Download the Code of Federal Regulations in XML.
The Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (e-CFR) is a regularly updated, unofficial editorial compilation of CFR material and Federal Register amendments produced by the National Archives and Records Administration's Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Printing Office.
Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States Code
Text | PDF
Find, review, and submit comments on Federal rules that are open for comment and published in the Federal Register using Regulations.gov.
Purchase individual CFR titles from the U.S. Government Online Bookstore.
Find issues of the CFR (including issues prior to 1996) at a local Federal depository library.
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 49: Transportation
§231.16 Steam locomotives used in switching service.
(a) Footboards—(1) Number. Two or more.
(2) Dimensions. (i) Minimum width of tread, 10 inches.
(ii) Minimum height of back stop, 4 inches above tread.
(iii) Height from top of rail to top of tread, not more than 12 nor less than 9 inches.
(iv) If made of wood, minimum thickness of tread shall be 11⁄2 , preferably 2 inches.
(v) Footboards may be made of material other than wood which provides the same as or a greater degree of safety than wood of 11⁄2 inches thickness. When made of material other than wood, the tread surface shall be of antiskid design and constructed with sufficient open space to permit the elimination of snow and ice from the tread surface.
(3) Location. Ends or sides. If on ends, they shall extend not less than 18 inches outside of guage of straight track, and shall be not more than 12 inches shorter than buffer-beam at each end.
(4) Manner of application. (i) End footboards may be constructed in two sections, provided that practically all space on each side of coupler is filled; each section shall be not less than 3 feet in length.
(ii) Footboards shall be securely bolted to two 1- by 4-inch metal brackets, provided footboard is not cut or notched at any point.
(iii) If footboard is cut or notched or in two sections, not less than four 1- by 3-inch metal brackets shall be used, two located on each side of coupler. Each bracket shall be securely bolted to buffer-beam, end sill or tank frame by not less than two 7⁄8 -inch bolts.
(iv) If side footboards are used, a substantial handhold or rail shall be applied not less than 30 inches nor more than 60 inches above tread or footboard.
(b) Sill steps—(1) Number. Two or more.
(2) Dimensions. (i) Lower tread of step shall be not less than 8 by 12 inches, metal. (May have wooden treads.)
(ii) If stirrup steps are used, clear length of tread shall be not less than 10, preferably 12, inches.
(3) Location. One or more on each side at gangway secured to locomotive or tender.
(4) Manner of application. Sill steps shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets.
(c) End handholds—(1) Number. Two.
(2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, 1 inch, wrought iron or steel. Minimum clearance, 4 inches, except at coupler casting or braces when minimum clearance shall be 2 inches.
(3) Location. One on pilot, buffer-beam; one on rear end of tender, extending across front end of locomotive and rear end of tender. Ends of handholds shall be not more than 6 inches from ends of buffer-beam or end sill, securely fastened at ends.
(4) Manner of application. End handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets.
(d) Side handholds—(1) Number. Four.
(2) Dimensions. Minimum diameter, seven-eighths of an inch, wrought iron or steel. Clear length equal to approximate height of tank. Minimum clearance, 2, preferably 21⁄2 inches.
(3) Location. Vertical. One on each side of tender near front corner; one on each side of locomotive at gangway.
(4) Manner of application. Side handholds shall be securely fastened with bolts or rivets.
(e) Uncoupling levers—(1) Number. Two double levers, operative from either side.
(2) Dimensions. (i) Handles of front-end levers shall be not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from ends of buffer-beam, and shall be so constructed as to give a minimum clearance of 2 inches around handle.
(ii) Rear-end levers shall extend across end of tender with handles not more than 12, preferably 9, inches from side of tender, with a guard bent on handle to give not less than 2 inches clearance around handle.
(3) Location. One on rear end of tender and one on front end of locomotive.
(f) Handrails and steps for headlights. Switching locomotives with sloping tenders with manhole or headlight located on sloping portion of tender shall be equipped with secure steps and handrail or with platform and handrail leading to such manhole or headlight.
(g) End-ladder clearance. No part of locomotive or tender except draft rigging, coupler and attachments, safety chains, buffer block, footboard, brake pipe, signal pipe, steam-heat pipe or arms of uncoupling lever shall extend to within 14 inches of a vertical plane passing through the inside face of knuckle when closed with horn of coupler against buffer block or end sill.
(h) Couplers. Locomotives shall be equipped with automatic couplers at rear of tender and front of locomotive.