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Title 40: Protection of Environment
§1051.115 What other requirements apply?
Vehicles that are required to meet the emission standards of this part must meet the following requirements:
(a) Closed crankcase. Crankcase emissions may not be discharged directly into the ambient atmosphere from any vehicle throughout its useful life.
(c) Adjustable parameters. Vehicles that have adjustable parameters must meet all the requirements of this part for any adjustment in the physically adjustable range. Note that parameters that control the air-fuel ratio may be treated separately under paragraph (d) of this section. An operating parameter is not considered adjustable if you permanently seal it or if it is not normally accessible using ordinary tools. We may require that you set adjustable parameters to any specification within the adjustable range during any testing, including certification testing, production-line testing, or in-use testing.
(d) Other adjustments. This provision applies if an experienced mechanic can change your engine's air-fuel ratio in less than one hour with a few parts whose total cost is under $50 (in 2001 dollars). Examples include carburetor jets and needles. In the case of carburetor jets and needles, your vehicle must meet all the requirements of this part for any air-fuel ratio within the adjustable range described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section.
(1) In your application for certification, specify the adjustable range of air-fuel ratios you expect to occur in use. You may specify it in terms of engine parts (such as the carburetor jet size and needle configuration as a function of atmospheric conditions).
(2) This adjustable range (specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section) must include all air-fuel ratios between the lean limit and the rich limit, unless you can show that some air-fuel ratios will not occur in use.
(i) The lean limit is the air-fuel ratio that produces the highest engine power output (averaged over the test cycle).
(ii) The rich limit is the richest of the following air-fuel ratios:
(A) The air-fuel ratio that would result from operating the vehicle as you produce it at the specified test conditions. This paragraph (d)(2)(ii)(A) does not apply if you produce the vehicle with an unjetted carburetor so that the vehicle must be jetted by the dealer or operator.
(B) The air-fuel ratio of the engine when you do durability testing.
(C) The richest air-fuel ratio that you recommend to your customers for the applicable ambient conditions.
(3) If the air-fuel ratio of your vehicle is adjusted primarily by changing the carburetor jet size and/or needle configuration, you may submit your recommended jetting chart instead of the range of air-fuel ratios required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section if the following criteria are met:
(i) Good engineering judgment indicates that vehicle operators would not have an incentive to operate the vehicle with richer air-fuel ratios than recommended.
(ii) The chart is based on use of a fuel that is equivalent to the specified test fuel(s). As an alternative you may submit a chart based on a representative in-use fuel if you also provide instructions for converting the chart to be applicable to the test fuel(s).
(iii) The chart is specified in units that are adequate to make it practical for an operator to keep the vehicle properly jetted during typical use. For example, charts that specify jet sizes based on increments of temperature smaller than 20 °F (11.1 °C) or increments of altitude less than 2000 feet would not meet this criteria. Temperature ranges must overlap by at least 5 °F (2.8 °C).
(iv) You follow the jetting chart for durability testing.
(v) You do not produce your vehicles with jetting richer than the jetting chart recommendation for the intended vehicle use.
(vi) The adjustable range of carburetor screws, such as air screw, fuel screw, and idle-speed screw must be defined by stops, limits, or specification on the jetting chart consistent with the requirements for specifying jet sizes and needle configuration in this section.
(4) We may require you to adjust the engine to any specification within the adjustable range during certification testing, production-line testing, selective enforcement auditing, or in-use testing. If we allow you to submit your recommended jetting chart instead of the range of air-fuel ratios required by paragraph (d)(1) of this section, adjust the engine to the richest specification within the jetting chart for the test conditions, unless we specify a leaner setting. We may not specify a setting leaner than that described in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.
(e) Prohibited controls. You may not design your engines with emission-control devices, systems, or elements of design that cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety while operating. For example, this would apply if the engine emits a noxious or toxic substance it would otherwise not emit that contributes to such an unreasonable risk.
(f) Defeat devices. You may not equip your vehicles with a defeat device. A defeat device is an auxiliary emission-control device that reduces the effectiveness of emission controls under conditions that the vehicle may reasonably be expected to encounter during normal operation and use. This does not apply to auxiliary emission-control devices you identify in your certification application if any of the following is true:
(1) The conditions of concern were substantially included in the applicable test procedures described in subpart F of this part.
(2) You show your design is necessary to prevent vehicle damage or accidents.
(3) The reduced effectiveness applies only to starting the engine.
(g) Noise standards. There are no noise standards specified in this part 1051. See 40 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter G, to determine if your vehicle must meet noise emission standards under another part of our regulations.
[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40488, July 13, 2005; 73 FR 59246, Oct. 8, 2008]