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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of November 25, 2014

Title 42Chapter IVSubchapter GPart 483 → Subpart G


Title 42: Public Health
PART 483—REQUIREMENTS FOR STATES AND LONG TERM CARE FACILITIES


Subpart G—Condition of Participation for the Use of Restraint or Seclusion in Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21


Contents
§483.350   Basis and scope.
§483.352   Definitions.
§483.354   General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.
§483.356   Protection of residents.
§483.358   Orders for the use of restraint or seclusion.
§483.360   Consultation with treatment team physician.
§483.362   Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.
§483.364   Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after seclusion.
§483.366   Notification of parent(s) or legal guardian(s).
§483.368   Application of time out.
§483.370   Postintervention debriefings.
§483.372   Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.
§483.374   Facility reporting.
§483.376   Education and training.

Source: 66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, unless otherwise noted.

§483.350   Basis and scope.

(a) Statutory basis. Sections 1905(a)(16) and (h) of the Act provide that inpatient psychiatric services for individuals under age 21 include only inpatient services that are provided in an institution (or distinct part thereof) that is a psychiatric hospital as defined in section 1861(f) of the Act or in another inpatient setting that the Secretary has specified in regulations. Additionally, the Children's Health Act of 2000 (Pub. L. 106-310) imposes procedural reporting and training requirements regarding the use of restraints and involuntary seclusion in facilities, specifically including facilities that provide inpatient psychiatric services for children under the age of 21 as defined by sections 1905(a)(16) and (h) of the Act.

(b) Scope. This subpart imposes requirements regarding the use of restraint or seclusion in psychiatric residential treatment facilities, that are not hospitals, providing inpatient psychiatric services to individuals under age 21.

§483.352   Definitions.

For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions apply:

Drug used as a restraint means any drug that—

(1) Is administered to manage a resident's behavior in a way that reduces the safety risk to the resident or others;

(2) Has the temporary effect of restricting the resident's freedom of movement; and

(3) Is not a standard treatment for the resident's medical or psychiatric condition.

Emergency safety intervention means the use of restraint or seclusion as an immediate response to an emergency safety situation.

Emergency safety situation means unanticipated resident behavior that places the resident or others at serious threat of violence or injury if no intervention occurs and that calls for an emergency safety intervention as defined in this section.

Mechanical restraint means any device attached or adjacent to the resident's body that he or she cannot easily remove that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to his or her body.

Minor means a minor as defined under State law and, for the purpose of this subpart, includes a resident who has been declared legally incompetent by the applicable State court.

Personal restraint means the application of physical force without the use of any device, for the purposes of restraining the free movement of a resident's body. The term personal restraint does not include briefly holding without undue force a resident in order to calm or comfort him or her, or holding a resident's hand to safely escort a resident from one area to another.

Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facility means a facility other than a hospital, that provides psychiatric services, as described in subpart D of part 441 of this chapter, to individuals under age 21, in an inpatient setting.

Restraint means a “personal restraint,” “mechanical restraint,” or “drug used as a restraint” as defined in this section.

Seclusion means the involuntary confinement of a resident alone in a room or an area from which the resident is physically prevented from leaving.

Serious injury means any significant impairment of the physical condition of the resident as determined by qualified medical personnel. This includes, but is not limited to, burns, lacerations, bone fractures, substantial hematoma, and injuries to internal organs, whether self-inflicted or inflicted by someone else.

Staff means those individuals with responsibility for managing a resident's health or participating in an emergency safety intervention and who are employed by the facility on a full-time, part-time, or contract basis.

Time out means the restriction of a resident for a period of time to a designated area from which the resident is not physically prevented from leaving, for the purpose of providing the resident an opportunity to regain self-control.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28116, May 22, 2001]

§483.354   General requirements for psychiatric residential treatment facilities.

A psychiatric residential treatment facility must meet the requirements in §441.151 through §441.182 of this chapter.

§483.356   Protection of residents.

(a) Restraint and seclusion policy for the protection of residents. (1) Each resident has the right to be free from restraint or seclusion, of any form, used as a means of coercion, discipline, convenience, or retaliation.

(2) An order for restraint or seclusion must not be written as a standing order or on an as-needed basis.

(3) Restraint or seclusion must not result in harm or injury to the resident and must be used only—

(i) To ensure the safety of the resident or others during an emergency safety situation; and

(ii) Until the emergency safety situation has ceased and the resident's safety and the safety of others can be ensured, even if the restraint or seclusion order has not expired.

(4) Restraint and seclusion must not be used simultaneously.

(b) Emergency safety intervention. An emergency safety intervention must be performed in a manner that is safe, proportionate, and appropriate to the severity of the behavior, and the resident's chronological and developmental age; size; gender; physical, medical, and psychiatric condition; and personal history (including any history of physical or sexual abuse).

(c) Notification of facility policy. At admission, the facility must—

(1) Inform both the incoming resident and, in the case of a minor, the resident's parent(s) or legal guardian(s) of the facility's policy regarding the use of restraint or seclusion during an emergency safety situation that may occur while the resident is in the program;

(2) Communicate its restraint and seclusion policy in a language that the resident, or his or her parent(s) or legal guardian(s) understands (including American Sign Language, if appropriate) and when necessary, the facility must provide interpreters or translators;

(3) Obtain an acknowledgment, in writing, from the resident, or in the case of a minor, from the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) that he or she has been informed of the facility's policy on the use of restraint or seclusion during an emergency safety situation. Staff must file this acknowledgment in the resident's record; and

(4) Provide a copy of the facility policy to the resident and in the case of a minor, to the resident's parent(s) or legal guardian(s).

(d) Contact information. The facility's policy must provide contact information, including the phone number and mailing address, for the appropriate State Protection and Advocacy organization.

§483.358   Orders for the use of restraint or seclusion.

(a) Orders for restraint or seclusion must be by a physician, or other licensed practitioner permitted by the State and the facility to order restraint or seclusion and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions. Federal regulations at 42 CFR 441.151 require that inpatient psychiatric services for beneficiaries under age 21 be provided under the direction of a physician.

(b) If the resident's treatment team physician is available, only he or she can order restraint or seclusion.

(c) A physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion must order the least restrictive emergency safety intervention that is most likely to be effective in resolving the emergency safety situation based on consultation with staff.

(d) If the order for restraint or seclusion is verbal, the verbal order must be received by a registered nurse or other licensed staff such as a licensed practical nurse, while the emergency safety intervention is being initiated by staff or immediately after the emergency safety situation ends. The physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion must verify the verbal order in a signed written form in the resident's record. The physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion must be available to staff for consultation, at least by telephone, throughout the period of the emergency safety intervention.

(e) Each order for restraint or seclusion must:

(1) Be limited to no longer than the duration of the emergency safety situation; and

(2) Under no circumstances exceed 4 hours for residents ages 18 to 21; 2 hours for residents ages 9 to 17; or 1 hour for residents under age 9.

(f) Within 1 hour of the initiation of the emergency safety intervention a physician, or other licensed practitioner trained in the use of emergency safety interventions and permitted by the state and the facility to assess the physical and psychological well being of residents, must conduct a face-to-face assessment of the physical and psychological well being of the resident, including but not limited to—

(1) The resident's physical and psychological status;

(2) The resident's behavior;

(3) The appropriateness of the intervention measures; and

(4) Any complications resulting from the intervention.

(g) Each order for restraint or seclusion must include—

(1) The name of the ordering physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion;

(2) The date and time the order was obtained; and

(3) The emergency safety intervention ordered, including the length of time for which the physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion authorized its use.

(h) Staff must document the intervention in the resident's record. That documentation must be completed by the end of the shift in which the intervention occurs. If the intervention does not end during the shift in which it began, documentation must be completed during the shift in which it ends. Documentation must include all of the following:

(1) Each order for restraint or seclusion as required in paragraph (g) of this section.

(2) The time the emergency safety intervention actually began and ended.

(3) The time and results of the 1-hour assessment required in paragraph (f) of this section.

(4) The emergency safety situation that required the resident to be restrained or put in seclusion.

(5) The name of staff involved in the emergency safety intervention.

(i) The facility must maintain a record of each emergency safety situation, the interventions used, and their outcomes.

(j) The physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion must sign the restraint or seclusion order in the resident's record as soon as possible.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28116, May 22, 2001]

§483.360   Consultation with treatment team physician.

If a physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion orders the use of restraint or seclusion, that person must contact the resident's treatment team physician, unless the ordering physician is in fact the resident's treatment team physician. The person ordering the use of restraint or seclusion must—

(a) Consult with the resident's treatment team physician as soon as possible and inform the team physician of the emergency safety situation that required the resident to be restrained or placed in seclusion; and

(b) Document in the resident's record the date and time the team physician was consulted.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28117, May 22, 2001]

§483.362   Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after restraint.

(a) Clinical staff trained in the use of emergency safety interventions must be physically present, continually assessing and monitoring the physical and psychological well-being of the resident and the safe use of restraint throughout the duration of the emergency safety intervention.

(b) If the emergency safety situation continues beyond the time limit of the order for the use of restraint, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion to receive further instructions.

(c) A physician, or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to evaluate the resident's well-being and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions, must evaluate the resident's well-being immediately after the restraint is removed.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28117, May 22, 2001]

§483.364   Monitoring of the resident in and immediately after seclusion.

(a) Clinical staff, trained in the use of emergency safety interventions, must be physically present in or immediately outside the seclusion room, continually assessing, monitoring, and evaluating the physical and psychological well-being of the resident in seclusion. Video monitoring does not meet this requirement.

(b) A room used for seclusion must—

(1) Allow staff full view of the resident in all areas of the room; and

(2) Be free of potentially hazardous conditions such as unprotected light fixtures and electrical outlets.

(c) If the emergency safety situation continues beyond the time limit of the order for the use of seclusion, a registered nurse or other licensed staff, such as a licensed practical nurse, must immediately contact the ordering physician or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to order restraint or seclusion to receive further instructions.

(d) A physician, or other licensed practitioner permitted by the state and the facility to evaluate the resident's well-being and trained in the use of emergency safety interventions, must evaluate the resident's well-being immediately after the resident is removed from seclusion.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28117, May 22, 2001]

§483.366   Notification of parent(s) or legal guardian(s).

If the resident is a minor as defined in this subpart:

(a) The facility must notify the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) of the resident who has been restrained or placed in seclusion as soon as possible after the initiation of each emergency safety intervention.

(b) The facility must document in the resident's record that the parent(s) or legal guardian(s) has been notified of the emergency safety intervention, including the date and time of notification and the name of the staff person providing the notification.

§483.368   Application of time out.

(a) A resident in time out must never be physically prevented from leaving the time out area.

(b) Time out may take place away from the area of activity or from other residents, such as in the resident's room (exclusionary), or in the area of activity or other residents (inclusionary).

(c) Staff must monitor the resident while he or she is in time out.

§483.370   Postintervention debriefings.

(a) Within 24 hours after the use of restraint or seclusion, staff involved in an emergency safety intervention and the resident must have a face-to-face discussion. This discussion must include all staff involved in the intervention except when the presence of a particular staff person may jeopardize the well-being of the resident. Other staff and the resident's parent(s) or legal guardian(s) may participate in the disussion when it is deemed appropriate by the facility. The facility must conduct such discussion in a language that is understood by the resident's parent(s) or legal guardian(s). The discussion must provide both the resident and staff the opportunity to discuss the circumstances resulting in the use of restraint or seclusion and strategies to be used by the staff, the resident, or others that could prevent the future use of restraint or seclusion.

(b) Within 24 hours after the use of restraint or seclusion, all staff involved in the emergency safety intervention, and appropriate supervisory and administrative staff, must conduct a debriefing session that includes, at a minimum, a review and discussion of—

(1) The emergency safety situation that required the intervention, including a discussion of the precipitating factors that led up to the intervention;

(2) Alternative techniques that might have prevented the use of the restraint or seclusion;

(3) The procedures, if any, that staff are to implement to prevent any recurrence of the use of restraint or seclusion; and

(4) The outcome of the intervention, including any injuries that may have resulted from the use of restraint or seclusion.

(c) Staff must document in the resident's record that both debriefing sessions took place and must include in that documentation the names of staff who were present for the debriefing, names of staff that were excused from the debriefing, and any changes to the resident's treatment plan that result from the debriefings.

§483.372   Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

(a) Staff must immediately obtain medical treatment from qualified medical personnel for a resident injured as a result of an emergency safety intervention.

(b) The psychiatric residential treatment facility must have affiliations or written transfer agreements in effect with one or more hospitals approved for participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that—

(1) A resident will be transferred from the facility to a hospital and admitted in a timely manner when a transfer is medically necessary for medical care or acute psychiatric care;

(2) Medical and other information needed for care of the resident in light of such a transfer, will be exchanged between the institutions in accordance with State medical privacy law, including any information needed to determine whether the appropriate care can be provided in a less restrictive setting; and

(3) Services are available to each resident 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

(c) Staff must document in the resident's record, all injuries that occur as a result of an emergency safety intervention, including injuries to staff resulting from that intervention.

(d) Staff involved in an emergency safety intervention that results in an injury to a resident or staff must meet with supervisory staff and evaluate the circumstances that caused the injury and develop a plan to prevent future injuries.

§483.374   Facility reporting.

(a) Attestation of facility compliance. Each psychiatric residential treatment facility that provides inpatient psychiatric services to individuals under age 21 must attest, in writing, that the facility is in compliance with CMS's standards governing the use of restraint and seclusion. This attestation must be signed by the facility director.

(1) A facility with a current provider agreement with the Medicaid agency must provide its attestation to the State Medicaid agency by July 21, 2001.

(2) A facility enrolling as a Medicaid provider must meet this requirement at the time it executes a provider agreement with the Medicaid agency.

(b) Reporting of serious occurrences. The facility must report each serious occurrence to both the State Medicaid agency and, unless prohibited by State law, the State-designated Protection and Advocacy system. Serious occurrences that must be reported include a resident's death, a serious injury to a resident as defined in §483.352 of this part, and a resident's suicide attempt.

(1) Staff must report any serious occurrence involving a resident to both the State Medicaid agency and the State-designated Protection and Advocacy system by no later than close of business the next business day after a serious occurrence. The report must include the name of the resident involved in the serious occurrence, a description of the occurrence, and the name, street address, and telephone number of the facility.

(2) In the case of a minor, the facility must notify the resident's parent(s) or legal guardian(s) as soon as possible, and in no case later than 24 hours after the serious occurrence.

(3) Staff must document in the resident's record that the serious occurrence was reported to both the State Medicaid agency and the State-designated Protection and Advocacy system, including the name of the person to whom the incident was reported. A copy of the report must be maintained in the resident's record, as well as in the incident and accident report logs kept by the facility.

(c) Reporting of deaths. In addition to the reporting requirements contained in paragraph (b) of this section, facilities must report the death of any resident to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regional office.

(1) Staff must report the death of any resident to the CMS regional office by no later than close of business the next business day after the resident's death.

(2) Staff must document in the resident's record that the death was reported to the CMS regional office.

[66 FR 7161, Jan. 22, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 28117, May 22, 2001]

§483.376   Education and training.

(a) The facility must require staff to have ongoing education, training, and demonstrated knowledge of—

(1) Techniques to identify staff and resident behaviors, events, and environmental factors that may trigger emergency safety situations;

(2) The use of nonphysical intervention skills, such as de-escalation, mediation conflict resolution, active listening, and verbal and observational methods, to prevent emergency safety situations; and

(3) The safe use of restraint and the safe use of seclusion, including the ability to recognize and respond to signs of physical distress in residents who are restrained or in seclusion.

(b) Certification in the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including periodic recertification, is required.

(c) Individuals who are qualified by education, training, and experience must provide staff training.

(d) Staff training must include training exercises in which staff members successfully demonstrate in practice the techniques they have learned for managing emergency safety situations.

(e) Staff must be trained and demonstrate competency before participating in an emergency safety intervention.

(f) Staff must demonstrate their competencies as specified in paragraph (a) of this section on a semiannual basis and their competencies as specified in paragraph (b) of this section on an annual basis.

(g) The facility must document in the staff personnel records that the training and demonstration of competency were successfully completed. Documentation must include the date training was completed and the name of persons certifying the completion of training.

(h) All training programs and materials used by the facility must be available for review by CMS, the State Medicaid agency, and the State survey agency.



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