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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 22, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter FPart 192Subpart A → §192.02


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 192—HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS
Subpart A—Standards for the Control of Residual Radioactive Materials from Inactive Uranium Processing Sites


§192.02   Standards.

Control of residual radioactive materials and their listed constituents shall be designed1 to:

1Because the standard applies to design, monitoring after disposal is not required to demonstrate compliance with respect to §192.02(a) and (b).

(a) Be effective for up to one thousand years, to the extent reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for at least 200 years, and,

(b) Provide reasonable assurance that releases of radon-222 from residual radioactive material to the atmosphere will not:

(1) Exceed an average2 release rate of 20 picocuries per square meter per second, or

2This average shall apply over the entire surface of the disposal site and over at least a one-year period. Radon will come from both residual radioactive materials and from materials covering them. Radon emissions from the covering materials should be estimated as part of developing a remedial action plan for each site. The standard, however, applies only to emissions from residual radioactive materials to the atmosphere.

(2) Increase the annual average concentration of radon-222 in air at or above any location outside the disposal site by more than one-half picocurie per liter.

(c) Provide reasonable assurance of conformance with the following groundwater protection provisions:

(1) The Secretary shall, on a site-specific basis, determine which of the constituents listed in Appendix I to Part 192 are present in or reasonably derived from residual radioactive materials and shall establish a monitoring program adequate to determine background levels of each such constituent in groundwater at each disposal site.

(2) The Secretary shall comply with conditions specified in a plan for remedial action which includes engineering specifications for a system of disposal designed to ensure that constituents identified under paragraph (c)(1) of this section entering the groundwater from a depository site (or a processing site, if residual radioactive materials are retained on the site) will not exceed the concentration limits established under paragraph (c)(3) of this section (or the supplemental standards established under §192.22) in the uppermost aquifer underlying the site beyond the point of compliance established under paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(3) Concentration limits:

(i) Concentration limits shall be determined in the groundwater for listed constituents identified under paragraph (c)(1) of this section. The concentration of a listed constituent in groundwater must not exceed:

(A) The background level of that constituent in the groundwater; or

(B) For any of the constituents listed in Table 1 to subpart A, the respective value given in that Table if the background level of the constituent is below the value given in the Table; or

(C) An alternate concentration limit established pursuant to paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section.

(ii)(A) The Secretary may apply an alternate concentration limit if, after considering remedial or corrective actions to achieve the levels specified in paragraphs (c)(3)(i)(A) and (B) of this section, he has determined that the constituent will not pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health and the environment as long as the alternate concentration limit is not exceeded, and the Commission has concurred.

(B) In considering the present or potential hazard to human health and the environment of alternate concentration limits, the following factors shall be considered:

(1) Potential adverse effects on groundwater quality, considering:

(i) The physical and chemical characteristics of constituents in the residual radioactive material at the site, including their potential for migration;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the site and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity of groundwater and the direction of groundwater flow;

(iv) The proximity and withdrawal rates of groundwater users;

(v) The current and future uses of groundwater in the region surrounding the site;

(vi) The existing quality of groundwater, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on the groundwater quality;

(vii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to constituents;

(viii) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to constituents;

(ix) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects;

(x) The presence of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers identified under §144.7 of this chapter; and

(2) Potential adverse effects on hydraulically-connected surface-water quality, considering:

(i) The volume and physical and chemical characteristics of the residual radioactive material at the site;

(ii) The hydrogeological characteristics of the site and surrounding land;

(iii) The quantity and quality of groundwater, and the direction of groundwater flow;

(iv) The patterns of rainfall in the region;

(v) The proximity of the site to surface waters;

(vi) The current and future uses of surface waters in the region surrounding the site and any water quality standards established for those surface waters;

(vii) The existing quality of surface water, including other sources of contamination and their cumulative impact on surface water quality;

(viii) The potential for health risks caused by human exposure to constituents;

(ix) The potential damage to wildlife, crops, vegetation, and physical structures caused by exposure to constituents; and

(x) The persistence and permanence of the potential adverse effects.

(4) Point of compliance: The point of compliance is the location at which the groundwater concentration limits of paragraph (c)(3) of this section apply. The point of compliance is the intersection of a vertical plane with the uppermost aquifer underlying the site, located at the hydraulically downgradient limit of the disposal area plus the area taken up by any liner, dike, or other barrier designed to contain the residual radioactive material.

(d) Each site on which disposal occurs shall be designed and stabilized in a manner that minimizes the need for future maintenance.

[60 FR 2865, Jan. 11, 1995]



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