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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 14, 2014

Title 50: Wildlife and Fisheries
PART 14—IMPORTATION, EXPORTATION, AND TRANSPORTATION OF WILDLIFE


Subpart J—Standards for the Humane and Healthful Transport of Wild Mammals and Birds to the United States


Contents
§14.101   Purposes.
§14.102   Definitions.
§14.103   Prohibitions.
§14.104   Translations.
§14.105   Consignment to carrier.
§14.106   Primary enclosures.
§14.107   Conveyance.
§14.108   Food and water.
§14.109   Care in transit.
§14.110   Terminal facilities.
§14.111   Handling.
§14.112   Other applicable provisions.

Specifications for Nonhuman Primates

§14.121   Primary enclosures.
§14.122   Food and water.
§14.123   Care in transit.

Specifications for Marine Mammals (Cetaceans, Sirenians, Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears)

§14.131   Primary enclosures.
§14.132   Food and water.
§14.133   Care in transit.

Specifications for Elephants and Ungulates

§14.141   Consignment to carrier.
§14.142   Primary enclosures.

Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)

§14.151   Primary enclosures.

Specifications for Other Terrestrial Mammals

§14.161   Primary enclosures.

Specifications for Birds

§14.171   Consignment to carrier.
§14.172   Primary enclosures.

Source: 57 FR 27108, June 17, 1992, unless otherwise noted.

§14.101   Purposes.

The purpose of this subpart is to prescribe requirements necessary to ensure that live wild mammals and birds shipped to the United States arrive alive, healthy, and uninjured, and that transportation of such animals occurs under humane and healthful conditions. These regulations implement section 9(d) of the Lacey Act Amendments of 1981.

§14.102   Definitions.

In addition to the definitions contained in part 10 of subchapter B of this chapter, in this subpart—

Ambient air temperature means the temperature of the air surrounding a primary enclosure containing a wild mammal or bird.

Auxiliary ventilation means cooling or air circulation provided by such means as vents, fans, blowers, or air conditioning.

Carrier means any person operating an airline, railroad, motor carrier, shipping line, or other enterprise engaged in the business of transporting any wild mammal or bird for any purpose including exhibition and for any person, including itself.

Communicable disease means any contagious, infectious, or transmissible disease of wild mammals or birds.

Conveyance means any vehicle, vessel, or aircraft employed to transport an animal between its origin and destination.

Do not tip means do not excessively rock or otherwise move from a vertical to a slanting position, knock over, or upset.

Handle means feed, manipulate, crate, shift, transfer, immobilize, restrain, treat, or otherwise control the movement or activities of any wild mammal or bird.

Holding area means a designated area at or within a terminal facility that has been specially prepared to provide shelter and other requirements of wild mammals or birds being transported to the United States and in which such mammals or birds are maintained prior to, during, or following such shipment.

Kept clean means maintained free from dirt, trash, refuse, excreta, remains from other cargo, and impurities of any type.

Marine mammal means an individual of a species of the orders Cetacea, Pinnipedia, or Sirenia, or a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) or sea otter (Enhydra lutris).

Noncompatible means not capable of existing together in harmony.

Nonhuman primate means any nonhuman member of the order Primates.

Normal rigors of transportation means the stress that a wild animal can be expected to experience as a result of exposure to unaccustomed surroundings, unfamiliar confinement, caging, unfamiliar sounds, motion, and other conditions commonly encountered during transport.

Primary enclosure means any structure used to restrict a mammal or bird to a limited amount of space, such as a cage, room, pen, run, stall, pool, or hutch.

Professionally accepted standards means a level of practice established as acceptable by a body of qualified persons of the veterinary medical profession.

Psychological trauma means an episode of exposure to stressful conditions resulting in significant behavioral abnormality including, but not limited to, manifestations of unaccustomed aggressiveness, self-mutilation, or refusal of food or water.

Raptor means a live migratory bird of the order Falconiformes or the order Strigiformes.

Sanitize means to make physically clean and, as far as possible, free of toxic or infectious agents injurious to the health of wild mammals or birds.

Scheduled departure time means the time listed on a timetable of departures and arrivals or, in the absence of a timetable, the time of departure agreed to by a carrier and shipper.

Shipper means any person, other than a carrier, involved in the transport of wild animals to the United States regardless of the purpose of such transport; e.g., exporter, importer, or agent.

Terrestrial mammals means mammals other than marine mammals.

Transport means to move, convey, carry, or ship by any means, or to deliver or receive for the purpose of movement, carriage, or shipment, by air, land, or sea.

Transporting device means any vehicle or device used to transport an animal between a conveyance and a terminal facility, in and around a terminal facility of a carrier, or within a conveyance.

Unweaned means a bird or mammal incapable of feeding itself independently.

Wild means the same as fish or wildlife, as defined in §10.12 of this chapter.

§14.103   Prohibitions.

Unless the requirements of this subpart are fully satisfied and all other legal requirements are met, it is unlawful for any person to transport to the United States, cause to be transported to the United States, or allow to be transported to the United States any live wild mammal or bird. It shall be unlawful for any person to import, to transport, or to cause or permit to be transported to the United States any wild mammal or bird under inhumane or unhealthful conditions or in violation of this subpart J.

§14.104   Translations.

Any certificate or document required by this subpart to accompany a mammal or bird transported to the United States and written in a foreign language must be accompanied by an accurate English translation.

§14.105   Consignment to carrier.

(a) No carrier shall accept any live wild mammal or bird for transport to the United States that has not been examined within 10 days prior to commencement of transport to the United States by a veterinarian certified as qualified by the national government of the initial country from which the mammal or bird is being exported. If the national government of such country does not certify veterinarians, then the veterinarian must be certified or licensed by a local government authority designated by the national government as authorized to certify veterinarians.

(b)(1) A certificate of veterinary medical inspection, signed by the examining veterinarian, stating that the animal has been examined, is healthy, appears to be free of any communicable disease, and is able to withstand the normal rigors of transport must accompany the mammal or bird; the certificate should include the veterinarian's license number, certification number, or equivalent. A mammal in the last third of its pregnancy, if this is detectable using professionally accepted standards, shall not be accepted for transport to the United States except for medical treatment and unless the examining veterinarian certifies in writing that the animal has been examined, the state of pregnancy has been evaluated, and that, despite the medical condition requiring treatment, the animal is physically able to withstand the normal rigors of transportation to the United States.

(2) A nursing mother with young, an unweaned mammal unaccompanied by its mother, or an unweaned bird shall be transported only if the primary purpose is for needed medical treatment and upon certification in writing by the examining veterinarian that the treatment is necessary and the animal is able to withstand the normal rigors of transport. Such an unweaned mammal or bird shall not be transported to the United States for medical treatment unless it is accompanied at all times by and completely accessible to a veterinary attendant.

(c) A sick or injured wild mammal or bird shall be permitted transport to the United States only if the primary purpose of such transport is for needed medical treatment and upon certification in writing by the examining veterinarian that the treatment is necessary and the animal is able to withstand the normal rigors of travel in its present condition. A sick or injured animal shall be accompanied at all times throughout the transport process by a veterinary attendant qualified to care for and treat it, with continuous access to the animal. This individual shall be in possession of or have ready access to all medications to be administered during the transport.

(d) No carrier shall accept any wild mammal or bird for transport to the United States presented by the shipper less than 2 hours or more than 6 hours prior to the scheduled departure of the conveyance on which it is to be transported. The carrier shall notify the crew of the presence of live animal shipments.

§14.106   Primary enclosures.

No carrier shall accept for transport to the United States any live wild mammal or bird in a primary enclosure that does not conform to the following requirements:

(a) The Container Requirements of the Live Animal Regulations (LAR), 20th edition, October 1, 1993, published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) shall be complied with by all parties transporting wild mammals or birds to the United States. The incorporation by reference of the LAR was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from IATA, 2000 Peel St., Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2R4. Copies may be inspected at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr., Arlington, VA 22203 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.

(b) A primary enclosure shall be constructed so that—

(1) The strength of the enclosure is sufficient to contain the mammal or bird and to withstand the normal effects of transport;

(2) The interior of the enclosure is free from any protrusion that could be injurious to the mammal or bird within;

(3) No part of the animal can extend or protrude outside of the primary enclosure which may result in injury to the contained animal, to nearby persons or animals, or to handlers of the primary enclosure;

(4) Access to the primary enclosure is closed and secured with an animal-proof device designed to prevent accidental opening and release of the mammal or bird;

(5) The opening of the enclosure is easily accessible for either emergency removal or inspection of the mammal or bird by authorized personnel without the risk of escape of the mammal or bird;

(6) The enclosure has sufficient openings to ensure adequate circulation of air at all times.

(7) The material of which the primary enclosure is constructed is not treated with any paint, preservative, or other chemical that is injurious or otherwise harmful to the health or well-being of mammals and birds.

(c) Unless the enclosure is permanently affixed in the conveyance or has an open top for certain large mammals, spacer bars allowing circulation of air around the enclosure shall be fitted to the exterior of its top, sides, and base. Spacer bars on an enclosure need extend no more than 6 inches (15 centimeters) from the surface of the enclosure. Within this 6 inch limit, the spacers on an enclosure containing one animal shall extend a distance equal to at least 10 percent of the longer dimension of the surface to which they are attached, and the spacers on an enclosure containing more than one animal shall extend a distance equal to at least 20 percent of the longer dimension of the surface to which they are attached. Hand-holds may serve as spacer bars for the sides of the enclosure to which they are attached. A primary enclosure constructed with one or more slanted or curved walls containing ventilation openings need not be fitted with spacer bars on such walls.

(d) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed within the conveyance shall have adequate hand-holds or other devices for lifting by hand or to facilitate lifting and carrying by machine. Such hand-holds or other devices shall be made an integral part of the enclosure, shall enable it to be lifted without excessive tipping, and shall be designed so that the person handling the enclosure will not come in contact with the animals contained therein.

(e) An enclosure shall have a solid, leak-proof bottom or removable, leak-proof collection tray under a slatted or wire mesh floor. The slatted or wire mesh floor shall be designed and constructed so that the spaces between the slats or the holes in the mesh cannot trap the limbs of animals contained within the enclosure. An enclosure for mammals shall contain unused absorbent litter on the solid bottom or in the leak-proof tray in sufficient quantity to absorb and cover excreta. This litter shall be safe and nontoxic and shall not resemble food normally consumed by the mammals. An enclosure used to transport marine mammals in water, in a waterproof enclosure, a sling, or on foam is exempt from the requirement to contain litter. An enclosure used to transport birds shall not contain litter, unless it is specified in writing by the examining veterinarian as medically necessary.

(f) If an enclosure has been previously used to transport or store wild mammals or birds, it shall have been cleaned and sanitized in a manner that will destroy pathogenic agents and pests injurious to the health of mammals and birds before the enclosure can be re-used.

(g) An enclosure that is not permanently affixed in the conveyance shall be clearly marked in English on the outside of the top and one or more sides of the enclosure, in letters not less than 2.5 centimeters (1 inch) in height, “Live Animals” or “Wild Animals”, “Do Not Tip,” “Only Authorized Personnel May Open Container,” and other appropriate or required instructions. All enclosure sides shall also be conspicuously marked on the outside with arrows to indicate the correct upright position of the enclosure. These arrows should extend up the sides of the enclosure so that the point of the arrow is visible and clearly indicates the top of the enclosure.

(h) Food and water instructions as specified in §14.108, information regarding what constitutes obvious signs of stress in the species being transported, and information about any drugs or medication to be administered by the accompanying veterinary attendant shall be securely attached to each enclosure. Copies of shipping documents accompanying the shipment shall also be securely attached to the primary enclosure. Original documents shall be carried in the carrier's pouch or manifest container or by the shipper's attendant accompanying the wild mammal or bird.

(i) Any food and water troughs shall be securely attached to the interior of the enclosure in such a manner that the troughs can be filled from outside the enclosure. Any opening providing access to a trough shall be capable of being securely closed with an animal-proof device. A water trough in an enclosure containing birds shall contain a foam or sponge insert, a perforated wooden block, or other suitable device to prevent spillage or drowning.

(j) When a primary enclosure is permanently affixed within a conveyance so that its front opening is the only source of ventilation, the opening shall face the outside of the conveyance or an unobstructed aisle or passageway within the conveyance. Such an aisle or passageway shall be at least 12 inches (30 centimeters) wide. The opening in the primary enclosure shall occupy at least 90 percent of the total surface area of the front wall of the enclosure and be covered with bars or wire mesh.

[57 FR 27108, June 17, 1992, as amended at 59 FR 36719, July 19, 1994; 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004]

§14.107   Conveyance.

(a) The animal cargo space of a conveyance used to transport wild mammals or birds to the United States shall be designed, constructed, and maintained so as to ensure the humane and healthful transport of the animals.

(b) The cargo space shall be constructed and maintained so as to prevent the harmful ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases produced by the conveyance.

(c) No wild mammal or bird shall be placed in a cargo space of a conveyance that does not provide sufficient air for it to breathe normally. Primary enclosures shall be positioned in a cargo space in such a manner that each animal has access to sufficient air for normal breathing.

(d) The interior of an animal cargo space shall be kept clean of disease-causing agents.

(e) A wild mammal or bird shall not be transported in a cargo space that contains any material, substance, or device that may reasonably be expected to result in inhumane conditions or be injurious to the animal's health unless all reasonable precautions are taken to prevent such conditions or injury.

§14.108   Food and water.

(a) No carrier shall accept any wild mammal or bird for transport to the United States unless written instructions from the shipper concerning the animal's food and water requirements are securely affixed to the outside of its primary enclosure. Such instructions shall be consistent with professionally accepted standards of care and include specifically the quantity of water required, the amount and type of food required, and the frequency of feeding and watering necessary to ensure that the animal is transported humanely and healthfully.

(b) A mammal or bird requiring drinking water shall have uncontaminated water suitable for drinking made available to it at all times prior to commencement of transport to the United States, during intermediate stopovers, and upon arrival in the United States, or as directed by the shipper's written instructions.

(c) A mammal or bird that obtains moisture from fruits or other food shall be provided such food prior to commencement of transport to the United States, during stopovers, and upon arrival in the United States, or as directed by the shipper's written instructions.

(d) During a stopover or while still in the custody of the carrier after arrival in the United States, a mammal or bird in transit shall be observed no less frequently than once every four hours and given food and water according to the instructions required by §14.108(a).

(e) Suitable and sufficient food shall be made available during transport.

(f) Additional requirements for feeding and watering particular kinds of animals are found below in the specifications for the various groups.

§14.109   Care in transit.

(a) During transportation to the United States, including any stopovers during transport, the carrier shall visually inspect each primary enclosure not less than once every 4 hours, or in the case of air transport, every 4 hours whenever the cargo hold is accessible. During such inspections, the carrier shall verify that the ambient air temperature is within allowable limits (see §14.109(b)), that enclosures have not been damaged, that adequate ventilation is being provided, and when transport is by air, that air pressure suitable to support live animals is maintained within the cargo area (pressure equivalent to a maximum altitude of 8000 feet). During these observations the carrier shall also determine whether any animals are in obvious distress as described in documents attached to the enclosure. The absence of such a document or the absence of information as to signs of distress shall not remove this responsibility. The carrier shall attempt to correct any condition causing distress and shall consult the shipper concerning any possible need for veterinary care if no veterinary attendant is traveling with the shipment; if the shipper cannot be reached in the case of an emergency, qualified veterinary care should be provided. A veterinarian or qualified attendant traveling with the shipment shall be provided access to the animal.

(b) Unless otherwise specified in writing by the examining veterinarian the ambient air temperature in a holding area, transporting device, conveyance or terminal facility containing mammals or birds shall not be allowed to fall below 12.8 degrees C (55 degrees F) nor to exceed 26.7 degrees C (80 degrees F). Auxiliary ventilation shall be provided when the ambient air temperature is 23.9 degrees C (75 degrees F) or higher. In the case of penguins and auks, the ambient air temperature shall not be allowed to exceed 18.3 degrees C (65 degrees F) at any time, and auxiliary ventilation shall be provided when the ambient air temperature exceeds 15.6 degrees C (60 degrees F). In the case of polar bears and sea otters, ambient air temperature shall not be allowed to exceed 10 degrees C (50 degrees F).

§14.110   Terminal facilities.

(a) Any terminal facility used for wild mammal or bird transport in the country of export, stopover countries, or the United States shall contain an animal holding area or areas. No carrier or shipper shall co-mingle live animal shipments with inanimate cargo in an animal holding area.

(b) A carrier or shipper holding any wild mammal or bird in a terminal facility shall provide the following:

(1) A holding area cleaned and sanitized so as to destroy pathogenic agents, maintained so that there is no accumulation of debris or excreta, and in which vermin infestation is minimized;

(2) An effective program for the control of insects, ectoparasites, and pests of mammals or birds;

(3) Sufficient fresh air to allow the animals to breathe normally with ventilation maintained so as to minimize drafts, odors, and moisture condensation;

(4) Ambient air temperatures maintained within prescribed limits as specified in §14.109(b).

§14.111   Handling.

(a) Care shall be exercised to avoid handling the primary enclosure in a manner likely to cause physical or psychological trauma to the mammal or bird.

(b) A primary enclosure used to move any mammal or bird shall not be dropped, tipped excessively, or otherwise mishandled, and shall not be stacked or placed in a manner that may reasonably be expected to result in its falling or being tipped.

(c) Animals incompatible with one another shall not be crated together or held in close proximity.

(d) Transport of mammals or birds to the United States shall be accomplished by the carrier in the most expeditious manner, with the fewest stopovers possible, and without unnecessary delays.

(e) Consistent with other procedures and requirements of the carrier, live wild mammals or birds shall be last loaded and first unloaded from a conveyance.

(f) A carrier shall not allow mammals or birds to remain for extended periods of time outside a holding area and shall move them between a holding area and a conveyance as expeditiously as possible. A carrier or shipper maintaining mammals or birds in a holding area, or transporting them to or from a holding area or between a holding area and a conveyance, shall provide the following:

(1) Shelter from sunlight. When sunlight is likely to cause overheating or discomfort, sufficient shade shall be provided to protect animals from the direct rays of the sun.

(2) Shelter from precipitation. Animals shall be provided protection so that they remain dry during rain, snow, or other forms of precipitation.

(3) Shelter from cold. Animals shall be provided protection from cold. Protection shall include, but not be limited to, that provided by covering and/or heating of transporting devices, holding areas, conveyances or terminal facilities.

(4) Protection from harassment. Animals shall be protected from disturbances, including, but not limited to, harassment by humans, other animals, or machinery that makes noise, emits fumes, heat, or light, or causes vibration.

§14.112   Other applicable provisions.

In addition to the provisions of §§14.101-14.111, the requirements of §§14.121-14.172 applicable for particular groups of animals shall be met for all shipments of wild mammals and birds covered by this part.

Specifications for Nonhuman Primates

§14.121   Primary enclosures.

(a) No more than one primate shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and her nursing young being transported to the United States for medical treatment, an established male-female pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have not reached puberty, or other pairs of animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure. Primates of different species shall not be shipped together in the same enclosure.

(b) A primary enclosure used to transport a primate shall be large enough to ensure that the animal has sufficient space to turn around freely in a normal manner, lie down, stand up (as appropriate for the species), and sit in a normal upright position without its head touching the top of the enclosure. However, a primate may be restricted in its movements according to professionally accepted standards of care when greater freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the primate or to its handler or other persons.

(c) Except as provided in §14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 30 percent of the total surface area of the ventilated wall and be situated above the midline of the enclosure. If ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the enclosure, the openings on each wall shall comprise at least 20 percent of the total surface area of the wall and be situated above the midline of the primary enclosure.

§14.122   Food and water.

(a) A nonhuman primate shall be provided water suitable for drinking within 4 hours prior to commencement of transport to the United States unless the shipper's written instructions direct otherwise. A carrier shall provide suitable drinking water to any primate at least every 12 hours after acceptance for transport to the United States, unless instructed in writing to do so more frequently by the shipper.

(b) After acceptance for transport, and unless otherwise instructed in writing by the shipper, a carrier shall provide suitable food to any nonhuman primate at least once every 12 hours.

§14.123   Care in transit.

(a) A primate shall be observed for signs of distress and given food and water according to the shipper's instructions during any intermediate stop that lasts more than 4 hours.

(b) Care shall be taken to keep enclosures containing primates sufficiently separated in the conveyance or holding area to minimize the risk of spread of disease from one species or shipment to another.

Specifications for Marine Mammals (Cetaceans, Sirenians, Sea Otters, Pinnipeds, and Polar Bears)

§14.131   Primary enclosures.

(a) A primary enclosure that is not open on top shall have air inlets situated at heights that provide cross ventilation at all levels and that are located on all four sides of the enclosure. Such ventilation openings shall comprise not less than 20 percent of the total surface area of each side of the enclosure.

(b) Straps, slings, harnesses, or other such devices used for body support or restraint when transporting marine mammals such as cetaceans or sirenians shall meet the following requirements:

(1) The devices shall not prevent attendants from having access to the mammal to administer care during transportation;

(2) The devices shall be equipped with sufficient padding to prevent trauma or injury at points of contact with the mammal's body;

(3) Slings or harnesses shall allow free movement of flippers outside of the harness or sling;

(4) The devices shall be capable of preventing the mammal from thrashing about and causing injury to itself, handlers, or other persons, but shall be designed so as not to cause injury to the mammal.

(c) A primary enclosure used to transport marine mammals shall be large enough to assure the following:

(1) A sea otter or polar bear has sufficient space to turn about freely with all four feet on the floor and to sit in an upright position, stand, or lie in a natural position;

(2) A pinniped has sufficient space to lie in a natural position;

(3) If a sling, harness, or other supporting device is used, there are at least 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) of clearance between any body part and the primary enclosure;

(d) A marine mammal may be restricted in its movements according to professionally accepted standards of care when freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animal or to handlers or other persons.

(e) All marine mammals contained in a given primary enclosure shall be of the same species and be maintained in compatible groups. A marine mammal that has not reached puberty shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with an adult marine mammal other than its mother. Socially dependent animals (e.g., siblings, mother, and offspring) transported in the same conveyance shall be allowed visual and, when appropriate for the species, olfactory contact. A female marine mammal shall not be transported in the same primary enclosure with any mature male marine mammal.

§14.132   Food and water.

A marine mammal shall not be transported for more than a period of 36 hours without being offered suitable food unless the shipper's written instructions or the shipper's attendant travelling with the mammal direct otherwise. After feeding, a marine mammal shall be rested for 6 hours prior to resuming transport.

§14.133   Care in transit.

(a) Any marine mammal shall be accompanied, in the same conveyance, by the shipper or an authorized representative of the shipper knowledgeable in marine mammal care to provide for the animal's health and well-being. The shipper or representative shall observe such marine mammals to determine whether or not they need veterinary care and shall provide or obtain any needed veterinary care as soon as possible. Care during transport shall include the following (on a species-specific basis):

(1) Keeping the skin moist or preventing the drying of the skin by such methods as covering with wet cloths, spraying it with water or applying a nontoxic emollient;

(2) Assuring that the pectoral flippers (when applicable) are allowed freedom of movement at all times;

(3) Making adjustments in the position of the mammal when necessary to prevent necrosis of the skin at weight pressure points; and

(4) Calming the mammal to prevent struggling, thrashing, and other activity that may cause overheating or physical trauma.

(b) Unless otherwise directed by a shipper or authorized representative, at least one-half of the floor area in a primary enclosure used to transport sea otters to the United States shall contain sufficient crushed ice or ice water to provide each otter with moisture necessary to maintain its hair coat by preventing it from drying and to minimize soiling of the hair coat with urine and fecal material.

(c) A marine mammal exhibiting excited or otherwise dangerous behavior shall not be taken from its primary enclosure except under extreme emergency conditions and then only by the shipper or other authorized individual who is capable of handling the animal safely.

Specifications for Elephants and Ungulates

§14.141   Consignment to carrier.

Species that grow antlers shall not be accepted for transport unless the antlers have been shed or surgically removed.

§14.142   Primary enclosures.

(a) Except as provided in §14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each ventilated wall. When ventilation openings are located on all four walls of the primary enclosure, the openings shall comprise at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each wall. At least one-third of the minimum area required for ventilation shall be located on the lower one-half of the primary enclosure and at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation shall be located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure.

(b) No more than one elephant or ungulate shall be transported in a primary enclosure, except that: a mother and nursing young may be shipped in the same primary enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of §14.105(b); in the case of land or sea transport, a pair of juvenile elephants or ungulates or other pairs that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure.

(c) A primary enclosure used to transport an elephant or ungulate shall be large enough to allow the animal to lie or stand in a natural upright position with the head extended, but not large enough for the animal to roll over.

(d) A primary enclosure used to transport an elephant or ungulate with horns or tusks shall be designed and constructed to prevent the horns or tusks from becoming trapped or injuring the animal itself, other animals nearby, attendants, or cargo handlers.

(e) A primary enclosure for an elephant or ungulate shall be equipped with a removable water trough that can be securely hung within the enclosure above the floor and can be filled from outside the enclosure.

Specifications for Sloths, Bats, and Flying Lemurs (Cynocephalidae)

§14.151   Primary enclosures.

(a) Except as provided in §14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 percent of the total surface area of the ventilated wall. When ventilation openings are located on all four walls, the openings shall comprise at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each wall. At least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation of the primary enclosure shall be located on the upper one-half of the primary enclosure.

(b) No more than one sloth, bat, or flying lemur (Cynocephalidae) shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and her nursing young being transported for medical reasons, an established male-female pair, a family group, a pair of juvenile animals that have not reached puberty, or other small groups of animals that have been habitually housed together may be shipped in the same primary enclosure.

(c) A primary enclosure used to transport sloths, bats, or flying lemurs shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to move freely and in a normal manner and shall have a wide perch, bar, or mesh of suitable strength fitted under the top of the enclosure and spaced from it in such a way that the animals may hang from it freely in a natural position.

Specifications for Other Terrestrial Mammals

§14.161   Primary enclosures.

(a) Except as provided in §14.106(j), ventilation openings must be located on at least two walls of a primary enclosure. When the required ventilation openings are located on two opposite walls of the primary enclosure, these ventilation openings shall comprise at least 16 percent of the total surface area of each ventilated wall. When openings are located on all four walls of the enclosure, the openings shall comprise at least 8 percent of the total surface area of each wall. At least one-third of the minimum area required for ventilation shall be located on the lower one-half of the enclosure, and at least one-third of the total minimum area required for ventilation shall be located on the upper one-half of the enclosure.

(b) No more than one terrestrial mammal (other than rodents) shall be transported in a primary enclosure. However, a mother and her nursing young may be shipped in the same primary enclosure if the shipment complies with the provisions of §14.105(b).

(c) More than one rodent may be transported in the same primary enclosure if they are members of the same species and are maintained in compatible groups. Rodents that are incompatible shall be transported in individual primary enclosures that are stored and transported so they are visually separated. A female with young being transported for medical reasons shall not be placed in a primary enclosure with other animals. The following chart specifies maximum densities minimum space for transporting rodents that fall within the specified weight limitations. Max. No. refers to maximum number per primary enclosure; Space/animal refers to minimum area of floor space per animals. Rodents weighing more than 5,000 grams shall be transported in individual enclosures.

Density Guidelines for Rodents

  Max. No.Space/AnimalHt. of Box
cm2 in2cm in
wt. in grams of rodent:
220 or less2019430156
220-4501238860208
450-100067701202510
1,000-5,00022,3103603012

(d) A primary enclosure used to transport terrestrial mammals shall be large enough to ensure that each animal has sufficient space to turn around freely in a normal manner. The height of the primary enclosure shall provide adequate space for the animal to stand upright in a normal posture with space above its head. The length of the primary enclosure shall be great enough to enable the animal to lie in a full prone position.

Specifications for Birds

§14.171   Consignment to carrier.

(a) A personally owned pet bird originally transported from the United States and being returned to this country with its original United States certificate of veterinary inspection within 60 days of departure may be accepted by a carrier without a new veterinary examination.

(b) No carrier shall accept for transport to the United States any bird that was captured in the wild unless a qualified veterinarian, authorized by the national government of the country from which the bird is being exported, certifies that the bird has been held in captivity for at least 14 days.

§14.172   Primary enclosures.

(a) A primary enclosure for birds shall have ventilation openings on two vertical sides that comprise at least 16 percent of the surface area of each side and are positioned so as to decrease the likelihood of creating a draft.

(b) Perches shall be provided for birds that rest by perching. The diameter of the perch shall be sufficient to permit the birds to maintain a firm, comfortable grip. Perches shall be placed so that droppings do not fall into food or water troughs or onto other perched birds. There shall be enough head room to allow the birds to move onto and off the perches without touching the top of the enclosure.

(c) An enclosure used to transport one or more birds that rest by perching shall be large enough to ensure that sufficient perch space is available for all birds to perch comfortably at the same time. No more than 50 birds that rest by perching shall be transported in one primary enclosure, with the exception of large birds (longer than 23 cm, or 9 inches), which are limited to a maximum of 25 per primary enclosure.

(d) A primary enclosure used to transport a raptorial bird shall be large enough to transport the bird comfortably and to permit it to turn around without stretching its wings to the fullest extent. Only one raptorial bird shall be contained in a primary enclosure.

(e) A primary enclosure containing nonraptorial birds that do not rest by perching shall be large enough for the birds to turn around, to lie down, to stand erect, and to change posture in a normal manner.

(f) Nectar-feeding birds shall either be transported in a primary enclosure equipped with feeding bottles accessible from outside the enclosure for replenishment or hand-carried and fed in accordance with the written instructions of the shipper.

(g) Birds transported in the same primary enclosure shall be of the same species and be compatible with one another. Birds that are incompatible shall be placed in individual primary enclosures and these enclosures shall not be stored or transported in visual proximity to one another.



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