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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 26, 2014

Title 21Chapter ISubchapter BPart 101Subpart A → §101.4


Title 21: Food and Drugs
PART 101—FOOD LABELING
Subpart A—General Provisions


§101.4   Food; designation of ingredients.

(a)(1) Ingredients required to be declared on the label or labeling of a food, including foods that comply with standards of identity, except those ingredients exempted by §101.100, shall be listed by common or usual name in descending order of predominance by weight on either the principal display panel or the information panel in accordance with the provisions of §101.2, except that ingredients in dietary supplements that are listed in the nutrition label in accordance with §101.36 need not be repeated in the ingredient list. Paragraph (g) of this section describes the ingredient list on dietary supplement products.

(2) The descending order of predominance requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section do not apply to ingredients present in amounts of 2 percent or less by weight when a listing of these ingredients is placed at the end of the ingredient statement following an appropriate quantifying statement, e.g., “Contains _ percent or less of ___” or “Less than _ percent of ___.” The blank percentage within the quantifying statement shall be filled in with a threshold level of 2 percent, or, if desired, 1.5 percent, 1.0 percent, or 0.5 percent, as appropriate. No ingredient to which the quantifying phrase applies may be present in an amount greater than the stated threshold.

(b) The name of an ingredient shall be a specific name and not a collective (generic) name, except that:

(1) Spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives shall be declared according to the provisions of §101.22.

(2) An ingredient which itself contains two or more ingredients and which has an established common or usual name, conforms to a standard established pursuant to the Meat Inspection or Poultry Products Inspection Acts by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, or conforms to a definition and standard of identity established pursuant to section 401 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, shall be designated in the statement of ingredients on the label of such food by either of the following alternatives:

(i) By declaring the established common or usual name of the ingredient followed by a parenthetical listing of all ingredients contained therein in descending order of predominance except that, if the ingredient is a food subject to a definition and standard of identity established in subchapter B of this chapter that has specific labeling provisions for optional ingredients, optional ingredients may be declared within the parenthetical listing in accordance with those provisions.

(ii) By incorporating into the statement of ingredients in descending order of predominance in the finished food, the common or usual name of every component of the ingredient without listing the ingredient itself.

(3) Skim milk, concentrated skim milk, reconstituted skim milk, and nonfat dry milk may be declared as “skim milk” or “nonfat milk”.

(4) Milk, concentrated milk, reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as “milk”.

(5) Bacterial cultures may be declared by the word “cultured” followed by the name of the substrate, e.g., “made from cultured skim milk or cultured buttermilk”.

(6) Sweetcream buttermilk, concentrated sweetcream buttermilk, reconstituted sweetcream buttermilk, and dried sweetcream buttermilk may be declared as “buttermilk”.

(7) Whey, concentrated whey, reconstituted whey, and dried whey may be declared as “whey”.

(8) Cream, reconstituted cream, dried cream, and plastic cream (sometimes known as concentrated milk fat) may be declared as “cream”.

(9) Butteroil and anhydrous butterfat may be declared as “butterfat”.

(10) Dried whole eggs, frozen whole eggs, and liquid whole eggs may be declared as “eggs”.

(11) Dried egg whites, frozen egg whites, and liquid egg whites may be declared as “egg whites”.

(12) Dried egg yolks, frozen egg yolks, and liquid egg yolks may be declared as “egg yolks”.

(13) [Reserved]

(14) Each individual fat and/or oil ingredient of a food intended for human consumption shall be declared by its specific common or usual name (e.g., “beef fat”, “cottonseed oil”) in its order of predominance in the food except that blends of fats and/or oils may be designated in their order of predominance in the foods as “___ shortening” or “blend of ___ oils”, the blank to be filled in with the word “vegetable”, “animal”, “marine”, with or without the terms “fat” or “oils”, or combination of these, whichever is applicable if, immediately following the term, the common or usual name of each individual vegetable, animal, or marine fat or oil is given in parentheses, e.g., “vegetable oil shortening (soybean and cottonseed oil)”. For products that are blends of fats and/or oils and for foods in which fats and/or oils constitute the predominant ingredient, i.e., in which the combined weight of all fat and/or oil ingredients equals or exceeds the weight of the most predominant ingredient that is not a fat or oil, the listing of the common or usual names of such fats and/or oils in parentheses shall be in descending order of predominance. In all other foods in which a blend of fats and/or oils is used as an ingredient, the listing of the common or usual names in parentheses need not be in descending order of predominance if the manufacturer, because of the use of varying mixtures, is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of fats and/or oils in the product. If the fat or oil is completely hydrogenated, the name shall include the term hydrogenated, or if partially hydrogenated, the name shall include the term partially hydrogenated. If each fat and/or oil in a blend or the blend is completely hydrogenated, the term “hydrogenated” may precede the term(s) describing the blend, e.g., “hydrogenated vegetable oil (soybean, cottonseed, and palm oils)”, rather than preceding the name of each individual fat and/or oil; if the blend of fats and/or oils is partially hydrogenated, the term “partially hydrogenated” may be used in the same manner. Fat and/or oil ingredients not present in the product may be listed if they may sometimes be used in the product. Such ingredients shall be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, “contains one or more of the following:”, e.g., “vegetable oil shortening (contains one or more of the following: cottonseed oil, palm oil, soybean oil)”. No fat or oil ingredient shall be listed unless actually present if the fats and/or oils constitute the predominant ingredient of the product, as defined in this paragraph (b)(14).

(15) When all the ingredients of a wheat flour are declared in an ingredient statement, the principal ingredient of the flour shall be declared by the name(s) specified in §§137.105, 137.200, 137.220 and 137.225 of this chapter, i.e., the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of flour, or bromated flour, or enriched flour, or self-rising flour is “flour”, “white flour”, “wheat flour”, or “plain flour”; the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of durum flour is “durum flour”; the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of whole wheat flour, or bromated whole wheat flour is “whole wheat flour”, “graham flour”, or “entire wheat flour”; and the first ingredient designated in the ingredient list of whole durum wheat flour is “whole durum wheat flour”.

(16) Ingredients that act as leavening agents in food may be declared in the ingredient statement by stating the specific common or usual name of each individual leavening agent in parentheses following the collective name “leavening”, e.g., “leavening (baking soda, monocalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate)”. The listing of the common or usual name of each individual leavening agent in parentheses shall be in descending order of predominance: Except, That if the manufacturer is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of leavening agents in the product, the listing of individual leavening agents need not be in descending order of predominance. Leavening agents not present in the product may be listed if they are sometimes used in the product. Such ingredients shall be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, “contains one or more of the following:”.

(17) Ingredients that act as yeast nutrients in foods may be declared in the ingredient statement by stating the specific common or usual name of each individual yeast nutrient in parentheses following the collective name “yeast nutrients”, e.g., “yeast nutrients (calcium sulfate and ammonium phosphate)”. The listing of the common or usual name of each individual yeast nutrient in parentheses shall be in descending order of predominance: Except, That if the manufacturer is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of yeast nutrients in the product, the listing of the common or usual names of individual yeast nutrients need not be in descending order of predominance. Yeast nutrients not present in the product may be listed if they are sometimes used in the product. Such ingredients shall be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, or “contains one or more of the following:”.

(18) Ingredients that act as dough conditioners may be declared in the ingredient statement by stating the specific common or usual name of each individual dough conditioner in parentheses following the collective name “dough conditioner”, e.g., “dough conditioners (L-cysteine, ammonium sulfate)”. The listing of the common or usual name of each dough conditioner in parentheses shall be in descending order of predominance: Except, That if the manufacturer is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of dough conditioners in the product, the listing of the common or usual names of individual dough conditioners need not be in descending order of predominance. Dough conditioners not present in the product may be listed if they are sometimes used in the product. Such ingredients shall be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, or “contains one or more of the following:”.

(19) Ingredients that act as firming agents in food (e.g., salts of calcium and other safe and suitable salts in canned vegetables) may be declared in the ingredient statement, in order of predominance appropriate for the total of all firming agents in the food, by stating the specific common or usual name of each individual firming agent in descending order of predominance in parentheses following the collective name “firming agents”. If the manufacturer is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of firming agents in the food, the listing of the individual firming agents need not be in descending order of predominance. Firming agents not present in the product may be listed if they are sometimes used in the product. Such ingredients shall be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, “contains one or more of the following:”.

(20) For purposes of ingredient labeling, the term sugar shall refer to sucrose, which is obtained from sugar cane or sugar beets in accordance with the provisions of §184.1854 of this chapter.

(21) [Reserved]

(22) Wax and resin ingredients on fresh produce when such produce is held for retail sale, or when held for other than retail sale by packers or repackers shall be declared collectively by the phrase “coated with food-grade animal-based wax, to maintain freshness” or the phrase “coated with food-grade vegetable-, petroleum-, beeswax-, and/or shellac-based wax or resin, to maintain freshness” as appropriate. The terms “food-grade” and “to maintain freshness” are optional. The term lac-resin may be substituted for the term shellac.

(23) When processed seafood products contain fish protein ingredients consisting primarily of the myofibrillar protein fraction from one or more fish species and the manufacturer is unable to adhere to a constant pattern of fish species in the fish protein ingredient, because of seasonal or other limitations of species availability, the common or usual name of each individual fish species need not be listed in descending order of predominance. Fish species not present in the fish protein ingredient may be listed if they are sometimes used in the product. Such ingredients must be identified by words indicating that they may not be present, such as “or”, “and/or”, or “contains one or more of the following:” Fish protein ingredients may be declared in the ingredient statement by stating the specific common or usual name of each fish species that may be present in parentheses following the collective name “fish protein”, e.g., “fish protein (contains one or more of the following: Pollock, cod, and/or pacific whiting)”.

(c) When water is added to reconstitute, completely or partially, an ingredient permitted by paragraph (b) of this section to be declared by a class name, the position of the ingredient class name in the ingredient statement shall be determined by the weight of the unreconstituted ingredient plus the weight of the quantity of water added to reconstitute that ingredient, up to the amount of water needed to reconstitute the ingredient to single strength. Any water added in excess of the amount of water needed to reconstitute the ingredient to single strength shall be declared as “water” in the ingredient statement.

(d) When foods characterized on the label as “nondairy” contain a caseinate ingredient, the caseinate ingredient shall be followed by a parenthetical statement identifying its source. For example, if the manufacturer uses the term “nondairy” on a creamer that contains sodium caseinate, it shall include a parenthetical term such as “a milk derivative” after the listing of sodium caseinate in the ingredient list.

(e) If the percentage of an ingredient is included in the statement of ingredients, it shall be shown in parentheses following the name of the ingredient and expressed in terms of percent by weight. Percentage declarations shall be expressed to the nearest 1 percent, except that where ingredients are present at levels of 2 percent or less, they may be grouped together and expressed in accordance with the quantifying guidance set forth in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(f) Except as provided in §101.100, ingredients that must be declared on labeling because there is no label for the food, including foods that comply with standards of identity, shall be listed prominently and conspicuously by common or usual name in the manner prescribed by paragraph (b) of this section.

(g) When present, the ingredient list on dietary supplement products shall be located immediately below the nutrition label, or, if there is insufficient space below the nutrition label, immediately contiguous and to the right of the nutrition label and shall be preceded by the word “Ingredients,” unless some ingredients (i.e., sources) are identified within the nutrition label in accordance with §101.36(d), in which case the ingredients listed outside the nutrition label shall be in a list preceded by the words “Other ingredients.” Ingredients in dietary supplements that are not dietary ingredients or that do not contain dietary ingredients, such as excipients, fillers, artificial colors, artificial sweeteners, flavors, or binders, shall be included in the ingredient list.

(h) The common or usual name of ingredients of dietary supplements that are botanicals (including fungi and algae) shall be consistent with the names standardized in Herbs of Commerce, 1992 edition, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the American Herbal Products Association, 8484 Georgia Ave., suite 370, Silver Spring, MD 20910, 301-588-1171, FAX 301-588-1174, e-mail: ahpa@ahpa.org, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. The listing of these names on the label shall be followed by statements of:

(1) The part of the plant (e.g., root, leaves) from which the dietary ingredient is derived (e.g., “Garlic bulb” or “Garlic (bulb)”), except that this designation is not required for algae. The name of the part of the plant shall be expressed in English (e.g., “flower” rather than “flos”);

(2) The Latin binomial name of the plant, in parentheses, except that this name is not required when it is available in the reference entitled: Herbs of Commerce for the common or usual name listed on the label, and, when required, the Latin binomial name may be listed before the part of the plant. Any name in Latin form shall be in accordance with internationally accepted rules on nomenclature, such as those found in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and shall include the designation of the author or authors who published the Latin name, when a positive identification cannot be made in its absence. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Tokyo Code), 1994 edition, a publication of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature may be obtained from Koeltz Scientific Books, D-61453 Konigstein, Germany, and University Bookstore, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-4422, 618-536-3321, FAX 618-453-5207, or may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(3) On labels of single-ingredient dietary supplements that do not include an ingredient list, the identification of the Latin binomial name, when needed, and the part of the plant may be prominently placed on the principal display panel or information panel, or included in the nutrition label.

[42 FR 14308, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 43 FR 12858, Mar. 28, 1978; 43 FR 24519, June 6, 1978; 48 FR 8054, Feb. 25, 1983; 55 FR 17433, Apr. 25, 1990; 58 FR 2875, Jan. 6, 1993; 62 FR 49847, Sept. 23, 1997; 62 FR 64634, Dec. 8, 1997; 64 FR 50448, Sept. 17, 1999; 66 FR 17358, Mar. 30, 2001; 66 FR 66742, Dec. 27, 2001; 68 FR 15355, Mar. 31, 2003]



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