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Title 12: Banks and Banking
(a) Indorsement standards. A bank (other than a paying bank) that handles a check during forward collection or a returned check shall indorse the check in a manner that permits a person to interpret the indorsement, in accordance with the indorsement standard set forth in appendix D of this part.
(b) Liability of bank handling check. A bank that handles a check for forward collection or return is liable to any bank that subsequently handles the check to the extent that the subsequent bank does not receive payment for the check because of suspension of payments by another bank or otherwise. This paragraph applies whether or not a bank has placed its indorsement on the check. This liability is not affected by the failure of any bank to exercise ordinary care, but any bank failing to do so remains liable. A bank seeking recovery against a prior bank shall send notice to that prior bank reasonably promptly after it learns the facts entitling it to recover. A bank may recover from the bank with which it settled for the check by revoking the settlement, charging back any credit given to an account, or obtaining a refund. A bank may have the rights of a holder with respect to each check it handles.
(c) Indorsement by a bank. After a check has been indorsed by a bank, only a bank may acquire the rights of a holder—
(1) Until the check has been returned to the person initiating collection; or
(2) Until the check has been specially indorsed by a bank to a person who is not a bank.
(d) Indorsement for depositary bank. A depositary bank may arrange with another bank to apply the other bank's indorsement as the depositary bank indorsement, provided that any indorsement of the depositary bank on the check avoids the area reserved for the depositary bank indorsement as specified in appendix D. The other bank indorsing as depositary bank is considered the depositary bank for purposes of subpart C of this part.
[53 FR 19433, May 27, 1988, as amended by Reg. CC, 55 FR 21855, May 30, 1990; 69 FR 47311, Aug. 4, 2004]