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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
§121.414 Initial and transition training and checking requirements: flight instructors (airplane), flight instructors (simulator).
(a) No certificate holder may use a person nor may any person serve as a flight instructor unless—
(1) That person has satisfactorily completed initial or transition flight instructor training; and
(2) Within the preceding 24 calendar months, that person satisfactorily conducts instruction under the observation of an FAA inspector, an operator check airman, or an aircrew designated examiner employed by the operator. The observation check may be accomplished in part or in full in an airplane, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph applies after March 19, 1997.
(b) The observation check required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section is considered to have been completed in the month required if completed in the calendar month before, or the calendar month after, the month in which it is due.
(c) The initial ground training for flight instructors must include the following:
(1) Flight instructor duties, functions, and responsibilities.
(2) The applicable Code of Federal Regulations and the certificate holder's policies and procedures.
(3) The appropriate methods, procedures, and techniques for conducting flight instruction.
(4) Proper evaluation of student performance including the detection of—
(i) Improper and insufficient training; and
(ii) Personal characteristics of an applicant that could adversely affect safety.
(5) The corrective action in the case of unsatisfactory training progress.
(6) The approved methods, procedures, and limitations for performing the required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures in the airplane.
(7) Except for holders of a flight instructor certificate—
(i) The fundamental principles of the teaching-learning process;
(ii) Teaching methods and procedures; and
(iii) The instructor-student relationship.
(d) The transition ground training for flight instructors must include the approved methods, procedures, and limitations for performing the required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures applicable to the airplane to which the flight instructor is in transition.
(e) The initial and transition flight training for flight instructors (airplane), flight engineer instructors (airplane), and flight navigator instructors (airplane) must include the following:
(1) The safety measures for emergency situations that are likely to develop during instruction.
(2) The potential results of improper, untimely, or non-execution of safety measures during instruction.
(3) For pilot flight instructor (airplane)—
(i) In-flight training and practice in conducting flight instruction from the left and right pilot seats in the required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures to ensure competence as an instructor; and
(ii) The safety measures to be taken from either pilot seat for emergency situations that are likely to develop during instruction.
(4) For flight engineer instructors (airplane) and flight navigator instructors (airplane), in-flight training to ensure competence to perform assigned duties.
(f) The requirements of paragraph (e) of this section may be accomplished in full or in part in flight, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device, as appropriate.
(g) The initial and transition flight training for flight instructors (simulator) must include the following:
(1) Training and practice in the required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required by this part. This training and practice must be accomplished in full or in part in a flight simulator or in a flight training device.
(2) Training in the operation of flight simulators or flight training devices, or both, to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction required by this part.
[Doc. No. 28471, 61 FR 30743, June 17, 1996; 62 FR 3739, Jan. 24, 1997]