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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

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e-CFR Data is current as of December 18, 2014

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 27


TITLE 14—Aeronautics and Space

CHAPTER I—FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

SUBCHAPTER C—AIRCRAFT

PART 27—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT

rule

Subpart A—GENERAL

§27.1
Applicability.
§27.2
Special retroactive requirements.
rule

Subpart B—FLIGHT

General

§27.21
Proof of compliance.
§27.25
Weight limits.
§27.27
Center of gravity limits.
§27.29
Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
§27.31
Removable ballast.
§27.33
Main rotor speed and pitch limits.

Performance

§27.45
General.
§27.49
Performance at minimum operating speed.
§27.51
Takeoff.
§27.65
Climb: all engines operating.
§27.67
Climb: one engine inoperative.
§27.71
Autorotation performance.
§27.75
Landing.
§27.87
Height-speed envelope.

Flight Characteristics

§27.141
General.
§27.143
Controllability and maneuverability.
§27.151
Flight controls.
§27.161
Trim control.
§27.171
Stability: general.
§27.173
Static longitudinal stability.
§27.175
Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
§27.177
Static directional stability.

Ground and Water Handling Characteristics

§27.231
General.
§27.235
Taxiing condition.
§27.239
Spray characteristics.
§27.241
Ground resonance.

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements

§27.251
Vibration.
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Subpart C—STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS

General

§27.301
Loads.
§27.303
Factor of safety.
§27.305
Strength and deformation.
§27.307
Proof of structure.
§27.309
Design limitations.

Flight Loads

§27.321
General.
§27.337
Limit maneuvering load factor.
§27.339
Resultant limit maneuvering loads.
§27.341
Gust loads.
§27.351
Yawing conditions.
§27.361
Engine torque.

Control Surface and System Loads

§27.391
General.
§27.395
Control system.
§27.397
Limit pilot forces and torques.
§27.399
Dual control system.
§27.411
Ground clearance: tail rotor guard.
§27.427
Unsymmetrical loads.

Ground Loads

§27.471
General.
§27.473
Ground loading conditions and assumptions.
§27.475
Tires and shock absorbers.
§27.477
Landing gear arrangement.
§27.479
Level landing conditions.
§27.481
Tail-down landing conditions.
§27.483
One-wheel landing conditions.
§27.485
Lateral drift landing conditions.
§27.493
Braked roll conditions.
§27.497
Ground loading conditions: landing gear with tail wheels.
§27.501
Ground loading conditions: landing gear with skids.
§27.505
Ski landing conditions.

Water Loads

§27.521
Float landing conditions.

Main Component Requirements

§27.547
Main rotor structure.
§27.549
Fuselage, landing gear, and rotor pylon structures.

Emergency Landing Conditions

§27.561
General.
§27.562
Emergency landing dynamic conditions.
§27.563
Structural ditching provisions.

Fatigue Evaluation

§27.571
Fatigue evaluation of flight structure.
§27.573
Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Composite Rotorcraft Structures.
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Subpart D—DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

General

§27.601
Design.
§27.602
Critical parts.
§27.603
Materials.
§27.605
Fabrication methods.
§27.607
Fasteners.
§27.609
Protection of structure.
§27.610
Lightning and static electricity protection.
§27.611
Inspection provisions.
§27.613
Material strength properties and design values.
§27.619
Special factors.
§27.621
Casting factors.
§27.623
Bearing factors.
§27.625
Fitting factors.
§27.629
Flutter.

Rotors

§27.653
Pressure venting and drainage of rotor blades.
§27.659
Mass balance.
§27.661
Rotor blade clearance.
§27.663
Ground resonance prevention means.

Control Systems

§27.671
General.
§27.672
Stability augmentation, automatic, and power-operated systems.
§27.673
Primary flight control.
§27.674
Interconnected controls.
§27.675
Stops.
§27.679
Control system locks.
§27.681
Limit load static tests.
§27.683
Operation tests.
§27.685
Control system details.
§27.687
Spring devices.
§27.691
Autorotation control mechanism.
§27.695
Power boost and power-operated control system.

Landing Gear

§27.723
Shock absorption tests.
§27.725
Limit drop test.
§27.727
Reserve energy absorption drop test.
§27.729
Retracting mechanism.
§27.731
Wheels.
§27.733
Tires.
§27.735
Brakes.
§27.737
Skis.

Floats and Hulls

§27.751
Main float buoyancy.
§27.753
Main float design.
§27.755
Hulls.

Personnel and Cargo Accommodations

§27.771
Pilot compartment.
§27.773
Pilot compartment view.
§27.775
Windshields and windows.
§27.777
Cockpit controls.
§27.779
Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
§27.783
Doors.
§27.785
Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.
§27.787
Cargo and baggage compartments.
§27.801
Ditching.
§27.805
Flight crew emergency exits.
§27.807
Emergency exits.
§27.831
Ventilation.
§27.833
Heaters.

Fire Protection

§27.853
Compartment interiors.
§27.855
Cargo and baggage compartments.
§27.859
Heating systems.
§27.861
Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.
§27.863
Flammable fluid fire protection.

External Loads

§27.865
External loads.

Miscellaneous

§27.871
Leveling marks.
§27.873
Ballast provisions.
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Subpart E—POWERPLANT

General

§27.901
Installation.
§27.903
Engines.
§27.907
Engine vibration.

Rotor Drive System

§27.917
Design.
§27.921
Rotor brake.
§27.923
Rotor drive system and control mechanism tests.
§27.927
Additional tests.
§27.931
Shafting critical speed.
§27.935
Shafting joints.
§27.939
Turbine engine operating characteristics.

Fuel System

§27.951
General.
§27.952
Fuel system crash resistance.
§27.953
Fuel system independence.
§27.954
Fuel system lightning protection.
§27.955
Fuel flow.
§27.959
Unusable fuel supply.
§27.961
Fuel system hot weather operation.
§27.963
Fuel tanks: general.
§27.965
Fuel tank tests.
§27.967
Fuel tank installation.
§27.969
Fuel tank expansion space.
§27.971
Fuel tank sump.
§27.973
Fuel tank filler connection.
§27.975
Fuel tank vents.
§27.977
Fuel tank outlet.

Fuel System Components

§27.991
Fuel pumps.
§27.993
Fuel system lines and fittings.
§27.995
Fuel valves.
§27.997
Fuel strainer or filter.
§27.999
Fuel system drains.

Oil System

§27.1011
Engines: General.
§27.1013
Oil tanks.
§27.1015
Oil tank tests.
§27.1017
Oil lines and fittings.
§27.1019
Oil strainer or filter.
§27.1021
Oil system drains.
§27.1027
Transmissions and gearboxes: General.

Cooling

§27.1041
General.
§27.1043
Cooling tests.
§27.1045
Cooling test procedures.

Induction System

§27.1091
Air induction.
§27.1093
Induction system icing protection.

Exhaust System

§27.1121
General.
§27.1123
Exhaust piping.

Powerplant Controls and Accessories

§27.1141
Powerplant controls: general.
§27.1143
Engine controls.
§27.1145
Ignition switches.
§27.1147
Mixture controls.
§27.1151
Rotor brake controls.
§27.1163
Powerplant accessories.

Powerplant Fire Protection

§27.1183
Lines, fittings, and components.
§27.1185
Flammable fluids.
§27.1187
Ventilation and drainage.
§27.1189
Shutoff means.
§27.1191
Firewalls.
§27.1193
Cowling and engine compartment covering.
§27.1194
Other surfaces.
§27.1195
Fire detector systems.
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Subpart F—EQUIPMENT

General

§27.1301
Function and installation.
§27.1303
Flight and navigation instruments.
§27.1305
Powerplant instruments.
§27.1307
Miscellaneous equipment.
§27.1309
Equipment, systems, and installations.
§27.1316
Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§27.1317
High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

Instruments: Installation

§27.1321
Arrangement and visibility.
§27.1322
Warning, caution, and advisory lights.
§27.1323
Airspeed indicating system.
§27.1325
Static pressure systems.
§27.1327
Magnetic direction indicator.
§27.1329
Automatic pilot system.
§27.1335
Flight director systems.
§27.1337
Powerplant instruments.

Electrical Systems and Equipment

§27.1351
General.
§27.1353
Storage battery design and installation.
§27.1357
Circuit protective devices.
§27.1361
Master switch.
§27.1365
Electric cables.
§27.1367
Switches.

Lights

§27.1381
Instrument lights.
§27.1383
Landing lights.
§27.1385
Position light system installation.
§27.1387
Position light system dihedral angles.
§27.1389
Position light distribution and intensities.
§27.1391
Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.
§27.1393
Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.
§27.1395
Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.
§27.1397
Color specifications.
§27.1399
Riding light.
§27.1401
Anticollision light system.

Safety Equipment

§27.1411
General.
§27.1413
Safety belts.
§27.1415
Ditching equipment.
§27.1419
Ice protection.
§27.1435
Hydraulic systems.
§27.1457
Cockpit voice recorders.
§27.1459
Flight data recorders.
§27.1461
Equipment containing high energy rotors.
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Subpart G—OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

§27.1501
General.

Operating Limitations

§27.1503
Airspeed limitations: general.
§27.1505
Never-exceed speed.
§27.1509
Rotor speed.
§27.1519
Weight and center of gravity.
§27.1521
Powerplant limitations.
§27.1523
Minimum flight crew.
§27.1525
Kinds of operations.
§27.1527
Maximum operating altitude.
§27.1529
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.

Markings and Placards

§27.1541
General.
§27.1543
Instrument markings: general.
§27.1545
Airspeed indicator.
§27.1547
Magnetic direction indicator.
§27.1549
Powerplant instruments.
§27.1551
Oil quantity indicator.
§27.1553
Fuel quantity indicator.
§27.1555
Control markings.
§27.1557
Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§27.1559
Limitations placard.
§27.1561
Safety equipment.
§27.1565
Tail rotor.

Rotorcraft Flight Manual and Approved Manual Material

§27.1581
General.
§27.1583
Operating limitations.
§27.1585
Operating procedures.
§27.1587
Performance information.
§27.1589
Loading information.
Appendix
Appendix A to Part 27—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix
Appendix B to Part 27—Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight
Appendix
Appendix C to Part 27—Criteria for Category A
Appendix
Appendix D to Part 27—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels


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