding the determinations required under paragraph (c)(4)(i) of this section. Failure by the withholding agent to withhold the required amount due to a failure by the distributing USRPHC to make these determinations in a reasonable manner or to properly communicate the determinations to the withholding agent shall be imputed to the distributing USRPHC. In such a case, the IRS may collect from the distributing USRPHC any underwithheld amount and subject the distributing USRPHC to applicable interest and penalties as a withholding agent.

(d) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3T(d).

(e) Payments other than in U.S. dollars—(1) In general. The amount of a payment made in a medium other than U.S. dollars is measured by the fair market value of the property or services provided in lieu of U.S. dollars. The withholding agent may liquidate the property prior to payment in order to withhold the required amount of tax under section 1441 or obtain payment of the tax from an alternative source. However, the obligation to withhold under section 1441 is not deferred even if no alternative source can be located. Thus, for purposes of withholding under chapter 3 of the Code, the provisions of §31.3406(h)-2(b)(2)(ii) of this chapter (relating to backup withholding from another source) shall not apply. If the withholding agent satisfies the tax liability related to such payments, the rules of paragraph (f) of this section apply.

(2) Payments in foreign currency. If the amount subject to withholding tax is paid in a currency other than the U.S. dollar, the amount of withholding under section 1441 shall be determined by applying the applicable rate of withholding to the foreign currency amount and converting the amount withheld into U.S. dollars on the date of payment at the spot rate (as defined in §1.988-1(d)(1)) in effect on that date. A withholding agent making regular or frequent payments in foreign currency may use a month-end spot rate or a monthly average spot rate. In addition, such a withholding agent may use the spot rate on the date the amount of tax is deposited (within the meaning of §1.6302-2(a)), provided that such deposit is made within seven days of the date of the payment giving rise to the obligation to withhold. A spot rate convention must be used consistently for all non-dollar amounts withheld and from year to year. Such convention cannot be changed without the consent of the Commissioner. The U.S. dollar amount so determined shall be treated by the beneficial owner as the amount of tax paid on the income for purposes of determining the final U.S. tax liability and, if applicable, claiming a refund or credit of tax.

(f) Tax liability of beneficial owner satisfied by withholding agent—(1) General rule. In the event that the satisfaction of a tax liability of a beneficial owner by a withholding agent constitutes income to the beneficial owner and such income is of a type that is subject to withholding, the amount of the payment deemed made by the withholding agent for purposes of this paragraph (f) shall be determined under the gross-up formula provided in this paragraph (f)(1). Whether the payment of the tax by the withholding agent constitutes a satisfaction of the beneficial owner's tax liability and whether, as such, it constitutes additional income to the beneficial owner, must be determined under all the facts and circumstances surrounding the transaction, including any agreements between the parties and applicable law. The formula described in this paragraph (f)(1) is as follows:

eCFR graphic er14oc97.000.gif

View or download PDF

(2) Example. The following example illustrates the provisions of this paragraph (f):

Example. College X awards a qualified scholarship within the meaning of section 117(b) to foreign student, FS, who is in the United States on an F visa. FS is a resident of a country that does not have an income tax treaty with the United States. The scholarship is $20,000 to be applied to tuition, mandatory fees and books, plus benefits in kind consisting of room and board and roundtrip air transportation. College X agrees to pay any U.S. income tax owed by FS with respect to the scholarship. The fair market value of the room and board measured by the amount College X charges non-scholarship students is $6,000. The cost of the roundtrip air transportation is $2,600. Therefore, the total fair market value of the scholarship received by FS is $28,600. However, the amount taxable is limited to the fair market value of the benefits in kind ($8,600) because the portion of the scholarship amount for tuition, fees, and books is not included in gross income under section 117. The applicable rate of withholding is 14 percent under section 1441(b). Therefore, under the gross-up formula, College X is deemed to make a payment of $10,000 ($8,600 divided by (1-.14). The U.S. tax that must be deducted and withheld from the payment under section 1441(b) is $1,400 (.14×$10,000). College X reports scholarship income of $30,000 and $1,400 of U.S. tax withheld on Forms 1042 and 1042-S.

(g) Conduit financing arrangements—(1) Duty to withhold. A financed entity or other person required to withhold tax under section 1441 with respect to a financing arrangement that is a conduit financing arrangement within the meaning of §1.881-3(a)(2)(iv) shall be required to withhold under section 1441 as if the district director had determined, pursuant to §1.881-3(a)(3), that all conduit entities that are parties to the conduit financing arrangement should be disregarded. The amount of tax required to be withheld shall be determined under §1.881-3(d). The withholding agent may withhold tax at a reduced rate if the financing entity establishes that it is entitled to the benefit of a treaty that provides a reduced rate of tax on a payment of the type deemed to have been paid to the financing entity. Section 1.881-3(a)(3)(ii)(E) shall not apply for purposes of determining whether any person is required to deduct and withhold tax pursuant to this paragraph (g), or whether any party to a financing arrangement is liable for failure to withhold or entitled to a refund of tax under sections 1441 or 1461 to 1464 (except to the extent the amount withheld exceeds the tax liability determined under §1.881-3(d)). See §1.1441-7(f) relating to withholding tax liability of the withholding agent in conduit financing arrangements subject to §1.881-3.

(2) Effective date. This paragraph (g) is effective for payments made by financed entities on or after September 11, 1995. This paragraph shall not apply to interest payments covered by section 127(g)(3) of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, and to interest payments with respect to other debt obligations issued prior to October 15, 1984 (whether or not such debt was issued by a Netherlands Antilles corporation).

(h) Dividend equivalents—(1) Withholding on gross amount. The gross amount of a dividend equivalent described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder is subject to withholding in an amount equal to the gross amount of the dividend equivalent used in computing any net amount that is transferred to or from the taxpayer.

(2) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (h) applies to payments made on or after January 23, 2012.

(i) Effective date. Except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section, this section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000.

(j) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3T(j).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12074, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.1441-3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§1.1441-3T   Determination of amounts to be withheld (temporary).

(a) General rule—(1) Withholding on gross amount. Except as otherwise provided in regulations under section 1441, the amount subject to withholding under §1.1441-1 is the gross amount of income subject to withholding that is paid to a foreign person. The gross amount of income subject to withholding may not be reduced by any deductions, except to the extent that one or more personal exemptions are allowed as provided under §1.1441-4(b)(6).

(2) Coordination with chapter 4. A withholding agent making a payment that is both a withholdable payment and an amount subject to withholding under §1.1441-2(a) and that has withheld tax as required under chapter 4 from such payment, is not an amount required to be withheld under this section notwithstanding paragraph (a)(1) of this section. See §1.1474-6(b)(1) for the allowance for a withholding agent to credit withholding applied under chapter 4 against its liability for tax due under sections 1441, 1442, or 1443, and see §1.1474-6(b)(1) for the rule allowing a withholding agent to credit withholding applied under chapter 4 against its liability for tax due under sections 1441, 1442, or 1443, and §1.1474-6(b)(2) for when such withholding is considered applied by a withholding agent. If the withholdable payment is not required to be withheld upon under chapter 4, then the withholding agent must apply the provisions of §1.1441-1 to determine whether withholding is required under sections 1441, 1442, or 1443.

(b) through (c)(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3(b) through (c)(3).

(4) Coordination with withholding under section 1445—(i) In general. A distribution from a U.S. Real Property Holding Corporation (USRPHC) (or from a corporation that was a USRPHC at any time during the five-year period ending on the date of distribution) with respect to stock that is a U.S. real property interest under section 897(c) or from a Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT) or other entity that is a qualified investment entity (QIE) under section 897(h)(4) with respect to its stock is subject to the withholding provisions under section 1441 (or section 1442 or 1443) and section 1445. A USRPHC making a distribution shall be treated as satisfying its withholding obligations under both sections if it withholds in accordance with one of the procedures described in either paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) or (B) of this section. A USRPHC must apply the same withholding procedure to all the distributions made during the taxable year. However, the USRPHC may change the applicable withholding procedure from year to year. For rules regarding distributions by REITs and other entities that are QIEs, see paragraph (c)(4)(i)(C) of this section. To the extent withholding under sections 1441, 1442, or 1443 applies under this paragraph (c)(4)(i) to any portion of a distribution that is a withholdable payment, see paragraph (a)(2) for rules coordinating withholding under chapter 4.

(A) Withholding under section 1441. The USRPHC may choose to withhold on a distribution only under section 1441 (or 1442 or 1443) and not under section 1445. In such a case, the USRPHC must withhold under section 1441 (or 1442 or 1443) on the full amount of the distribution, whether or not any portion of the distribution represents a return of basis or capital gain. If a reduced tax rate under an income tax treaty applies to the distribution by the USRPHC, then the applicable rate of withholding on the distribution shall be no less than 10-percent, unless the applicable treaty specifies an applicable lower rate for distributions from a USRPHC, in which case the lower rate may apply.

(B) Withholding under both sections 1441 and 1445. As an alternative to the procedure described in paragraph (c)(4)(i)(A) of this section, a USRPHC may choose to withhold under both sections 1441 (or 1442 or 1443) and 1445 under the procedures set forth in this paragraph (c)(4)(i)(B). The USRPHC must make a reasonable estimate of the portion of the distribution that is a dividend under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section, and must—

(1) Withhold under section 1441 (or 1442 or 1443) on the portion of the distribution that is estimated to be a dividend under paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section; and

(2) Withhold under section 1445(e)(3) and §1.1445-5(e) on the remainder of the distribution or on such smaller portion based on a withholding certificate obtained in accordance with §1.1445-5(e)(3)(iv).

(C) Coordination with REIT/QIE withholding. Withholding is required under section 1441 (or 1442 or 1443) on the portion of a distribution from a REIT or other entity that is a QIE that is not designated (for REITs) or reported (for regulated investment companies that are QIEs) as a capital gain dividend, a return of basis, or a distribution in excess of a shareholder's adjusted basis in the stock of the REIT or QIE that is treated as a capital gain under section 301(c)(3). A distribution in excess of a shareholder's adjusted basis in the stock of the REIT or QIE is, however, subject to withholding under section 1445, unless the interest in the REIT or QIE is not a U.S. real property interest (e.g., an interest in a domestically controlled REIT or QIE under section 897(h)(2)). In addition, withholding is required under section 1445 on the portion of the distribution designated (for REITs) or reported (for regulated investment companies that are QIEs) as a capital gain dividend to the extent that it is attributable to the sale or exchange of a U.S. real property interest. See §1.1445-8.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3(c)(4)(ii).

(d) Withholding on payments that include an undetermined amount of income—(1) In general. Where the withholding agent makes a payment and does not know at the time of payment the amount that is subject to withholding because the determination of the source of the income or the calculation of the amount of income subject to tax depends upon facts that are not known at the time of payment, then the withholding agent must withhold an amount under §1.1441-1 based on the entire amount paid that is necessary to ensure that the tax withheld is not less than 30 percent (or other applicable percentage) of the amount that could be from sources within the United States or income subject to tax. See §1.1471-2(a)(5) for similar rules under chapter 4 that apply to payments made to payees that are entities. The amount so withheld shall not exceed 30 percent of the amount paid. With respect to a payment described in paragraph (d)(1) or (2) of this section, the withholding agent may elect to retain 30 percent of the payment to hold in escrow until the earlier of the date that the amount of income from sources within the United States or the taxable amount can be determined or one year from the date the amount is placed is in escrow, at which time the withholding becomes due under §1.1441-1, or, to the extent that withholding is not required, the escrowed amount must be paid to the payee.

(2) Withholding on certain gains. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may rely on a claim regarding the amount of gain described in §1.1441-2(c) if the beneficial owner withholding certificate, or other appropriate withholding certificate, states the beneficial owner's basis in the property giving rise to the gain. In the absence of a reliable representation on a withholding certificate, the withholding agent must withhold an amount under §1.1441-1 that is necessary to assure that the tax withheld is not less than 30 percent (or other applicable percentage) of the recognized gain. For this purpose, the recognized gain is determined without regard to any deduction allowed by the Code from the gains. The amount so withheld shall not exceed 30 percent of the amount payable by reason of the transaction giving rise to the recognized gain. See §1.1441-1(b)(8) regarding adjustments in the case of overwithholding.

(e) through (i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-3(e) through (i).

(j) Effective/applicability date. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (g) of this section, this section applies to payments made after June 30, 2014. (For payments made after December 31, 2000, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2013.)

(2) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on February 28, 2017.

[T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12773, Mar. 6, 2014]

§1.1441-4   Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts.

(a) Certain income connected with a U.S. trade or business—(1) In general. No withholding is required under section 1441 on income otherwise subject to withholding if the income is (or is deemed to be) effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and is includible in the beneficial owner's gross income for the taxable year. For purposes of this paragraph (a), an amount is not deemed to be includible in gross income if the amount is (or is deemed to be) effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and the beneficial owner claims an exemption from tax under an income tax treaty because the income is not attributable to a permanent establishment in the United States. To claim a reduced rate of withholding because the income is not attributable to a permanent establishment, see §1.1441-6(b)(1). This paragraph (a) does not apply to income of a foreign corporation to which section 543(a)(7) applies for the taxable year or to compensation for personal services performed by an individual. See paragraph (b) of this section for compensation for personal services performed by an individual.

(2) Withholding agent's reliance on a claim of effectively connected income—(i) In general. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may rely on a claim of exemption based upon paragraph (a)(1) of this section if, prior to the payment to the foreign person, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a Form W-8 upon which it can rely to treat the payment as made to a foreign beneficial owner in accordance with §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii). For purposes of this paragraph (a), a withholding certificate is valid only if, in addition to other applicable requirements, it includes the taxpayer identifying number of the person whose name is on the Form W-8 and represents, under penalties of perjury, that the amounts for which the certificate is furnished are effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States and is includable in the beneficial owner's gross income for the taxable year. In the absence of a reliable claim that the income is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, the income is presumed not to be effectively connected, except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a) (2)(ii) or (3) of this section. See §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(C) for the period of validity applicable to a certificate provided under this section and §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(D) for changes in circumstances arising during the taxable year indicating that the income to which the certificate relates is not, or is no longer expected to be, effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. A withholding certificate shall be effective only for the item or items of income specified therein. The provisions of §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv) dealing with a 90-day grace period shall apply for purposes of this section.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(a)(2)(ii).

(3) Income on notional principal contracts—(i) General rule. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section, a withholding agent that pays amounts attributable to a notional principal contract described in §1.863-7(a) or §1.988-2(e) shall have no obligation to withhold on the amounts paid under the terms of the notional principal contract regardless of whether a withholding certificate is provided. However, a withholding agent must file returns under §1.1461-1(b) and (c) reporting the income that it must treat as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under the provisions of this paragraph (a)(3). Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(3)(ii) of this section, a withholding agent must treat the income as effectively connected with the conduct of a U.S. trade or business if the income is paid to, or to the account of, a qualified business unit of a foreign person located in the United States or, if the payment is paid to, or to the account of, a qualified business unit of a foreign person located outside the United States, the withholding agent knows, or has reason to know, the payment is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. Income on a notional principal contract does not include the amount characterized as interest under the provisions of §1.446-3(g)(4).

(ii) Exception for certain payments. A payment shall not be treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States for purposes of paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section even if no withholding certificate is furnished if the payee provides a representation in a master agreement that governs the transactions in notional principal contracts between the parties (for example an International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) Agreement, including the Schedule thereto) or in the confirmation on the particular notional principal contract transaction that the payee is a U.S. person or a non-U.S. branch of a foreign person.

(iii) Exception for specified notional principal contracts. A withholding agent that makes a payment attributable to a specified notional principal contract described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder that is not treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States is obligated to withhold on the amount of the payment that is a dividend equivalent.

(b) Compensation for personal services of an individual—(1) Exemption from withholding. Withholding is not required under §1.1441-1 from salaries, wages, remuneration, or any other compensation for personal services of a nonresident alien individual if such compensation is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States and—

(i) Such compensation is subject to withholding under section 3402 (relating to withholding on wages) and the regulations under that section;

(ii) Such compensation would be subject to withholding under section 3402 but for the provisions of section 3401(a) (not including section 3401(a)(6)) and the regulations under that section. This paragraph (b)(1)(ii) does not apply to payments to a nonresident alien individual from any trust described in section 401(a), any annuity plan described in section 403(a), any annuity, custodial account, or retirement income account described in section 403(b), or an individual retirement account or individual retirement annuity described in section 408. Instead, these payments are subject to withholding under this section to the extent they are exempted from the definition of wages under section 3401(a)(12) or to the extent they are from an annuity, custodial account, or retirement income account described in section 403(b), or an individual retirement account or individual retirement annuity described in section 408. Thus, for example, payments to a nonresident alien individual from a trust described in section 401(a) are subject to withholding under section 1441 and not under section 3405 or section 3406.

(iii) Such compensation is for services performed by a nonresident alien individual who is a resident of Canada or Mexico and who enters and leaves the United States at frequent intervals;

(iv) Such compensation is, or will be, exempt from the income tax imposed by chapter 1 of the Code by reason of a provision of the Internal Revenue Code or a tax treaty to which the United States is a party;

(v) Such compensation is paid after January 3, 1979 as a commission or rebate paid by a ship supplier to a nonresident alien individual, who is employed by a nonresident alien individual, foreign partnership, or foreign corporation in the operation of a ship or ships of foreign registry, for placing orders for supplies to be used in the operation of such ship or ships with the supplier. See section 162(c) and the regulations thereunder for denial of deductions for illegal bribes, kickbacks, and other payments; or

(vi) Compensation that is exempt from withholding under section 3402 by reason of section 3402(e), provided that the employee and his employer enter into an agreement under section 3402(p) to provide for the withholding of income tax upon payments of amounts described in §31.3401(a)-3(b)(1) of this chapter. An employee who desires to enter into such an agreement should furnish his employer with Form W-4 (withholding exemption certificate) (or such other form as the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may prescribe). See section 3402(f) and the regulations thereunder and §31.3402(p)-1 of this chapter.

(2) Manner of obtaining withholding exemption under tax treaty—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(b)(2)(i).

(ii) Withholding certificate claiming withholding exemption. The statement claiming an exemption from withholding shall be made on Form 8233 (or an acceptable substitute or such other form as the IRS may prescribe). Form 8233 shall be dated, signed by the beneficial owner under penalties of perjury, and contain the following information—

(A) The individual's name, permanent residence address, taxpayer identifying number (or a copy of a completed Form W-7 or SS-5 showing that a number has been applied for), and the U.S. visa number, if any;

(B) The individual's current immigration status and visa type;

(C) The individual's original date of entry into the United States;

(D) The country that issued the individual's passport and the number of such passport, or the individual's permanent address if a citizen of Canada or Mexico;

(E) The taxable year for which the statement is to apply, the compensation to which it relates, and the amount (or estimated amount if exact amount not known) of such compensation;

(F) A statement that the individual is not a citizen or resident of the United States;

(G) The number of personal exemptions claimed by the individual;

(H) A statement as to whether the compensation to be paid to him or her during the taxable year is or will be exempt from income tax and the reason why the compensation is exempt;

(I) If the compensation is exempt from withholding by reason of an income tax treaty to which the United States is a party, the tax treaty and provision under which the exemption from withholding is claimed and the country of which the individual is a resident;

(J) Sufficient facts to justify the claim in exemption from withholding; and

(K) Any other information as may be required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information described in this paragraph (b)(2)(ii).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(b)(2)(iii).

(iv) Acceptance by withholding agent. If after the review described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section the withholding agent is satisfied that an exemption from withholding is warranted, the withholding agent may accept the statement by making a certification, verified by a declaration

that it is made under the penalties of perjury, on Form 8233. The certification shall be—

(A) That the withholding agent has examined the statement,

(B) That the withholding agent is satisfied that an exemption from withholding is warranted, and

(C) That the withholding agent does not know or have reason to know that the individual's compensation is not entitled to the exemption or that the eligibility of the individual's compensation for the exemption cannot be readily determined.

(v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(b)(2)(v).

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(b)(3).

(4) Final payment exemption—(i) General rule. Compensation for independent personal services of a nonresident alien individual who is engaged during the taxable year in the conduct of a trade or business within the United States may be wholly or partially exempted from the withholding required by §1.1441-1 from the final payment of compensation for independent personal services. This exemption does not apply to wages. This exemption from withholding is available only once during an alien individual's taxable year and is obtained by the alien individual presenting to the withholding agent a letter in duplicate from a district director stating the amount of compensation subject to the exemption and the amount that would otherwise be withheld from such final payment under section 1441 that shall be paid to the alien individual due to the exemption. The alien individual shall attach a copy of the letter to his or her income tax return for the taxable year for which the exemption is effective.

(ii) Final payment of compensation for personal services. For purposes of this paragraph, final payment of compensation for personal services means the last payment of compensation, other than wages, for personal services rendered within the United States that the individual expects to receive from any withholding agent during the taxable year.

(iii) Manner of applying for final payment exemption. In order to obtain the final payment exemption provided by paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section, the nonresident alien individual (or his or her agent) must file the forms and provide the information required by the district director. Ordinary and necessary business expenses may be taken into account if substantiated to the satisfaction of the district director. The alien individual must submit a statement, signed by him or her and verified by a declaration that it is made under the penalties of perjury, that all the information provided is true and that to his or her knowledge no relevant information has been omitted. The information required to be submitted includes, but is not limited to—

(A) A statement by each withholding agent from whom amounts of gross income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States have been received by the alien individual during the taxable year, of the amount of such income paid and the amount of tax withheld, signed and verified by a declaration that it is made under penalties of perjury;

(B) A statement by the withholding agent from whom the final payment of compensation for personal services will be received, of the amount of such final payment and the amount which would be withheld under §1.1441-1 if a final payment exemption under paragraph (b)(4)(i) of this section is not granted, signed and verified by a declaration that it is made under penalties of perjury;

(C) A statement by the individual that he or she does not intend to receive any other amounts of gross income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States during the current taxable year;

(D) The amount of tax which has been withheld (or paid) under any other provision of the Code or regulations with respect to any income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States during the current taxable year;

(E) The amount of any outstanding tax liabilities (and interest and penalties relating thereto) from the current taxable year or prior taxable periods; and

(F) The provision of any income tax treaty under which a partial or complete exemption from withholding may be claimed, the country of the individual's residence, and a statement of sufficient facts to justify an exemption pursuant to such treaty.

(iv) Letter to withholding agent. If the district director is satisfied that the information provided under paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section is sufficient, the district director will, after coordination with the Director of the Foreign Operations District, ascertain the amount of the alien individual's tentative income tax for the taxable year with respect to gross income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. After the tentative tax has been ascertained, the district director will provide the alien individual with a letter to the withholding agent stating the amount of the final payment of compensation for personal services that is exempt from withholding, and the amount that would otherwise be withheld under section 1441 that shall be paid to the alien individual due to the exemption. The amount of compensation for personal services exempt from withholding under this paragraph (b)(4) shall not exceed $5,000.

Example 1. On July 15, 1983, B, a non-resident alien individual, appears before a district director with the information required by paragraph (b)(4)(iii) of this section. B has received personal service income in 1983 from which $3,000 has been withheld under section 1441. On August 1, 1983, B will receive $5,000 in personal service income from W. B does not intend to receive any other income subject to U.S. tax during 1983. Taking into account B's substantiated deductible business expenses, the district director computes the tentative tax liability on B's income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States during 1983 (including the $5,000 payment to be made on August 1, 1983) to be $3,300. B does not owe U.S. tax for any other taxable periods. The amount of B's final payment exemption is determined as follows:

(1) The amount of total withholding is $4,500 ($3,000 previously withheld plus $1,500, 30% of the $5,000 final payment);

(2) The amount of tentative excess withholding is $1,200 (total withholding of $4,500 minus B's tentative tax liability of $3,300); and

(3) To allow B to receive $1,200 of the amount which would otherwise have been withheld from the final payment, the district director allows a withholding exemption for $4,000 of B's final payment. W must withhold $300 from the final payment.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except B will receive a final payment of compensation on August 1, 1983, in the amount of $10,000 and B's tentative tax liability is $3,900. The amount of B's final payment exemption is determined as follows:

(1) The amount of total withholding is $6,000 ($3,000 previously withheld plus $3,000, 30% of the $10,000 final payment);

(2) The amount of tentative excess withholding is $2,100 (total withholding of $6,000 minus B's tentative tax liability of $3,900); and

(3) To allow B to receive $2,100 of the amount which would otherwise be withheld from the final payment, $7,000 of the final payment would have to be exempt from withholding; however, as no more than $5,000 of the final payment can be exempt from withholding under this paragraph (b)(4), the district director allows a withholding exemption for $5,000 of B's final payment. B must file a claim for refund at the end of the taxable year to obtain a refund of $600. W must withhold $1,500 from the final payment.

(5) Requirement of return. The tentative tax determined by the district director under paragraph (b)(4)(iv) of this section or by the Director of the Foreign Operations District under the withholding agreement procedure of paragraph (b)(3) of this section shall not constitute a final determination of the income tax liability of the nonresident alien individual, nor shall such determination constitute a tax return of the nonresident alien individual for any taxable period. An alien individual who applies for or obtains an exemption from withholding under the procedures of paragraphs (b) (2), (3), or (4) of this section is not relieved of the obligation to file a return of income under section 6012.

(6) Personal exemption—(i) In general. To determine the tax to be withheld at source under §1.1441-1 from remuneration paid for personal services performed within the United States by a nonresident alien individual and from scholarship and fellowship income described in paragraph (c) of this section, a withholding agent may take into account one personal exemption pursuant to sections 873(b)(3) and 151 regardless of whether the income is effectively connected. For purposes of withholding under section 1441 on remuneration for personal services, the exemption must be prorated upon a daily basis for the period during which the personal services are performed within the United States by the nonresident alien individual by dividing by 365 the number of days in the period during which the individual is present in the United States for the purpose of performing the services and multiplying the result by the amount of the personal exemption in effect for the taxable year. See §31.3402(f)(6)-1 of this chapter.

(ii) Multiple exemptions. More than one personal exemption may be claimed in the case of a resident of a contiguous country or a national of the United States under section 873(b)(3). In addition, residents of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect may be eligible to claim more than one personal exemption if the treaty so provides. Claims for more than one personal exemption shall be made on the withholding certificate furnished to the withholding agent. The exemption must be prorated on a daily basis in the same manner as described in paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section.

(iii) Special rule where both certain scholarship and compensation income are received. The fact that both non-compensatory scholarship income and compensation income (including compensatory scholarship income) are received during the taxable year does not entitle the taxpayer to claim more than one personal exemption amount (or more than the additional amounts permitted under paragraph (b)(6)(ii) of this section). Thus, if a nonresident alien student receives non-compensatory taxable scholarship income from one withholding agent and compensation income from another withholding agent, no more than the total personal exemption amount permitted under the Internal Revenue Code or under an income tax treaty may be taken into account by both withholding agents. For this purpose, the withholding agent may rely on a representation from the beneficial owner that the exemption amount claimed does not exceed the amount permissible under this section.

(c) Special rules for scholarship and fellowship income—(1) In general. Under section 871(c), certain amounts paid as a scholarship or fellowship for study, training, or research in the United States to a nonresident alien individual temporarily present in the United States as a nonimmigrant under section 101(a)(15) (F), (J), (M), or (Q) of the Immigration and Nationality Act are treated as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States. The amounts described in the preceding sentence are those amounts that do not represent compensation for services. Such amounts (as described in the second sentence of section 1441(b)) are subject to withholding under section 1441, but at the lower rate of 14 percent. That rate may be reduced under the provisions of an income tax treaty. Claims of a reduced rate under an income tax treaty shall be made under the procedures described in §1.1441-6(b)(1). Therefore, claims for reduction in withholding under an income tax treaty on amounts described in this paragraph (c)(1) may not be made on a Form 8233. However, if the payee is receiving both compensation for personal services (including compensatory scholarship income) and non-compensatory scholarship income described in this paragraph (c)(1) from the same withholding agent, claims for reduction of withholding on both types of income may be made on Form 8233.

(2) Alternate withholding election. A withholding agent may elect to withhold on the amounts described in paragraph (c)(1) of this section at the rates applicable under section 3402, as if the income were wages. Such election shall be made by obtaining a Form W-4 (or an acceptable substitute or such other form as the IRS may prescribe) from the beneficial owner. The fact that the withholding agent asks the beneficial owner to furnish a Form W-4 for such fellowship or scholarship income or to take such income into account in preparing such Form W-4 shall serve as notice to the beneficial owner that the income is being treated as wages for purposes of withholding tax under section 1441.

(d) Annuities received under qualified plans. Withholding is not required under section §1.1441-1 in the case of any amount received as an annuity if the amount is exempt from tax under section 871(f) and the regulations under that section. The withholding agent may exempt the payment from withholding if, prior to payment, it can reliably associate the payment with documentation upon which it can rely to treat the payment as made to a beneficial owner in accordance with §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii). A beneficial owner withholding certificate furnished for purposes of claiming the benefits of the exemption under this paragraph (d) is valid only if, in addition to other applicable requirements, it contains a taxpayer identifying number.

(e) Per diem of certain alien trainees. Withholding is not required under section 1441(a) and §1.1441-1 on per diem amounts paid for subsistence by the United States Government (directly or by contract) to any nonresident alien individual who is engaged in any program of training in the United States under the Mutual Security Act of 1954, as amended (22 U.S.C. chapter 24). This rule shall apply even though such amounts are subject to tax under section 871. Any exemption from withholding pursuant to this paragraph (e) applies without a requirement that documentation be furnished to the withholding agent. However, documentation may have to be furnished for purposes of the information reporting provisions under section 6041 and backup withholding under section 3406. The exemption from withholding granted by this paragraph (e) is not a determination that the amounts are not fixed or determinable annual or periodical income.

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificates timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions. See applicable procedures described in §1.1441-1(b)(7) in the event the withholding agent does not hold an appropriate withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation at the time of payment or does not act in accordance with applicable presumptions described in paragraph (a) (2)(i), (2)(ii), or (3) of this section.

(g) Effective/applicability date—(1) General rule. This section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000, except that paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this section applies to payments made on or after January 23, 2013.

(2) Transition rules. The validity of a Form 4224 or 8233 that was valid on January 1, 1998, under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999) and expired, or will expire, at any time during 1998, is extended until December 31, 1998. The validity of a Form 4224 or 8233 that is valid on or after January 1, 1999, remains valid until its validity expires under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999) but in no event will such form remain valid after December 31, 2000. The rule in this paragraph (g)(2), however, does not apply to extend the validity period of a Form 4224 or 8223 that expires solely by reason of changes in the circumstances of the person whose name is on the certificate. Notwithstanding the first three sentences of this paragraph (g)(2), a withholding agent may choose to not take advantage of the transition rule in this paragraph (g)(2) with respect to one or more withholding certificates valid under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999) and, therefore, to require withholding certificates conforming to the requirements described in this section (new withholding certificates). For purposes of this section, a new withholding certificate is deemed to satisfy the documentation requirement under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 1999). Further, a new withholding certificate remains valid for the period specified in §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii), regardless of when the certificate is obtained.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(g)(3).

(h) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4T(h).

[T.D. 6500, 25 FR 12075, Nov. 26, 1960]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §1.1441-4, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.fdsys.gov.

§1.1441-4T   Exemptions from withholding for certain effectively connected income and other amounts (temporary).

(a)(1) through (a)(2)(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(a) through (a)(2)(i).

(ii) Special rules for U.S. branches of foreign persons—(A) U.S. branches of certain foreign banks or foreign insurance companies. A payment to a U.S. branch described in §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv)(B)(3) is presumed to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States without the need to furnish a certificate if the withholding agent obtains an EIN for the entity, unless the U.S. branch provides a U.S. branch withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(3)(v) that represents otherwise. If no certificate is furnished but the income is not, in fact, effectively connected income, then the branch must withhold whether the payment is collected on behalf of other persons or on behalf of another branch of the same entity. See §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv) and (b)(6) for general rules applicable to payments to U.S. branches of foreign persons.

(B) Other U.S. branches. See §1.1441-1(b)(2)(iv)(E) for similar procedures for other U.S. branches to the extent provided in a determination letter from the IRS.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(a)(3).

(b)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(b)(1).

(2) Manner of obtaining withholding exemption under tax treaty—(i) In general. In order to obtain the exemption from withholding by reason of a tax treaty, provided by paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section, a nonresident alien individual must submit a withholding certificate (described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section) to each withholding agent from whom amounts are to be received. A separate withholding certificate must be filed for each taxable year of the alien individual. If the withholding agent is satisfied that an exemption from withholding is warranted (see paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section), the withholding certificate shall be accepted in the manner set forth in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section. The exemption from withholding becomes effective for payments made at least ten days after a copy of the accepted withholding certificate is forwarded to the IRS. The withholding agent may rely on an accepted withholding certificate only if the IRS has not objected to the certificate. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(i), the IRS will be considered to have not objected to the certificate if it has not notified the withholding agent within a 10-day period beginning from the date that the withholding certificate is forwarded to the IRS pursuant to paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section. After expiration of the 10-day period, the withholding agent may rely on the withholding certificate retroactive to the date of the first payment covered by the certificate. The fact that the IRS does not object to the withholding certificate within the 10-day period provided in this paragraph (b)(2)(i) shall not preclude the IRS from examining the withholding agent at a later date with respect to facts that the withholding agent knew or had reason to know regarding the payment and eligibility for a reduced rate and that were not disclosed to the IRS as part of the 10-day review process.

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(b)(2)(ii).

(iii) Review by withholding agent. The exemption from withholding provided by paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section shall not apply unless the withholding agent accepts (in the manner provided in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section) the statement on Form 8233, “Exemption From Withholding on Compensation for Independent (and Certain Dependent) Personal Services of a Nonresident Alien Individual,” (or successor form) supplied by the nonresident alien individual. Before accepting the statement, the withholding agent must examine the statement. If the withholding agent knows or has reason to know that any of the facts or assertions on Form 8233 may be false or that the eligibility of the individual's compensation for the exemption cannot be readily determined, the withholding agent may not accept the statement on Form 8233 and is required to withhold under this section. If the withholding agent accepts the statement and subsequently finds that any of the facts or assertions contained on Form 8233 may be false or that the eligibility of the individual's compensation for the exemption can no longer be readily determined, then the withholding agent shall promptly so notify the IRS by letter, and the withholding agent is not relieved of liability to withhold on any amounts still to be paid. If the withholding agent is notified by the IRS that the eligibility of the individual's compensation for the exemption is in doubt or that such compensation is not eligible for the exemption, the withholding agent is required to withhold under this section. The rules of this paragraph (b)(2) are illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. C, a nonresident alien individual, submits Form 8233 to W, a withholding agent. The statement on Form 8233 does not include all the information required by paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. Therefore, W has reason to know that he or she cannot readily determine whether C's compensation for personal services is eligible for an exemption from withholding and, therefore, W must withhold.
Example 2. D, a nonresident alien individual, is performing services for W, a withholding agent. W has accepted a statement on Form 8233 submitted by D, according to the provisions of this section. W receives notice from the Internal Revenue Service that the eligibility of D's compensation for a withholding exemption is in doubt. Therefore, W has reason to know that the eligibility of the compensation for a withholding exemption cannot be readily determined, as of the date W receives the notification, and W must withhold tax under section 1441 on amounts paid after receipt of the notification.
Example 3. E, a nonresident alien individual, submits Form 8233 to W, a withholding agent for whom E is to perform personal services. The statement contains all the information requested on Form 8233. E claims an exemption from withholding based on a personal exemption amount computed on the number of days E will perform personal services for W in the United States. If W does not know or have reason to know that any statement on the Form 8233 is false or that the eligibility of E's compensation for the withholding exemption cannot be readily determined, W can accept the statement on Form 8233 and exempt from withholding the appropriate amount of E's income.

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(b)(2)(iv).

(v) Copies of Form 8233. The withholding agent shall forward one copy of each Form 8233 that is accepted under paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section to the IRS within five days of such acceptance. The withholding agent shall retain a copy of Form 8233.

(3) Withholding agreements. Compensation for personal services of a nonresident alien individual who is engaged during the taxable year in the conduct of a trade or business within the United States may be wholly or partially exempted from the withholding required by §1.1441-1 if an agreement is reached between the IRS and the alien individual with respect to the amount of withholding required. Such agreement shall be available in the circumstances and in the manner set forth by the Internal Revenue Service, and shall be effective for payments covered by the agreement that are made after the agreement is executed by all parties. The alien individual must agree to timely file an income tax return for the current taxable year.

(b)(4) through (g)(2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-4(b)(4) through (g)(2).

(g)(3) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made after June 30, 2014. (For payments made after December 31, 2000, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 2013.)

(h) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on February 28, 2017.

[T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12774, Mar. 6, 2014]

§1.1441-5   Withholding on payments to partnerships, trusts, and estates.

(a) In general. This section describes the rules that apply to payments made to partnerships, trusts, and estates. Paragraph (b) of this section prescribes the rules that apply to a withholding agent making a payment to a U.S. partnership, trust, or estate. It also prescribes the obligations of a U.S. partnership, trust, or estate that makes a payment to a foreign partner, beneficiary, or owner. Paragraph (c) of this section prescribes rules that apply to a withholding agent that makes a payment to a foreign partnership. Paragraph (d) of this section provides presumption rules that apply to payments made to foreign partnerships. Paragraph (e) of this section prescribes rules, including presumption rules, that apply to a withholding agent that makes a payment to a foreign trust or foreign estate.

(b) Rules applicable to U.S. partnerships, trusts, and estates—(1) Payments to U.S. partnerships, trusts, and estates. No withholding is required under section 1.1441-1(b)(1) on a payment of an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) that a withholding agent may treat as made to a U.S. payee. Therefore, if a withholding agent can reliably associate (within the meaning of §1.1441-2(b)(vii)) a Form W-9 provided in accordance with §1.1441-1(d)(2) or (4) by a U.S. partnership, U.S. trust, or a U.S. estate the withholding agent may treat the payment as made to a U.S. payee and the payment is not subject to withholding under section 1441 even though the partnership, trust, or estate may have foreign partners, beneficiaries, or owners. A withholding agent is also not required to withhold under section 1441 on a payment it makes to an entity presumed to be a U.S. payee under paragraphs (d)(2) and (e)(6)(ii) of this section.

(2) Withholding by U.S. payees—(i) U.S. partnerships—(A) In general. A U.S. partnership is required to withhold under §1.1441-1 as a withholding agent on an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) that is includible in the gross income of a partner that is a foreign person. Subject to paragraph (b)(2)(v) of this section, a U.S. partnership shall withhold when any distributions that include amounts subject to withholding (including guaranteed payments made by a U.S. partnership) are made. To the extent a foreign partner's distributive share of income subject to withholding has not actually been distributed to the foreign partner, the U.S. partnership must withhold on the foreign partner's distributive share of the income on the earlier of the date that the statement required under section 6031(b) is mailed or otherwise provided to the partner or the due date for furnishing the statement.

(B) Effectively connected income of partners. Withholding on items of income that are effectively connected income in the hands of the partners who are foreign persons is governed by section 1446 and not by this section. In such a case, partners in a domestic partnership are not required to furnish a withholding certificate in order to claim an exemption from withholding under section 1441(c)(1) and §1.1441-4.

(ii) U.S. simple trusts. A U.S. trust that is described in section 651(a) (a U.S. simple trust) is required to withhold under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code as a withholding agent on the distributable net income includible in the gross income of a foreign beneficiary to the extent the distributable net income is an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)). A U.S. simple trust shall withhold when a distribution is made to a foreign beneficiary. The U.S. trust may make a reasonable estimate of the portion of the distribution that constitutes distributable net income consisting of an amount subject to withholding and apply the appropriate rate of withholding to the estimated amount. If, at the end of the taxable year in which the distribution is made, the U.S. simple trust determines that it underwithheld under section 1441 or 1442, the trust shall be liable as a withholding agent for the amount under withheld under section 1461. No penalties shall be imposed for failure to withhold and deposit the tax if the U.S. simple trust's estimate was reasonable and the trust pays the underwithheld amount on or before the due date of Form 1042 under section 1461. Any payment of underwithheld amounts by the U.S. simple trust shall not be treated as income subject to additional withholding even if that amount is treated as additional income to the foreign beneficiary, unless the additional amount is income to the foreign beneficiary as a result of a contractual arrangement between the parties regarding the satisfaction of the foreign beneficiary's tax liability. To the extent a U.S. simple trust is required to, but does not, distribute such income to a foreign beneficiary, the U.S. trust must withhold on the foreign beneficiary's allocable share at the time the income is required (without extension) to be reported on Form 1042-S under §1.1461-1(c).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(b)(2)(iii).

(iv) U.S. grantor trusts. A U.S. trust that is described in section 671 through 679 (a U.S. grantor trust) must withhold on any income includible in the gross income of a foreign person that is treated as an owner of the grantor trust to the extent the amount includible consists of an amount that is subject to withholding (as described in §1.1441-2(a)). The withholding must occur at the time the income is received by, or credited to, the trust.

(v) Subsequent distribution. If a U.S. partnership or U.S. trust withholds on a foreign partner, beneficiary, or owner's share of an amount subject to withholding before the amount is actually distributed to the partner, beneficiary, or owner, withholding is not required when the amount is subsequently distributed.

(vi) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(b)(2)(vi).

(c) Foreign partnerships—(1) Determination of payee—(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(1)(i).

(A) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a partner's distributive share of the payment with a valid Form W-9 provided under §1.1441-1(d), the partner is a U.S. payee;

(B) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a partner's distributive share of the payment with a valid Form W-8, or other appropriate documentation, provided under §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii), the partner is a payee that is a foreign beneficial owner;

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(1)(i)(C).

(D) If the withholding agent can reliably associate the partner's distributive share with a withholding foreign partnership certificate under paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section or a nonwithholding foreign partnership certificate under paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, then the rules of this paragraph (c)(1)(i) or paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section shall apply to determine whether the payment is treated as made to the partners of the higher-tier partnership under this paragraph (c)(1)(i) or to the higher-tier partnership itself (under the rules of paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of this section) in the same manner as if the partner's distributive share of the payment had been paid directly to the higher-tier foreign partnership;

(E) If the withholding agent can reliably associate the partner's distributive share with a withholding certificate described in paragraph (e) of this section regarding a foreign trust or estate, then the rules of paragraph (e) of this section shall apply to determine who the payees are; and

(F) If the withholding agent cannot reliably associate the partner's distributive share with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation, the partners are considered to be the payees and the presumptions described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section shall apply to determine their classification and status.

(ii) Payments treated as made to the partnership. A payment to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a foreign partnership is treated as a payment to the foreign partnership and not to its partners only if—

(A) The withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section (withholding certificate of a withholding foreign partnership);

(B) The withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a withholding certificate described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section (nonwithholding foreign partnership) certifying that the payment is income that is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States; or

(C) The withholding agent can treat the income as effectively connected income under the presumption rules of §1.1441-4(a)(2)(ii) or (3)(i).

(iii) Rules for reliably associating a payment with documentation. For rules regarding the reliable association of a payment with documentation, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii). In the absence of documentation, see §§1.1441-1(b)(3) and 1.6049-5(d) and paragraphs (d) and (e)(6) of this section for applicable presumptions.

(iv) and (v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(1)(iv) and (v).

(2) Withholding foreign partnerships—(i) through (iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(2)(i) through (c)(2)(iii).

(iv) Withholding certificate from a withholding foreign partnership. The rules of §1.1441-1(e)(4) shall apply to withholding certificates described in this paragraph (c)(2)(iv). A withholding certificate furnished by a withholding foreign partnership is valid with regard to any partner on whose behalf the certificate is furnished only if it is furnished on a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a partner with authority to sign for the partnership, its validity has not expired, and it contains the information, statement, and certifications described in this paragraph (c)(2)(iv) as follows—

(A) and (B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(2)(iv)(A) and (B).

(C) Any other information, certifications or statements as may be required by the withholding foreign partnership agreement with the IRS or the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information, statements, and certifications described in this paragraph (c)(2)(iv).

(3) Nonwithholding foreign partnerships—(i) and (ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(3)(i) and (ii).

(iii) Withholding certificate from a nonwithholding foreign partnership. A nonwithholding foreign partnership shall provide a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate with respect to reportable amounts received by the nonwithholding foreign partnership. A nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate is valid only to the extent it is furnished on a Form W-8 (or an acceptable substitute form or such other form as the IRS may prescribe), it is signed under penalties of perjury by a partner with authority to sign for the partnership, its validity has not expired, and it contains the information, statements, and certifications described in this paragraph (c)(3)(iii) and paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section, and the withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation for all the persons to whom the certificate relates are associated with the certificate. The rules of §1.1441-1(e)(4) shall apply to withholding certificates described in this paragraph (c)(3)(iii). No withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation from persons who derive income through a partnership (whether or not U.S. exempt recipients) are required to be associated with the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate if the certificate is furnished solely for income claimed to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. Withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation that may be associated with the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate consist of beneficial owner withholding certificates under §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i), intermediary withholding certificates under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(i), withholding foreign partnership withholding certificates under paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificates under this paragraph (c)(3)(iii), withholding certificates from foreign trusts or estates under paragraph (e) of this section, documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4) or documentary evidence described in §1.6049-5(c)(1), and any other documentation or certificates applicable under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations that certify or establish the status of the payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. or a foreign person. Nothing in this paragraph (c)(3)(iii) shall require a nonwithholding foreign partnership to furnish original documentation. Copies of certificates or documentary evidence may be transmitted to the U.S. withholding agent, in which case the nonwithholding foreign partnership must retain the original documentation for the same time period that the copy is required to be retained by the withholding agent under §1.1441-1(e)(4)(iii) and must provide it to the withholding agent upon request. The information, statement, and certifications required on the withholding certificate are as follows—

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(3)(iii)(A).

(B) A certification that the person whose name is on the certificate is a foreign partnership;

(C) A withholding statement associated with the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate that provides all of the information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section and §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv). No withholding statement is required, however, for a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate furnished for income claimed to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States;

(D) A certification that the income is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, if applicable; and

(E) Any other information, certifications, or statements required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information and certifications described in this paragraph (c)(3)(iii).

(iv) and (v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(c)(3)(iv) and (v).

(d) Presumption rules—(1) In general. This paragraph (d) contains the applicable presumptions for a withholding agent (including a partnership) to determine the classification and status of a partnership and its partners in the absence of documentation. The provisions of §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv) (regarding the 90-day grace period) and §1.1441-1(b)(3)(vii) through (ix) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph (d).

(2) through (4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(d)(2) through (d)(4).

(e) Foreign trusts and estates—(1) In general. This paragraph (e) provides rules applicable to payments of amounts subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) that a withholding agent may treat as made to any foreign trust or a foreign estate. For rules relating to payments to a U.S. trust or a U.S. estate, see paragraph (b) of this section. For the definitions of foreign simple trust, foreign complex trust, and foreign grantor trust, see §1.1441-1(c)(24), (25), and (26).

(2) Payments to foreign complex trusts and foreign estates. Under §1.1441-1(c)(6)(ii)(D), a foreign complex trust or foreign estate is generally considered to be the beneficial owner of income paid to the foreign complex trust or foreign estate. See paragraph (e)(4) of this section for rules describing when a withholding agent may treat a payment as made to a foreign complex trust or a foreign estate.

(3) Payees of payments to foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts—(i) Payments for which beneficiaries and owners are payees. For purposes of the regulations under chapters 3 and 61 of the Internal Revenue Code and section 3406, a foreign simple trust is not a beneficial owner or a payee of a payment. Also, a foreign grantor trust (or a portion of a trust that is a foreign grantor trust) is not considered a beneficial owner or a payee of a payment. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section, the payees of a payment made to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a foreign simple trust or a foreign grantor trust (or a portion of a trust that is a foreign grantor trust) are determined under the rules of this paragraph (e)(3)(i). The payees shall be treated as the beneficial owners if they may be so treated under §1.1441-1(c)(6)(ii)(C) and they provide documentation supporting their status as the beneficial owners. The payees of a payment to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust are determined as follows—

(A) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with a valid Form W-9 provided under §1.1441-1(d) from a beneficiary or owner of the foreign trust, then the beneficiary or owner is a U.S. payee;

(B) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with a valid Form W-8, or other appropriate documentation, provided under §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii) from a beneficiary or owner of the foreign trust, then the beneficiary or owner is a payee that is a foreign beneficial owner;

(C) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with a qualified intermediary withholding certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(ii), a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(ii), or a U.S. branch withholding certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(v), then the rules of §1.1441-1(b)(2)(v) shall apply to determine the payee in the same manner as if the payment had been paid directly to such intermediary or U.S. branch;

(D) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a payment with a withholding foreign partnership withholding certificate under paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section or a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate under paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, then the rules of paragraph (c)(1)(i) or (ii) of this section shall apply to determine the payee;

(E) If the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a foreign simple trust withholding certificate or a foreign grantor trust withholding certificate (both described in paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section) from a second or higher-tier foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust, then the rules of this paragraph (e)(3)(i) or paragraph (e)(3)(ii) of this section shall apply to determine whether the payment is treated as made to a beneficiary or owner of the higher-tier trust or to the trust itself in the same manner as if the payment had been made directly to the higher-tier trust; and

(F) If the withholding agent cannot reliably associate a payment with a withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation, the payees shall be determined by applying the presumptions described in paragraph (e)(6) of this section.

(ii) Payments for which trust is payee. A payment to a person that the withholding agent may treat as made to a foreign trust under paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section is treated as a payment to the trust, and not to a beneficiary of the trust, only if—

(A) The withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a foreign complex trust withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(4) of this section;

(B) The withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a foreign simple trust withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section certifying that the payment is income that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States; or

(C) The withholding agent can treat the income as effectively connected income under the presumption rules of §1.1441-4(a)(3)(i).

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(e)(3)(iii).

(4) Reliance on claim of foreign complex trust or foreign estate status. A withholding agent may treat a payment as made to a foreign complex trust or a foreign estate if the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a beneficial owner withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i) or other documentary evidence under §1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4) (regarding a claim for treaty benefits) or §1.6049-5(c)(1) (regarding documentary evidence to establish foreign status for purposes of chapter 61 of the Internal Revenue Code) that establishes the foreign complex trust or foreign estate's status as a beneficial owner. See paragraph (e)(6) of this section for presumption rules if documentation is lacking.

(5) Foreign simple trust and foreign grantor trust—(i) and (ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(e)(5)(i) and (ii).

(iii) Withholding certificate from foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust. A withholding certificate furnished by a foreign simple trust or a foreign grantor trust that is not a withholding foreign trust (within the meaning of paragraph (e)(5)(v) of this section) is valid only if it is furnished on a Form W-8, an acceptable substitute form, or such other form as the IRS may prescribe, it is signed under penalties of perjury by a trustee, its validity has not expired, it contains the information, statements, and certifications required by this paragraph (e)(5)(iii) and §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv), and the withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation for all of the payees (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section) to whom the certificate relates are associated with the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate. The rules of §1.1441-1(e)(4) shall apply to withholding certificates described in this paragraph (e)(5)(iii). No withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation from persons who derive income through a foreign simple trust or a foreign grantor trust (whether or not U.S. exempt recipients) are required to be associated with the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate if the certificate is furnished solely for income that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. Withholding certificates and other appropriate documentation (as determined under paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section) that may be associated with a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate consist of beneficial owner withholding certificates under §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i), intermediary withholding certificates under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(i), withholding foreign partnership withholding certificates under paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificates under paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, withholding certificates from foreign trusts or estates under paragraph (e)(4) or (5)(iii) of this section, documentary evidence described in §§1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4), or 1.6049-5(c)(1), and any other documentation or certificates applicable under other provisions of the Internal Revenue Code or regulations that certify or establish the status of the payee or beneficial owner as a U.S. or a foreign person. Nothing in this paragraph (e)(5)(iii) shall require a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust to provide original documentation. Copies of certificates or documentary evidence may be passed up to the U.S. withholding agent, in which case the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust must retain the original documentation for the same time period that the copy is required to be retained by the withholding agent under §1.1441-1(e)(4)(iii) and must provide it to the withholding agent upon request. The information, statement, and certifications required on a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate are as follows—

(A) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(e)(5)(iii)(A).

(B) A certification that the person whose name is on the certificate is a foreign simple trust or a foreign grantor trust;

(C) A withholding statement associated with the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate that provides all of the information required by paragraph (e)(5)(iv) of this section. No withholding statement is required, however, for a foreign simple trust withholding certificate furnished for income that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States;

(D) A certification on a foreign simple trust withholding certificate that the income is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, if applicable; and

(E) Any other information, certifications, or statements required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in lieu of, the information, certifications, and statements described in this paragraph (e)(5)(iii);

(iv) and (v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(e)(5)(iv) and (v).

(6) Presumption rules—(i) In general. This paragraph (e)(6) contains the applicable presumptions for a withholding agent (including a trust or estate) to determine the classification and status of a trust or estate and its beneficiaries or owners in the absence of valid documentation. The provisions of §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv) (regarding the 90-day grace period) and §1.1441-1(b)(3)(vii) through (ix) shall apply for purposes of this paragraph (e)(6).

(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(e)(6)(ii).

(iii) Determination of beneficiary or owner's status in the absence of certain documentation. If a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust has provided a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate under paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section but the payment to such trust cannot be reliably associated with valid documentation from a specific beneficiary or owner of the trust, then any portion of a payment that a withholding agent cannot treat as reliably associated with valid documentation from a beneficiary or owner may be presumed made to a foreign payee. As a result, any payment of an amount subject to withholding is subject to withholding at a rate of 30 percent. Any such payment that is presumed to be made to an undocumented foreign person must be reported on Form 1042-S. See §1.1461-1(c).

(f) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(f).

(g) Effective date—(1) General rule. This section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000.

(2) Transition rules. The validity of a withholding certificate that was valid on January 1, 1998, under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and expired, or will expire, at any time during 1998, is extended until December 31, 1998. The validity of a withholding certificate that is valid on or after January 1, 1999, remains valid until its validity expires under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) but in no event will such a withholding certificate remain valid after December 31, 2000. The rule in this paragraph (g)(2), however, does not apply to extend the validity period of a withholding certificate that expires solely by reason of changes in the circumstances of the person whose name is on the certificate. Notwithstanding the first three sentences of this paragraph (g)(2), a withholding agent may choose to not take advantage of the transition rule in this paragraph (g)(2) with respect to one or more withholding certificates valid under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and, therefore, to require withholding certificates conforming to the requirements described in this section (new withholding certificates). For purposes of this section, a new withholding certificate is deemed to satisfy the documentation requirement under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999). Further, a new withholding certificate remains valid for the period specified in §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii), regardless of when the certificate is obtained.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5T(g)(3).

[T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53452, Oct. 14, 1997, as amended by T.D. 8804, 63 FR 72185, 72188, Dec. 31, 1998; 64 FR 73410, Dec. 30, 1999; T.D. 8881, 65 FR 32188, May 22, 2000; 66 FR 18188, Apr. 6, 2001; T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12773, Mar. 6, 2014]

§1.1441-5T   Withholding on payments to partnerships, trusts, and estates (temporary).

(a) through (b)(2)(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(a) through (b)(2)(ii).

(b)(2)(iii) U.S. complex trusts and U.S. estates. A U.S. trust that is not a trust described in section 651(a) (see paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section) or sections 671 through 679 (see paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section) (a U.S. complex trust) is required to withhold under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) as a withholding agent on the distributable net income includible in the gross income of a foreign beneficiary to the extent the distributable net income consists of an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) that is, or is required to be, distributed currently. The U.S. complex trust shall withhold when a distribution is made to a foreign beneficiary. The trust may use the same procedures regarding an estimate of the amount subject to withholding as a U.S. simple trust under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. To the extent an amount subject to withholding is required to be, but is not actually distributed, the U.S. complex trust must withhold on the foreign beneficiary's allocable share at the time the income is required to be reported on Form 1042-S under §1.1461-1(c), without extension. A U.S. estate is required to withhold under chapter 3 of the Code on the distributable net income includible in the gross income of a foreign beneficiary to the extent the distributable net income consists of an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) that is actually distributed. A U.S. estate may also use the reasonable estimate procedures of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section. However, those procedures apply to an estate that has a taxable year other than a calendar year only if the estate files an amended return on Form 1042 for the calendar year in which the distribution was made and pays the underwithheld tax and interest within 60 days after the close of the taxable year in which the distribution was made.

(iv) and (v) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5 (b)(2)(iv) and (v).

(vi) Coordination with chapter 4 requirements for U.S. partnerships, trusts, and estates. To the extent that a U.S. partnership is required to withhold on an amount under chapter 4 with respect to a partner, beneficiary or owner, the partnership, trust, or estate must apply the rules described in §1.1473-1(a)(5) to determine when it must withhold on the amount under chapter 4. In a case in which withholding applies under chapter 4 to such an amount, see §1.1441-3(a)(2) to coordinate with withholding that otherwise applies to such an amount under this paragraph (b).

(c) Foreign partnerships—(1) Determination of payee. (i) Payments treated as made to partners. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) or (iv) of this section, the payees of a payment to a person that the withholding agent may treat as a nonwithholding foreign partnership under paragraph (c)(3)(i) or (d)(2) of this section are the partners (looking through partners that are foreign intermediaries or flow-through entities) as follows—

(A) and (B) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(c)(1)(i)(A) and (B).

(C) If the withholding agent can reliably associate a partner's distributive share of the payment with a qualified intermediary withholding certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(ii), a nonqualified intermediary withholding certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iii), or a U.S. branch certificate under §1.1441-1(e)(3)(v) (including one provided by a territory financial institution), then the rules of §1.1441-1(b)(2)(v) shall apply to determine who the payee is in the same manner as if the partner's distributive share of the payment had been paid directly to such intermediary or U.S. branch or territory financial institution;

(c)(1)(i)(D) through (c)(1)(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5 (c)(1)(i)(D) through (c)(1)(iii).

(iv) Coordination with chapter 4 for payments made to foreign partnerships. A withholding agent that makes a payment of U.S. source FDAP income to a foreign partnership that is a withholdable payment to which withholding under chapter 4 applies must apply the rules described in §1.1473-1(a)(5)(vi) to determine when the payment is treated as made to a partner in the partnership for purposes of chapter 4. In a case in which withholding applies under chapter 4 to a withholdable payment made to a foreign partnership, see §1.1441-3(a)(2) to coordinate with withholding otherwise required under this paragraph (c) with respect to the amount of the payment included in the gross income of a partner. For when a withholding agent may reliably associate a withholdable payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of obtaining documentation for each payee include in the pool, see §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) (substituting the term nonwithholding foreign partnership for the term nonqualified intermediary).

(v) Examples. The rules of paragraphs (c)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section are illustrated by the following examples. Each example assumes that all payments are not withholdable payments and thus no withholding applies under chapter 4.

Example 1. FP is a nonwithholding foreign partnership organized in Country X. FP has two partners, FC, a foreign corporation, and USP, a U.S. partnership. USWH, a U.S. withholding agent, makes a payment of U.S. source interest to FP that is not a withholdable payment. FP has provided USWH with a valid nonwithholding foreign partnership certificate, as described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, with which it associates a beneficial owner withholding certificate from FC and a Form W-9, “Request for Taxpayer Identification Number and Certification,” from USP together with the withholding statement required by paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section. USWH can reliably associate the payment of interest with the withholding certificates from FC and USP. Under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the payees of the interest payment are FC and USP.
Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that FP1, a nonwithholding foreign partnership, is a partner in FP rather than USP. FP1 has two partners, A and B, both foreign persons. FP provides USWH with a valid nonwithholding foreign partnership certificate, as described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section, with which it associates a beneficial owner withholding certificate from FC and a nonwithholding foreign partnership certificate from FP1. In addition, foreign beneficial owner withholding certificates from A and B are associated with the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate from FP1. FP also provides the withholding statement required by paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section. USWH can reliably associate the interest payment with the withholding certificates provided by FC, A, and B. Therefore, under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, the payees of the interest payment are FC, A, and B.
Example 3. USWH makes a payment of U.S. source dividends to WFP, a withholding foreign partnership, that is not a withholdable payment. WFP has two partners, FC1 and FC2, both foreign corporations. USWH can reliably associate the payment with a valid withholding foreign partnership withholding certificate from WFP. Therefore, under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(A) of this section, WFP is the payee of the interest.
Example 4. USWH makes a payment of U.S. source royalties that is not a withholdable payment to FP, a foreign partnership. USWH can reliably associate the royalties with a valid withholding certificate from FP on which FP certifies that the income is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States. Therefore, under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)(B) of this section, FP is the payee of the royalties.

(2) Withholding foreign partnerships—(i) Reliance on claim of withholding foreign partnership status. A withholding foreign partnership is a foreign partnership that has entered into an agreement with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), as described in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, with respect to distributions and guaranteed payments it makes to its partners. A withholding agent that can reliably associate a payment with a certificate described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section may treat the person to whom it makes the payment as a withholding foreign partnership for purposes of withholding under chapters 3 and 4 of the Code, information reporting under chapter 61 of the Code, backup withholding under section 3406, and withholding under other provisions of the Code. Furnishing such a certificate is in lieu of transmitting to a withholding agent withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation for its partners. Although the withholding foreign partnership generally will be required to obtain withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation from its partners pursuant to its agreement with the IRS, it will generally not be required to attach such documentation to its withholding foreign partnership withholding certificate to the extent it is permitted to act as a withholding foreign partnership with respect to the payment under its agreement. A foreign partnership may act as a qualified intermediary under §1.1441-1(e)(5) with respect to payments it makes to persons other than its partners. In addition, the IRS may permit a foreign partnership to act as a qualified intermediary under §1.1441-1(e)(5)(ii)(D) with respect to its partners in appropriate circumstances.

(ii) Withholding agreement. The IRS may, upon request, enter into a withholding agreement with a foreign partnership pursuant to such procedures as the IRS may prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). Under the withholding agreement, a foreign partnership shall generally be subject to the applicable withholding and reporting provisions applicable to withholding agents (and payors as defined in §1.6049-4(a) under chapters 3, 4, and 61 of the Code, section 3406, the regulations under those provisions, and other withholding provisions of the Code, except to the extent provided under the agreement. Under the agreement, a foreign partnership may agree to act as an acceptance agent to perform the duties described in §301.6109-1(d)(3)(iv)(A) of this chapter. For a partnership that receives withholdable payments on behalf of its partners and that is an FFI, the agreement will require the partnership to assume the requirements of a participating FFI, a registered deemed-compliant FFI, or an FFI treated as a deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA that is subject to due diligence and reporting requirements with respect to its U.S. accounts similar to those applicable to a registered deemed-compliant FFI under §1.1471-5(f)(1). The agreement may specify the manner in which applicable procedures for adjustments for underwithholding and overwithholding, including refund procedures, apply to the withholding foreign partnership and its partners and the extent to which applicable procedures may be modified. In particular, a withholding agreement may allow a withholding foreign partnership to claim refunds of overwithheld amounts on behalf of its customers. In addition, the agreement must specify the manner in which the IRS will verify the partnership's compliance with its agreement, including the requirements for a periodic review of the partnership's compliance with the agreement and the procedures for the partnership to certify to its compliance with the agreement. A withholding foreign partnership must file a return on Form 1042, “Annual Withholding Tax Return for U.S. Source Income of Foreign Persons,” and information returns on Form 1042-S, “Foreign Person's U.S. Source Income Subject to Withholding.” The withholding foreign partnership agreement may also require a withholding foreign partnership to file a partnership return under section 6031(a) and partner statements under 6031(b), including for each U.S. partner to the extent required in the agreement. Additionally, a partnership that is an FFI will be required to file Form 8966, “FATCA Report,” to the extent provided in the agreement.

(iii) Withholding responsibility. A withholding foreign partnership must assume primary withholding responsibility under both chapters 3 and 4 of the Code. It is not required to provide information to the withholding agent regarding each partner's distributive share of the payment (including a withholdable payment). The withholding foreign partnership will be responsible for reporting the payments under §1.1461-1(c), §1.1474-1(d), and chapter 61 of the Code and filing Form 1042 (to the extent required in the agreement). A withholding agent making a payment to a withholding foreign partnership is not required to withhold any amount under chapters 3 and 4 of the Code on the payment unless it has actual knowledge or reason to know that the foreign partnership is not acting as a withholding foreign partnership with respect to the payment or has not withheld to the extent required. The withholding foreign partnership shall withhold the payments under the same procedures and at the same time as prescribed for withholding by a U.S. partnership under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, except that, for purposes of determining the partner's status, the provisions of paragraph (d)(4) of this section shall apply.

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv).

(A) The name, permanent residence address (as described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(ii)), the employer identification number of the partnership, the country under the laws of which the partnership is created or governed, the chapter 4 status of the partnership if required for purposes of chapter 4 or if the partnership provides (or will provide) a withholding statement associated with the Form W-8 allocating a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees under §1.6049-4(c)(4) with respect to its partners, and the GIIN of the partnership (if applicable). If the partnership provides (or will provide) a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees as described in the preceding sentence, the partnership must certify to its chapter 4 status as a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI);

(B) A certification that the partnership is a withholding foreign partnership within the meaning of paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section, and, for a partnership that is an FFI receiving a withholdable payment, a certification that the partnership is acting as a participating FFI, a registered deemed-compliant FFI, or a nonreporting IGA FFI (as defined in §1.1471-1(b)(83)); and

(C) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(c)(2)(iv)(C).

(3) Nonwithholding foreign partnerships—(i) Reliance on claim of foreign partnership status. A withholding agent may treat a person as a nonwithholding foreign partnership if it receives from that person a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate as described in paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section. A withholding agent that does not receive a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate, or does not receive a valid withholding certificate, from an entity it knows, or has reason to know, is a foreign partnership, must apply the presumption rules of §§1.1441-1(b)(3) and 1.6049-5(d) and paragraphs (d) and (e)(6) of this section. In addition, to the extent a withholding agent cannot, prior to a payment, reliably associate the payment with valid documentation from a payee that is associated with the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate or has insufficient information to report the payment on Form 1042-S or Form 1099, to the extent reporting is required, the withholding agent must apply the presumption rules. See §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)(A) and (b)(2)(vii)(B) for rules regarding reliable association. See, however, §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) for when a withholding agent may reliably associate a withholdable payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of obtaining documentation for each payee included in the pool (substituting the term nonwithholding foreign partnership for the term nonqualified intermediary). See also §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(A) for when a withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees. See paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section and §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv) for alternative procedures permitting allocation information to be received after a payment is made.

(ii) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding by a partnership for its partners. This paragraph (c)(3)(ii) describes the manner in which a withholding agent may rely on a claim of reduced withholding when making a payment to a nonwithholding foreign partnership. To the extent that a withholding agent treats a payment to a nonwithholding foreign partnership as a payment to the nonwithholding foreign partnership's partners (whether direct or indirect) in accordance with paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section, it may rely on a claim for reduced withholding by the partner if, prior to the payment, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment (within the meaning of §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)) with a valid withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation from the partner that establishes entitlement to a reduced rate of withholding. A withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation that establishes entitlement to a reduced rate of withholding is a beneficial owner withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i), documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(3) or (4) or §1.6049-5(c)(1) (for a partner claiming to be a foreign person and a beneficial owner, determined under the provisions of §1.1441-1(c)(6)), a Form W-9 described in §1.1441-1(d) (for a partner claiming to be a U.S. payee), a withholding foreign partnership withholding certificate described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, or a withholding statement allocating the payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees. For when the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool, see paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. See also §1.1441-3(a)(2) (coordinating withholding under chapter 3 when withholding under chapter 4 is applied to a payment). Unless a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate is provided for income claimed to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, a claim must be presented for each portion of the payment that represents an item of income includible in the distributive share of a partner as required under paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(C) of this section. When making a claim for several partners, the partnership may present a single nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate to which the partners' certificates or other appropriate documentation are associated. Where the nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate is provided for income claimed to be effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under paragraph (c)(3)(iii)(D) of this section, the claim may be presented without having to identify any partner's distributive share of the payment.

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii).

(A) The name, permanent residence address (as described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(ii)), the employer identification number of the partnership, if any, the country under the laws of which the partnership is created or governed, and the chapter 4 status of the partnership (for a nonwithholding foreign partnership receiving a withholdable payment or providing a withholding statement associated with the Form W-8 allocating a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees), and the GIIN of the partnership (if applicable);

(B) through (E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(c)(3)(iii)(B) through (c)(3)(iii)(E).

(iv) Withholding statement provided by nonwithholding foreign partnership and coordination with chapter 4. The provisions of §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv) (regarding a withholding statement) shall apply to a nonwithholding foreign partnership by substituting the term nonwithholding foreign partnership for the term nonqualified intermediary, including when a nonwithholding foreign partnership may provide to a withholding agent a withholding statement that includes a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of information with respect to each partner that is a payee of a payment.

(v) Withholding and reporting by a foreign partnership. A nonwithholding foreign partnership described in this paragraph (c)(3) that receives an amount subject to withholding (as defined in §1.1441-2(a)) shall be required to withhold and report such payment under chapter 3 of the Code and the regulations thereunder except as otherwise provided in this paragraph (c)(3)(v). A nonwithholding foreign partnership shall not be required to withhold and report if it has provided a valid nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate, it has provided all of the information required by paragraph (c)(3)(iv) of this section (withholding statement), and it does not know, and has no reason to know, that another withholding agent failed to withhold the correct amount or failed to report the payment correctly under §1.1461-1(c). A nonwithholding foreign partnership is also not required to withhold and report under this paragraph (c)(3) to the extent that withholding under chapter 4 was applied to a payment that is includible in the gross income of a partner in the partnership. See also §1.1441-3(a)(2) for coordination rules when withholding under chapter 4 has been applied to a withholdable payment. A withholding foreign partnership's obligations to withhold and report shall be determined in accordance with its withholding foreign partnership agreement.

(d)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(d)(1).

(2) Determination of partnership status as U.S. or foreign in the absence of documentation. In the absence of a valid representation of U.S. partnership status in accordance with paragraph (b)(1) of this section or of foreign partnership status in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(i) or (c)(3)(i) of this section, the withholding agent shall determine the classification of the payee under the presumptions set forth in §1.1441-1(b)(3)(ii). If the withholding agent treats the payee as a partnership under §1.1441-1(b)(3)(ii), the withholding agent shall apply the presumptions set forth in §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) (applied by substituting the term partnership for the term exempt recipient) to determine whether to treat the partnership as a U.S. person or foreign person. For rules regarding reliable association with a withholding certificate from a domestic or a foreign partnership, see §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii).

(3) Determination of partners' status in the absence of certain documentation. If a nonwithholding foreign partnership has provided a nonwithholding foreign partnership withholding certificate under paragraph (c)(3)(iii) of this section that would be valid except that the withholding agent cannot reliably associate all or a portion of the payment with valid documentation from a partner of the partnership, then the withholding agent may apply the presumption rule of this paragraph (d)(3) with respect to all or a portion of the payment for which documentation has not been received. See §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)(A) and (B) for rules regarding reliable association. The presumption rule of this paragraph (d)(3) also applies to a person that is presumed to be a foreign partnership under the rule of paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Any portion of a payment that the withholding agent cannot treat as reliably associated with valid documentation from a partner may be presumed made to a foreign payee. As a result, any payment of an amount subject to withholding is subject to withholding at a rate of 30 percent. Any payment that is presumed to be made to an undocumented foreign payee must be reported on Form 1042-S. See §1.1461-1(c). For a payment described in this paragraph (d)(3) that is a withholdable payment, see §1.1471-3(f)(5) for the presumption rule for determining the payee's chapter 4 status to determine whether withholding under chapter 4 applies to the payment.

(4) Determination by a withholding foreign partnership of the status of its partners. Except as otherwise provided in the agreement described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, a withholding foreign partnership shall determine whether the partners or some other persons are the payees of the partners' distributive shares of any payment made by a withholding foreign partnership by applying the rules of §1.1441-1(b)(2), paragraph (c)(1) of this section (in the case of a partner that is a foreign partnership), and paragraph (e)(3) of this section (in the case of a partner that is a foreign estate or a foreign trust). Further, the provisions of paragraph (d)(3) of this section shall apply to determine the status of partners and the applicable withholding rates to the extent that, at the time the foreign partnership is required to withhold on a payment, it cannot reliably associate the amount with documentation for any one or more of its partners.

(e)(1) through (e)(3)(ii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(e)(1) through (e)(3)(ii).

(iii) Coordination with chapter 4 for payments made to foreign simple trusts and foreign grantor trusts. A withholding agent that makes a payment of U.S. source FDAP income to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust that is a withholdable payment to which withholding under chapter 4 applies must apply the rules described in §1.1473-1(a)(5)(vi) to determine when the payment is treated as made to a beneficiary or owner of the trust for purposes of chapter 4. In a case in which withholding applies under chapter 4 to a withholdable payment made to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust, see §1.1441-3(a)(2) to coordinate withholding otherwise required under this paragraph (e) with respect to the amount of the payment included in the gross income of the payee of the payment. For when a withholding agent may reliably associate a withholdable payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of obtaining documentation for each payee included in the pool, see §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) (substituting the term nonwithholding foreign trust for the term nonqualified intermediary).

(4) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(e)(4).

(5) Foreign simple trust and foreign grantor trust—(i) Reliance on claim of foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust status. A withholding agent may treat a person as a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust if it receives from that person a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate as described in paragraph (e)(5)(iii) of this section. A withholding agent must apply the presumption rules of §§1.1441-1(b)(3) and 1.6049-5(d) and paragraphs (d) and (e)(6) of this section to the extent it cannot, prior to the payment, reliably associate a payment (within the meaning of §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)) with a valid foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate, it cannot reliably determine how much of the payment relates to valid documentation provided by a payee (e.g., a person that is not itself a nonqualified intermediary, flow-through entity, or U.S. branch) associated with the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate, or it does not have sufficient information to report the payment on Form 1042-S or Form 1099, if reporting is required. See §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)(A) and (b)(2)(vii)(B). See, however, §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(C)(2) for when a withholding agent may reliably associate a withholdable payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of obtaining documentation for each payee included in a pool (substituting the term nonwithholding foreign trust for the term nonqualified intermediary). See also §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv)(A) for when a withholding agent may reliably associate a payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees.

(ii) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding by a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust for its beneficiaries or owners. This paragraph (e)(5)(ii) describes the manner in which a withholding agent may rely on a claim of reduced withholding when making a payment to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust. To the extent that a withholding agent treats a payment to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust as a payment to payees other than the trust in accordance with paragraph (e)(3)(i) of this section, it may rely on a claim for reduced withholding by a beneficiary or owner if, prior to the payment, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment (within the meaning of §1.1441-1(b)(2)(vii)) with a valid withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation from a payee or beneficial owner that establishes entitlement to a reduced rate of withholding. A withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation that establishes entitlement to a reduced rate of withholding is a beneficial owner withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i) or documentary evidence described in §1.1441-6(c)(3) or (c)(4) or in §1.6049-5(c)(1) (for a beneficiary or owner claiming to be a foreign person and a beneficial owner, determined under the provisions of §1.1441-1(c)(6)), a Form W-9 described in §1.1441-1(d) (for a beneficiary or owner claiming to be a U.S. payee), a withholding foreign partnership withholding certificate described in paragraph (c)(2)(iv) of this section, or a withholding statement allocating the payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees. For when the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a chapter 4 withholding rate pool, see paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section. See also §1.1441-3(a)(2) (coordinating withholding under chapter 3 when withholding under chapter 4 is applied to a withholdable payment). Unless a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate is provided for income treated as income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States, a claim must be presented for each payee's portion of the payment. When making a claim for several payees, the trust may present a single foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate with which the payees' certificates or other appropriate documentation are associated. Where the foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust withholding certificate is provided for income that is treated as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the United States under paragraph (e)(5)(iii)(D) of this section, the claim may be presented without having to identify any beneficiary's or grantor's distributive share of the payment.

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(e)(5)(iii).

(A) The name, permanent residence address (as described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(ii)), the employer identification number, if required, of the trust, the country under the laws of which the trust is created, the chapter 4 status of the trust if required for purposes of chapter 4 or if the trust provides (or will provide) a withholding statement associated with the Form W-8 allocating a payment to a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees under §1.6049-4(c)(4) with respect to the nonwithholding foreign trust's owners and beneficiaries, and the GIIN of the trust (if applicable). If a nonwithholding foreign trust provides (or will provide) a chapter 4 withholding rate pool of U.S. payees as described in the preceding sentence, the trust must certify to its chapter 4 status as a participating FFI (including a reporting Model 2 FFI) or registered deemed-compliant FFI (including a reporting Model 1 FFI);

(B) through (E) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5 (e)(5)(iii)(B) through (e)(5)(iii)(E).

(iv) Withholding statement provided by a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust. The provisions of §1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv) (regarding a withholding statement) shall apply to a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust by substituting the term foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust for the term nonqualified intermediary, including when a withholding statement provided by a foreign simple trust or foreign grantor trust may include a chapter 4 withholding rate pool in lieu of information with respect to each owner or beneficiary that is a payee of a payment.

(v) Withholding foreign trusts. The IRS may enter an agreement with a foreign trust to treat the trust or estate as a withholding foreign trust. Such an agreement shall generally follow the same principles as an agreement with a withholding foreign partnership under paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section. A withholding agent may treat a payment to a withholding foreign trust in the same manner the withholding agent would treat a payment (including a withholdable payment) to a withholding foreign partnership. The IRS may also enter an agreement to treat a trust as a qualified intermediary in appropriate circumstances. See §1.1441-1(e)(5)(ii)(D). For a withholding foreign trust that is an FFI and that receives withholdable payments on behalf of its owners or beneficiaries, the agreement will require the withholding foreign trust to assume the requirements of either a participating FFI, registered deemed-compliant FFI, or an FFI treated as a deemed-compliant FFI under an applicable IGA that is subject to due diligence and reporting requirements with respect to its U.S. accounts similar to those applicable to a registered deemed-compliant FFI under §1.1471-5(f)(1).

(6)(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(e)(6)(i).

(ii) Determination of status as U.S. or foreign trust or estate in the absence of documentation. In the absence of valid documentation that establishes the U.S. status of a trust or estate under paragraph (b)(1) of this section and of documentation that establishes the foreign status of a trust or estate under paragraph (e)(4) or (e)(5)(iii) of this section, the withholding agent shall determine the classification of the payee based upon the presumptions set forth in §1.1441-1(b)(3)(ii). If, based upon those presumptions, the withholding agent classifies the payee as a trust or estate, the withholding agent shall apply the presumptions set forth in §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iii)(A)(1) (applied by substituting the term trust for the term exempt recipient) to determine whether the trust or estate is a U.S. person or foreign person. An undocumented payee presumed to be a foreign trust shall be presumed to be a foreign complex trust. If a withholding agent has documentary evidence that establishes that an entity is a foreign trust, but the withholding agent cannot determine whether the foreign trust is a complex trust, a simple trust, or foreign grantor trust, the withholding agent shall presume that the trust is a foreign complex trust. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, in the case of a foreign trust with a settlor that is a U.S. person for which a withholding agent has both a U.S. address and TIN, the withholding agent shall presume that the trust is a grantor trust when it cannot determine the status of the trust as a simple trust, complex trust, or grantor trust. See §1.1471-3(f)(4) and (5) to determine the status of the payee for purposes of chapter 4.

(iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(e)(6)(iii).

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely or to act in accordance with applicable presumptions. See applicable procedures described in §1.1441-1(b)(7) in the event the withholding agent does not hold an appropriate withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation at the time of payment or fails to rely on the presumptions set forth in §1.1441-1(b)(3) or in paragraph (d) or (e) of this section. For a payment that is a withholdable payment, see §1.1471-3(f) for the presumption rule for determining the payee's chapter 4 status.

(g)(1) and (2) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-5(g)(1) and (2).

(g)(3) Effective/applicability date. This section applies to payments made after June 30, 2014. (For payments made after December 31, 2000, and before July 1, 2014, see this section as in effect and contained in 26 CFR Part 1, as revised April 1, 2013.)

(h) Expiration date. The applicability of this section expires on February 28, 2017.

[T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12775, Mar. 6, 2014; 79 FR 37185, July 1, 2014]

§1.1441-6   Claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty.

(a) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(a).

(b)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(b)(1).

(2)(i) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(b)(2)(i).

(ii) Certification by qualified intermediary. Notwithstanding paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, a foreign entity that is fiscally transparent, as defined in the regulations under section 894, that is also a qualified intermediary for purposes of claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty for its interest holders (who are deriving the income paid to the entity as residents of an applicable treaty jurisdiction) may furnish a single qualified intermediary withholding certificate, as described in §1.1441-1(e)(3)(ii), for amounts for which it claims a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty on behalf of its interest holders.

(iii) Dual treatment. Under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, a withholding agent may make a payment to a foreign entity that is simultaneously claiming to be the beneficial owner of a portion of the income (whether or not it is also claiming a reduced rate of tax on its own behalf) and a reduced rate on behalf of persons in their capacity as interest holders in the entity with respect to the same, or a different, portion of the income. If the same portion of a payment may be reliably associated with both the entity's claim and an interest holder's claim, the withholding agent may choose to reject both claims and request new documentation and information allocating the payment among the beneficial owners of the payment or the withholding agent may choose which claim to apply. If the entity and the interest holder's claims are reliably associated with separate portions of the payment, the withholding agent may, at its option, accept such dual claims based on withholding certificates or other appropriate documentation furnished by the entity and its interest holders with respect to their respective shares of the payment even though this will result in the withholding agent treating the entity differently with respect to different portions of the same payment. Alternatively, the withholding agent may choose to apply only the claim made by the entity, provided the entity may be treated as a beneficial owner of the income. If the withholding agent does not accept claims for a reduced rate of withholding presented by any one or more of the interest holders, or by the entity, any interest holder or the entity may subsequently claim a refund or credit of any amount so withheld to the extent the interest holder's or entity's share of such withholding exceeds the amount of tax due.

(iv) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(b)(2)(iv).

(3) Certified TIN. The IRS may issue guidance requiring a foreign person claiming treaty benefits and for whom a TIN is required to establish with the IRS, at the time the TIN is requested or after the TIN is issued, that the person is a resident in a treaty country and meets other conditions (such as limitation on benefits provisions) of the treaty. See §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter.

(4) Claim of benefits under an income tax treaty by a U.S. person. In certain cases, a U.S. person may claim the benefit of an income tax treaty. For example, under certain treaties, a U.S. citizen residing in the treaty country may claim a reduced rate of U.S. tax on certain amounts representing a pension or an annuity from U.S. sources. Claims of treaty benefits by a U.S. person may be made by furnishing a Form W-9 to the withholding agent or such other form as the IRS may prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(c)(1) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(c)(1).

(2) Income to which special rules apply. The income to which paragraph (c)(1) of this section applies is dividends and interest from stocks and debt obligations that are actively traded, dividends from any redeemable security issued by an investment company registered under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a-1), dividends, interest, or royalties from units of beneficial interest in a unit investment trust that are (or were upon issuance) publicly offered and are registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Securities Act of 1933 (15 U.S.C. 77a), and amounts paid with respect to loans of securities described in this paragraph (c)(2). With respect to a dividend equivalent described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder, this paragraph (c)(2) applies to the extent that the underlying security described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder satisfies the requirements of this paragraph (c)(2). For purposes of this paragraph (c)(2), a stock or debt obligation is actively traded if it is actively traded within the meaning of section 1092(d) and §1.1092(d)-1 when documentation is provided.

(3) Certificate of residence. A certificate of residence referred to in paragraph (c)(1) of this section is a certification issued by an appropriate tax official of the treaty country of which the taxpayer claims to be a resident that the taxpayer has filed its most recent income tax return as a resident of that country (within the meaning of the applicable tax treaty). The certificate of residence must have been issued by such official within three years prior to its being presented to the withholding agent, or such other period as the IRS may prescribe in published guidance (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter). See §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii)(A) for the period during which a withholding agent may rely on a certificate of residence. The competent authorities may agree to a different procedure for certifying residence, in which case such procedure shall govern for payments made to a person claiming to be a resident of the country with which such an agreement is in effect.

(4) Documentary evidence establishing residence in the treaty country—(i) Individuals. For an individual, the documentary evidence referred to in paragraph (c)(1) of this section is any documentation that includes the individuals name, address, and photograph, is an official document issued by an authorized governmental body (i.e., a government or agency thereof, or a municipality), and has been issued no more than three years prior to presentation to the withholding agent. A document older than three years may be relied upon as proof of residence only if it is accompanied by additional evidence of the person's residence in the treaty country (e.g., a bank statement, utility bills, or medical bills). Documentary evidence must be in the form of original documents or certified copies thereof.

(ii) Persons other than individuals. For a person other than an individual, the documentary evidence referred to in paragraph (c)(1) of this section is any documentation that includes the name of the entity and the address of its principal office in the treaty country, and is an official document issued by an authorized governmental body (e.g., a government or agency thereof, or a municipality).

(5) Statements regarding entitlement to treaty benefits—(i) Statement regarding conditions under a limitation on benefits provision. In addition to the documentary evidence described in (c)(4)(ii) of this section, a taxpayer that is not an individual must provide a statement that it meets one or more of the conditions set forth in the limitation on benefits article (if any, or in a similar provision) contained in the applicable tax treaty.

(ii) Statement regarding whether the taxpayer derives the income. A taxpayer that is not an individual must also provide, in addition to the documentary evidence and the statement described in paragraph (c)(5)(i) of this section, a statement that any income for which it intends to claim benefits under an applicable income tax treaty is income that will properly be treated as derived by itself as a resident of the applicable treaty jurisdiction within the meaning of section 894 and the regulations thereunder. This requirement does not apply if the taxpayer furnishes a certificate of residence that certifies that fact.

(d) Joint owners. In the case of a payment to joint owners, each owner must furnish a withholding certificate or, if applicable, documentary evidence or a certificate of residence. The applicable rate of withholding on a payment of income to joint owners shall be the highest applicable rate.

(e) Competent authority. The procedures described in this section may be modified to the extent the U.S. competent authority may agree with the competent authority of a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty in effect.

(f) Failure to receive withholding certificate timely. See applicable procedures described in §1.1441-1(b)(7) in the event the withholding agent does not hold an appropriate withholding certificate or other appropriate documentation at the time of payment.

(g) Special taxpayer identifying number rule for certain foreign individuals claiming treaty benefits—(1) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (c) or (g)(2) of this section, for purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a withholding agent may not rely on a beneficial owner withholding certificate, described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, that does not include the beneficial owner's taxpayer identifying number (TIN).

(2) Special rule. For purposes of satisfying the TIN requirement of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a withholding agent may rely on a beneficial owner withholding certificate, described in such paragraph, without regard to the requirement that the withholding certificate include the beneficial owner's TIN, if—

(i) A withholding agent, who is also an acceptance agent, as defined in §301.6109-1(d)(3)(iv) of this chapter (the payor), has entered into an acceptance agreement that permits the acceptance agent to request an individual taxpayer identification number (ITIN) on an expedited basis because of the circumstances of payment or unexpected nature of payments required to be made by the payor;

(ii) The payor was required to make an unexpected payment to the beneficial owner who is a foreign individual;

(iii) An ITIN for the beneficial owner cannot be received by the payor from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) because the IRS is not issuing ITINs at the time of payment or any time prior to the time of payment when the payor has knowledge of the unexpected payment;

(iv) The unexpected payment to the beneficial owner could not be reasonably delayed to permit the payor to obtain an ITIN for the beneficial owner on an expedited basis; and

(v) The payor satisfies the provisions of paragraph (g)(3) of this section.

(3) Requirement that an ITIN be requested during the first business day following payment. The payor must submit a beneficial owner payee application for an ITIN (Form W-7 “Application for IRS Individual Taxpayer Identification Number”) that complies with the requirements of §301.6109-1(d)(3)(ii) of this chapter, and also the certification described in §301.6109-1(d)(3)(iv)(A)(4) of this chapter, to the IRS during the first business day after payment is made.

(4) Definition of unexpected payment. For purposes of this section, an unexpected payment is a payment that, because of the nature of the payment or the circumstances in which it is made, could not reasonably have been anticipated by the payor or beneficial owner during a time when the payor or beneficial owner could obtain an ITIN from the IRS. For purposes of this paragraph (g)(4), a payor or beneficial owner will not lack the requisite knowledge of the forthcoming payment solely because the amount of the payment is not fixed.

(5) Examples. The rules of this paragraph (g) are illustrated by the following examples:

Example 1. G, a citizen and resident of Country Y, a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty that exempts U.S. source gambling winnings from U.S. tax, is visiting the United States for the first time. During his visit, G visits Casino B, a casino that has entered into a special acceptance agent agreement with the IRS that permits Casino B to request an ITIN on an expedited basis. During that visit, on a Sunday, G wins $5000 in slot machine play at Casino B and requests immediate payment from Casino B. ITINs are not available from the IRS on Sunday and would not again be available until Monday. G, who does not have an individual taxpayer identification number, furnishes a beneficial owner withholding certificate, described in §1.1441-1(e)(2), to the Casino upon winning at the slot machine. The beneficial owner withholding certificate represents that G is a resident of Country Y (within the meaning of the U.S.-Y tax treaty) and meets all applicable requirements for claiming benefits under the U.S.-Y tax treaty. The beneficial owner withholding certificate does not, however, contain an ITIN for G. On the following Monday, Casino B faxes a completed Form W-7, including the required certification, for G, to the IRS for an expedited ITIN. Pursuant to paragraph (b) and (g)(2) of this section, absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, Casino B, may rely on the documentation furnished by G at the time of payment and pay the $5000 to G without withholding U.S. tax based on the treaty exemption.
Example 2. The facts are the same as Example 1, except G visits Casino B on Monday. G requests payment Monday afternoon. In order to pay the winnings to G without withholding the 30 percent tax, Casino B must apply for and obtain an ITIN for G because an expedited ITIN is available from the IRS at the time of the $5000 payment to G.
Example 3. The facts are the same as Example 1, except G requests payment fifteen minutes before the time when the IRS begins issuing ITINs. Under these facts, it would be reasonable for Casino B to delay payment to G. Therefore, Casino B must apply for and obtain an ITIN for G if G wishes to claim an exemption from U.S. withholding tax under the U.S.-Y tax treaty at the time of payment.
Example 4. P, a citizen and resident of Country Z, is a lawyer and a well-known expert on real estate transactions. P is scheduled to attend a three-day seminar on complex real estate transactions, as a participant, at University U, a U.S. university, beginning on a Saturday and ending on the following Monday, which is a holiday. University U has entered into a special acceptance agent agreement with the IRS that permits University U to request an ITIN on an expedited basis. Country Z is a country with which the United States has an income tax treaty that exempts certain income earned from the performance of independent personal services from U.S. tax. It is P's first visit to the United States. On Saturday, prior to the start of the seminar, Professor Q, one of the lecturers at the seminar, cancels his lecture. That same day the Dean of University U offers P $5000, to replace Professor Q at the seminar, payable at the conclusion of the seminar on Monday. P agrees. P gives her lecture Sunday afternoon. ITINs are not available from the IRS on that Saturday, Sunday, or Monday. After the seminar ends on Monday, P, who does not have an ITIN, requests payment for her teaching. P furnishes a beneficial owner withholding certificate, described in §1.1441-1(e)(2), to University U that represents that P is a resident of Country Z (within the meaning of the U.S.-Z tax treaty) and meets all applicable requirements for claiming benefits under the U.S.-Z tax treaty. The beneficial owner withholding certificate does not, however, contain an ITIN for P. On Tuesday, University U faxes a completed Form W-7, including the required certification, for P, to the IRS for an expedited ITIN. Pursuant to paragraph (b) and (g)(2) of this section, absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, University U may rely on the documentation furnished by P and pay $5000 to P without withholding U.S. tax based on the treaty exemption.

(h) Dividend equivalents. The rate of withholding on a dividend equivalent may be reduced to the extent provided under an income tax treaty in effect between the United States and a foreign country. For this purpose, a dividend equivalent as described in section 871(m) and the regulations thereunder is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. To receive a reduced rate of withholding with respect to a dividend equivalent, a foreign person must satisfy the other requirements described in this section.

(i) Effective/applicability dates—(1) General rule. This section applies to payments made after December 31, 2000, except that—

(i) Paragraph (g) of this section applies to payments made after December 31, 2001, and

(ii) Paragraph (h) of this section applies to payments made on or after December 5, 2013.

(2) Transition rules. For purposes of this section, the validity of a Form 1001 or 8233 that was valid on January 1, 1998, under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and expired, or will expire, at any time during 1998, is extended until December 31, 1998. The validity of a Form 1001 or 8233 that is valid on or after January 1, 1999, remains valid until its validity expires under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) but in no event will such a form remain valid after December 31, 2000. The rule in this paragraph (h)(2), however, does not apply to extend the validity period of a Form 1001 or 8233 that expires solely by reason of changes in the circumstances of the person whose name is on the certificate or in interpretation of the law under the regulations under §1.894-1T(d). Notwithstanding the first three sentences of this paragraph (h)(2), a withholding agent may choose to not take advantage of the transition rule in this paragraph (h)(2) with respect to one or more withholding certificates valid under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999) and, therefore, to require withholding certificates conforming to the requirements described in this section (new withholding certificates). For purposes of this section, a new withholding certificate is deemed to satisfy the documentation requirement under the regulations in effect prior to January 1, 2001 (see 26 CFR parts 1 and 35a, revised April 1, 1999). Further, a new withholding certificate remains valid for the period specified in §1.1441-1(e)(4)(ii), regardless of when the certificate is obtained.

(3) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6T(i)(3).

[T.D. 8734, 62 FR 53458, Oct. 14, 1997, as amended by T.D. 8804, 63 FR 72185, 72188, Dec. 31, 1998; T.D. 8856, 64 FR 73410, Dec. 30, 1999; 65 FR 16320, Mar. 28, 2000; T.D. 8881, 65 FR 32194, May 22, 2000; T.D. 8977, 67 FR 2328, Jan. 17, 2002; T.D. 9023, 67 FR 70312, Nov. 22, 2002; T.D. 9253, 71 FR 13006, Mar. 14, 2006; 71 FR 25748, May 2, 2006; T.D. 9648, 78 FR 73082, Dec. 5, 2013; T.D. 9658, 79 FR 12773, Mar. 6, 2014]

§1.1441-6T   Claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty (temporary).

(a) In general. The rate of withholding on a payment of income subject to withholding may be reduced to the extent provided under an income tax treaty in effect between the United States and a foreign country. Most benefits under income tax treaties are to foreign persons who reside in the treaty country. In some cases, benefits are available under an income tax treaty to U.S. citizens or U.S. residents or to residents of a third country. See paragraph (b)(5) of this section for claims of benefits by U.S. persons. If the requirements of this section are met, the amount withheld from the payment may be reduced at source to account for the treaty benefit. See, however, §1.1471-2(a) and §1.1472-1(b) for when withholding at source on a withholdable payment may not be reduced to account for a treaty benefit and the beneficial owner of the payment may need to file a claim for refund to obtain a refund for the overwithheld amount of tax. See also §1.1441-4(b)(2) for rules regarding claims of a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty in the case of compensation from personal services and §1.1441-4(c)(1) for rules regarding claims of a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty in the case of scholarship and fellowship income.

(b) Reliance on claim of reduced withholding under an income tax treaty—(1) In general. The withholding imposed under section 1441, 1442, or 1443 on any payment to a foreign person is eligible for reduction under the terms of an income tax treaty only to the extent that such payment is treated as derived by a resident of an applicable treaty jurisdiction, such resident is a beneficial owner, and all other requirements for benefits under the treaty are satisfied. See section 894 and the regulations under section 894 to determine whether a resident of a treaty country derives the income. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know otherwise, a withholding agent may rely on a claim that a beneficial owner is entitled to a reduced rate of withholding based upon an income tax treaty if, prior to the payment, the withholding agent can reliably associate the payment with a beneficial owner withholding certificate, as described in §1.1441-1(e)(2), that contains the information necessary to support the claim, or, in the case of a payment of income described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section made outside the United States with respect to an offshore obligation, documentary evidence described in paragraphs (c)(3), (c)(4), and (c)(5) of this section. See §1.6049-5(e) for the definition of payments made outside the United States and §1.6049-5(c)(1) for the definition of an offshore obligation. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(1), a beneficial owner withholding certificate described in §1.1441-1(e)(2)(i) contains information necessary to support the claim for a treaty benefit only if it includes the beneficial owner's taxpayer identifying number (except as otherwise provided in paragraph (c)(1) and (g) of this section, or the beneficial owner provides its foreign tax identifying number issued by its country of residence and such country has with the United States an income tax treaty or information exchange agreement in effect) and the representations that the beneficial owner derives the income under section 894 and the regulations under section 894, if required, and meets the limitation on benefits provisions of the treaty, if any. For claims for treaty benefits for scholarship and fellowship income, the beneficial owner withholding certificate must contain the beneficial owner's U.S. taxpayer identifying number (not a foreign taxpayer identifying number). The withholding certificate must also contain any other representations required by this section and any other information, certifications, or statements as may be required by the form or accompanying instructions in addition to, or in place of, the information and certifications described in this section. Absent actual knowledge or reason to know that the claims are incorrect (applying the standards of knowledge in §1.1441-7(b)), a withholding agent may rely on the claims made on a withholding certificate or on documentary evidence. A withholding agent may also rely on the information contained in a withholding statement provided under §§1.1441-1(e)(3)(iv) and 1.1441-5(c)(3)(iv) and (e)(5)(iv) to determine whether the appropriate statements regarding section 894 and limitation on benefits have been provided in connection with documentary evidence. The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may apply the provisions of §1.1441-1(e)(1)(ii)(B) to notify the withholding agent that the certificate cannot be relied upon to grant benefits under an income tax treaty. See §1.1441-1(e)(4)(viii) regarding reliance on a withholding certificate by a withholding agent. The provisions of §1.1441-1(b)(3)(iv) dealing with a 90-day grace period shall apply for purposes of this section.

(2) Payment to fiscally transparent entity—(i) In general. If the person claiming a reduced rate of withholding under an income tax treaty is an interest holder of an entity that is considered to be fiscally transparent (as defined in the regulations under section 894) by the interest holder's jurisdiction with respect to an item of income, then, with respect to such income derived by that person through the entity, the entity shall be treated as a flow-through entity and may provide a flow-through withholding certificate with which the withholding certificate or other documentary evidence of the interest holder that supports the claim for treaty benefits is associated. In the case of a payment that is a withholdable payment, see, however, §1.1471-3(c) for determining the payee of the payment and §§1.1471-2(a) and 1472-1(b) for when withholding at source may apply to the payment based on the status of the payee notwithstanding a claim for treaty benefits made under this paragraph (b)(2) by an interest holder in the payee. In such a case, the interest holder may file a claim for refund of the overwithheld amount of tax. For purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(i), interest holders do not include any direct or indirect interest holders that are themselves treated as fiscally transparent entities with respect to that income by the interest holder's jurisdiction. See §1.1441-1(c)(23) and (e)(3)(i) for the definition of flow-through entity and flow-through withholding certificate. The entity may provide a beneficial owner withholding certificate, or beneficial owner documentation, with respect to any remaining portion of the income to the extent the entity is receiving income and is not treated as fiscally transparent by its own jurisdiction. Further, the entity may claim a reduced rate of withholding with respect to the portion of a payment for which it is not treated as fiscally transparent if it meets all the requirements to make such a claim and, in the case of treaty benefits, it provides the documentation required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section. If dual claims, as described in paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section, are made, multiple withholding certificates may have to be furnished. Multiple withholding certificates may also have to be furnished if the entity receives income for which a reduction of withholding is claimed under a provision of the Internal Revenue Code (e.g., portfolio interest) and income for which a reduction of withholding is claimed under an income tax treaty.

(ii) and (iii) [Reserved] For further guidance, see §1.1441-6(b)(2)(ii) and (iii).

(iv)