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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of September 29, 2014

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter DPart 195 → Subpart C


Title 49: Transportation
PART 195—TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE


Subpart C—Design Requirements


Contents
§195.100   Scope.
§195.101   Qualifying metallic components other than pipe.
§195.102   Design temperature.
§195.104   Variations in pressure.
§195.106   Internal design pressure.
§195.108   External pressure.
§195.110   External loads.
§195.111   Fracture propagation.
§195.112   New pipe.
§195.114   Used pipe.
§195.116   Valves.
§195.118   Fittings.
§195.120   Passage of internal inspection devices.
§195.122   Fabricated branch connections.
§195.124   Closures.
§195.126   Flange connection.
§195.128   Station piping.
§195.130   Fabricated assemblies.
§195.132   Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.
§195.134   CPM leak detection.

§195.100   Scope.

This subpart prescribes minimum design requirements for new pipeline systems constructed with steel pipe and for relocating, replacing, or otherwise changing existing systems constructed with steel pipe. However, it does not apply to the movement of line pipe covered by §195.424.

§195.101   Qualifying metallic components other than pipe.

Notwithstanding any requirement of the subpart which incorporates by reference an edition of a document listed in §195.3, a metallic component other than pipe manufactured in accordance with any other edition of that document is qualified for use if—

(a) It can be shown through visual inspection of the cleaned component that no defect exists which might impair the strength or tightness of the component: and

(b) The edition of the document under which the component was manufactured has equal or more stringent requirements for the following as an edition of that document currently or previously listed in §195.3:

(1) Pressure testing;

(2) Materials; and

(3) Pressure and temperature ratings.

[Amdt. 195-28, 48 FR 30639, July 5, 1983]

§195.102   Design temperature.

(a) Material for components of the system must be chosen for the temperature environment in which the components will be used so that the pipeline will maintain its structural integrity.

(b) Components of carbon dioxide pipelines that are subject to low temperatures during normal operation because of rapid pressure reduction or during the initial fill of the line must be made of materials that are suitable for those low temperatures.

[Admt. 195-45, 56 FR 26925, June 12, 1991]

§195.104   Variations in pressure.

If, within a pipeline system, two or more components are to be connected at a place where one will operate at a higher pressure than another, the system must be designed so that any component operating at the lower pressure will not be overstressed.

§195.106   Internal design pressure.

(a) Internal design pressure for the pipe in a pipeline is determined in accordance with the following formula:

P=(2St/DE×F

P=Internal design pressure in p.s.i. (kPa) gage.

S=Yield strength in pounds per square inch (kPa) determined in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.

t=Nominal wall thickness of the pipe in inches (millimeters). If this is unknown, it is determined in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

D=Nominal outside diameter of the pipe in inches (millimeters).

E=Seam joint factor determined in accordance with paragraph (e) of this section.

F=A design factor of 0.72, except that a design factor of 0.60 is used for pipe, including risers, on a platform located offshore or on a platform in inland navigable waters, and 0.54 is used for pipe that has been subjected to cold expansion to meet the specified minimum yield strength and is subsequently heated, other than by welding or stress relieving as a part of welding, to a temperature higher than 900 °F (482 °C) for any period of time or over 600 °F (316 °C) for more than 1 hour.

(b) The yield strength to be used in determining the internal design pressure under paragraph (a) of this section is the specified minimum yield strength. If the specified minimum yield strength is not known, the yield strength to be used in the design formula is one of the following:

(1)(i) The yield strength determined by performing all of the tensile tests of API Specification 5L on randomly selected specimens with the following number of tests:

Pipe sizeNo. of tests
Less than 65/8 in (168 mm) nominal outside diameterOne test for each 200 lengths.
6 5/8 in through 123/4 in (168 mm through 324 mm) nominal outside diameterOne test for each 100 lengths.
Larger than 123/4 in (324 mm) nominal outside diameterOne test for each 50 lengths.

(ii) If the average yield-tensile ratio exceeds 0.85, the yield strength shall be taken as 24,000 p.s.i. (165,474 kPa). If the average yield-tensile ratio is 0.85 or less, the yield strength of the pipe is taken as the lower of the following:

(A) Eighty percent of the average yield strength determined by the tensile tests.

(B) The lowest yield strength determined by the tensile tests.

(2) If the pipe is not tensile tested as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the yield strength shall be taken as 24,000 p.s.i. (165,474 kPa).

(c) If the nominal wall thickness to be used in determining internal design pressure under paragraph (a) of this section is not known, it is determined by measuring the thickness of each piece of pipe at quarter points on one end. However, if the pipe is of uniform grade, size, and thickness, only 10 individual lengths or 5 percent of all lengths, whichever is greater, need be measured. The thickness of the lengths that are not measured must be verified by applying a gage set to the minimum thickness found by the measurement. The nominal wall thickness to be used is the next wall thickness found in commercial specifications that is below the average of all the measurements taken. However, the nominal wall thickness may not be more than 1.14 times the smallest measurement taken on pipe that is less than 20 inches (508 mm) nominal outside diameter, nor more than 1.11 times the smallest measurement taken on pipe that is 20 inches (508 mm) or more in nominal outside diameter.

(d) The minimum wall thickness of the pipe may not be less than 87.5 percent of the value used for nominal wall thickness in determining the internal design pressure under paragraph (a) of this section. In addition, the anticipated external loads and external pressures that are concurrent with internal pressure must be considered in accordance with §§195.108 and 195.110 and, after determining the internal design pressure, the nominal wall thickness must be increased as necessary to compensate for these concurrent loads and pressures.

(e) The seam joint factor used in paragraph (a) of this section is determined in accordance with the following table:

SpecificationPipe classSeam joint factor
ASTM A53Seamless1.00
   Electric resistance welded1.00
   Furnace lap welded0.80
   Furnace butt welded0.60
ASTM A106Seamless1.00
ASTM A 333/A 333MSeamless1.00
   Welded1.00
ASTM A381Double submerged arc welded1.00
ASTM A671Electric-fusion-welded1.00
ASTM A672Electric-fusion-welded1.00
ASTM A691Electric-fusion-welded1.00
API 5LSeamless1.00
   Electric resistance welded1.00
   Electric flash welded1.00
   Submerged arc welded1.00
   Furnace lap welded0.80
   Furnace butt welded0.60

The seam joint factor for pipe which is not covered by this paragraph must be approved by the Administrator.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982, as amended by Amdt. 195-30, 49 FR 7569, Mar. 1, 1984; Amdt. 195-37, 51 FR 15335, Apr. 23, 1986; Amdt. 195-40, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989; 58 FR 14524, Mar. 18, 1993; Amdt. 195-50, 59 FR 17281, Apr. 12, 1994; Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33396, 33397, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

§195.108   External pressure.

Any external pressure that will be exerted on the pipe must be provided for in designing a pipeline system.

§195.110   External loads.

(a) Anticipated external loads (e.g.), earthquakes, vibration, thermal expansion, and contraction must be provided for in designing a pipeline system. In providing for expansion and flexibility, section 419 of ASME/ANSI B31.4 must be followed.

(b) The pipe and other components must be supported in such a way that the support does not cause excess localized stresses. In designing attachments to pipe, the added stress to the wall of the pipe must be computed and compensated for.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended at 58 FR 14524, Mar. 18, 1993]

§195.111   Fracture propagation.

A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation.

[Amdt. 195-45, 56 FR 26926, June 12, 1991]

§195.112   New pipe.

Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following:

(a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or alloy type that is able to withstand the internal pressures and external loads and pressures anticipated for the pipeline system.

(b) The pipe must be made in accordance with a written pipe specification that sets forth the chemical requirements for the pipe steel and mechanical tests for the pipe to provide pipe suitable for the use intended.

(c) Each length of pipe with a nominal outside diameter of 4 12 in (114.3 mm) or more must be marked on the pipe or pipe coating with the specification to which it was made, the specified minimum yield strength or grade, and the pipe size. The marking must be applied in a manner that does not damage the pipe or pipe coating and must remain visible until the pipe is installed.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981, as amended by Amdt. 195-52, 59 FR 33396, June 28, 1994; Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

§195.114   Used pipe.

Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with §195.112 (a) and (b) and the following:

(a) The pipe must be of a known specification and the seam joint factor must be determined in accordance with §195.106(e). If the specified minimum yield strength or the wall thickness is not known, it is determined in accordance with §195.106 (b) or (c) as appropriate.

(b) There may not be any:

(1) Buckles;

(2) Cracks, grooves, gouges, dents, or other surface defects that exceed the maximum depth of such a defect permitted by the specification to which the pipe was manufactured; or

(3) Corroded areas where the remaining wall thickness is less than the minimum thickness required by the tolerances in the specification to which the pipe was manufactured.

However, pipe that does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section may be used if the operating pressure is reduced to be commensurate with the remaining wall thickness.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982]

§195.116   Valves.

Each valve installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following:

(a) The valve must be of a sound engineering design.

(b) Materials subject to the internal pressure of the pipeline system, including welded and flanged ends, must be compatible with the pipe or fittings to which the valve is attached.

(c) Each part of the valve that will be in contact with the carbon dioxide or hazardous liquid stream must be made of materials that are compatible with carbon dioxide or each hazardous liquid that it is anticipated will flow through the pipeline system.

(d) Each valve must be both hydrostatically shell tested and hydrostatically seat tested without leakage to at least the requirements set forth in Section 11 of API Standard 6D (incorporated by reference, see §195.3).

(e) Each valve other than a check valve must be equipped with a means for clearly indicating the position of the valve (open, closed, etc.).

(f) Each valve must be marked on the body or the nameplate, with at least the following:

(1) Manufacturer's name or trademark.

(2) Class designation or the maximum working pressure to which the valve may be subjected.

(3) Body material designation (the end connection material, if more than one type is used).

(4) Nominal valve size.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981 as amended by Amdt. 195-45, 56 FR 26926, June 12, 1991; Amdt. 195-86, 71 FR 33410, June 9, 2006; Amdt. 195-94, 75 FR 48606, Aug. 11, 2010]

§195.118   Fittings.

(a) Butt-welding type fittings must meet the marking, end preparation, and the bursting strength requirements of ASME/ANSI B16.9 or MSS Standard Practice SP-75.

(b) There may not be any buckles, dents, cracks, gouges, or other defects in the fitting that might reduce the strength of the fitting.

(c) The fitting must be suitable for the intended service and be at least as strong as the pipe and other fittings in the pipeline system to which it is attached.

[Amdt. 195-22, 46 FR 38360, July 27, 1981; 47 FR 32721, July 29, 1982, as amended at 58 FR 14524, Mar. 18, 1993]

§195.120   Passage of internal inspection devices.

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each new pipeline and each line section of a pipeline where the line pipe, valve, fitting or other line component is replaced; must be designed and constructed to accommodate the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.

(b) This section does not apply to:

(1) Manifolds;

(2) Station piping such as at pump stations, meter stations, or pressure reducing stations;

(3) Piping associated with tank farms and other storage facilities;

(4) Cross-overs;

(5) Sizes of pipe for which an instrumented internal inspection device is not commercially available;

(6) Offshore pipelines, other than main lines 10 inches (254 millimeters) or greater in nominal diameter, that transport liquids to onshore facilities; and

(7) Other piping that the Administrator under §190.9 of this chapter, finds in a particular case would be impracticable to design and construct to accommodate the passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.

(c) An operator encountering emergencies, construction time constraints and other unforeseen construction problems need not construct a new or replacement segment of a pipeline to meet paragraph (a) of this section, if the operator determines and documents why an impracticability prohibits compliance with paragraph (a) of this section. Within 30 days after discovering the emergency or construction problem the operator must petition, under §190.9 of this chapter, for approval that design and construction to accommodate passage of instrumented internal inspection devices would be impracticable. If the petition is denied, within 1 year after the date of the notice of the denial, the operator must modify that segment to allow passage of instrumented internal inspection devices.

[Amdt. 195-50, 59 FR 17281, Apr. 12, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 195-63, 63 FR 37506, July 13, 1998]

§195.122   Fabricated branch connections.

Each pipeline system must be designed so that the addition of any fabricated branch connections will not reduce the strength of the pipeline system.

§195.124   Closures.

Each closure to be installed in a pipeline system must comply with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section VIII, Pressure Vessels, Division 1, and must have pressure and temperature ratings at least equal to those of the pipe to which the closure is attached.

§195.126   Flange connection.

Each component of a flange connection must be compatible with each other component and the connection as a unit must be suitable for the service in which it is to be used.

§195.128   Station piping.

Any pipe to be installed in a station that is subject to system pressure must meet the applicable requirements of this subpart.

§195.130   Fabricated assemblies.

Each fabricated assembly to be installed in a pipeline system must meet the applicable requirements of this subpart.

§195.132   Design and construction of aboveground breakout tanks.

(a) Each aboveground breakout tank must be designed and constructed to withstand the internal pressure produced by the hazardous liquid to be stored therein and any anticipated external loads.

(b) For aboveground breakout tanks first placed in service after October 2, 2000, compliance with paragraph (a) of this section requires one of the following:

(1) Shop-fabricated, vertical, cylindrical, closed top, welded steel tanks with nominal capacities of 90 to 750 barrels (14.3 to 119.2 m3) and with internal vapor space pressures that are approximately atmospheric must be designed and constructed in accordance with API Specification 12F.

(2) Welded, low-pressure (i.e., internal vapor space pressure not greater than 15 psig (103.4 kPa)), carbon steel tanks that have wall shapes that can be generated by a single vertical axis of revolution must be designed and constructed in accordance with API Standard 620.

(3) Vertical, cylindrical, welded steel tanks with internal pressures at the tank top approximating atmospheric pressures (i.e., internal vapor space pressures not greater than 2.5 psig (17.2 kPa), or not greater than the pressure developed by the weight of the tank roof) must be designed and constructed in accordance with API Standard 650.

(4) High pressure steel tanks (i.e., internal gas or vapor space pressures greater than 15 psig (103.4 kPa)) with a nominal capacity of 2000 gallons (7571 liters) or more of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) must be designed and constructed in accordance with API Standard 2510.

[Amdt. 195-66, 64 FR 15935, Apr. 2, 1999]

§195.134   CPM leak detection.

This section applies to each hazardous liquid pipeline transporting liquid in single phase (without gas in the liquid). On such systems, each new computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection system and each replaced component of an existing CPM system must comply with section 4.2 of API 1130 in its design and with any other design criteria addressed in API 1130 for components of the CPM leak detection system.

[Amdt. 195-62, 63 FR 36376, July 6, 1998]



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