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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 21, 2014

Title 42: Public Health
PART 447—PAYMENTS FOR SERVICES


Subpart C—Payment for Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services


Contents
§447.250   Basis and purpose.

Payment Rates

§447.251   Definitions.
§447.252   State plan requirements.
§447.253   Other requirements.
§447.255   Related information.
§447.256   Procedures for CMS action on assurances and State plan amendments.

Federal Financial Participation

§447.257   FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement.

Upper Limits

§447.271   Upper limits based on customary charges.
§447.272   Inpatient services: Application of upper payment limits.

Swing-Bed Hospitals

§447.280   Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals).

Source: 46 FR 47971, Sept. 30, 1981, unless otherwise noted.

§447.250   Basis and purpose.

(a) This subpart implements section 1902(a)(13)(A) of the Act, which requires that the State plan provide for payment for hospital and long-term care facility services through the use of rates that the State finds, and makes assurances satisfactory to the Secretary, are reasonable and adequate to meet the costs that must be incurred by efficiently and economically operated facilities to provide services in conformity with State and Federal laws, regulations, and quality and safety standards.

(b) Section 447.253(a)(2) implements section 1902(a)(30) of the Act, which requires that payments be consistent with efficiency, economy, and quality of care;

(c) Sections 447.253 (c) and (d) implement sections 1902(a)(13)(B) and 1902(a)(13)(C) of the Act, which require a State Medicaid agency to make certain assurances to the Secretary regarding increases in payments resulting solely from changes in ownerships of hospitals, NFs, and ICFs/IID.

(d) Section 447.271 implements section 1903(i)(3) of the Act, which requires that payments for inpatient hospital services not exceed the hospital's customary charges.

(e) Section 447.280 implements section 1913(b) of the Act, which concerns reimbursement for long-term care services furnished by swing-bed hospitals.

[48 FR 56057, Dec. 19, 1983, as amended at 57 FR 43921, Sept. 23, 1992]

Payment Rates

§447.251   Definitions.

For the purposes of this subpart—

Long-term care facility services means intermediate care facility services for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ICF/IID) and nursing facility (NF) services.

Provider means an institution that furnishes inpatient hospital services or an institution that furnishes long-term care facility services.

[46 FR 47971, Sept. 30, 1981, as amended at 54 FR 5359, Feb. 2, 1989; 56 FR 48867, Sept. 26, 1991]

§447.252   State plan requirements.

(a) The plan must provide that the requirements of this subpart are met.

(b) The plan must specify comprehensively the methods and standards used by the agency to set payment rates in a manner consistent with §430.10 of this chapter.

(c) If the agency chooses to apply the cost limits established under Medicare (see §413.30 of this chapter) on an individual provider basis, the plan must specify this requirement.

(Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0938-0193)

[48 FR 56058, Dec. 19, 1983, as amended at 51 FR 34833, Sept. 30, 1986]

§447.253   Other requirements.

(a) State assurances. In order to receive CMS approval of a State plan change in payment methods and standards, the Medicaid agency must make assurances satisfactory to CMS that the requirements set forth in paragraphs (b) through (i) of this section are being met, must submit the related information required by §447.255 of this subpart, and must comply with all other requirements of this subpart.

(b) Findings. Whenever the Medicaid agency makes a change in its methods and standards, but not less often than annually, the agency must make the following findings:

(1) Payment rates. (i) The Medicaid agency pays for inpatient hospital services and long-term care facility services through the use of rates that are reasonable and adequate to meet the costs that must be incurred by efficiently and economically operated providers to provide services in conformity with applicable State and Federal laws, regulations, and quality and safety standards.

(ii) With respect to inpatient hospital services—

(A) The methods and standards used to determine payment rates take into account the situation of hospitals which serve a disproportionate number of low income patients with special needs;

(B) If a State elects in its State plan to cover inappropriate level of care services (that is, services furnished to hospital inpatients who require a lower covered level of care such as skilled nursing or intermediate care services) under conditions similar to those described in section 1861(v)(1)(G) of the Act, the methods and standards used to determine payment rates must specify that the payments for this type of care must be made at rates lower than those for inpatient hospital level of care services, reflecting the level of care actually received, in a manner consistent with section 1861(v)(1)(G) of the Act; and

(C) The payment rates are adequate to assure that beneficiaries have reasonable access, taking into account geographic location and reasonable travel time, to inpatient hospital services of adequate quality.

(iii) With respect to nursing facility services—

(A) Except for preadmission screening for individuals with mental illness and Intellectual Disability under §483.20(f) of this Chapter, the methods and standards used to determine payment rates take into account the costs of complying with the requirements of part 483 subpart B of this chapter;

(B) The methods and standards used to determine payment rates provide for an appropriate reduction to take into account the lower costs (if any) of the facility for nursing care under a waiver of the requirement in §483.30(c) of this Chapter to provide licensed nurses on a 24-hour basis;

(C) The State establishes procedures under which the data and methodology used in establishing payment rates are made available to the public.

(2) Upper payment limits. The agency's proposed payment rate will not exceed the upper payment limits as specified in §447.272.

(c) Changes in ownership of hospitals. In determining payment when there has been a sale or transfer of the assets of a hospital, the State's methods and standards must provide that payment rates can reasonably be expected not to increase in the aggregate solely as a result of changes of ownership, more than the payments would increase under Medicare under §§413.130, 413.134, 413.153, and 413.157 of this chapter, insofar as these sections affect payments for depreciation, interest on capital indebtedness, return on equity capital (if applicable), acquisition costs for which payments were previously made to prior owners, and the recapture of depreciation.

(d) Changes in ownership of NFs and ICFs/IID. In determining payment when there has been a sale or transfer of assets of an NF or ICF/IID, the State's methods and standards must provide the following depending upon the date of the transfer.

(1) For transfers on or after July 18, 1984 but before October 1, 1985, the State's methods and standards must provide that payment rates can reasonably be expected not to increase in the aggregate, solely as the result of a change in ownership, more than payments would increase under Medicare under §§413.130, 413.134, 413.153 and 413.157 of this chapter, insofar as these sections affect payment for depreciation, interest on capital indebtedness, return on equity capital (if applicable), acquisition costs for which payments were previously made to prior owners, and the recapture of depreciation.

(2) For transfers on or after October 1, 1985, the State's methods and standards must provide that the valuation of capital assets for purposes of determining payment rates for NFs and ICFs/IID is not to increase (as measured from the date of acquisition by the seller to the date of the change of ownership) solely as a result of a change of ownership, by more than the lesser of—

(i) One-half of the percentage increase (as measured from the date of acquisition by the seller to the date of the change of ownership, or, if necessary, as extrapolated retrospectively by the Secretary) in the Dodge construction index applied in the aggregate with respect to those facilities that have undergone a change of ownership during the fiscal year; or

(ii) One-half of the percentage increase (as measured from the date of acquisition by the seller to the date of the change of ownership) in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) (United States city average) applied in the aggregate with respect to those facilities that have undergone a change of ownership during the fiscal year.

(e) Provider appeals. The Medicaid agency must provide an appeals or exception procedure that allows individual providers an opportunity to submit additional evidence and receive prompt administrative review, with respect to such issues as the agency determines appropriate, of payment rates.

(f) Uniform cost reporting. The Medicaid agency must provide for the filing of uniform cost reports by each participating provider.

(g) Audit requirements. The Medicaid agency must provide for periodic audits of the financial and statistical records of participating providers.

(h) Public notice. The Medicaid agency must provide that it has complied with the public notice requirements in §447.205 of this part when it is proposing significant changes to its methods or standards for setting payment rates for inpatient hospital or LTC facility services.

(i) Rates paid. The Medicaid agency must pay for inpatient hospital and long term care services using rates determined in accordance with methods and standards specified in an approved State plan.

[48 FR 56057, Dec. 19, 1983, as amended at 52 FR 28147, July 28, 1987; 54 FR 5359, Feb. 2, 1989; 57 FR 43921, Sept. 23, 1992]

§447.255   Related information.

The Medicaid agency must submit, with the assurances described in §447.253(a), the following information:

(a) The amount of the estimated average proposed payment rate for each type of provider (hospital, ICF/IID, or nursing facility), and the amount by which that estimated average rate increased or decreased relative to the average payment rate in effect for each type or provider for the immediately preceding rate period;

(b) An estimate of the short-term and, to the extent feasible, long-term effect the change in the estimated average rate will have on—

(1) The availability of services on a Statewide and geographic area basis;

(2) The type of care furnished;

(3) The extent of provider participation; and

(4) The degree to which costs are covered in hospitals that serve a disproportionate number of low income patients with special needs.

[48 FR 56058, Dec. 19, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 5359, Feb. 2, 1989; 56 FR 48867, Sept. 26, 1991; 57 FR 43924, Sept. 23, 1992; 57 FR 46431, Oct. 8, 1992]

§447.256   Procedures for CMS action on assurances and State plan amendments.

(a) Criteria for approval. (1) CMS approval action on State plans and State plan amendments, is taken in accordance with subpart B of part 430 of this chapter and sections 1116, 1902(b) and 1915(f) of the Act.

(2) In the case of State plan and plan amendment changes in payment methods and standards, CMS bases its approval on the acceptability of the Medicaid agency's assurances that the requirements of §447.253 have been met, and the State's compliance with the other requirements of this subpart.

(b) Time limit. CMS will send a notice to the agency of its determination as to whether the assurances regarding a State plan amendment are acceptable within 90 days of the date CMS receives the assurances described in §447.253, and the related information described in §447.255 of this subpart. If CMS does not send a notice to the agency of its determination within this time limit and the provisions in paragraph (a) of this section are met, the assurances and/or the State plan amendment will be deemed accepted and approved.

(c) Effective date. A State plan amendment that is approved will become effective not earlier than the first day of the calendar quarter in which an approvable amendment is submitted in accordance with §§430.20 of this chapter and 447.253.

[48 FR 56058, Dec. 19, 1983, as amended at 52 FR 28147, July 28, 1987]

Federal Financial Participation

§447.257   FFP: Conditions relating to institutional reimbursement.

FFP is not available for a State's expenditures for hospital inpatient or long-term care facility services that are in excess of the amounts allowable under this subpart.

[52 FR 28147, July 28, 1987]

Upper Limits

§447.271   Upper limits based on customary charges.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the agency may not pay a provider more for inpatient hospital services under Medicaid than the provider's customary charges to the general public for the services.

(b) The agency may pay a public provider that provides services free or at a nominal charge at the same rate that would be used if the provider charges were equal to or greater than its costs.

[75 FR 73975, Nov. 30, 2010]

§447.272   Inpatient services: Application of upper payment limits.

(a) Scope. This section applies to rates set by the agency to pay for inpatient services furnished by hospitals, NFs, and ICFs/IID within one of the following categories:

(1) State government-owned or operated facilities (that is, all facilities that are either owned or operated by the State).

(2) Non-State government-owned or operated facilities (that is, all government facilities that are neither owned nor operated by the State).

(3) Privately-owned and operated facilities.

(b) General rules. (1) Upper payment limit refers to a reasonable estimate of the amount that would be paid for the services furnished by the group of facilities under Medicare payment principles in subchapter B of this chapter.

(2) Except as provided for in paragraph (c) of this section, aggregate Medicaid payments to a group of facilities within one of the categories described in paragraph (a) of this section may not exceed the upper payment limit described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(c) Exceptions.—(1) Indian Health Services and tribal facilities. The limitation in paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to Indian Health Services facilities and tribal facilities that are funded through the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (Pub. L. 93-638).

(2) Disproportionate share hospitals. The limitation in paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to payment adjustments made under section 1923 of the Act that are made under a State plan to hospitals found to serve a disproportionate number of low-income patients with special needs as provided in section 1902(a)(13)(A)(iv) of the Act. Disproportionate share hospital (DSH) payments are subject to the following limits:

(i) The aggregate DSH limit using the Federal share of the DSH limit under section 1923(f) of the Act.

(ii) The hospital-specific DSH limit in section 1923(g) of the Act.

(iii) The aggregate DSH limit for institutions for mental disease (IMDs) under section 1923(h) of the Act.

(d) Compliance dates. Except as permitted under paragraph (e) of this section, a State must comply with the upper payment limit described in paragraph (b) of this section by one of the following dates:

(1) For non-State government owned or operated hospitals,—March 19, 2002.

(2) For all other facilities—March 13, 2001.

[66 FR 3175, Jan. 12, 2001, as amended at 66 FR 46399, Sept. 5, 2001; 67 FR 2610, Jan. 18, 2002; 72 FR 29834, May 29, 2007; 75 FR 73975, Nov. 30, 2010; 77 FR 31512, May 29, 2012]

Swing-Bed Hospitals

§447.280   Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals).

(a) General rule. If the State plan provides for NF services furnished by a swing-bed hospital, as specified in §§440.40(a) and 440.150(f) of this chapter, the methods and standards used to determine payment rates for routine NF services must—

(1) Provide for payment at the average rate per patient day paid to NFs, as applicable, for routine services furnished during the previous calendar year; or

(2) Meet the State plan and payment requirements described in this subpart, as applicable.

(b) Application of the rule. The payment methodology used by a State to set payment rates for routine NF services must apply to all swing-bed hospitals in the State.

[59 FR 56237, Nov. 10, 1994]



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