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§1910.179 Overhead and gantry cranes.
(a) Definitions applicable to this section. (1) A crane is a machine for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism an integral part of the machine. Cranes whether fixed or mobile are driven manually or by power.
(2) An automatic crane is a crane which when activated operates through a preset cycle or cycles.
(3) A cab-operated crane is a crane controlled by an operator in a cab located on the bridge or trolley.
(4) Cantilever gantry crane means a gantry or semigantry crane in which the bridge girders or trusses extend transversely beyond the crane runway on one or both sides.
(5) Floor-operated crane means a crane which is pendant or nonconductive rope controlled by an operator on the floor or an independent platform.
(6) Gantry crane means a crane similar to an overhead crane except that the bridge for carrying the trolley or trolleys is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on fixed rails or other runway.
(7) Hot metal handling crane means an overhead crane used for transporting or pouring molten material.
(8) Overhead crane means a crane with a movable bridge carrying a movable or fixed hoisting mechanism and traveling on an overhead fixed runway structure.
(9) Power-operated crane means a crane whose mechanism is driven by electric, air, hydraulic, or internal combustion means.
(10) A pulpit-operated crane is a crane operated from a fixed operator station not attached to the crane.
(11) A remote-operated crane is a crane controlled by an operator not in a pulpit or in the cab attached to the crane, by any method other than pendant or rope control.
(12) A semigantry crane is a gantry crane with one end of the bridge rigidly supported on one or more legs that run on a fixed rail or runway, the other end of the bridge being supported by a truck running on an elevated rail or runway.
(13) Storage bridge crane means a gantry type crane of long span usually used for bulk storage of material; the bridge girders or trusses are rigidly or nonrigidly supported on one or more legs. It may have one or more fixed or hinged cantilever ends.
(14) Wall crane means a crane having a jib with or without trolley and supported from a side wall or line of columns of a building. It is a traveling type and operates on a runway attached to the side wall or columns.
(15) Appointed means assigned specific responsibilities by the employer or the employer's representative.
(16) ANSI means the American National Standards Institute.
(17) An auxiliary hoist is a supplemental hoisting unit of lighter capacity and usually higher speed than provided for the main hoist.
(18) A brake is a device used for retarding or stopping motion by friction or power means.
(19) A drag brake is a brake which provides retarding force without external control.
(20) A holding brake is a brake that automatically prevents motion when power is off.
(21) Bridge means that part of a crane consisting of girders, trucks, end ties, footwalks, and drive mechanism which carries the trolley or trolleys.
(22) Bridge travel means the crane movement in a direction parallel to the crane runway.
(23) A bumper (buffer) is an energy absorbing device for reducing impact when a moving crane or trolley reaches the end of its permitted travel; or when two moving cranes or trolleys come in contact.
(24) The cab is the operator's compartment on a crane.
(25) Clearance means the distance from any part of the crane to a point of the nearest obstruction.
(26) Collectors current are contacting devices for collecting current from runway or bridge conductors.
(27) Conductors, bridge are the electrical conductors located along the bridge structure of a crane to provide power to the trolley.
(28) Conductors, runway (main) are the electrical conductors located along a crane runway to provide power to the crane.
(29) The control braking means is a method of controlling crane motor speed when in an overhauling condition.
(30) Countertorque means a method of control by which the power to the motor is reversed to develop torque in the opposite direction.
(31) Dynamic means a method of controlling crane motor speeds when in the overhauling condition to provide a retarding force.
(32) Regenerative means a form of dynamic braking in which the electrical energy generated is fed back into the power system.
(33) Mechanical means a method of control by friction.
(34) Controller, spring return means a controller which when released will return automatically to a neutral position.
(35) Designated means selected or assigned by the employer or the employer's representative as being qualified to perform specific duties.
(36) A drift point means a point on a travel motion controller which releases the brake while the motor is not energized. This allows for coasting before the brake is set.
(37) The drum is the cylindrical member around which the ropes are wound for raising or lowering the load.
(38) An equalizer is a device which compensates for unequal length or stretch of a rope.
(39) Exposed means capable of being contacted inadvertently. Applied to hazardous objects not adequately guarded or isolated.
(40) Fail-safe means a provision designed to automatically stop or safely control any motion in which a malfunction occurs.
(41) Footwalk means the walkway with handrail, attached to the bridge or trolley for access purposes.
(42) A hoist is an apparatus which may be a part of a crane, exerting a force for lifting or lowering.
(43) Hoist chain means the load bearing chain in a hoist.
Note: Chain properties do not conform to those shown in ANSI B30.9-1971, Safety Code for Slings.
(44) Hoist motion means that motion of a crane which raises and lowers a load.
(45) Load means the total superimposed weight on the load block or hook.
(46) The load block is the assembly of hook or shackle, swivel, bearing, sheaves, pins, and frame suspended by the hoisting rope.
(47) Magnet means an electromagnetic device carried on a crane hook to pick up loads magnetically.
(48) Main hoist means the hoist mechanism provided for lifting the maximum rated load.
(49) A man trolley is a trolley having an operator's cab attached thereto.
(50) Rated load means the maximum load for which a crane or individual hoist is designed and built by the manufacturer and shown on the equipment nameplate(s).
(51) Rope refers to wire rope, unless otherwise specified.
(52) Running sheave means a sheave which rotates as the load block is raised or lowered.
(53) Runway means an assembly of rails, beams, girders, brackets, and framework on which the crane or trolley travels.
(54) Side pull means that portion of the hoist pull acting horizontally when the hoist lines are not operated vertically.
(55) Span means the horizontal distance center to center of runway rails.
(56) Standby crane means a crane which is not in regular service but which is used occasionally or intermittently as required.
(57) A stop is a device to limit travel of a trolley or crane bridge. This device normally is attached to a fixed structure and normally does not have energy absorbing ability.
(58) A switch is a device for making, breaking, or for changing the connections in an electric circuit.
(59) An emergency stop switch is a manually or automatically operated electric switch to cut off electric power independently of the regular operating controls.
(60) A limit switch is a switch which is operated by some part or motion of a power-driven machine or equipment to alter the electric circuit associated with the machine or equipment.
(61) A main switch is a switch controlling the entire power supply to the crane.
(62) A master switch is a switch which dominates the operation of contactors, relays, or other remotely operated devices.
(63) The trolley is the unit which travels on the bridge rails and carries the hoisting mechanism.
(64) Trolley travel means the trolley movement at right angles to the crane runway.
(65) Truck means the unit consisting of a frame, wheels, bearings, and axles which supports the bridge girders or trolleys.
(b) General requirements—(1) Application. This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes are grouped because they all have trolleys and similar travel characteristics.
(2) New and existing equipment. All new overhead and gantry cranes constructed and installed on or after August 31, 1971, shall meet the design specifications of the American National Standard Safety Code for Overhead and Gantry Cranes, ANSI B30.2.0-1967, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
(3) Modifications. Cranes may be modified and rerated provided such modifications and the supporting structure are checked thoroughly for the new rated load by a qualified engineer or the equipment manufacturer. The crane shall be tested in accordance with paragraph (k)(2) of this section. New rated load shall be displayed in accordance with subparagraph (5) of this paragraph.
(4) Wind indicators and rail clamps. Outdoor storage bridges shall be provided with automatic rail clamps. A wind-indicating device shall be provided which will give a visible or audible alarm to the bridge operator at a predetermined wind velocity. If the clamps act on the rail heads, any beads or weld flash on the rail heads shall be ground off.
(5) Rated load marking. The rated load of the crane shall be plainly marked on each side of the crane, and if the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have its rated load marked on it or its load block and this marking shall be clearly legible from the ground or floor.
(6) Clearance from obstruction. (i) Minimum clearance of 3 inches overhead and 2 inches laterally shall be provided and maintained between crane and obstructions in conformity with Crane Manufacturers Association of America, Inc., Specification No. 61, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6 (formerly the Electric Overhead Crane Institute, Inc).
(ii) Where passageways or walkways are provided obstructions shall not be placed so that safety of personnel will be jeopardized by movements of the crane.
(7) Clearance between parallel cranes. If the runways of two cranes are parallel, and there are no intervening walls or structure, there shall be adequate clearance provided and maintained between the two bridges.
(8) Designated personnel—Only designated personnel shall be permitted to operate a crane covered by this section.
(c) Cabs—(1) Cab location. (i) The general arrangement of the cab and the location of control and protective equipment shall be such that all operating handles are within convenient reach of the operator when facing the area to be served by the load hook, or while facing the direction of travel of the cab. The arrangement shall allow the operator a full view of the load hook in all positions.
(ii) The cab shall be located to afford a minimum of 3 inches clearance from all fixed structures within its area of possible movement.
(2) Access to crane. Access to the cab and/or bridge walkway shall be by a conveniently placed fixed ladder, stairs, or platform requiring no step over any gap exceeding 12 inches. Fixed ladders shall be in conformance with the American National Standard Safety Code for Fixed Ladders, ANSI A14.3-1956, which is incorporated by reference as specified in §1910.6.
(3) Fire extinguisher. Carbon tetrachloride extinguishers shall not be used.
(4) Lighting. Light in the cab shall be sufficient to enable the operator to see clearly enough to perform his work.
(d) Footwalks and ladders—(1) Location of footwalks. (i) If sufficient headroom is available on cab-operated cranes, a footwalk shall be provided on the drive side along the entire length of the bridge of all cranes having the trolley running on the top of the girders.
(ii) Where footwalks are located in no case shall less than 48 inches of headroom be provided.
(2) Construction of footwalks. (i) Footwalks shall be of rigid construction and designed to sustain a distributed load of at least 50 pounds per square foot.
(ii) Footwalks shall have a walking surface of antislip type.
Note: Wood will meet this requirement.
(iv) The inner edge shall extend at least to the line of the outside edge of the lower cover plate or flange of the girder.
(3) Toeboards and handrails for footwalks. Toeboards and handrails shall be in compliance with section 1910.23 of this part.
(4) Ladders and stairways. (i) Gantry cranes shall be provided with ladders or stairways extending from the ground to the footwalk or cab platform.
(ii) Stairways shall be equipped with rigid and substantial metal handrails. Walking surfaces shall be of an antislip type.
(iii) Ladders shall be permanently and securely fastened in place and shall be constructed in compliance with §1910.27.
(e) Stops, bumpers, rail sweeps, and guards—(1) Trolley stops. (i) Stops shall be provided at the limits of travel of the trolley.
(ii) Stops shall be fastened to resist forces applied when contacted.
(iii) A stop engaging the tread of the wheel shall be of a height at least equal to the radius of the wheel.
(2) Bridge bumpers—(i) A crane shall be provided with bumpers or other automatic means providing equivalent effect, unless the crane travels at a slow rate of speed and has a faster deceleration rate due to the use of sleeve bearings, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance by the nature of the crane operation and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance, or is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers shall be capable of stopping the crane (not including the lifted load) at an average rate of deceleration not to exceed 3 ft/s/s when traveling in either direction at 20 percent of the rated load speed.
(a) The bumpers shall have sufficient energy absorbing capacity to stop the crane when traveling at a speed of at least 40 percent of rated load speed.
(b) The bumper shall be so mounted that there is no direct shear on bolts.
(ii) Bumpers shall be so designed and installed as to minimize parts falling from the crane in case of breakage.
(3) Trolley bumpers—(i) A trolley shall be provided with bumpers or other automatic means of equivalent effect, unless the trolley travels at a slow rate of speed, or is not operated near the ends of bridge and trolley travel, or is restricted to a limited distance of the runway and there is no hazard of striking any object in this limited distance, or is used in similar operating conditions. The bumpers shall be capable of stopping the trolley (not including the lifted load) at an average rate of deceleration not to exceed 4.7 ft/s/s when traveling in either direction at one-third of the rated load speed.
(ii) When more than one trolley is operated on the same bridge, each shall be equipped with bumpers or equivalent on their adjacent ends.
(iii) Bumpers or equivalent shall be designed and installed to minimize parts falling from the trolley in case of age.
(4) Rail sweeps. Bridge trucks shall be equipped with sweeps which extend below the top of the rail and project in front of the truck wheels.
(5) Guards for hoisting ropes. (i) If hoisting ropes run near enough to other parts to make fouling or chafing possible, guards shall be installed to prevent this condition.
(ii) A guard shall be provided to prevent contact between bridge conductors and hoisting ropes if they could come into contact.
(6) Guards for moving parts. (i) Exposed moving parts such as gears, set screws, projecting keys, chains, chain sprockets, and reciprocating components which might constitute a hazard under normal operating conditions shall be guarded.
(ii) Guards shall be securely fastened.
(iii) Each guard shall be capable of supporting without permanent distortion the weight of a 200-pound person unless the guard is located where it is impossible for a person to step on it.
(f) Brakes—(1) Brakes for hoists. (i) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane shall be equipped with at least one self-setting brake, hereafter referred to as a holding brake, applied directly to the motor shaft or some part of the gear train.
(ii) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane, except worm-geared hoists, the angle of whose worm is such as to prevent the load from accelerating in the lowering direction shall, in addition to a holding brake, be equipped with control braking means to prevent overspeeding.
(2) Holding brakes. (i) Holding brakes for hoist motors shall have not less than the following percentage of the full load hoisting torque at the point where the brake is applied.
(a) 125 percent when used with a control braking means other than mechanical.
(b) 100 percent when used in conjunction with a mechanical control braking means.
(c) 100 percent each if two holding brakes are provided.
(ii) Holding brakes on hoists shall have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service.
(iii) Holding brakes on hoists shall be applied automatically when power is removed.
(iv) Where necessary holding brakes shall be provided with adjustment means to compensate for wear.
(v) The wearing surface of all holding-brake drums or discs shall be smooth.
(vi) Each independent hoisting unit of a crane handling hot metal and having power control braking means shall be equipped with at least two holding brakes.
(3) Control braking means. (i) A power control braking means such as regenerative, dynamic or countertorque braking, or a mechanically controlled braking means shall be capable of maintaining safe lowering speeds of rated loads.
(ii) The control braking means shall have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by service.
(4) Brakes for trolleys and bridges. (i) Foot-operated brakes shall not require an applied force of more than 70 pounds to develop manufacturer's rated brake torque.
(ii) Brakes may be applied by mechanical, electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, or gravity means.
(iii) Where necessary brakes shall be provided with adjustment means to compensate for wear.
(iv) The wearing surface of all brakedrums or discs shall be smooth.
(v) All foot-brake pedals shall be constructed so that the operator's foot will not easily slip off the pedal.
(vi) Foot-operated brakes shall be equipped with automatic means for positive release when pressure is released from the pedal.
(vii) Brakes for stopping the motion of the trolley or bridge shall be of sufficient size to stop the trolley or bridge within a distance in feet equal to 10 percent of full load speed in feet per minute when traveling at full speed with full load.
(viii) If holding brakes are provided on the bridge or trolleys, they shall not prohibit the use of a drift point in the control circuit.
(ix) Brakes on trolleys and bridges shall have ample thermal capacity for the frequency of operation required by the service to prevent impairment of functions from overheating.
(5) Application of trolley brakes. (i) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley, a trolley brake shall be required as specified under paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
(ii) A drag brake may be applied to hold the trolley in a desired position on the bridge and to eliminate creep with the power off.
(6) Application of bridge brakes. (i) On cab-operated cranes with cab on bridge, a bridge brake is required as specified under paragraph (f)(4) of this section.
(ii) On cab-operated cranes with cab on trolley, a bridge brake of the holding type shall be required.
(iii) On all floor, remote and pulpit-operated crane bridge drives, a brake of noncoasting mechanical drive shall be provided.
(g) Electric equipment—(1) General. (i) Wiring and equipment shall comply with subpart S of this part.
(ii) The control circuit voltage shall not exceed 600 volts for a.c. or d.c. current.
(iii) The voltage at pendant push-buttons shall not exceed 150 volts for a.c. and 300 volts for d.c.
(iv) Where multiple conductor cable is used with a suspended pushbutton station, the station must be supported in some satisfactory manner that will protect the electrical conductors against strain.
(v) Pendant control boxes shall be constructed to prevent electrical shock and shall be clearly marked for identification of functions.
(2) Equipment. (i) Electrical equipment shall be so located or enclosed that live parts will not be exposed to accidental contact under normal operating conditions.
(ii) Electric equipment shall be protected from dirt, grease, oil, and moisture.
(iii) Guards for live parts shall be substantial and so located that they cannot be accidently deformed so as to make contact with the live parts.
(3) Controllers. (i) Cranes not equipped with spring-return controllers or momentary contact pushbuttons shall be provided with a device which will disconnect all motors from the line on failure of power and will not permit any motor to be restarted until the controller handle is brought to the “off” position, or a reset switch or button is operated.
(ii) Lever operated controllers shall be provided with a notch or latch which in the “off” position prevents the handle from being inadvertently moved to the “on” position. An “off” detent or spring return arrangement is acceptable.
(iii) The controller operating handle shall be located within convenient reach of the operator.
(iv) As far as practicable, the movement of each controller handle shall be in the same general directions as the resultant movements of the load.
(v) The control for the bridge and trolley travel shall be so located that the operator can readily face the direction of travel.
(vi) For floor-operated cranes, the controller or controllers if rope operated, shall automatically return to the “off” position when released by the operator.
(vii) Pushbuttons in pendant stations shall return to the “off” position when pressure is released by the crane operator.
(viii) Automatic cranes shall be so designed that all motions shall fail-safe if any malfunction of operation occurs.
(ix) Remote-operated cranes shall function so that if the control signal for any crane motion becomes ineffective the crane motion shall stop.
(4) Resistors. (i) Enclosures for resistors shall have openings to provide adequate ventilation, and shall be installed to prevent the accumulation of combustible matter too near to hot parts.
(ii) Resistor units shall be supported so as to be as free as possible from vibration.
(iii) Provision shall be made to prevent broken parts or molten metal falling upon the operator or from the crane.
(5) Switches. (i) The power supply to the runway conductors shall be controlled by a switch or circuit breaker located on a fixed structure, accessible from the floor, and arranged to be locked in the open position.
(ii) On cab-operated cranes a switch or circuit breaker of the enclosed type, with provision for locking in the open position, shall be provided in the leads from the runway conductors. A means of opening this switch or circuit breaker shall be located within easy reach of the operator.
(iii) On floor-operated cranes, a switch or circuit breaker of the enclosed type, with provision for locking in the open position, shall be provided in the leads from the runway conductors. This disconnect shall be mounted on the bridge or footwalk near the runway collectors. One of the following types of floor-operated disconnects shall be provided:
(a) Nonconductive rope attached to the main disconnect switch.
(b) An undervoltage trip for the main circuit breaker operated by an emergency stop button in the pendant pushbutton in the pendant pushbutton station.
(c) A main line contactor operated by a switch or pushbutton in the pendant pushbutton station.
(iv) The hoisting motion of all electric traveling cranes shall be provided with an overtravel limit switch in the hoisting direction.
(v) All cranes using a lifting magnet shall have a magnet circuit switch of the enclosed type with provision for locking in the open position. Means for discharging the inductive load of the magnet shall be provided.
(6) Runway conductors. Conductors of the open type mounted on the crane runway beams or overhead shall be so located or so guarded that persons entering or leaving the cab or crane footwalk normally could not come into contact with them.
(7) Extension lamps. If a service receptacle is provided in the cab or on the bridge of cab-operated cranes, it shall be a grounded three-prong type permanent receptacle, not exceeding 300 volts.
(h) Hoisting equipment—(1) Sheaves. (i) Sheave grooves shall be smooth and free from surface defects which could cause rope damage.
(ii) Sheaves carrying ropes which can be momentarily unloaded shall be provided with close-fitting guards or other suitable devices to guide the rope back into the groove when the load is applied again.
(iii) The sheaves in the bottom block shall be equipped with close-fitting guards that will prevent ropes from becoming fouled when the block is lying on the ground with ropes loose.
(iv) Pockets and flanges of sheaves used with hoist chains shall be of such dimensions that the chain does not catch or bind during operation.
(v) All running sheaves shall be equipped with means for lubrication. Permanently lubricated, sealed and/or shielded bearings meet this requirement.
(2) Ropes. (i) In using hoisting ropes, the crane manufacturer's recommendation shall be followed. The rated load divided by the number of parts of rope shall not exceed 20 percent of the nominal breaking strength of the rope.
(ii) Socketing shall be done in the manner specified by the manufacturer of the assembly.
(iii) Rope shall be secured to the drum as follows:
(a) No less than two wraps of rope shall remain on the drum when the hook is in its extreme low position.
(b) Rope end shall be anchored by a clamp securely attached to the drum, or by a socket arrangement approved by the crane or rope manufacturer.
(iv) Eye splices. [Reserved]
(v) Rope clips attached with U-bolts shall have the U-bolts on the dead or short end of the rope. Spacing and number of all types of clips shall be in accordance with the clip manufacturer's recommendation. Clips shall be drop-forged steel in all sizes manufactured commercially. When a newly installed rope has been in operation for an hour, all nuts on the clip bolts shall be retightened.
(vi) Swaged or compressed fittings shall be applied as recommended by the rope or crane manufacturer.
(vii) Wherever exposed to temperatures, at which fiber cores would be damaged, rope having an independent wirerope or wire-strand core, or other temperature-damage resistant core shall be used.
(viii) Replacement rope shall be the same size, grade, and construction as the original rope furnished by the crane manufacturer, unless otherwise recommended by a wire rope manufacturer due to actual working condition requirements.
(3) Equalizers. If a load is supported by more than one part of rope, the tension in the parts shall be equalized.
(4) Hooks. Hooks shall meet the manufacturer's recommendations and shall not be overloaded.
(i) Warning device. Except for floor-operated cranes a gong or other effective warning signal shall be provided for each crane equipped with a power traveling mechanism.
(j) Inspection—(1) Inspection classification. (i) Initial inspection. Prior to initial use all new and altered cranes shall be inspected to insure compliance with the provisions of this section.
(ii) Inspection procedure for cranes in regular service is divided into two general classifications based upon the intervals at which inspection should be performed. The intervals in turn are dependent upon the nature of the critical components of the crane and the degree of their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two general classifications are herein designated as “frequent” and “periodic” with respective intervals between inspections as defined below:
(a) Frequent inspection—Daily to monthly intervals.
(b) Periodic inspection—1 to 12- month intervals.
(2) Frequent inspection. The following items shall be inspected for defects at intervals as defined in paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section or as specifically indicated, including observation during operation for any defects which might appear between regular inspections. All deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) All functional operating mechanisms for maladjustment interfering with proper operation. Daily.
(ii) Deterioration or leakage in lines, tanks, valves, drain pumps, and other parts of air or hydraulic systems. Daily.
(iii) Hooks with deformation or cracks. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and the serial number, or other identifier, of the hook inspected. For hooks with cracks or having more than 15 percent in excess of normal throat opening or more than 10° twist from the plane of the unbent hook refer to paragraph (l)(3)(iii)(a) of this section.
(iv) Hoist chains, including end connections, for excessive wear, twist, distorted links interfering with proper function, or stretch beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Visual inspection daily; monthly inspection with a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier of the chain which was inspected.
(vi) All functional operating mechanisms for excessive wear of components.
(vii) Rope reeving for noncompliance with manufacturer's recommendations.
(3) Periodic inspection. Complete inspections of the crane shall be performed at intervals as generally defined in paragraph (j)(1)(ii)(b) of this section, depending upon its activity, severity of service, and environment, or as specifically indicated below. These inspections shall include the requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and in addition, the following items. Any deficiencies such as listed shall be carefully examined and determination made as to whether they constitute a safety hazard:
(i) Deformed, cracked, or corroded members.
(ii) Loose bolts or rivets.
(iii) Cracked or worn sheaves and drums.
(iv) Worn, cracked or distorted parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking and clamping devices.
(v) Excessive wear on brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.
(vi) Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range, for any significant inaccuracies.
(vii) Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other powerplants for improper performance or noncompliance with applicable safety requirements.
(viii) Excessive wear of chain drive sprockets and excessive chain stretch.
(x) Electrical apparatus, for signs of pitting or any deterioration of controller contactors, limit switches and pushbutton stations.
(4) Cranes not in regular use. (i) A crane which has been idle for a period of 1 month or more, but less than 6 months, shall be given an inspection conforming with requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section before placing in service.
(ii) A crane which has been idle for a period of over 6 months shall be given a complete inspection conforming with requirements of paragraphs (j) (2) and (3) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section before placing in service.
(iii) Standby cranes shall be inspected at least semi-annually in accordance with requirements of paragraph (j)(2) of this section and paragraph (m)(2) of this section.
(k) Testing—(1) Operational tests. (i) Prior to initial use all new and altered cranes shall be tested to insure compliance with this section including the following functions:
(a) Hoisting and lowering.
(b) Trolley travel.
(c) Bridge travel.
(d) Limit switches, locking and safety devices.
(ii) The trip setting of hoist limit switches shall be determined by tests with an empty hook traveling in increasing speeds up to the maximum speed. The actuating mechanism of the limit switch shall be located so that it will trip the switch, under all conditions, in sufficient time to prevent contact of the hook or hook block with any part of the trolley.
(2) Rated load test. Test loads shall not be more than 125 percent of the rated load unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer. The test reports shall be placed on file where readily available to appointed personnel.
(l) Maintenance—(1) Preventive maintenance. A preventive maintenance program based on the crane manufacturer's recommendations shall be established.
(2) Maintenance procedure. (i) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a crane the following precautions shall be taken:
(a) The crane to be repaired shall be run to a location where it will cause the least interference with other cranes and operations in the area.
(b) All controllers shall be at the off position.
(c) The main or emergency switch shall be open and locked in the open position.
(d) Warning or “out of order” signs shall be placed on the crane, also on the floor beneath or on the hook where visible from the floor.
(e) Where other cranes are in operation on the same runway, rail stops or other suitable means shall be provided to prevent interference with the idle crane.
(ii) After adjustments and repairs have been made the crane shall not be operated until all guards have been reinstalled, safety devices reactivated and maintenance equipment removed.
(3) Adjustments and repairs. (i) Any unsafe conditions disclosed by the inspection requirements of paragraph (j) of this section shall be corrected before operation of the crane is resumed. Adjustments and repairs shall be done only by designated personnel.
(ii) Adjustments shall be maintained to assure correct functioning of components. The following are examples:
(a) All functional operating mechanisms.
(b) Limit switches.
(c) Control systems.
(e) Power plants.
(iii) Repairs or replacements shall be provided promptly as needed for safe operation. The following are examples:
(a) Crane hooks showing defects described in paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section shall be discarded. Repairs by welding or reshaping are not generally recommended. If such repairs are attempted they shall only be done under competent supervision and the hook shall be tested to the load requirements of paragraph (k)(2) of this section before further use.
(b) Load attachment chains and rope slings showing defects described in paragraph (j)(2) (iv) and (v) of this section respectively.
(c) All critical parts which are cracked, broken, bent, or excessively worn.
(d) Pendant control stations shall be kept clean and function labels kept legible.
(m) Rope inspection—(1) Running ropes. A thorough inspection of all ropes shall be made at least once a month and a certification record which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier for the ropes which were inspected shall be kept on file where readily available to appointed personnel. Any deterioration, resulting in appreciable loss of original strength, shall be carefully observed and determination made as to whether further use of the rope would constitute a safety hazard. Some of the conditions that could result in an appreciable loss of strength are the following:
(i) Reduction of rope diameter below nominal diameter due to loss of core support, internal or external corrosion, or wear of outside wires.
(ii) A number of broken outside wires and the degree of distribution or concentration of such broken wires.
(iii) Worn outside wires.
(iv) Corroded or broken wires at end connections.
(v) Corroded, cracked, bent, worn, or improperly applied end connections.
(vi) Severe kinking, crushing, cutting, or unstranding.
(2) Other ropes. All rope which has been idle for a period of a month or more due to shutdown or storage of a crane on which it is installed shall be given a thorough inspection before it is used. This inspection shall be for all types of deterioration and shall be performed by an appointed person whose approval shall be required for further use of the rope. A certification record shall be available for inspection which includes the date of inspection, the signature of the person who performed the inspection and an identifier for the rope which was inspected.
(n) Handling the load—(1) Size of load. The crane shall not be loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes as provided in paragraph (k) of this section.
(2) Attaching the load. (i) The hoist chain or hoist rope shall be free from kinks or twists and shall not be wrapped around the load.
(ii) The load shall be attached to the load block hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
(iii) Care shall be taken to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles.
(3) Moving the load. (i) The load shall be well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
(ii) Before starting to hoist the following conditions shall be noted:
(a) Hoist rope shall not be kinked.
(b) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.
(c) The hook shall be brought over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
(iii) During hoisting care shall be taken that:
(a) There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
(b) The load does not contact any obstructions.
(iv) Cranes shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed.
(v) While any employee is on the load or hook, there shall be no hoisting, lowering, or traveling.
(vi) The employer shall require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.
(vii) The operator shall test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled. The brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes.
(viii) The load shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.
(ix) When two or more cranes are used to lift a load one qualified responsible person shall be in charge of the operation. He shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made.
(x) The employer shall insure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended.
(xi) When starting the bridge and when the load or hook approaches near or over personnel, the warning signal shall be sounded.
(4) Hoist limit switch. (i) At the beginning of each operator's shift, the upper limit switch of each hoist shall be tried out under no load. Extreme care shall be exercised; the block shall be “inched” into the limit or run in at slow speed. If the switch does not operate properly, the appointed person shall be immediately notified.
(ii) The hoist limit switch which controls the upper limit of travel of the load block shall never be used as an operating control.
(o) Other requirements, general—(1) Ladders. (i) The employer shall insure that hands are free from encumbrances while personnel are using ladders.
(ii) Articles which are too large to be carried in pockets or belts shall be lifted and lowered by hand line.
(2) Cabs. (i) Necessary clothing and personal belongings shall be stored in such a manner as not to interfere with access or operation.
(ii) Tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles shall be stored in the tool box, and shall not be permitted to lie loose in or about the cab.
(3) Fire extinguishers. The employer shall insure that operators are familiar with the operation and care of fire extinguishers provided.
[39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 40 FR 27400, June 27, 1975; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 51 FR 34560, Sept. 29, 1986; 55 FR 32015, Aug. 6, 1990; 61 FR 9239, Mar. 7, 1996]