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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 29, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter FPart 191Subpart B → §191.12


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 191—ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL AND TRANSURANIC RADIOACTIVE WASTES
Subpart B—Environmental Standards for Disposal


§191.12   Definitions.

Unless otherwise indicated in this subpart, all terms shall have the same meaning as in subpart A of this part.

Accessible environment means: (1) The atmosphere; (2) land surfaces; (3) surface waters; (4) oceans; and (5) all of the lithosphere that is beyond the controlled area.

Active institutional control means: (1) Controlling access to a disposal site by any means other than passive institutional controls; (2) performing maintenance operations or remedial actions at a site, (3) controlling or cleaning up releases from a site, or (4) monitoring parameters related to disposal system performance.

Annual committed effective dose means the committed effective dose resulting from one-year intake of radionuclides released plus the annual effective dose caused by direct radiation from facilities or activities subject to subparts B and C of this part.

Aquifer means an underground geological formation, group of formations, or part of a formation that is capable of yielding a significant amount of water to a well or spring.

Barrier means any material or structure that prevents or substantially delays movement of water or radionuclides toward the accessible environment. For example, a barrier may be a geologic structure, a canister, a waste form with physical and chemical characteristics that significantly decrease the mobility of radionuclides, or a material placed over and around waste, provided that the material or structure substantially delays movement of water or radionuclides.

Controlled area means: (1) A surface location, to be identified by passive institutional controls, that encompasses no more than 100 square kilometers and extends horizontally no more than five kilometers in any direction from the outer boundary of the original location of the radioactive wastes in a disposal system; and (2) the subsurface underlying such a surface location.

Disposal system means any combination of engineered and natural barriers that isolate spent nuclear fuel or radioactive waste after disposal.

Dose equivalent means the product of absorbed dose and appropriate factors to account for differences in biological effectiveness due to the quality of radiation and its spatial distribution in the body; the unit of dose equivalent is the “rem” (“sievert” in SI units).

Effective dose means the sum over specified tissues of the products of the dose equivalent received following an exposure of, or an intake of radionuclides into, specified tissues of the body, multiplied by appropriate weighting factors. This allows the various tissue-specific health risks to be summed into an overall health risk. The method used to calculate effective dose is described in appendix B of this part.

Ground water means water below the land surface in a zone of saturation.

Heavy metal means all uranium, plutonium, or thorium placed into a nuclear reactor.

Implementing agency means:

(1) The Commission for facilities licensed by the Commission;

(2) The Agency for those implementation responsibilities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under this part, given to the Agency by the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act (Pub. L. 102-579, 106 Stat. 4777) which, for the purposes of this part, are:

(i) Determinations by the Agency that the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is in compliance with subpart A of this part;

(ii) Issuance of criteria for the certifications of compliance with subparts B and C of this part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with subparts B and C of this part;

(iii) Certifications of compliance with subparts B and C of this part of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with subparts B and C of this part;

(iv) If the initial certification is made, periodic recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's continued compliance with subparts B and C of this part;

(v) Review and comment on performance assessment reports of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant; and

(vi) Concurrence by the Agency with the Department's determination under §191.02(i) that certain wastes do not need the degree of isolation required by subparts B and C of this part; and

(3) The Department of Energy for any other disposal facility and all other implementation responsibilities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, under this part, not given to the Agency.

International System of Units is the version of the metric system which has been established by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and is administered in the United States by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The abbreviation for this system is “SI.”

Lithosphere means the solid part of the Earth below the surface, including any ground water contained within it.

Passive institutional control means: (1) Permanent markers placed at a disposal site, (2) public records and archives, (3) government ownership and regulations regarding land or resource use, and (4) other methods of preserving knowledge about the location, design, and contents of a disposal system.

Performance assessment means an analysis that: (1) Identifies the processes and events that might affect the disposal system; (2) examines the effects of these processes and events on the performance of the disposal system; and (3) estimates the cumulative releases of radionuclides, considering the associated uncertainties, caused by all significant processes and events. These estimates shall be incorporated into an overall probability distribution of cumulative release to the extent practicable.

Radioactive material means matter composed of or containing radionuclides, with radiological half-lives greater than 20 years, subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.

SI unit means a unit of measure in the International System of Units.

Sievert is the SI unit of effective dose and is equal to 100 rem or one joule per kilogram. The abbreviation is “Sv.”

Undisturbed performance means the predicted behavior of a disposal system, including consideration of the uncertainties in predicted behavior, if the disposal system is not disrupted by human intrusion or the occurrence of unlikely natural events.

Waste, as used in this subpart, means any spent nuclear fuel or radioactive waste isolated in a disposal system.

Waste form means the materials comprising the radioactive components of waste and any encapsulating or stabilizing matrix.

[50 FR 38084, Sept. 19, 1985, as amended at 58 FR 66414, Dec. 20, 1993]



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