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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 14, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 86—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES
Subpart A—General Provisions for Emission Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year New Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks and Heavy-Duty Engines, and for 1985 and Later Model Year New Gasoline Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles


§86.008-10   Emission standards for 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle heavy-duty engines and vehicles.

Section 86.008-10 includes text that specifies requirements that differ from §86.099-10. Where a paragraph in §86.099-10 is identical and applicable to §86.008-10, this may be indicated by specifying the corresponding paragraph and the statement “[Reserved]. For guidance see §86.099-10.”.

(a)(1) Exhaust emissions from new 2008 and later model year Otto-cycle HDEs shall not exceed:

(i)(A) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX). 0.20 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.075 grams per megajoule).

(B) A manufacturer may elect to include any or all of its Otto-cycle HDE families in any or all of the NOX and NOX plus NMHC emissions ABT programs for HDEs, within the restrictions described in §86.008-15 or §86.004-15. If the manufacturer elects to include engine families in any of these programs, the NOX FEL may not exceed 0.50 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.26 grams per megajoule). This ceiling value applies whether credits for the family are derived from averaging, banking, or trading programs. The NOX FEL cap is 0.80 for model years before 2011 for manufacturers choosing to certify to the 1.5 g/bhp-hr NOX+NMHC standard in 2003 or 2004, in accordance with §86.005-10(f).

(ii)(A) Non-methane Hydrocarbons (NMHC) for engines fueled with either gasoline, natural gas, or liquefied petroleum gas. 0.14 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.052grams per megajoule).

(B) Non-methane Hydrocarbon Equivalent (NMHCE) for engines fueled with methanol. 0.14 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.052grams per megajoule).

(C) A manufacturer may elect to include any or all of its Otto-cycle HDE families in any or all of the NMHC emissions ABT programs for HDEs, within the restrictions described in §86.008-15 or §86.004-15. If the manufacturer elects to include engine families in any of these programs, the NMHC FEL may not exceed 0.30 grams per brake horsepower-hour. This ceiling value applies whether credits for the family are derived from averaging, banking, or trading programs. The NMHC FEL cap is 0.40 for model years before 2011 for manufacturers choosing to certify to the 1.5 g/bhp-hr NOX+NMHC in 2004, as allowed in §86.005-10.

(iii)(A) Carbon monoxide. 14.4 grams per brake horsepower-hour (5.36 grams per megajoule).

(B) Idle Carbon Monoxide. For all Otto-cycle HDEs utilizing aftertreatment technology, and not certified to the onboard diagnostics requirements of §86.005-17: 0.50 percent of exhaust gas flow at curb idle.

(iv) Particulate. 0.01 grams per brake horsepower-hour (0.0037grams per megajoule).

(2) The standards set forth in paragraph (a)(1) of this section refer to the exhaust emitted over the operating schedule set forth in paragraph (f)(1) of Appendix I to this part, and measured and calculated in accordance with the procedures set forth in subpart N or P of this part:

(i) Perform the test interval set forth in paragraph (f)(1) of Appendix I of this part with a cold-start according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F. This is the cold-start test interval.

(ii) Shut down the engine after completing the test interval and allow 20 minutes to elapse. This is the hot soak.

(iii) Repeat the test interval. This is the hot-start test interval.

(iv) Calculate the total emission mass of each constituent, m, and the total work, W, over each test interval according to 40 CFR 1065.650.

(v) Determine your engine's brake-specific emissions using the following calculation, which weights the emissions from the cold-start and hot-start test intervals:

eCFR graphic er30ap10.000.gif

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(3)-(4) [Reserved]

(b) Evaporative emissions from heavy-duty vehicles shall not exceed the following standards. The standards apply equally to certification and in-use vehicles. The spitback standard also applies to newly assembled vehicles. For certification vehicles only, manufacturers may conduct testing to quantify a level of nonfuel background emissions for an individual test vehicle. Such a demonstration must include a description of the source(s) of emissions and an estimated decay rate. The demonstrated level of nonfuel background emissions may be subtracted from emission test results from certification vehicles if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(1) Hydrocarbons (for vehicles equipped with gasoline-fueled, natural gas-fueled or liquefied petroleum gas-fueled engines).

(i) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of up to 14,000 lbs:

(A)(1) For the full three-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 1.4 grams per test.

(2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 1.75 grams per test.

(B) Running loss test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 0.05 grams per mile.

(C) Fuel dispensing spitback test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 1.0 grams per test.

(ii) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of greater than 14,000 lbs:

(A)(1) For the full three-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 1.9 grams per test.

(2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 2.3 grams per test.

(B) Running loss test (gasoline-fueled vehicles only): 0.05 grams per mile.

(2) Total Hydrocarbon Equivalent (for vehicles equipped with methanol-fueled engines).

(i) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of up to 14,000 lbs:

(A)(1) For the full three-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 1.4 grams carbon per test.

(2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 1.75 grams carbon per test.

(B) Running loss test: 0.05 grams carbon per mile.

(C) Fuel dispensing spitback test: 1.0 grams carbon per test.

(ii) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of greater than 14,000 lbs:

(A)(1) For the full three-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 1.9 grams carbon per test.

(2) For the supplemental two-diurnal test sequence described in §86.1230-96, diurnal plus hot soak measurements: 2.3 grams carbon per test.

(B) Running loss test: 0.05 grams carbon per mile.

(3)(i) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of up to 26,000 lbs, the standards set forth in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section refer to a composite sample of evaporative emissions collected under the conditions and measured in accordance with the procedures set forth in subpart M of this part.

(ii) For vehicles with a Gross Vehicle Weight Rating of greater than 26,000 lbs., the standards set forth in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii) and (b)(2)(ii) of this section refer to the manufacturer's engineering design evaluation using good engineering practice (a statement of which is required in §86.098-23(b)(4)(ii)).

(4) All fuel vapor generated in a gasoline- or methanol-fueled heavy-duty vehicle during in-use operations shall be routed exclusively to the evaporative control system (e.g., either canister or engine purge). The only exception to this requirement shall be for emergencies.

(c) No crankcase emissions shall be discharged into the ambient atmosphere from any new 2008 or later model year Otto-cycle HDE.

(d) Every manufacturer of new motor vehicle engines subject to the standards prescribed in this section shall, prior to taking any of the actions specified in section 203(a)(1) of the Act, test or cause to be tested motor vehicle engines in accordance with applicable procedures in subpart N or P of this part to ascertain that such test engines meet the requirements of this section.

(e) [Reserved]. For guidance see §86.099-10.

(f) Phase-in options. (1)(i) For model year 2008, manufacturers may certify some of their engine families to the exhaust standards applicable to model year 2007 engines under §86.005-10, in lieu of the exhaust standards specified in this section. These engines must comply with all other requirements applicable to model year 2008 engines, except as allowed by paragraph (f)(1)(ii) of this section. The combined number of engines in the engine families certified to the 2007 combined NOX plus NMHC standard may not exceed 50 percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008, except as explicitly allowed by paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

(ii) For model year 2008, manufacturers may certify some of their engine families to the evaporative standards applicable to model year 2007 engines under §86.005-10, in lieu of the standards specified in this section. These engines must comply with all other requirements applicable to model year 2008 engines, except as allowed by paragraph (f)(1)(i) of this section. The combined number of engines in the engine families certified to the 2007 standards may not exceed 50 percent of the manufacturer's U.S.-directed production of heavy-duty Otto-cycle motor vehicle engines for model year 2008.

(2)(i) Manufacturers certifying engines to all of the applicable exhaust standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section prior to model year 2008 (without using credits) may reduce the number of engines that are required to meet the NOX and NMHC exhaust standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section in model year 2008 and/or 2009, taking into account the phase-in option provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. For every engine that is certified early, the manufacturer may reduce the number of engines that are required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section to meet the NOX and NMHC standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section by one engine. For example, if a manufacturer produces 100 heavy-duty Otto-cycle engines in 2007 that meet all of the applicable standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section, and it produced 10,000 heavy-duty Otto-cycle engines in 2009, then only 9,900 of the engines would need to comply with the NOX and NMHC standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section.

(ii) Manufacturers certifying engines to all of the applicable evaporative standards listed in paragraph (b) of this section prior to model year 2008 may reduce the number of engines that are required to meet the evaporative standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section in model year 2008 and/or 2009, taking into account the phase-in option provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. For every engine that is certified early, the manufacturer may reduce the number of engines that are required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section to meet evaporative standards listed in paragraph (b) of this section by one engine.

(3) Manufacturers certifying engines to a voluntary NOX standard of 0.10 g/bhp-hr (without using credits) in addition to all of the applicable standards listed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section prior to model year 2008 may reduce the number of engines that are required to meet the NOX and NMHC standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section in model year 2008 and/or 2009, taking into account the phase-in option provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. For such every engine that is certified early, the manufacturer may reduce the number of engines that are required by paragraph (f)(1) of this section to meet the NOX and NMHC standards listed in paragraph (a) of this section by two engines.

(g) For model years prior to 2012, for purposes of determining compliance after title or custody has transferred to the ultimate purchaser, for engines having a NOX FEL no higher than 0.50 g/bhp-hr, the applicable compliance limits for NOX and NMHC shall be determined by adding 0.10 g/bhp-hr to the otherwise applicable standards or FELs for NOX and NMHC.

[66 FR 5165, Jan. 18, 2001, as amended at 75 FR 22978, Apr. 30, 2010]



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