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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations
Title 12: Banks and Banking
§229.30 Paying bank's responsibility for return of checks.
(a) Return of checks. If a paying bank determines not to pay a check, it shall return the check in an expeditious manner as provided in either paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section.
(1) Two-day/four-day test. A paying bank returns a check in an expeditious manner if it sends the returned check in a manner such that the check would normally be received by the depositary bank not later than 4:00 p.m. (local time of the depositary bank) of—
(i) The second business day following the banking day on which the check was presented to the paying bank, if the paying bank is located in the same check processing region as the depositary bank; or
(ii) The fourth business day following the banking day on which the check was presented to the paying bank, if the paying bank is not located in the same check processing region as the depositary bank.
If the last business day on which the paying bank may deliver a returned check to the depositary bank is not a banking day for the depositary bank, the paying bank meets the two-day/four-day test if the returned check is received by the depositary bank on or before the depositary bank's next banking day.
(2) Forward collection test. A paying bank also returns a check in an expeditious manner if it sends the returned check in a manner that a similarly situated bank would normally handle a check—
(i) Of similar amount as the returned check;
(ii) Drawn on the depositary bank; and
(iii) Deposited for forward collection in the similarly situated bank by noon on the banking day following the banking day on which the check was presented to the paying bank.
Subject to the requirement for expeditious return, a paying bank may send a returned check to the depositary bank, or to any other bank agreeing to handle the returned check expeditiously under §229.31(a). A paying bank may convert a check to a qualified returned check. A qualified returned check shall be encoded in magnetic ink with the routing number of the depositary bank, the amount of the returned check, and a “2” in the case of an original check (or a “5” in the case of a substitute check) in position 44 of the qualified return MICR line as a return identifier. A qualified returned original check shall be encoded in accordance with ANS X9.13, and a qualified returned substitute check shall be encoded in accordance with ANS X9.100-140. This paragraph does not affect a paying bank's responsibility to return a check within the deadlines required by the U.C.C., Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or §229.30(c).
(b) Unidentifiable depositary bank. A paying bank that is unable to identify the depositary bank with respect to a check may send the returned check to any bank that handled the check for forward collection even if that bank does not agree to handle the check expeditiously under §229.31(a). A paying bank sending a returned check under this paragraph to a bank that handled the check for forward collection must advise the bank to which the check is sent that the paying bank is unable to identify the depositary bank. The expeditious return requirements in §229.30(a) do not apply to the paying bank's return of a check under this paragraph.
(c) Extension of deadline. The deadline for return or notice of nonpayment under the U.C.C. or Regulation J (12 CFR part 210), or §229.36(f)(2) is extended to the time of dispatch of such return or notice of nonpayment where a paying bank uses a means of delivery that would ordinarily result in receipt by the bank to which it is sent—
(1) On or before the receiving bank's next banking day following the otherwise applicable deadline by the earlier of the close of that banking day or a cutoff hour of 2 p.m. or later set by the receiving bank under U.C.C. 4-108, for all deadlines other than those described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section; this deadline is extended further if a paying bank uses a highly expeditious means of transportation, even if this means of transportation would ordinarily result in delivery after the receiving bank's next cutoff hour or banking day referred to above; or
(2) Prior to the cut-off hour for the next processing cycle (if sent to a returning bank), or on the next banking day (if sent to the depositary bank), for a deadline falling on a Saturday that is a banking day (as defined in the applicable U.C.C.) for the paying bank.
(d) Identification of returned check. A paying bank returning a check shall clearly indicate on the front of the check that it is a returned check and the reason for return. If the check is a substitute check, the paying bank shall place this information within the image of the original check that appears on the front of the substitute check.
(e) Depositary bank without accounts. The expeditious return requirements of paragraph (a) of this section do not apply to checks deposited in a depositary bank that does not maintain accounts.
(f) Notice in lieu of return. If a check is unavailable for return, the paying bank may send in its place a copy of the front and back of the returned check, or, if no such copy is available, a written notice of nonpayment containing the information specified in §229.33(b). The copy or notice shall clearly state that it constitutes a notice in lieu of return. A notice in lieu of return is considered a returned check subject to the expeditious return requirements of this section and to the other requirements of this subpart.
(g) Reliance on routing number. A paying bank may return a returned check based on any routing number designating the depositary bank appearing on the returned check in the depositary bank's indorsement.
[53 FR 19433, May 27, 1988, as amended at 53 FR 31292, Aug. 18, 1988; Reg. CC, 55 FR 21855, May 30, 1990; 57 FR 46972, Oct. 14, 1993; Reg. CC, 62 FR 13810, Mar. 24, 1997; 69 FR 47311, Aug. 4, 2004]