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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 40: Protection of Environment
§1033.115 Other requirements.
Locomotives that are required to meet the emission standards of this part must meet the requirements of this section. These requirements apply when the locomotive is new (for freshly manufactured or remanufactured locomotives) and continue to apply throughout the useful life.
(a) Crankcase emissions. Crankcase emissions may not be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere from any locomotive, except as follows:
(1) Locomotives may discharge crankcase emissions to the ambient atmosphere if the emissions are added to the exhaust emissions (either physically or mathematically) during all emission testing. If you take advantage of this exception, you must do both of the following things:
(i) Manufacture the locomotives so that all crankcase emissions can be routed into the applicable sampling systems specified in 40 CFR part 1065, consistent with good engineering judgment.
(ii) Account for deterioration in crankcase emissions when determining exhaust deterioration factors.
(2) For purposes of this paragraph (a), crankcase emissions that are routed to the exhaust upstream of exhaust aftertreatment during all operation are not considered to be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere.
(b) Adjustable parameters. Locomotives that have adjustable parameters must meet all the requirements of this part for any adjustment in the approved adjustable range. You must specify in your application for certification the adjustable range of each adjustable parameter on a new locomotive or new locomotive engine to:
(1) Ensure that safe locomotive operating characteristics are available within that range, as required by section 202(a)(4) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521(a)(4)), taking into consideration the production tolerances.
(2) Limit the physical range of adjustability to the maximum extent practicable to the range that is necessary for proper operation of the locomotive or locomotive engine.
(c) Prohibited controls. You may not design or produce your locomotives with emission control devices, systems, or elements of design that cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety while operating. For example, this would apply if the locomotive emits a noxious or toxic substance it would otherwise not emit that contributes to such an unreasonable risk.
(d) Evaporative and refueling controls. For locomotives fueled with a volatile fuel you must design and produce them to minimize evaporative emissions during normal operation, including periods when the engine is shut down. You must also design and produce them to minimize the escape of fuel vapors during refueling. Hoses used to refuel gaseous-fueled locomotives may not be designed to be bled or vented to the atmosphere under normal operating conditions. No valves or pressure relief vents may be used on gaseous-fueled locomotives except as emergency safety devices that do not operate at normal system operating flows and pressures.
(e) Altitude requirements. All locomotives must be designed to include features that compensate for changes in altitude so that the locomotives will comply with the applicable emission standards when operated at any altitude less than:
(1) 7000 feet above sea level for line-haul locomotives.
(2) 5500 feet above sea level for switch locomotives.
(f) Defeat devices. You may not equip your locomotives with a defeat device. A defeat device is an auxiliary emission control device (AECD) that reduces the effectiveness of emission controls under conditions that the locomotive may reasonably be expected to encounter during normal operation and use.
(1) This does not apply to AECDs you identify in your application for certification if any of the following is true:
(i) The conditions of concern were substantially included in the applicable duty cycle test procedures described in subpart F of this part.
(ii) You show your design is necessary to prevent locomotive damage or accidents.
(iii) The reduced effectiveness applies only to starting the locomotive.
(iv) The locomotive emissions when the AECD is functioning are at or below the notch caps of §1033.101.
(2) This does not apply to AECDs related to hotel mode that conform to the specifications of this paragraph (f)(2). This provision is intended for AECDs that have the primary function of operating the engine at a different speed than would be done to generate the same propulsive power when not operating in hotel mode. Identify and describe these AECDs in your application for certification. We may allow the AECDs to modify engine calibrations where we determine that such modifications are environmentally beneficial or needed for proper engine function. You must obtain preliminary approval under §1033.210 before incorporating such modifications. Otherwise, you must apply the same injection timing and intake air cooling strategies in hotel mode and non-hotel mode.
(g) Idle controls. All new locomotives must be equipped with automatic engine stop/start as described in this paragraph (g). All new locomotives must be designed to allow the engine(s) to be restarted at least six times per day without causing engine damage that would affect the expected interval between remanufacturing. Note that it is a violation of 40 CFR 1068.101(b)(1) to circumvent the provisions of this paragraph (g).
(1) Except as allowed by paragraph (g)(2) of this section, the stop/start systems must shut off the main locomotive engine(s) after 30 minutes of idling (or less).
(2) Stop/start systems may restart or continue idling for the following reasons:
(i) To prevent engine damage such as to prevent the engine coolant from freezing.
(ii) To maintain air pressure for brakes or starter system, or to recharge the locomotive battery.
(iii) To perform necessary maintenance.
(iv) To otherwise comply with federal regulations.
(3) You may ask to use alternate stop/start systems that will achieve equivalent idle control.
(4) See §1033.201 for provisions that allow you to obtain a separate certificate for idle controls.
(5) It is not considered circumvention to allow a locomotive to idle to heat or cool the cab, provided such heating or cooling is necessary.
(h) Power meters. Tier 1 and later locomotives must be equipped with MW-hr meters (or the equivalent) consistent with the specifications of §1033.140.
[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59189, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 22982, Apr. 30, 2010]