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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

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e-CFR Data is current as of November 20, 2014

Title 14Chapter ISubchapter CPart 25


TITLE 14—Aeronautics and Space

CHAPTER I—FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

SUBCHAPTER C—AIRCRAFT

PART 25—AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES

rule
Appendix
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 13
Appendix
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 109

Subpart A—GENERAL

§25.1
Applicability.
§25.2
Special retroactive requirements.
§25.3
Special provisions for ETOPS type design approvals.
§25.5
Incorporations by reference.
rule

Subpart B—FLIGHT

General

§25.21
Proof of compliance.
§25.23
Load distribution limits.
§25.25
Weight limits.
§25.27
Center of gravity limits.
§25.29
Empty weight and corresponding center of gravity.
§25.31
Removable ballast.
§25.33
Propeller speed and pitch limits.

Performance

§25.101
General.
§25.103
Stall speed.
§25.105
Takeoff.
§25.107
Takeoff speeds.
§25.109
Accelerate-stop distance.
§25.111
Takeoff path.
§25.113
Takeoff distance and takeoff run.
§25.115
Takeoff flight path.
§25.117
Climb: general.
§25.119
Landing climb: All-engines-operating.
§25.121
Climb: One-engine-inoperative.
§25.123
En route flight paths.
§25.125
Landing.

Controllability and Maneuverability

§25.143
General.
§25.145
Longitudinal control.
§25.147
Directional and lateral control.
§25.149
Minimum control speed.

Trim

§25.161
Trim.

Stability

§25.171
General.
§25.173
Static longitudinal stability.
§25.175
Demonstration of static longitudinal stability.
§25.177
Static lateral-directional stability.
§25.181
Dynamic stability.

Stalls

§25.201
Stall demonstration.
§25.203
Stall characteristics.
§25.207
Stall warning.

Ground and Water Handling Characteristics

§25.231
Longitudinal stability and control.
§25.233
Directional stability and control.
§25.235
Taxiing condition.
§25.237
Wind velocities.
§25.239
Spray characteristics, control, and stability on water.

Miscellaneous Flight Requirements

§25.251
Vibration and buffeting.
§25.253
High-speed characteristics.
§25.255
Out-of-trim characteristics.
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Subpart C—STRUCTURE

General

§25.301
Loads.
§25.303
Factor of safety.
§25.305
Strength and deformation.
§25.307
Proof of structure.

Flight Loads

§25.321
General.

Flight Maneuver and Gust Conditions

§25.331
Symmetric maneuvering conditions.
§25.333
Flight maneuvering envelope.
§25.335
Design airspeeds.
§25.337
Limit maneuvering load factors.
§25.341
Gust and turbulence loads.
§25.343
Design fuel and oil loads.
§25.345
High lift devices.
§25.349
Rolling conditions.
§25.351
Yaw maneuver conditions.

Supplementary Conditions

§25.361
Engine torque.
§25.363
Side load on engine and auxiliary power unit mounts.
§25.365
Pressurized compartment loads.
§25.367
Unsymmetrical loads due to engine failure.
§25.371
Gyroscopic loads.
§25.373
Speed control devices.

Control Surface and System Loads

§25.391
Control surface loads: General.
§25.393
Loads parallel to hinge line.
§25.395
Control system.
§25.397
Control system loads.
§25.399
Dual control system.
§25.405
Secondary control system.
§25.407
Trim tab effects.
§25.409
Tabs.
§25.415
Ground gust conditions.
§25.427
Unsymmetrical loads.
§25.445
Auxiliary aerodynamic surfaces.
§25.457
Wing flaps.
§25.459
Special devices.

Ground Loads

§25.471
General.
§25.473
Landing load conditions and assumptions.
§25.477
Landing gear arrangement.
§25.479
Level landing conditions.
§25.481
Tail-down landing conditions.
§25.483
One-gear landing conditions.
§25.485
Side load conditions.
§25.487
Rebound landing condition.
§25.489
Ground handling conditions.
§25.491
Taxi, takeoff and landing roll.
§25.493
Braked roll conditions.
§25.495
Turning.
§25.497
Tail-wheel yawing.
§25.499
Nose-wheel yaw and steering.
§25.503
Pivoting.
§25.507
Reversed braking.
§25.509
Towing loads.
§25.511
Ground load: unsymmetrical loads on multiple-wheel units.
§25.519
Jacking and tie-down provisions.

Water Loads

§25.521
General.
§25.523
Design weights and center of gravity positions.
§25.525
Application of loads.
§25.527
Hull and main float load factors.
§25.529
Hull and main float landing conditions.
§25.531
Hull and main float takeoff condition.
§25.533
Hull and main float bottom pressures.
§25.535
Auxiliary float loads.
§25.537
Seawing loads.

Emergency Landing Conditions

§25.561
General.
§25.562
Emergency landing dynamic conditions.
§25.563
Structural ditching provisions.

Fatigue Evaluation

§25.571
Damage—tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure.

Lightning Protection

§25.581
Lightning protection.
rule

Subpart D—DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

General

§25.601
General.
§25.603
Materials.
§25.605
Fabrication methods.
§25.607
Fasteners.
§25.609
Protection of structure.
§25.611
Accessibility provisions.
§25.613
Material strength properties and material design values.
§25.619
Special factors.
§25.621
Casting factors.
§25.623
Bearing factors.
§25.625
Fitting factors.
§25.629
Aeroelastic stability requirements.
§25.631
Bird strike damage.

Control Surfaces

§25.651
Proof of strength.
§25.655
Installation.
§25.657
Hinges.

Control Systems

§25.671
General.
§25.672
Stability augmentation and automatic and power-operated systems.
§25.675
Stops.
§25.677
Trim systems.
§25.679
Control system gust locks.
§25.681
Limit load static tests.
§25.683
Operation tests.
§25.685
Control system details.
§25.689
Cable systems.
§25.693
Joints.
§25.697
Lift and drag devices, controls.
§25.699
Lift and drag device indicator.
§25.701
Flap and slat interconnection.
§25.703
Takeoff warning system.

Landing Gear

§25.721
General.
§25.723
Shock absorption tests.
§§25.725-25.727
[Reserved]
§25.729
Retracting mechanism.
§25.731
Wheels.
§25.733
Tires.
§25.735
Brakes and braking systems.
§25.737
Skis.

Floats and Hulls

§25.751
Main float buoyancy.
§25.753
Main float design.
§25.755
Hulls.

Personnel and Cargo Accommodations

§25.771
Pilot compartment.
§25.772
Pilot compartment doors.
§25.773
Pilot compartment view.
§25.775
Windshields and windows.
§25.777
Cockpit controls.
§25.779
Motion and effect of cockpit controls.
§25.781
Cockpit control knob shape.
§25.783
Fuselage doors.
§25.785
Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.
§25.787
Stowage compartments.
§25.789
Retention of items of mass in passenger and crew compartments and galleys.
§25.791
Passenger information signs and placards.
§25.793
Floor surfaces.
§25.795
Security considerations.

Emergency Provisions

§25.801
Ditching.
§25.803
Emergency evacuation.
§25.807
Emergency exits.
§25.809
Emergency exit arrangement.
§25.810
Emergency egress assist means and escape routes.
§25.811
Emergency exit marking.
§25.812
Emergency lighting.
§25.813
Emergency exit access.
§25.815
Width of aisle.
§25.817
Maximum number of seats abreast.
§25.819
Lower deck service compartments (including galleys).
§25.820
Lavatory doors.

Ventilation and Heating

§25.831
Ventilation.
§25.832
Cabin ozone concentration.
§25.833
Combustion heating systems.

Pressurization

§25.841
Pressurized cabins.
§25.843
Tests for pressurized cabins.

Fire Protection

§25.851
Fire extinguishers.
§25.853
Compartment interiors.
§25.854
Lavatory fire protection.
§25.855
Cargo or baggage compartments.
§25.856
Thermal/Acoustic insulation materials.
§25.857
Cargo compartment classification.
§25.858
Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.
§25.859
Combustion heater fire protection.
§25.863
Flammable fluid fire protection.
§25.865
Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.
§25.867
Fire protection: other components.
§25.869
Fire protection: systems.

Miscellaneous

§25.871
Leveling means.
§25.875
Reinforcement near propellers.
§25.899
Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity.
rule

Subpart E—POWERPLANT

General

§25.901
Installation.
§25.903
Engines.
§25.904
Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).
§25.905
Propellers.
§25.907
Propeller vibration and fatigue.
§25.925
Propeller clearance.
§25.929
Propeller deicing.
§25.933
Reversing systems.
§25.934
Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.
§25.937
Turbopropeller-drag limiting systems.
§25.939
Turbine engine operating characteristics.
§25.941
Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.
§25.943
Negative acceleration.
§25.945
Thrust or power augmentation system.

Fuel System

§25.951
General.
§25.952
Fuel system analysis and test.
§25.953
Fuel system independence.
§25.954
Fuel system lightning protection.
§25.955
Fuel flow.
§25.957
Flow between interconnected tanks.
§25.959
Unusable fuel supply.
§25.961
Fuel system hot weather operation.
§25.963
Fuel tanks: general.
§25.965
Fuel tank tests.
§25.967
Fuel tank installations.
§25.969
Fuel tank expansion space.
§25.971
Fuel tank sump.
§25.973
Fuel tank filler connection.
§25.975
Fuel tank vents and carburetor vapor vents.
§25.977
Fuel tank outlet.
§25.979
Pressure fueling system.
§25.981
Fuel tank ignition prevention.

Fuel System Components

§25.991
Fuel pumps.
§25.993
Fuel system lines and fittings.
§25.994
Fuel system components.
§25.995
Fuel valves.
§25.997
Fuel strainer or filter.
§25.999
Fuel system drains.
§25.1001
Fuel jettisoning system.

Oil System

§25.1011
General.
§25.1013
Oil tanks.
§25.1015
Oil tank tests.
§25.1017
Oil lines and fittings.
§25.1019
Oil strainer or filter.
§25.1021
Oil system drains.
§25.1023
Oil radiators.
§25.1025
Oil valves.
§25.1027
Propeller feathering system.

Cooling

§25.1041
General.
§25.1043
Cooling tests.
§25.1045
Cooling test procedures.

Induction System

§25.1091
Air induction.
§25.1093
Induction system icing protection.
§25.1101
Carburetor air preheater design.
§25.1103
Induction system ducts and air duct systems.
§25.1105
Induction system screens.
§25.1107
Inter-coolers and after-coolers.

Exhaust System

§25.1121
General.
§25.1123
Exhaust piping.
§25.1125
Exhaust heat exchangers.
§25.1127
Exhaust driven turbo-superchargers.

Powerplant Controls and Accessories

§25.1141
Powerplant controls: general.
§25.1142
Auxiliary power unit controls.
§25.1143
Engine controls.
§25.1145
Ignition switches.
§25.1147
Mixture controls.
§25.1149
Propeller speed and pitch controls.
§25.1153
Propeller feathering controls.
§25.1155
Reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.
§25.1157
Carburetor air temperature controls.
§25.1159
Supercharger controls.
§25.1161
Fuel jettisoning system controls.
§25.1163
Powerplant accessories.
§25.1165
Engine ignition systems.
§25.1167
Accessory gearboxes.

Powerplant Fire Protection

§25.1181
Designated fire zones; regions included.
§25.1182
Nacelle areas behind firewalls, and engine pod attaching structures containing flammable fluid lines.
§25.1183
Flammable fluid-carrying components.
§25.1185
Flammable fluids.
§25.1187
Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.
§25.1189
Shutoff means.
§25.1191
Firewalls.
§25.1192
Engine accessory section diaphragm.
§25.1193
Cowling and nacelle skin.
§25.1195
Fire extinguishing systems.
§25.1197
Fire extinguishing agents.
§25.1199
Extinguishing agent containers.
§25.1201
Fire extinguishing system materials.
§25.1203
Fire detector system.
§25.1207
Compliance.
rule

Subpart F—EQUIPMENT

General

§25.1301
Function and installation.
§25.1302
Installed systems and equipment for use by the flightcrew.
§25.1303
Flight and navigation instruments.
§25.1305
Powerplant instruments.
§25.1307
Miscellaneous equipment.
§25.1309
Equipment, systems, and installations.
§25.1310
Power source capacity and distribution.
§25.1316
Electrical and electronic system lightning protection.
§25.1317
High-intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Protection.

Instruments: Installation

§25.1321
Arrangement and visibility.
§25.1322
Flightcrew alerting.
§25.1323
Airspeed indicating system.
§25.1324
xxx
§25.1325
Static pressure systems.
§25.1326
Pitot heat indication systems.
§25.1327
Magnetic direction indicator.
§25.1329
Flight guidance system.
§25.1331
Instruments using a power supply.
§25.1333
Instrument systems.
§25.1337
Powerplant instruments.

Electrical Systems and Equipment

§25.1351
General.
§25.1353
Electrical equipment and installations.
§25.1355
Distribution system.
§25.1357
Circuit protective devices.
§25.1360
Precautions against injury.
§25.1362
Electrical supplies for emergency conditions.
§25.1363
Electrical system tests.
§25.1365
Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

Lights

§25.1381
Instrument lights.
§25.1383
Landing lights.
§25.1385
Position light system installation.
§25.1387
Position light system dihedral angles.
§25.1389
Position light distribution and intensities.
§25.1391
Minimum intensities in the horizontal plane of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1393
Minimum intensities in any vertical plane of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1395
Maximum intensities in overlapping beams of forward and rear position lights.
§25.1397
Color specifications.
§25.1399
Riding light.
§25.1401
Anticollision light system.
§25.1403
Wing icing detection lights.

Safety Equipment

§25.1411
General.
§25.1415
Ditching equipment.
§25.1419
Ice protection.
§25.1420
xxx
§25.1421
Megaphones.
§25.1423
Public address system.

Miscellaneous Equipment

§25.1431
Electronic equipment.
§25.1433
Vacuum systems.
§25.1435
Hydraulic systems.
§25.1438
Pressurization and pneumatic systems.
§25.1439
Protective breathing equipment.
§25.1441
Oxygen equipment and supply.
§25.1443
Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
§25.1445
Equipment standards for the oxygen distributing system.
§25.1447
Equipment standards for oxygen dispensing units.
§25.1449
Means for determining use of oxygen.
§25.1450
Chemical oxygen generators.
§25.1453
Protection of oxygen equipment from rupture.
§25.1455
Draining of fluids subject to freezing.
§25.1457
Cockpit voice recorders.
§25.1459
Flight data recorders.
§25.1461
Equipment containing high energy rotors.
rule

Subpart G—OPERATING LIMITATIONS AND INFORMATION

§25.1501
General.

Operating Limitations

§25.1503
Airspeed limitations: general.
§25.1505
Maximum operating limit speed.
§25.1507
Maneuvering speed.
§25.1511
Flap extended speed.
§25.1513
Minimum control speed.
§25.1515
Landing gear speeds.
§25.1516
Other speed limitations.
§25.1517
Rough air speed, VRA.
§25.1519
Weight, center of gravity, and weight distribution.
§25.1521
Powerplant limitations.
§25.1522
Auxiliary power unit limitations.
§25.1523
Minimum flight crew.
§25.1525
Kinds of operation.
§25.1527
Ambient air temperature and operating altitude.
§25.1529
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness.
§25.1531
Maneuvering flight load factors.
§25.1533
Additional operating limitations.
§25.1535
ETOPS approval.

Markings and Placards

§25.1541
General.
§25.1543
Instrument markings: general.
§25.1545
Airspeed limitation information.
§25.1547
Magnetic direction indicator.
§25.1549
Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.
§25.1551
Oil quantity indication.
§25.1553
Fuel quantity indicator.
§25.1555
Control markings.
§25.1557
Miscellaneous markings and placards.
§25.1561
Safety equipment.
§25.1563
Airspeed placard.

Airplane Flight Manual

§25.1581
General.
§25.1583
Operating limitations.
§25.1585
Operating procedures.
§25.1587
Performance information.
rule

Subpart H—ELECTRICAL WIRING INTERCONNECTION SYSTEMS (EWIS)

§25.1701
Definition.
§25.1703
Function and installation: EWIS.
§25.1705
Systems and functions: EWIS.
§25.1707
System separation: EWIS.
§25.1709
System safety: EWIS.
§25.1711
Component identification: EWIS.
§25.1713
Fire protection: EWIS.
§25.1715
Electrical bonding and protection against static electricity: EWIS.
§25.1717
Circuit protective devices: EWIS.
§25.1719
Accessibility provisions: EWIS.
§25.1721
Protection of EWIS.
§25.1723
Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.
§25.1725
Powerplants: EWIS.
§25.1727
Flammable fluid shutoff means: EWIS.
§25.1729
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness: EWIS.
§25.1731
Powerplant and APU fire detector system: EWIS.
§25.1733
Fire detector systems, general: EWIS.
rule

Subpart I—SPECIAL FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS

§25.1801
SFAR No. 111—Lavatory Oxygen Systems.
Appendix
Appendix A to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix B to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix C to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix D to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix E to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix F to Part 25
Appendix
Appendix G to Part 25—Continuous Gust Design Criteria
Appendix
Appendix H to Part 25—Instructions for Continued Airworthiness
Appendix
Appendix I to Part 25—Installation of an Automatic Takeoff Thrust Control System (ATTCS)
Appendix
Appendix J to Part 25—Emergency Evacuation
Appendix
Appendix K to Part 25—Extended Operations (ETOPS)
Appendix
Appendix L to Part 25—HIRF Environments and Equipment HIRF Test Levels
Appendix
Appendix M to Part 25—Fuel Tank System Flammability Reduction Means
Appendix
Appendix N TO Part 25—Fuel Tank Flammability Exposure and Reliability Analysis
Appendix
Appendix O TO Part 25—XXX


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