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Title 40: Protection of Environment
§91.427 Catalyst thermal stress resistance evaluation.
(a)(1) The purpose of the evaluation procedure specified in this section is to determine the effect of thermal stress on catalyst conversion efficiency. The thermal stress is imposed on the test catalyst by exposing it to quiescent heated air in an oven. The evaluation of the effect of such stress on catalyst performance is based on the resultant degradation of the efficiency with which the conversions of specific pollutants are promoted. The application of this evaluation procedure involves the several steps that are described in the following paragraphs.
(2) The engine manufacturer need not submit catalyst conversion efficiency data for pollutants that the catalyst being tested was not designed to reduce/oxidize. The engine manufacturer must specify the pollutants that the catalyst will be converting and submit catalyst conversion efficiency data on only those pollutants.
(b) Determination of initial conversion efficiency.
(1) A synthetic exhaust gas mixture having the composition specified in §91.329 is heated to a temperature of 450 ±5 °C and passed through the new test catalyst or, optionally, a test catalyst that has been exposed to temperatures less than or equal to 500 °C for less than or equal to two hours, under flow conditions that are representative of anticipated in-use conditions.
(2) The concentration of each pollutant of interest, that is, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, or oxides of nitrogen, in the effluent of the catalyst is determined by means of the instrumentation that is specified for exhaust gas analysis in subpart D of this part.
(3) The conversion efficiency for each pollutant is determined by:
(i) Subtracting the effluent concentration from the initial concentration,
(ii) Dividing this result by the initial concentration,
(iii) Multiplying this result by 100 percent.
(c) Imposition of thermal stress.
(1) The catalyst is placed in an oven that has been pre-heated to 1000 °C and the temperature of the air in the oven is maintained at 1000 ±10 °C for six hours. Optionally, the catalyst may instead be placed in an oven having a 90% nitrogen/10% water vapor environment that has been pre-heated to at least 850 °C and the temperature of the nitrogen/water vapor environment in the oven is maintained at 850 °C ±10 °C for six hours.
(2) The catalyst is removed from the oven and allowed to cool to room temperature.
(d) Determination of final conversion efficiency. The steps listen in paragraph (b) of this section are repeated.
(e) Determination of conversion efficiency degradation.
(1) The final conversion efficiency determined in paragraph (c) of this section is subtracted from the initial conversion efficiency determined in paragraph (b) of this section.
(2) This result is divided by the initial conversion efficiency.
(3) This result is multiplied by 100 percent.
(f) Determination of compliance with degradation limit. The percent degradation determined in paragraph (e) of this section must not be greater than 20 percent.