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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
§121.419 Pilots and flight engineers: Initial, transition, and upgrade ground training.
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, initial, transition, and upgrade ground training for pilots and flight engineers must include instruction in at least the following as applicable to their assigned duties:
(1) General subjects—
(i) The certificate holder's dispatch or flight release procedures;
(ii) Principles and methods for determining weight and balance, and runway limitations for takeoff and landing;
(iii) Enough meteorology to insure a practical knowledge of weather phenomena, including the principles of frontal systems, icing, fog, thunderstorms, and high altitude weather situations;
(iv) Air traffic control systems, procedures, and phraseology;
(v) Navigation and the use of navigation aids, including instrument approach procedures;
(vi) Normal and emergency communication procedures;
(vii) Visual cues prior to and during descent below DA/DH or MDA;
(viii) Approved crew resource management initial training; and
(ix) Other instructions as necessary to ensure pilot and flight engineer competence.
(2) For each airplane type—
(i) A general description;
(ii) Performance characteristics;
(iii) Engines and propellers;
(iv) Major components;
(v) Major airplane systems (e.g., flight controls, electrical, hydraulic); other systems as appropriate; principles of normal, abnormal, and emergency operations; appropriate procedures and limitations;
(vi) Procedures for—
(A) Recognizing and avoiding severe weather situations;
(B) Escaping from severe weather situations, in case of inadvertent encounters, including low-altitude windshear, and
(C) Operating in or near thunderstorms (including best penetrating altitudes), turbulent air (including clear air turbulence), icing, hail, and other potentially hazardous meteorological conditions;
(vii) Operating limitations;
(viii) Fuel consumption and cruise control;
(ix) Flight planning;
(x) Each normal and emergency procedure;
(xi) For pilots, stall prevention and recovery in clean configuration, takeoff and maneuvering configuration, and landing configuration.
(xii) For pilots, upset prevention and recovery; and
(xiii) The approved Airplane Flight Manual.
(b) Initial ground training for pilots who have completed the airline transport pilot certification training program in §61.156 must include instruction in at least the following as applicable to their assigned duties:
(1) Ground training specific to the certificate holder's—
(i) Dispatch or flight release procedures;
(ii) Method for determining weight and balance and runway limitations for takeoff and landing;
(iii) Meteorology hazards applicable to the certificate holder's areas of operation;
(iv) Approved departure, arrival, and approach procedures;
(v) Normal and emergency communication procedures; and
(vi) Approved crew resource management training.
(2) The training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section for the airplane type.
(c) Initial ground training for pilots and flight engineers must consist of at least the following programmed hours of instruction in the required subjects specified in paragraph (a) of this section and in §121.415(a) unless reduced under §121.405:
(1) Group I airplanes—
(i) Reciprocating powered, 64 hours; and
(ii) Turbopropeller powered, 80 hours.
(2) Group II airplanes, 120 hours.
(d) Initial ground training for pilots who have completed the airline transport pilot certification training program in §61.156 must consist of at least the following programmed hours of instruction in the required subjects specified in paragraph (b) of this section and in §121.415(a) unless reduced under §121.405:
(1) Group I airplanes—
(i) Reciprocating powered, 54 hours; and
(ii) Turbopropeller powered, 70 hours.
(2) Group II airplanes, 110 hours.
(e) Compliance and pilot programmed hours. (1) Compliance with the requirements identified in paragraphs (a)(2)(xi) and (a)(2)(xii) of this section is required no later than March 12, 2019.
(2) Beginning March 12, 2019, initial programmed hours applicable to pilots as specified in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section must include 2 additional hours.
[Doc. No. FAA-2010-0100, 78 FR 42377, July 15, 2013, as amended by Amdt. 121-366, 78 FR 67839, Nov. 12, 2013]