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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 18, 2014

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter BPart 101Subpart E → §101.81


Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 101—FOOD LABELING
Subpart E—Specific Requirements for Health Claims


§101.81   Health claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

(a) Relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods and the risk of CHD. (1) Cardiovascular disease means diseases of the heart and circulatory system. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common and serious forms of cardiovascular disease and refers to diseases of the heart muscle and supporting blood vessels. High blood total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of developing coronary heart disease. High CHD rates occur among people with high total cholesterol levels of 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) (6.21 (mmol/L)) or above and LDL-cholesterol levels of 160 mg/dL (4.13 mmol/L) or above. Borderline high risk total cholesterol levels range from 200 to 239 mg/dL (5.17 to 6.18 mmol/L) and 130 to 159 mg/dL (3.36 to 4.11 mmol/L) of LDL-cholesterol. The scientific evidence establishes that diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol are associated with increased levels of blood total- and LDL-cholesterol and, thus, with increased risk of CHD.

(2) Populations with a low incidence of CHD tend to have relatively low blood total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. These populations also tend to have dietary patterns that are not only low in total fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, but are also relatively high in fiber-containing fruits, vegetables, and grain products, such as whole oat products.

(3) Scientific evidence demonstrates that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of CHD. Other evidence demonstrates that the addition of soluble fiber from certain foods to a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol may also help to reduce the risk of CHD.

(b) Significance of the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods and the risk of CHD. (1) CHD is a major public health concern in the United States. It accounts for more deaths than any other disease or group of diseases. Early management of risk factors for CHD is a major public health goal that can assist in reducing risk of CHD. High blood total and LDL-cholesterol are major modifiable risk factors in the development of CHD.

(2) Intakes of saturated fat exceed recommended levels in the diets of many people in the United States. One of the major public health recommendations relative to CHD risk is to consume less than 10 percent of calories from saturated fat and an average of 30 percent or less of total calories from all fat. Recommended daily cholesterol intakes are 300 milligrams (mg) or less per day. Scientific evidence demonstrates that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol are associated with lower blood total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. Soluble fiber from certain foods, when included in a low saturated fat and cholesterol diet, also helps to lower blood total- and LDL-cholesterol levels.

(c) Requirements. (1) All requirements set forth in §101.14 shall be met. The label and labeling of foods containing psyllium husk shall be consistent with the provisions of §101.17(f).

(2) Specific requirements—(i) Nature of the claim. A health claim associating diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods with reduced risk of heart disease may be made on the label or labeling of a food described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section, provided that:

(A) The claim states that diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods “may” or “might” reduce the risk of heart disease.

(B) In specifying the disease, the claim uses the following terms: “heart disease” or “coronary heart disease”;

(C) In specifying the substance, the claim uses the term “soluble fiber” qualified by the name of the eligible source of soluble fiber (provided in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)) of this section. Additionally, the claim may use the name of the food product that contains the eligible source of soluble fiber;

(D) In specifying the fat component, the claim uses the terms “saturated fat” and “cholesterol”;

(E) The claim does not attribute any degree of risk reduction for CHD to diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from the eligible food sources from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section; and

(F) The claim does not imply that consumption of diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from the eligible food sources from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section is the only recognized means of achieving a reduced risk of CHD.

(G) The claim specifies the daily dietary intake of the soluble fiber source that is necessary to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and the contribution one serving of the product makes to the specified daily dietary intake level. Daily dietary intake levels of soluble fiber sources listed in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section that have been associated with reduced risk coronary heart disease are:

(1) 3 g or more per day of β-glucan soluble fiber from either whole oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley.

(2) 7 g or more per day of soluble fiber from psyllium seed husk.

(ii) Nature of the substance—Eligible sources of soluble fiber. (A) Beta (β) glucan soluble fiber from the whole oat and barley sources listed below. β-glucan soluble fiber will be determined by method No. 992.28 from the “Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC INTERNATIONAL,” 16th ed. (1995), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html;

(1) Oat bran. Oat bran is produced by grinding clean oat groats or rolled oats and separating the resulting oat flour by suitable means into fractions such that the oat bran fraction is not more than 50 percent of the original starting material and provides at least 5.5 percent (dry weight basis (dwb)) β-glucan soluble fiber and a total dietary fiber content of 16 percent (dwb), and such that at least one-third of the total dietary fiber is soluble fiber;

(2) Rolled oats. Rolled oats, also known as oatmeal, produced from 100 percent dehulled, clean oat groats by steaming, cutting, rolling, and flaking, and provides at least 4 percent (dwb) of β-glucan soluble fiber and a total dietary fiber content of at least 10 percent.

(3) Whole oat flour. Whole oat flour is produced from 100 percent dehulled, clean oat groats by steaming and grinding, such that there is no significant loss of oat bran in the final product, and provides at least 4 percent (dwb) of β-glucan soluble fiber and a total dietary fiber content of at least 10 percent (dwb).

(4) Oatrim. The soluble fraction of alpha-amylase hydrolyzed oat bran or whole oat flour, also known as oatrim. Oatrim is produced from either oat bran as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1) of this section or whole oat flour as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(3) of this section by solubilization of the starch in the starting material with an alpha-amylase hydrolysis process, and then removal by centrifugation of the insoluble components consisting of a high portion of protein, lipid, insoluble dietary fiber, and the majority of the flavor and color components of the starting material. Oatrim shall have a beta-glucan soluble fiber content up to 10 percent (dwb) and not less than that of the starting material (dwb).

(5) Whole grain barley and dry milled barley. Dehulled and hull-less whole grain barley with a β-glucan soluble fiber content of at least 4 percent (dwb) and a total dietary fiber content of at least 10 percent (dwb). Dry milled barley grain products include barley bran, barley flakes, barley grits, pearl barley, barley flour, barley meal, and sieved barley meal that are produced from clean, sound dehulled or hull-less barley grain using standard dry milling techniques, which may include steaming or tempering, and that contain at least 4 percent (dwb) of β-glucan soluble fiber and at least 8 percent (dwb) of total dietary fiber, except barley bran and sieved barley meal for which the minimum β-glucan soluble fiber content is 5.5 percent (dwb) and minimum total dietary fiber content is 15 percent (dwb). Dehulled barley, hull-less barley, barley bran, barley flakes, barley grits, pearl barley, and barley flour are as defined in the Barley Glossary (AACC Method 55-99), published in Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 10th ed. (2000), pp. 1 and 2, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, Minnesota, 55121, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Barley meal is unsifted, ground barley grain not subjected to any processing to separate the bran, germ, and endosperm. Sieved barley meal is an endosperm cell wall-enriched fraction of ground barley separated from meal by sieving or by air classification.

(6) Barley betafiber. Barley betafiber is the ethanol precipitated soluble fraction of cellulase and alpha-amylase hydrolyzed whole grain barley. Barley betafiber is produced by hydrolysis of whole grain barley flour, as defined in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(5) of this section, with a cellulase and alpha-amylase enzyme preparation, to produce a clear aqueous extract that contains mainly partially hydrolyzed beta-glucan and substantially hydrolyzed starch. The soluble, partially hydrolyzed beta-glucan is separated from the insoluble material by centrifugation, and after removal of the insoluble material, the partially hydrolyzed beta-glucan soluble fiber is separated from the other soluble compounds by precipitation with ethanol. The product is then dried, milled and sifted. Barley betafiber shall have a beta-glucan soluble fiber content of at least 70 percent on a dry weight basis.

(B)(1) Psyllium husk from the dried seed coat (epidermis) of the seed of Plantago (P.) ovata, known as blond psyllium or Indian psyllium, P. indica, or P. psyllium. To qualify for this claim, psyllium seed husk, also known as psyllium husk, shall have a purity of no less than 95 percent, such that it contains 3 percent or less protein, 4.5 percent or less of light extraneous matter, and 0.5 percent or less of heavy extraneous matter, but in no case may the combined extraneous matter exceed 4.9 percent, as determined by U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) methods described in USP's “The National Formulary,” USP 23, NF 18, p. 1341, (1995), which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., 12601 Twinbrook Pkwy., Rockville, MD 20852, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html;

(2) FDA will determine the amount of soluble fiber that is provided by psyllium husk by using a modification of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' International (AOAC's) method for soluble dietary fiber (991.43) described by Lee et al., “Determination of Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fiber in Psyllium-containing Cereal Products,” Journal of the AOAC International, 78 (No. 3):724-729, 1995, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html;

(iii) Nature of the food eligible to bear the claim. (A) The food product shall include:

(1) One or more of the whole oat or barley foods from paragraphs (c)(2)(ii)(A)(1), (2), (3), and (5) of this section, and the whole oat or barley foods shall contain at least 0.75 gram (g) of soluble fiber per reference amount customarily consumed of the food product; or

(2) The food containing the oatrim from paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(4) of this section or the barley betafiber from paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A)(6) of this section shall contain at least 0.75 g of beta-glucan soluble fiber per reference amount customarily consumed of the food product; or

(3) Psyllium husk that complies with paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, and the psyllium food shall contain at least 1.7 g of soluble fiber per reference amount customarily consumed of the food product;

(B) The amount of soluble fiber shall be declared in the nutrition label, consistent with §101.9(c)(6)(i)(A).

(C) The food shall meet the nutrient content requirement in §101.62 for a “low saturated fat” and “low cholesterol” food; and

(D) The food shall meet the nutrient content requirement in §101.62(b)(2) for a “low fat” food, unless the food exceeds this requirement due to fat content derived from whole oat sources listed in paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(A) of this section.

(d) Optional information. (1) The claim may state that the development of heart disease depends on many factors and may identify one or more of the following risk factors for heart disease about which there is general scientific agreement: A family history of CHD; elevated blood total and LDL-cholesterol; excess body weight; high blood pressure; cigarette smoking; diabetes; and physical inactivity. The claim may also provide additional information about the benefits of exercise and management of body weight to help lower the risk of heart disease;

(2) The claim may state that the relationship between intake of diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from the eligible food sources from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section and reduced risk of heart disease is through the intermediate link of “blood cholesterol” or “blood total- and LDL-cholesterol;”

(3) The claim may include information from paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, which summarize the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods and coronary heart disease and the significance of the relationship;

(4) The claim may specify the name of the eligible soluble fiber;

(5) The claim may state that a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol that includes soluble fiber from whole oats or barley is consistent with “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), Government Printing Office (GPO);

(6) The claim may state that individuals with elevated blood total- and LDL-cholesterol should consult their physicians for medical advice and treatment. If the claim defines high or normal blood total- and LDL-cholesterol levels, then the claim shall state that individuals with high blood cholesterol should consult their physicians for medical advice and treatment;

(7) The claim may include information on the number of people in the United States who have heart disease. The sources of this information shall be identified, and it shall be current information from the National Center for Health Statistics, the National Institutes of Health, or “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans,” USDA and DHHS, GPO.

(e) Model health claim. The following model health claims may be used in food labeling to describe the relationship between diets that are low in saturated fat and cholesterol and that include soluble fiber from certain foods and reduced risk of heart disease:

(1) Soluble fiber from foods such as [name of soluble fiber source from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section and, if desired, the name of food product], as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. A serving of [ name of food] supplies ____ grams of the [grams of soluble fiber specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(G) of this section] soluble fiber from [name of the soluble fiber source from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section] necessary per day to have this effect.

(2) Diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol that include [____ grams of soluble fiber specified in paragraph (c)(2)(i)(G) of this section] of soluble fiber per day from [name of soluble fiber source from paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section and, if desired, the name of the food product] may reduce the risk of heart disease. One serving of [name of food] provides ____ grams of this soluble fiber.

[62 FR 3600, Jan. 23, 1997, as amended at 62 FR 15344, Mar. 31, 1997; 63 FR 8119, Feb. 18, 1998; 66 FR 66742, Dec. 27, 2001; 67 FR 61782, Oct. 2, 2002; 68 FR 15355, Mar. 31, 2003; 70 FR 40880, July 15, 2005; 70 FR 76162, Dec. 23, 2005; 73 FR 9947, Feb. 25, 2008; 73 FR 23953, May 1, 2008]



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