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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 15, 2014

Title 26: Internal Revenue
PART 1—INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED)


§1.904-7   Transition rules.

(a) Characterization of distributions and section 951(a)(1) (A) (ii) and (iii) and (B) inclusions of earnings of a controlled foreign corporation accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987, during taxable years of both the payor controlled foreign corporation and the recipient which begin after December 31, 1986—(1) Distributions and section 951(a)(1) (A) (ii) and (iii) and (B) inclusions. Earnings accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 1987, by a foreign corporation that was a controlled foreign corporation when such earnings were accumulated are characterized in that foreign corporation's hands under section 904(d)(1)(A) (separate limitation interest income) or section 904(d)(1)(E) (general limitation income) (prior to their amendment by the Tax Reform Act of 1986 (the Act)) after application of the de minimis rule of former section 904(d)(3)(C) (prior to its amendment by the Act). When, in a taxable year after the effective date of the Act, earnings and profits attributable to such income are distributed to, or included in the gross income of, a United States shareholder under section 951(a)(1) (A) (ii) or (iii) or (B) (hereinafter in this section “inclusions”), the ordering rules of section 904(d)(3)(D) and §1.904-5(c)(4) shall be applied in determining initially the character of the income of the distributee or United States shareholder. Thus, a proportionate amount of a distribution described in this paragraph initially will be characterized as separate limitation interest income in the hands of the distributee based on the ratio of the separate limitation interest earnings and profits out of which the dividend was paid to the total earnings and profits out of which the dividend was paid. The distribution or inclusions must then be recharacterized in the hands of the distributee or United States shareholder on the basis of the following principles:

(i) Distributions and inclusions that initially are characterized as separate limitation interest income shall be treated as passive income;

(ii) Distributions and inclusions that initially are characterized as old general limitation income shall be treated as general limitation income, unless the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Commissioner that the distribution or inclusion is attributable to:

(A) Earnings and profits accumulated with respect to shipping income, as defined in section 904(d)(2)(D) and §1.904-4(f); or

(B) In the case of a financial services entity, earnings and profits accumulated with respect to financial services income, as defined in section 904(d)(2)(C)(ii) and §1.904-4(e)(1); or

(C) Earnings and profits accumulated with respect to high withholding tax interest, as defined in section 904(d)(2)(B) and §1.904-4(d).

(2) Limitation on establishing the character of earnings and profits. In order for a taxpayer to establish that distributions or inclusions that are attributable to general limitation earnings and profits of a particular taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, are attributable to shipping, financial services or high withholding tax interest earnings and profits, the taxpayer must establish the amounts of foreign taxes paid or accrued with respect to income attributable to those earnings and profits that are to be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to shipping, financial services or high withholding tax interest income, as the case may be, under section 904(d)(2)(I). Conversely, in order for a taxpayer to establish the amounts of general limitation taxes paid or accrued in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, that are to be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to shipping, financial services or high withholding tax interest income, as the case may be, the taxpayer must establish the amount of any distributions or inclusions that are attributable to shipping, financial services or high withholding tax interest earnings and profits. For purposes of establishing the amounts of general limitation taxes that are to be treated as taxes paid or accrued with respect to shipping, financial services or high withholding tax interest income, the principles of §1.904-6 shall be applied.

(b) Application of look-through rules to distributions (including deemed distributions) and payments by an entity to a recipient when one's taxable year begins before January 1, 1987 and the other's taxable year begins after December 31, 1986—(1) In general. This paragraph provides rules relating to the application of section 904(d)(3) to payments made by a controlled foreign corporation or other entity to which the look-through rules apply during its taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, but received in a taxable year of the recipient beginning before January 1, 1987. The paragraph also provides rules relating to distributions (including deemed distributions) or payments made by a controlled foreign corporation to which section 904(d)(3) (as in effect before the Act) applies during its taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, and received in a taxable year of the recipient beginning after December 31, 1986.

(2) Payor of interest, rents, or royalties is subject to the Act and recipient is not subject to the Act. If interest, rents, or royalties are paid or accrued on or after the start of the payor's first taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 1987, but prior to the start of the recipient's first taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 1987, such interest, rents, or royalties shall initially be characterized in accordance with section 904(d)(3) and §1.904-5. To the extent that interest payments in the hands of the recipient are initially characterized as passive income under these rules, they will be treated as separate limitation interest in the hands of the recipient. To the extent that rents or royalties in the hands of the recipient are initially characterized as passive income under these rules, they will be recharacterized as general limitation income in the hands of the recipient.

(3) Recipient of interest, rents, or royalties is subject to the Act and payor is not subject to the Act. If interest, rents, or royalties are paid or accrued before the start of the payor's first taxable year beginning on or after January 1, 1987, but on or after the start of the recipient's first taxable year beginning after January 1, 1987, the income in the recipient's hands shall be initially characterized in accordance with former section 904(d)(3) (prior to its amendment by the Act). To the extent interest income is characterized as separate limitation interest income under these rules, that income shall be recharacterized as passive income in the hands of the recipient. Rents or royalties will be characterized as general limitation income.

(4) Recipient of dividends and subpart F inclusions is subject to the Act and payor is not subject to the Act. If dividends are paid or accrued or section 951(a)(1) inclusions occur before the start of the first taxable year of a controlled foreign corporation beginning on or after January 1, 1987, but on or after the start of the first taxable year of the distributee or United States shareholder beginning on or after January 1, 1987, the dividends or section 951(a)(1) inclusions in the hands of the distributee or United States shareholder shall be initially characterized in accordance with former section 904(d)(3) (including the ordering rules of section 904(d)(3)(A). Therefore, under former section 904(d)(3)(A), dividends are considered to be paid or derived first from earnings attributable to separate limitation interest income. To the extent the dividend or section 951(a)(1) inclusion is initially characterized under these rules as separate limitation interest income in the hands of the distributee or United States shareholder, the dividend or section 951(a)(1) inclusion shall be recharacterized as passive income in the hands of the distributee or United States shareholder. The portion, if any, of the dividend or section 951(a)(1) inclusion that is not characterized as passive income shall be characterized according to the rules in paragraph (a) of this section. Therefore, a taxpayer may establish that income that would otherwise be characterized as general limitation income is shipping or financial services income. Rules comparable to the rules contained in section 904(d)(2)(I) shall be applied for purposes of characterizing foreign taxes deemed paid with respect to distributions and section 951(a)(1) inclusions covered by this paragraph (b)(4).

(5) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (b).

Example 1. P is a domestic corporation that is a fiscal year taxpayer (July 1-June 30). S, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of P and has a calendar taxable year. On June l, 1987, S makes a $100 interest payment to P. Because the payment is made after January 1, 1987 (the first day of S's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986), the look-through rules of section 904(d)(3) apply to characterize the payment made by S. To the extent, however, that the interest payment to P is allocable to passive income earned by S, the payment will be included in P's separate limitation for interest as provided in former section 904(d)(1)(A).

Example 2. P is a domestic corporation that is a calendar year taxpayer. S, a controlled foreign corporation, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of P and has a July 1-June 30 taxable year. On June 1, 1987, S makes a $100 interest payment to P. Because the payment is made prior to July l, 1987 (the first day of S's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986), the look-through rules of section 904(d)(3) do not apply. Assume that, under former section 904(d)(3), the interest payment would be characterized as separate limitation interest income. For purposes of determining P's foreign tax credit limitation, the interest payment will be passive income as provided in section 904(d)(1)(A).

Example 3. The facts are the same as in Example 2 except that on June 1, 1987, S makes a $100 dividend distribution to P. Because the dividend is paid prior to July l, 1987 (the first day of S's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986), the look-through rules of section 904(d)(3) do not apply. Assume that, under former section 904(d)(3), S's earnings and profits for the taxable year ending June 30, 1987, consist of $200 of earnings attributable to general limitation income and $75 of earnings attributable to separate limitation interest income. The portion of the dividend that is attributable to S's separate limitation interest and is treated as separate limitation interest income under former section 904(d)(3) is $75. The remaining $25 of the dividend is treated as general limitation income under former section 904(d)(3). For purposes of determining P's foreign tax credit limitation, $75 of the dividend will be recharacterized as passive income. The remaining $25 of the dividend will be characterized as general limitation income, unless P can establish that the general limitation portion is attributable to shipping or financial services income.

(c) Installment sales. If income is received or accrued by any person on or after the effective date of the Act (as applied to such person) that is attributable to a disposition of property by such person with regard to which section 453 or section 453A applies (installment sale treatment), and the disposition occurred prior to the effective date of the Act, that income shall be characterized according to the rules of §§1.904-4 through 1.904-7.

(d) Special effective date for high withholding tax interest earned by persons with respect to qualified loans described in section 1201(e)(2) of the Act. For purposes of characterizing interest received or accrued by any person, the definition of high withholding tax interest in §1.904-4(d) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, except as provided in section 1201(e)(2) of the Act.

(e) Treatment of certain recapture income. Except as otherwise provided, if income is subject to recapture under section 585(c), the income shall be general limitation income. If the income is recaptured by a taxpayer that is a financial services entity, the entity may treat the income as financial services income if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the deduction to which the recapture amount is attributable is allocable to financial services income. If the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the deduction to which the recapture amount is attributable is allocable to high-withholding tax interest income, the taxpayer may treat the income as high-withholding tax interest.

(f) Treatment of non-look-through pools of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation in post-2002 taxable years—(1) Definition of non-look-through pools. The term non-look-through pools means the pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(9)) that were accumulated, and post-1986 foreign income taxes (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(8)) paid, accrued, or deemed paid, in and after the first taxable year in which the foreign corporation had a domestic shareholder (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(1)) but before any such shareholder was eligible for look-through treatment with respect to dividends from the foreign corporation.

(2) Treatment of non-look-through pools of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation. Any undistributed earnings in the non-look-through pool that were accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003, by a noncontrolled section 902 corporation as of the last day of the corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, as if they were accumulated during a period when a dividend paid by the noncontrolled section 902 corporation to a domestic shareholder would have been eligible for look-through treatment under section 904(d)(4) and §1.904-5. Post-1986 foreign income taxes paid, accrued or deemed paid with respect to such earnings shall be treated as if they were paid, accrued or deemed paid during a period when the related earnings were eligible for look-through treatment. Any such earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools shall constitute the opening balance of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation's pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes on the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(3) Treatment of non-look-through pools of a controlled foreign corporation. A controlled foreign corporation may have non-look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes that were accumulated and paid in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, in which it was a noncontrolled section 902 corporation. Any such undistributed earnings in the non-look-through pool as of the last day of the controlled foreign corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, shall be treated in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2003, as if they were accumulated during a period when a dividend paid by the controlled foreign corporation out of such earnings, or an amount included in the gross income of a United States shareholder under section 951 that is attributable to such earnings, would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any post-1986 foreign income taxes paid, accrued, or deemed paid with respect to such earnings shall be treated in taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 2003, as if they were paid, accrued, or deemed paid during a period when a dividend or inclusion out of such earnings would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any such undistributed earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools shall be added to the pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes of the controlled foreign corporation in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the controlled foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. Similar rules shall apply to characterize any previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1)(A) that are attributable to earnings in the non-look-through pool.

(4) Substantiation of look-through character of undistributed earnings and taxes in a non-look-through pool—(i) Reconstruction of earnings and taxes pools. In order to substantiate the look-through characterization of undistributed earnings and taxes in a non-look-through pool under section 904(d)(4) and §1.904-5, the taxpayer shall make a reasonable, good-faith effort to reconstruct the non-look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes (and previously-taxed earnings and profits, if any) on a look-through basis for each year in the non-look-through period, beginning with the first taxable year in which post-1986 undistributed earnings were accumulated in the non-look-through pool. Reconstruction shall be based on reasonably available books and records and other relevant information, and it must account for earnings distributed and taxes deemed paid in these years as if they were distributed and deemed paid pro rata from the amounts that were added to the non-look-through pools during the non-look-through period.

(ii) Safe harbor method. A taxpayer that was eligible for look-through treatment with respect to a distribution from the foreign corporation in the taxpayer's first taxable year ending after the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, may allocate the undistributed earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools to the foreign corporation's look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in other separate categories on the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in the same percentages as the taxpayer properly characterizes the stock of the foreign corporation in the separate categories for purposes of apportioning the taxpayer's interest expense in its first taxable year ending after the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, under §1.861-12T(c)(3) or §1.861-12(c)(4), as the case may be. If the modified gross income method described in §1.861-9T(j) is used to apportion interest expense of the foreign corporation in its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, the taxpayer must allocate the undistributed earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools to the foreign corporation's look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes based on an average of the foreign corporation's modified gross income ratios for the foreign corporation's taxable years beginning in 2003 and 2004. A taxpayer may also use the safe harbor method described in this paragraph (f)(4)(ii) to allocate to separate categories any previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1)(A) that are attributable to the non-look-through pool. A taxpayer may choose to use the safe harbor method on either a timely filed or amended tax return or during an audit. However, a taxpayer that uses the safe harbor method on an amended return or in the course of an audit must make appropriate adjustments to eliminate any duplicate benefits arising from application of the safe harbor method to taxable years that are not open for assessment. A taxpayer's choice to use the safe harbor method is evidenced by employing the method. The taxpayer need not file any separate statement.

(iii) Inadequate substantiation. If a taxpayer does not use, or is ineligible to use, the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the Commissioner shall allocate the undistributed earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools to the foreign corporation's passive category.

(iv) Examples. The following examples illustrate the application of this paragraph (f)(4):

Example 1. P, a domestic corporation, has owned 50 percent of the voting stock of S, a foreign corporation, at all times since January 1, 1987, and S has been a noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to P since that date. P and S use the calendar year as their U.S. taxable year. The first year in which post-1986 undistributed earnings were accumulated in the non-look-through pool of S was 1987. As of December 31, 2002, S had 200u of post-1986 undistributed earnings and $100 of post-1986 foreign income taxes in its non-look-through pools. P does not use the safe harbor method under paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section to allocate the earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools to S's other separate categories and does not attempt to substantiate the look-through characterization of S's non-look-through pools. The Commissioner, however, reasonably determines, based on information used to characterize S's stock for purposes of apportioning P's interest expense in P's 2003 and 2004 taxable years, that 100u of the earnings and all $100 of the taxes in the non-look-through pools are properly assigned on a look-through basis to the general limitation category, and 100u of earnings and no taxes are properly assigned on a look-through basis to the passive category. Therefore, in accordance with the Commissioner's look-through characterization of the earnings and taxes in S's non-look-through pools, on January 1, 2003, S has 100u of post-1986 undistributed earnings and $100 of post-1986 foreign income taxes in the general limitation category and 100u of post-1986 undistributed earnings and no post-1986 foreign income taxes in the passive category.

Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1, except that the Commissioner cannot reasonably determine, based on the available information, the proper look-through characterization of the 200u of undistributed earnings and $100 of taxes in S's non-look-through pools. Accordingly, the Commissioner will assign such earnings and taxes to the passive category, so that as of January 1, 2003, S has 200u of post-1986 undistributed earnings and $100 of post-1986 foreign income taxes in the passive category, and the Commissioner will treat S as a passive category asset for purposes of apportioning P's interest expense.

(5) Treatment of a deficit accumulated in a non-look-through pool. Any deficit in the non-look-through pool of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation as of the end of its last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, as if the deficit had been accumulated during a period in which a dividend paid by the foreign corporation would have been eligible for look-through treatment. In the case of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation, the deficit and taxes, if any, in the non-look-through pools shall constitute the opening balance of the look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. In the case of a controlled foreign corporation, the deficit and taxes, if any, in the non-look-through pools shall be added to the balance of the look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes of the controlled foreign corporation in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the deficit and taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. If a taxpayer does not use the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the deficit and taxes cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the Commissioner shall allocate the deficit and taxes, if any, in the non-look-through pools to the foreign corporation's passive category. If, as of the end of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in which it pays a dividend, the foreign corporation has zero or a deficit in post-1986 undistributed earnings (taking into account any earnings or a deficit accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003), the deficit in post-1986 undistributed earnings shall be carried back to reduce pre-1987 accumulated profits, if any, on a last-in first-out basis. See §1.902-2(a)(1). If, as of the end of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in which the foreign corporation pays a dividend out of current earnings and profits, it has zero or a deficit in post-1986 undistributed earnings (taking into account any earnings or a deficit accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003), and the sum of current plus accumulated earnings and profits is zero or less than zero, no foreign taxes shall be deemed paid with respect to the dividend. See §1.902-1(b)(4).

(6) Treatment of pre-1987 accumulated profits. Any pre-1987 accumulated profits (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(10)) of a controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, as if they were accumulated during a period in which a dividend paid by the foreign corporation would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any pre-1987 foreign income taxes (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(10)(iii)) shall be treated as if they were paid, accrued or deemed paid during a year when a dividend out of the related pre-1987 accumulated profits would have been eligible for look-through treatment. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the pre-1987 accumulated profits and pre-1987 foreign income taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. If a taxpayer does not use, or is ineligible to use, the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the pre-1987 accumulated profits and pre-1987 foreign income taxes cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the pre-1987 accumulated profits and pre-1987 foreign income taxes shall be allocated to the foreign corporation's passive category.

(7) Treatment of post-1986 undistributed earnings or a deficit of a controlled foreign corporation attributable to dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation paid in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003—(i) Look-through treatment of post-1986 undistributed earnings at controlled foreign corporation level. Dividends paid by a noncontrolled section 902 corporation to a controlled foreign corporation in post-1986 taxable years of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation beginning before January 1, 2003, were assigned to a separate category for dividends from that noncontrolled section 902 corporation. Beginning on the first day of the controlled foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, any post-1986 undistributed earnings, or previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) or (2), of the controlled foreign corporation in such a separate category shall be treated as if they were accumulated during a period when a dividend paid by the noncontrolled section 902 corporation would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any post-1986 foreign income taxes in such a separate category shall also be treated as if they were paid, accrued or deemed paid during a period when such a dividend would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any such post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in a separate category for dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall be added to the opening balance of the controlled foreign corporation's look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the controlled foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. Any section 952(c)(2) recapture account with respect to such a separate category shall be allocated in the same manner as the associated post-1986 undistributed earnings. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of such earnings and taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section.

(ii) Look-through treatment of deficit in post-1986 undistributed earnings at controlled foreign corporation level. If a controlled foreign corporation has a deficit in a separate category for dividends from a lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation that is a member of the controlled foreign corporation's qualified group as defined in section 902(b)(2), such deficit shall be treated in taxable years of the upper-tier corporation beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, as if the deficit had been accumulated during a period in which a dividend from the lower-tier corporation would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Any post-1986 foreign income taxes in the separate category for dividends from the noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall also be treated as if they were paid, accrued or deemed paid during a period when the dividends were eligible for look-through treatment. The deficit and related post-1986 foreign income taxes, if any, shall be added to the opening balance of the controlled foreign corporation's look-through pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the controlled foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the deficit and taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section.

(iii) Substantiation required for look-through treatment. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of post-1986 undistributed earnings, previously-taxed earnings and profits, or a deficit in post-1986 undistributed earnings in a separate category for dividends paid by a noncontrolled section 902 corporation in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003, by making a reasonable, good-faith effort to reconstruct the earnings (or deficit) and taxes in the separate category at the level of the controlled foreign corporation on a look-through basis, in accordance with the principles of paragraph (f)(4)(i) of this section. Alternatively, the taxpayer may allocate the earnings (or deficit) and taxes to the controlled foreign corporation's look-through pools under the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section at the level of the controlled foreign corporation. If the taxpayer uses the safe harbor method, the earnings (or deficit) and taxes shall be allocated to the controlled foreign corporation's look-through pools in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the controlled foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. The allocation shall be made in the same percentages as the controlled foreign corporation would properly characterize the stock of the lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation in the separate categories for purposes of apportioning the controlled foreign corporation's interest expense in its first taxable year ending after the first day of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. Under §1.861-12T(c)(3), the apportionment ratios properly used by the controlled foreign corporation are in turn based on the apportionment ratios properly used by the noncontrolled section 902 corporation to apportion its interest expense in its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. In the case of a taxpayer that uses the safe harbor method where the lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation uses the modified gross income method described in §1.861-9T(j) to apportion interest expense for its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, earnings (or a deficit) and taxes in the separate category for dividends from the noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall be allocated to the look-through pools based on the average of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation's modified gross income ratios for its taxable years beginning in 2003 and 2004. In the case of a controlled foreign corporation that has in its qualified group a chain of lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporations, the safe harbor applies first to characterize the stock of the third-tier corporation and then to characterize the stock of the second-tier corporation. Where a taxpayer uses the safe harbor method with respect to a lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation with respect to which the taxpayer did not meet the requirements of section 902(a) as of the end of the upper-tier controlled foreign corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2003, the earnings (or deficit) and taxes in the separate category for dividends from the lower-tier corporation shall be allocated to the upper-tier corporation's look-through pools in the separate categories in the same percentages as the stock of the lower-tier corporation would have been characterized for purposes of apportioning the upper-tier corporation's interest expense in the last year the taxpayer met the ownership requirements of section 902(a) with respect to the lower-tier corporation if the look-through rules had applied in that year. If a taxpayer does not use the safe harbor method described in this paragraph (f)(7)(iii), and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the earnings (or deficit) and taxes cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the Commissioner shall allocate the earnings (or deficit) and associated foreign income taxes to the controlled foreign corporation's passive category.

(8) Treatment of distributions received by an upper-tier corporation from a lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation, including when the corporations do not have the same taxable years—(i) Rule. In the case of dividends paid by a lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation to an upper-tier corporation where both are members of the same qualified group as defined in section 902(b)(2), the following rules apply. Dividends paid by the lower-tier corporation in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003, are assigned to a separate category for dividends from that corporation, regardless of whether the corresponding taxable year of the recipient corporation began after December 31, 2002. Post-1986 undistributed earnings, previously-taxed earnings and profits, and post-1986 foreign income taxes in such a separate category shall be treated, beginning on the first day of the upper-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning on or after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, as if they were accumulated during a period when a dividend paid by the lower-tier corporation would have been eligible for look-through treatment under section 904(d)(4) and §1.904-5. Dividends paid by a lower-tier corporation in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, are eligible for look-through treatment when paid, without regard to whether the corresponding taxable year of the recipient upper-tier corporation began after December 31, 2002.

(ii) Example. The following example illustrates the application of paragraph (f) of this section:

Example. M, a domestic corporation, has directly owned 50 percent of the stock of foreign corporation X, and X has directly owned 50 percent of the stock of foreign corporation Y, at all times since X and Y were organized on January 1, 1990. Accordingly, X and Y are noncontrolled section 902 corporations with respect to M, and X and Y are members of the same qualified group. M and Y use the calendar year as their U.S. taxable year, and X uses a taxable year beginning on July 1. Under §1.904-4(g) and paragraph (f)(10) of this section, a dividend paid to M by X on January 15, 2003 (during X's last pre-2003 taxable year) is not eligible for look-through treatment in 2003. However, under §1.861-12(c)(4), M will characterize the stock of X on a look-through basis for purposes of interest expense apportionment in its 2003 taxable year. Under §1.904-2(h)(1), any unused foreign taxes in M's separate category for dividends from X will be carried over to M's other separate categories on a look-through basis for M's taxable years beginning on and after January 1, 2004. Under paragraph (f)(2) of this section, any undistributed earnings and taxes in X's non-look-through pools will be allocated to X's other separate categories on July 1, 2003. Under §1.904-5(i)(4) and paragraphs (f)(8)(i) and (f)(10) of this section, a dividend paid to X by Y on January 15, 2003 (during Y's first post-2002 taxable year) is eligible for look-through treatment when paid, notwithstanding that it is received in a pre-2003 taxable year of X.

(9) Election to apply pre-AJCA rules to 2003 and 2004 taxable years—(i) Definition. The term single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations means the separate category described in section 904(d)(1)(E) as in effect for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002, and prior to its repeal by the American Jobs Creation Act (AJCA), Public Law 108-357, 118 Stat. 1418 (October 22, 2004).

(ii) Time, manner, and form of election. A taxpayer may elect not to apply the provisions of section 403 of the AJCA and to apply the rules of this paragraph (f)(9) to taxable years of noncontrolled section 902 corporations beginning after December 31, 2002, and before January 1, 2005, without regard to whether the corresponding taxable years of the taxpayer or any upper-tier corporation begin before or after such dates. A taxpayer shall be eligible to make such an election provided that—

(A) The taxpayer's tax liability as shown on an original or amended tax return for each of its affected taxable years is consistent with the rules of this paragraph (f)(9), the guidance set forth in Notice 2003-5 (2003-1 CB 294) (see §601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), and the principles of §1.861-12(c)(4) for each such year for which the statute of limitations does not preclude the filing of an amended return;

(B) The taxpayer makes appropriate adjustments to eliminate any duplicate benefits arising from the application of this paragraph (f)(9) to taxable years that are not open for assessment; and

(C) The taxpayer attaches a statement to its next tax return for which the due date (with extensions) is more than 90 days after April 25, 2006, indicating that the taxpayer elects not to apply the provisions of section 403 of the AJCA to taxable years of its noncontrolled section 902 corporations beginning in 2003 and 2004, and that the taxpayer has filed original returns or will file amended returns reflecting tax liabilities for each affected year that satisfy the requirements described in this paragraph (f)(9)(ii).

(iii) Treatment of non-look-through pools in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004. Undistributed earnings (or a deficit) and taxes in the non-look-through pools of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation as of the end of its last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2005, shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2004, as if they were accumulated and paid during a period in which a distribution out of earnings in the non-look-through pool would have been eligible for look-through treatment. Such earnings (or deficit) and taxes shall be added to the foreign corporation's pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004. In accordance with the principles of paragraph (f)(4) of this section, the taxpayer must reconstruct the non-look-through pools or, if the taxpayer chooses to use the safe harbor method, allocate the earnings and taxes in the non-look-through pools to the foreign corporation's look-through pools in the appropriate separate categories on the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004. Under the safe harbor method, this allocation is made in the same percentages as the taxpayer properly characterized the stock of the foreign corporation for purposes of apportioning the taxpayer's interest expense in the taxpayer's first taxable year ending after the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. See §1.861-12T(c)(3) and §1.861-12(c)(4). If a taxpayer does not use the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the earnings (or deficit) and taxes cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the earnings (or deficit) and taxes shall be allocated to the foreign corporation's passive category.

(iv) Carryover of unused foreign tax. To the extent that a taxpayer has unused foreign taxes in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations, such taxes shall be carried forward to the appropriate separate categories in the taxpayer's taxable years beginning on or after the first day of the relevant noncontrolled section 902 corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2004. Such unused taxes shall be carried forward in the same manner as §1.904-2(h)(1) provides that unused foreign taxes in the separate categories for dividends from each noncontrolled section 902 corporation are carried over to taxable years beginning on or after the first day of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, in the case of a taxpayer that does not make the election under this paragraph (f)(9). The electing taxpayer shall determine which noncontrolled section 902 corporations paid the dividends to which the unused foreign taxes are attributable and assign the taxes to the appropriate separate categories as if such dividends had been eligible for look-through treatment when paid. Accordingly, the taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the unused foreign taxes in accordance with paragraph (f)(4) of this section by reconstructing the non-look-through pools or, if the taxpayer uses the safe harbor method, by allocating the unused foreign taxes to other separate categories in the same percentages as the taxpayer properly characterized the stock of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation for purposes of apportioning the taxpayer's interest expense for its first taxable year ending after the first day of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. The rule described in this paragraph (f)(9)(iv) shall apply only to unused foreign taxes attributable to dividends out of earnings that were accumulated by noncontrolled section 902 corporations in taxable years of such corporations beginning before January 1, 2003, because only unused foreign taxes attributable to distributions out of pre-2003 earnings are included in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations. To the extent that unused foreign taxes carried forward to the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations under the rules of Notice 2003-5 were either absorbed by low-taxed dividends paid by noncontrolled section 902 corporations out of the non-look-through pool in taxable years of such corporations beginning in 2003 or 2004, or expired unused, the amount of taxes carried forward to the separate categories on a look-through basis will be smaller than the aggregate amount of taxes initially carried forward to the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations. In this case, the unused foreign taxes arising in each taxable year shall be deemed attributable to each noncontrolled section 902 corporation in the same ratio as the dividends included in the separate category that were paid by such corporation in such year bears to all such dividends paid by all noncontrolled section 902 corporations in such year. Unused foreign taxes carried forward from the separate categories for dividends from each noncontrolled section 902 corporation to the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations will similarly be deemed to have been utilized on a pro rata basis. The remaining unused foreign taxes are then assigned to the appropriate separate categories under the rules of paragraph (f)(4) of this section. Unused foreign taxes shall be treated as allocable to general category income to the extent that such taxes would otherwise have been allocable to passive income (based on reconstructed pools or the safe harbor method), or to the extent that, under paragraph (f)(4)(iii) of this section, the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information.

(v) Carryback of unused foreign tax. To the extent that a taxpayer has unused foreign taxes attributable to a dividend paid by a noncontrolled section 902 corporation that was eligible for look-through treatment under section 904(d)(4) and §1.904-5, any such unused foreign taxes shall be carried back to prior taxable years within the same separate category and not to the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations or any separate category for dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation. See Notice 2003-5 for rules relating to the carryback of unused foreign taxes in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations.

(vi) Recapture of overall foreign loss or separate limitation loss in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations. To the extent that a taxpayer has a balance in a separate limitation loss or overall foreign loss account in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations under section 904(d)(1)(E) (prior to its repeal by the AJCA), at the end of the taxpayer's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2005 (or a later taxable year in which the taxpayer received a dividend subject to the separate limitation for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations), the amount of such balance shall be allocated on the first day of the taxpayer's next taxable year to the taxpayer's other separate categories. The amount of such balance that is attributable to each noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall be allocated in the same percentages as the taxpayer properly characterized the stock of such corporation for purposes of apportioning the taxpayer's interest expense for its first taxable year ending after the first day of such corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, under §1.861-12T(c)(3) or §1.861-12(c)(4), as the case may be. To the extent that a taxpayer has a balance in a separate limitation loss account for the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations with respect to another separate category, and the separate limitation loss account would otherwise be assigned to that other category under this paragraph (f)(9)(vi), such balance shall be eliminated.

(vii) Recapture of separate limitation losses in other separate categories. To the extent that a taxpayer has a balance in any separate limitation loss account in a separate category with respect to the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations at the end of the taxpayer's last taxable year with or within which ends the last taxable year of the relevant noncontrolled section 902 corporation beginning before January 1, 2005, such loss shall be recaptured in subsequent taxable years as income in the appropriate separate category. The separate limitation loss account shall be deemed attributable on a pro rata basis to those noncontrolled section 902 corporations that paid dividends out of earnings accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003, in the years in which the separate limitation loss in the other separate category arose. The ratable portions of the separate limitation loss account shall be recaptured as income in the taxpayer's separate categories in the same percentages as the taxpayer properly characterized the stock of the relevant noncontrolled section 902 corporation for purposes of apportioning the taxpayer's interest expense in its first taxable year ending after the first day of such corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, under §1.861-12T(c)(3) or §1.861-12(c)(4), as the case may be. To the extent that a taxpayer has a balance in any separate limitation loss account in any separate category that would have been recaptured as income in that same category under this paragraph (f)(9)(vii), such balance shall be eliminated.

(viii) Treatment of undistributed earnings in an upper-tier corporation-level single category for dividends from lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporations. Where a controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled section 902 corporation has a single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations containing earnings attributable to dividends paid by one or more lower-tier corporations, the following rules apply. The post-1986 undistributed earnings, previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) or (2), if any, and associated post-1986 foreign income taxes shall be allocated to the upper-tier corporation's other separate categories in the same manner as earnings and taxes in a separate category for dividends from each noncontrolled section 902 corporation maintained by the upper-tier corporation are allocated under paragraph (f)(7) of this section. Accordingly, post-1986 undistributed earnings, previously-taxed earnings and profits, if any, and post-1986 foreign income taxes in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations shall be treated as if they were accumulated and paid, accrued or deemed paid during a period when a dividend paid by each lower-tier corporation that paid dividends included in the single category would have been eligible for look-through treatment. If the taxpayer uses the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section, the earnings and taxes shall be allocated based on the apportionment ratios properly used by the lower-tier corporation to apportion its interest expense for its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. Any section 952(c)(2) recapture account with respect to the single category shall be allocated in the same manner as the associated post-1986 undistributed earnings. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the earnings and taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section. If the taxpayer does not use the safe harbor method and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the earnings cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the earnings and taxes shall be assigned to the upper-tier corporation's passive category.

(ix) Treatment of a deficit in the single category for dividends from lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporations. Where a controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled section 902 corporation had an aggregate deficit in the single category for dividends from all noncontrolled section 902 corporations as of the end of the upper-tier corporation's last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2005, such deficit and the associated post-1986 foreign income taxes, if any, shall be allocated to the upper-tier corporation's other separate categories in the same percentages in which the non-look-through pools of each lower-tier corporation to which the deficit is attributable were assigned to such corporation's other separate categories in its first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. If the taxpayer uses the safe harbor method described in paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section, the deficit and taxes shall be allocated based on how the taxpayer properly characterized the stock of the lower-tier noncontrolled section 902 corporation for purposes of apportioning the upper-tier corporation's interest expense for the upper-tier corporation's first taxable year ending after the first day of the lower-tier corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002. The taxpayer must substantiate the look-through characterization of the deficit and taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (f)(7)(iii) of this section. If the taxpayer does not use the safe harbor method and the Commissioner determines that the look-through characterization of the deficit cannot reasonably be determined based on the available information, the deficit and taxes shall be assigned to the upper-tier corporation's passive category.

(10) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (f) shall apply to dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation that are paid in taxable years of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation ending on or after April 20, 2009. See 26 CFR §1.904-7T(f) (revised as of April 1, 2009) for rules applicable, except in the case of a taxpayer that makes the election under paragraph (f)(9) of that section, to dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation that are paid in taxable years of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation beginning after December 31, 2002, and ending before April 20, 2009. See 26 CFR 1.904-7T(f) (revised as of April 1, 2009) for rules applicable, in the case of a taxpayer that makes the election under paragraph (f)(9) of that section, to dividends from a noncontrolled section 902 corporation that are paid in taxable years of the noncontrolled section 902 corporation beginning after December 31, 2004, and ending before April 20, 2009. However, taxpayers may choose to apply paragraph (f) of this section in its entirety in lieu of 26 CFR 1.904-7T(f) to all dividends paid in periods covered by the temporary regulations, provided that appropriate adjustments are made to eliminate duplicate benefits arising from application of paragraph (f) to taxable years that are not open for assessment.

(g) Treatment of earnings and foreign taxes of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation accumulated in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2007—(1) Definitions—(i) Pre-2007 pools means the pools in each separate category of post-1986 undistributed earnings (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(9)) that were accumulated, and post-1986 foreign income taxes (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(8)) paid, accrued, or deemed paid, in taxable years beginning before January 1, 2007.

(ii) Pre-2007 separate categories means the separate categories of income described in section 904(d) as applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 2007, and any other separate category of income described in §1.904-4(m).

(iii) Post-2006 separate categories means the separate categories of income described in section 904(d) as applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, and any other separate category of income described in §1.904-4(m).

(2) Treatment of pre-2007 pools of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation. Any post-1986 undistributed earnings in a pre-2007 pool of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, as if they were accumulated during a period in which the rules governing the determination of post-2006 separate categories applied. Post-1986 foreign income taxes paid, accrued, or deemed paid with respect to such earnings shall be treated as if they were paid, accrued, or deemed paid during a period in which the rules governing the determination of post-2006 separate categories (including the rules of section 904(d)(3)(E)) applied as well. Any such earnings and taxes in pre-2007 pools shall constitute the opening balance of the foreign corporation's post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes on the first day of the foreign corporation's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 2006, in accordance with the rules of paragraph (g)(3) of this section. Similar rules shall apply to characterize any deficits in the pre-2007 pools and previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) and (2) that are attributable to earnings in the pre-2007 pools. Any section 952(c)(2) recapture account with respect to a separate category shall be allocated in the same manner as the post-1986 undistributed earnings in the associated pre-2007 pool.

(3) Substantiation of post-2006 character of earnings and taxes in a pre-2007 pool—(i) Reconstruction of earnings and taxes pools. In order to substantiate the post-2006 characterization of post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes in pre-2007 pools of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation, the taxpayer shall make a reasonable, good-faith effort to reconstruct the pre-2007 pools of post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes following the rules governing the determination of post-2006 separate categories for each taxable year beginning before January 1, 2007, beginning with the first year in which post-1986 undistributed earnings were accumulated in the pre-2007 pool. Reconstruction shall be based on reasonably available books and records and other relevant information. To the extent any pre-2007 separate category includes earnings that would be allocated to more than one post-2006 separate category, the taxpayer must account for earnings distributed and taxes deemed paid in these years for such category as if they were distributed and deemed paid pro rata from the amounts that were added to that category during each taxable year beginning before January 1, 2007.

(ii) Safe harbor method—(A) In general. Subject to the rules of paragraph (g)(3)(iii) of this section, a taxpayer may allocate the post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in pre-2007 pools of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) under one of the safe harbor methods described in paragraphs (g)(3)(ii)(B) and (g)(3)(ii)(C) of this section. A taxpayer may choose to use the safe harbor method on a timely filed (original or amended) tax return or during an audit. A taxpayer that uses the safe harbor method on an amended return or in the course of an audit must make appropriate adjustments to eliminate any double benefit arising from application of the safe harbor method to years that are not open for assessment. A taxpayer's choice to use the safe harbor method is evidenced by employing the method. The taxpayer need not file any separate statement.

(B) General safe harbor method—(1) Any post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation in a pre-2007 separate category for passive income, certain dividends from a DISC or former DISC, taxable income attributable to certain foreign trade income, or certain distributions from a FSC or former FSC shall be allocated to the post-2006 separate category for passive category income.

(2) Any post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation in a pre-2007 separate category for financial services income, shipping income or general limitation income shall be allocated to the post-2006 separate category for general category income.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(B)(4) of this section, any post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation in a pre-2007 separate category for high withholding tax interest shall be allocated to the post-2006 separate category for passive category income.

(4) If a controlled foreign corporation has positive post-1986 undistributed earnings and post-1986 foreign income taxes in a pre-2007 separate category for high withholding tax interest, such earnings and taxes shall be allocated to the post-2006 separate category for general category income if the earnings would qualify as income subject to high foreign taxes under section 954(b)(4) if the entire amount of post-1986 undistributed earnings were treated as a net item of income subject to the rules of §1.954-1(d). If the high withholding tax interest earnings would not qualify as income subject to high foreign taxes under section 954(b)(4), then the earnings and taxes shall be allocated to the post-2006 separate category for passive category income.

(C) Interest apportionment safe harbor. A taxpayer may allocate the post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes in pre-2007 pools of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation following the principles of paragraph (f)(4)(ii) of this section.

(iii) Consistency rule. The election to apply a safe harbor method under paragraph (g)(3)(ii) of this section in lieu of the rules described in paragraph (g)(3)(i) of this section may be made on a separate category by separate category basis. However, if a taxpayer elects to apply a safe harbor to allocate pre-2007 pools of more than one pre-2007 separate category of a controlled foreign corporation or a noncontrolled section 902 corporation, such safe harbor (the general safe harbor described in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(B) of this section or the interest apportionment safe harbor described in paragraph (g)(3)(ii)(C) of this section) shall apply to allocate post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes for the pre-2007 pools in each pre-2007 separate category of the foreign corporation for which the taxpayer elected to apply a safe harbor method in lieu of reconstructing the pre-2007 pools.

(4) Treatment of pre-1987 accumulated profits. Any pre-1987 accumulated profits (as defined in §1.902-1(a)(10)) of a noncontrolled section 902 corporation or a controlled foreign corporation shall be treated in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, as if they had been accumulated during a period in which the rules governing the determination of post-2006 separate categories applied. Foreign income taxes paid, accrued, or deemed paid with respect to such earnings shall be treated as if they were paid, accrued, or deemed paid during a period in which the rules governing the determination of post-2006 separate categories applied as well. The taxpayer must substantiate the post-2006 characterization of the pre-1987 accumulated profits and pre-1987 foreign income taxes in accordance with the rules of paragraph (g)(3) of this section, including the safe harbor provisions. Similar rules shall apply to characterize any deficits or previously-taxed earnings and profits described in section 959(c)(1) and (2) that are attributable to pre-1987 accumulated profits.

(5) Treatment of earnings and foreign taxes in pre-2007 pools of a lower-tier controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled section 902 corporation. The rules of paragraphs (g)(1) through (4) of this section apply to post-1986 undistributed earnings (as well as deficits and previously-taxed earnings, if any) and post-1986 foreign income taxes in pre-2007 pools, and pre-1987 accumulated profits and pre-1987 foreign income taxes, of a lower-tier controlled foreign corporation or noncontrolled section 902 corporation.

(6) Effective/applicability date. This paragraph (g) shall apply to taxable years of United States persons and, for purposes of section 906, foreign persons beginning after December 31, 2006 and ending on or after December 21, 2007, and to taxable years of a foreign corporation which end with or within taxable years of its domestic corporate shareholder beginning after December 31, 2006 and ending on or after December 21, 2007.

[T.D. 8214, 53 FR 27034, July 18, 1988, as amended by T.D. 8412, 57 FR 20653, May 14, 1992; T.D. 9260, 71 FR 24533, Apr. 25, 2006; T.D. 9368, 72 FR 72590, Dec. 21, 2007; T.D. 9452, 74 FR 27881, June 11, 2009; T.D. 9521, 76 FR 19272, Apr. 7, 2011]



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