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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 21, 2014

Title 14: Aeronautics and Space
PART 61—CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS
Subpart H—Flight Instructors Other than Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating


§61.195   Flight instructor limitations and qualifications.

A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is subject to the following limitations:

(a) Hours of training. In any 24-consecutive-hour period, a flight instructor may not conduct more than 8 hours of flight training.

(b) Aircraft Ratings. A flight instructor may not conduct flight training in any aircraft for which the flight instructor does not hold:

(1) A pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating; and

(2) If appropriate, a type rating.

(c) Instrument Rating. A flight instructor who provides instrument training for the issuance of an instrument rating, a type rating not limited to VFR, or the instrument training required for commercial pilot and airline transport pilot certificates must hold an instrument rating on his or her pilot certificate and flight instructor certificate that is appropriate to the category and class of aircraft used for the training provided.

(d) Limitations on endorsements. A flight instructor may not endorse a:

(1) Student pilot's certificate or logbook for solo flight privileges, unless that flight instructor has—

(i) Given that student the flight training required for solo flight privileges required by this part; and

(ii) Determined that the student is prepared to conduct the flight safely under known circumstances, subject to any limitations listed in the student's logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight.

(2) Student pilot's certificate and logbook for a solo cross-country flight, unless that flight instructor has determined the student's flight preparation, planning, equipment, and proposed procedures are adequate for the proposed flight under the existing conditions and within any limitations listed in the logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of the flight;

(3) Student pilot's logbook for solo flight in a Class B airspace area or at an airport within Class B airspace unless that flight instructor has—

(i) Given that student ground and flight training in that Class B airspace or at that airport; and

(ii) Determined that the student is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.

(4) Logbook of a recreational pilot, unless that flight instructor has—

(i) Given that pilot the ground and flight training required by this part; and

(ii) Determined that the recreational pilot is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.

(5) Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless that instructor has conducted a review of that pilot in accordance with the requirements of §61.56(a) of this part; or

(6) Logbook of a pilot for an instrument proficiency check, unless that instructor has tested that pilot in accordance with the requirements of §61.57(d) of this part.

(e) Training in an aircraft that requires a type rating. A flight instructor may not give flight training in an aircraft that requires the pilot in command to hold a type rating unless the flight instructor holds a type rating for that aircraft on his or her pilot certificate.

(f) Training received in a multiengine airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift. A flight instructor may not give training required for the issuance of a certificate or rating in a multiengine airplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift unless that flight instructor has at least 5 flight hours of pilot-in-command time in the specific make and model of multiengine airplane, helicopter, or powered-lift, as appropriate.

(g) Position in aircraft and required pilot stations for providing flight training. (1) A flight instructor must perform all training from in an aircraft that complies with the requirements of §91.109 of this chapter.

(2) A flight instructor who provides flight training for a pilot certificate or rating issued under this part must provide that flight training in an aircraft that meets the following requirements—

(i) The aircraft must have at least two pilot stations and be of the same category, class, and type, if appropriate, that applies to the pilot certificate or rating sought.

(ii) For single-place aircraft, the pre-solo flight training must have been provided in an aircraft that has two pilot stations and is of the same category, class, and type, if appropriate.

(h) Qualifications of the flight instructor for training first-time flight instructor applicants. (1) The ground training provided to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must be given by an authorized instructor who—

(i) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, has held that certificate for at least 24 calendar months, and has given at least 40 hours of ground training; or

(ii) Holds a ground or flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating, and has given at least 100 hours of ground training in an FAA-approved course.

(2) Except for an instructor who meets the requirements of paragraph (h)(3)(ii) of this section, a flight instructor who provides training to an initial applicant for a flight instructor certificate must—

(i) Meet the eligibility requirements prescribed in §61.183 of this part;

(ii) Hold the appropriate flight instructor certificate and rating;

(iii) Have held a flight instructor certificate for at least 24 months;

(iv) For training in preparation for an airplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating, have given at least 200 hours of flight training as a flight instructor; and

(v) For training in preparation for a glider rating, have given at least 80 hours of flight training as a flight instructor.

(3) A flight instructor who serves as a flight instructor in an FAA-approved course for the issuance of a flight instructor rating must hold a flight instructor certificate with the appropriate rating and pass the required initial and recurrent flight instructor proficiency tests, in accordance with the requirements of the part under which the FAA-approved course is conducted, and must—

(i) Meet the requirements of paragraph (h)(2) of this section; or

(ii) Have trained and endorsed at least five applicants for a practical test for a pilot certificate, flight instructor certificate, ground instructor certificate, or an additional rating, and at least 80 percent of those applicants passed that test on their first attempt; and

(A) Given at least 400 hours of flight training as a flight instructor for training in an airplane, a rotorcraft, or for a powered-lift rating; or

(B) Given at least 100 hours of flight training as a flight instructor, for training in a glider rating.

(i) Prohibition against self-endorsements. A flight instructor shall not make any self-endorsement for a certificate, rating, flight review, authorization, operating privilege, practical test, or knowledge test that is required by this part.

(j) Additional qualifications required to give training in Category II or Category III operations. A flight instructor may not give training in Category II or Category III operations unless the flight instructor has been trained and tested in Category II or Category III operations, pursuant to §61.67 or §61.68 of this part, as applicable.

(k) Training for night vision goggle operations. A flight instructor may not conduct training for night vision goggle operations unless the flight instructor:

(1) Has a pilot and flight instructor certificate with the applicable category and class rating for the training;

(2) If appropriate, has a type rating on his or her pilot certificate for the aircraft;

(3) Is pilot in command qualified for night vision goggle operations, in accordance with §61.31(k);

(4) Has logged 100 night vision goggle operations as the sole manipulator of the controls;

(5) Has logged 20 night vision goggle operations as the sole manipulator of the controls in the category and class, and type of aircraft, if aircraft class and type is appropriate, that the training will be given in;

(6) Is qualified to act as pilot in command in night vision goggle operations under §61.57(f) or (g); and

(7) Has a logbook endorsement from an FAA Aviation Safety Inspector or a person who is authorized by the FAA to provide that logbook endorsement that states the flight instructor is authorized to perform the night vision goggle pilot in command qualification and recent flight experience requirements under §61.31(k) and §61.57(f) and (g).

[Doc. No. 25910, 62 FR 16298, Apr. 4, 1997; Amdt. 61-103, 62 FR 40907, July 30, 1997; Amdt. 61-124, 74 FR 42561, Aug. 21, 2009]



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