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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 23, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 60—STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES


Subpart BBa—Standards of Performance for Kraft Pulp Mill Affected Sources for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After May 23, 2013


Contents
§60.280a   Applicability and designation of affected facility.
§60.281a   Definitions.
§60.282a   Standard for filterable particulate matter.
§60.283a   Standard for total reduced sulfur (TRS).
§60.284a   Monitoring of emissions and operations.
§60.285a   Test methods and procedures.
§60.286a   Affirmative defense for violations of emission standards during malfunction.
§60.287a   Recordkeeping.
§60.288a   Reporting.

Source: 79 FR 18966, Apr. 4, 2014, unless otherwise noted.

§60.280a   Applicability and designation of affected facility.

(a) The provisions of this subpart are applicable to the following affected facilities in kraft pulp mills: digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, recovery furnace, smelt dissolving tank, lime kiln and condensate stripper system. In pulp mills where kraft pulping is combined with neutral sulfite semichemical pulping, the provisions of this subpart are applicable when any portion of the material charged to an affected facility is produced by the kraft pulping operation.

(b) Except as noted in §60.283a(a)(1)(iv), any facility under paragraph (a) of this section that commences construction, reconstruction or modification after May 23, 2013, is subject to the requirements of this subpart. Any facility under paragraph (a) of this section that commenced construction, reconstruction, or modification after September 24, 1976, and on or before May 23, 2013 is subject to the requirements of subpart BB of this part.

§60.281a   Definitions.

As used in this subpart, all terms not defined herein must have the same meaning given them in the Act and in subpart A.

Affirmative defense means, in the context of an enforcement proceeding, a response or defense put forward by a defendant, regarding which the defendant has the burden of proof, and the merits of which are independently and objectively evaluated in a judicial or administrative proceeding.

Black liquor solids (BLS) means the dry weight of the solids which enter the recovery furnace in the black liquor.

Brown stock washer system means brown stock washers and associated knotters, vacuum pumps, and filtrate tanks used to wash the pulp following the digester system. Diffusion washers are excluded from this definition.

Closed-vent system means a system that is not open to the atmosphere and is composed of piping, ductwork, connections, and, if necessary, flow-inducing devices that transport gas or vapor from an emission point to a control device.

Condensable particulate matter, for purposes of this subpart, means particulate matter (PM) measured by EPA Method 202 of Appendix M of 40 CFR part 51 that is vapor phase at stack conditions, but condenses and/or reacts upon cooling and dilution in the ambient air to form solid or liquid PM immediately after discharge from the stack.

Condensate stripper system means a column, and associated condensers, used to strip, with air or steam, total reduced sulfur (TRS) compounds from condensate streams from various processes within a kraft pulp mill.

Cross recovery furnace means a furnace used to recover chemicals consisting primarily of sodium and sulfur compounds by burning black liquor which on a quarterly basis contains more than 7 weight percent of the total pulp solids from the neutral sulfite semichemical process and has a green liquor sulfidity of more than 28 percent.

Digester system means each continuous digester or each batch digester used for the cooking of wood in white liquor, and associated flash tank(s), blow tank(s), chip steamer(s) including chip bins using live steam, and condenser(s).

Filterable particulate matter, for purposes of this subpart, means particulate matter measured by EPA Method 5 of Appendix A-3 of this part.

Green liquor sulfidity means the sulfidity of the liquor which leaves the smelt dissolving tank.

High volume, low concentration (HVLC) closed-vent system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the brown stock washer system to a control device.

Kraft pulp mill means any stationary source which produces pulp from wood by cooking (digesting) wood chips in a water solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide (white liquor) at high temperature and pressure. Regeneration of the cooking chemicals through a recovery process is also considered part of the kraft pulp mill.

Lime kiln means a unit used to calcine lime mud, which consists primarily of calcium carbonate, into quicklime, which is calcium oxide.

Low volume, high concentration (LVHC) closed-vent system means the gas collection and transport system used to convey gases from the digester system, condensate stripper system, and multiple-effect evaporator system to a control device.

Monitoring system malfunction means a sudden, infrequent, not reasonably preventable failure of the monitoring system to provide valid data. Monitoring system failures that are caused in part by poor maintenance or careless operation are not malfunctions. The owner or operator is required to implement monitoring system repairs in response to monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, and to return the monitoring system to operation as expeditiously as practicable.

Multiple-effect evaporator system means the multiple-effect evaporators and associated condenser(s) and hotwell(s) used to concentrate the spent cooking liquid that is separated from the pulp (black liquor).

Neutral sulfite semichemical pulping operation means any operation in which pulp is produced from wood by cooking (digesting) wood chips in a solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bicarbonate, followed by mechanical defibrating (grinding).

Recovery furnace means either a straight kraft recovery furnace or a cross recovery furnace, and includes the direct-contact evaporator for a direct-contact furnace.

Smelt dissolving tank means a vessel used for dissolving the smelt collected from the recovery furnace.

Straight kraft recovery furnace means a furnace used to recover chemicals consisting primarily of sodium and sulfur compounds by burning black liquor which on a quarterly basis contains 7 weight percent or less of the total pulp solids from the neutral sulfite semichemical process or has green liquor sulfidity of 28 percent or less.

Total reduced sulfur (TRS) means the sum of the sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide that are released during the kraft pulping operation and measured by Method 16 of Appendix A-6 of this part.

§60.282a   Standard for filterable particulate matter.

(a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be conducted by §60.8 is completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart shall cause to be discharged into the atmosphere:

(1) From any modified recovery furnace any gases which:

(i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.10 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) (0.044 grain per dry standard cubic foot (gr/dscf)) corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(ii) Exhibit 20-percent opacity or greater, where an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) emission control device is used, except where it is used in combination with a wet scrubber.

(2) From any new or reconstructed recovery furnace any gases which:

(i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.034 g/dscm (0.015 gr/dscf) corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(ii) Exhibit 20-percent opacity or greater, where an ESP emission control device is used, except where it is used in combination with a wet scrubber.

(3) From any modified or reconstructed smelt dissolving tank, or from any new smelt dissolving tank that is not associated with a new or reconstructed recovery furnace subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, any gases which contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.1 gram per kilogram (g/kg) (0.2 pound per ton (lb/ton)) of black liquor solids (dry weight).

(4) From any new smelt dissolving tank associated with a new or reconstructed recovery furnace subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, any gases which contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.060 g/kg (0.12 lb/ton) black liquor solids (dry weight).

(5) From any modified lime kiln any gases which:

(i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.15 g/dscm (0.064 gr/dscf) corrected to 10-percent oxygen.

(ii) Exhibit 20-percent opacity or greater, where an ESP emission control device is used, except where it is used in combination with a wet scrubber.

(6) From any new or reconstructed lime kiln any gases which:

(i) Contain filterable particulate matter in excess of 0.023 g/dscm (0.010 gr/dscf) corrected to 10-percent oxygen.

(ii) Exhibit 20-percent opacity or greater, where an ESP emission control device is used, except where it is used in combination with a wet scrubber.

(b) These standards apply at all times as specified in §§60.284a and 60.285a.

(c) The exemptions to opacity standards under 40 CFR 60.11(c) do not apply to subpart BBa.

§60.283a   Standard for total reduced sulfur (TRS).

(a) On and after the date on which the performance test required to be conducted by §60.8 is completed, no owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must cause to be discharged into the atmosphere:

(1) From any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system any gases which contain TRS in excess of 5 parts per million (ppm) by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 10-percent oxygen, unless one of the following conditions are met:

(i) The gases are collected in an LVHC or HVLC closed-vent system meeting the requirements of §63.450 and combusted in a lime kiln subject to the provisions of either paragraph (a)(5) of this section or §60.283(a)(5); or

(ii) The gases are collected in an LVHC or HVLC closed-vent system meeting the requirements of §63.450 and combusted in a recovery furnace subject to the provisions of either paragraphs (a)(2) or (3) of this section or §60.283(a)(2) or (3); or

(iii) The gases are collected in an LVHC or HVLC closed-vent system meeting the requirements of §63.450 and combusted with other waste gases in an incinerator or other device, or combusted in a lime kiln or recovery furnace not subject to the provisions of this subpart (or subpart BB of this part), and are subjected to a minimum temperature of 650 °C (1200  °F) for at least 0.5 second; or

(iv) It has been demonstrated to the Administrator's satisfaction by the owner or operator that incinerating the exhaust gases from a new, modified, or reconstructed brown stock washer system is technologically or economically unfeasible. Any exempt system will become subject to the provisions of this subpart if the facility is changed so that the gases can be incinerated.

(v) The gases from the digester system, brown stock washer system, or condensate stripper system are collected in an LVHC or HVLC closed-vent system meeting the requirements of §63.450 and controlled by a means other than combustion. In this case, this system must not discharge any gases to the atmosphere which contain TRS in excess of 5 ppm by volume on a dry basis, uncorrected for oxygen content.

(vi) The uncontrolled exhaust gases from a new, modified, or reconstructed digester system contain TRS less than 0.005 g/kg (0.01 lb/ton) air dried pulp (ADP).

(2) From any straight kraft recovery furnace any gases which contain TRS in excess of 5 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(3) From any cross recovery furnace any gases which contain TRS in excess of 25 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(4) From any smelt dissolving tank any gases which contain TRS in excess of 0.016 g/kg (0.033 lb/ton) of black liquor solids as hydrogen sulfide (H2S).

(5) From any lime kiln any gases which contain TRS in excess of 8 ppm by volume on a dry basis, corrected to 10-percent oxygen.

(b) These standards apply at all times as specified in §§60.284a and 60.285a.

§60.284a   Monitoring of emissions and operations.

(a) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the continuous monitoring systems specified in paragraphs (a)(1) and (2) of this section:

(1) A continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the opacity of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP emission control device, except as specified in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. The span of this system must be set at 70-percent opacity. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous opacity monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 1 in Appendix B to 40 CFR part 60.

(2) Continuous monitoring systems to monitor and record the concentration of TRS emissions on a dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, except where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) or (iv) apply. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous TRS monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 5 in Appendix B to 40 CFR part 60. You must install, certify, and operate the continuous oxygen monitoring system in accordance with Performance Specification (PS) 3 in Appendix B to 40 CFR part 60. These systems must be located downstream of the control device(s). The range of the continuous monitoring system must encompass all expected concentration values, including the zero and span values used for calibration. The spans of these continuous monitoring system(s) must be set:

(i) At a TRS concentration of 30 ppm for the TRS continuous monitoring system, except that for any cross recovery furnace the span must be set at 50 ppm.

(ii) At 21-percent oxygen for the continuous oxygen monitoring system.

(b) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate the following continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section.

(1) For any incinerator, a monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the combustion temperature at the point of incineration of effluent gases which are emitted from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) apply. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±1 percent of the temperature being measured.

(2) For any recovery furnace, lime kiln, or smelt dissolving tank using a wet scrubber emission control device:

(i) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the pressure drop of the gas stream through the control equipment. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate to within a gage pressure of ±500 Pascals (±2 inches water gage pressure).

(ii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid flow rate. The monitoring device used for continuous measurement of the scrubbing liquid flow rate must be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±5 percent of the design scrubbing liquid flow rate.

(iii) As an alternative to pressure drop measurement under paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, a monitoring device for measurement of fan amperage may be used for smelt dissolving tank dynamic scrubbers that operate at ambient pressure or for low-energy entrainment scrubbers where the fan speed does not vary.

(iv) As an alternative to scrubbing liquid flow rate measurement under paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, a monitoring device for measurement of scrubbing liquid supply pressure may be used. The monitoring device is to be certified by the manufacturer to be accurate within ±15 percent of design scrubbing liquid supply pressure. The pressure sensor or tap is to be located close to the scrubber liquid discharge point. The Administrator may be consulted for approval of alternative locations.

(3) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP emission control device, the owner or operator must use the continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(i) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the secondary voltage of each ESP collection field.

(ii) A monitoring device for the continuous measurement of the secondary current of each ESP collection field.

(iii) Total secondary power may be calculated as the product of the secondary voltage and secondary current measurements for each ESP collection field and used to demonstrate compliance as an alternative to the secondary voltage and secondary current measurements.

(4) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP followed by a wet scrubber, the owner or operator must use the continuous parameter monitoring devices specified in paragraphs (b)(2) and (3) of this section. The opacity monitoring system specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not required for combination ESP/wet scrubber control device systems.

(c) Monitor operation and calculations. Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must follow the procedures for collecting and reducing monitoring data and setting operating limits in paragraphs (c)(1) through (6) of this section. Subpart A of this part specifies methods for reducing continuous opacity monitoring system data.

(1) Any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must, except where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) or (iv) apply, perform the following:

(i) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average TRS concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day. Each 12-hour average must be determined as the arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average TRS concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) Calculate and record on a daily basis 12-hour average oxygen concentrations for the two consecutive periods of each operating day for the recovery furnace and lime kiln. These 12- hour averages must correspond to the 12-hour average TRS concentrations under paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section and must be determined as an arithmetic mean of the appropriate 12 contiguous 1-hour average oxygen concentrations provided by each continuous monitoring system installed under paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(iii) Using the following equation, correct all 12-hour average TRS concentrations to 10 volume percent oxygen, except that all 12-hour average TRS concentrations from a recovery furnace must be corrected to 8 volume percent oxygen instead of 10 percent, and all 12-hour average TRS concentrations from a facility to which the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(v) apply must not be corrected for oxygen content:

Ccorr = Cmeas × (21−X/21−Y)

Where:

Ccorr = the concentration corrected for oxygen.

Cmeas = the 12-hour average of the measured concentrations uncorrected for oxygen.

X = the volumetric oxygen concentration in percentage to be corrected to (8 percent for recovery furnaces and 10 percent for lime kilns, incinerators, or other devices).

Y = the 12-hour average of the measured volumetric oxygen concentration.

(2) Record at least once each successive 5-minute period all measurements obtained from the continuous monitoring devices installed under paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Calculate 3-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of incinerator temperature. Temperature measurements recorded when no TRS emissions are fired in the incinerator (e.g., during incinerator warm-up and cool-down periods when no TRS emissions are generated or an alternative control device is used) may be omitted from the block average calculation.

(3) Record at least once each successive 15-minute period all measurements obtained from the continuous monitoring devices installed under paragraph (b)(2) through (4) of this section and reduce the data as follows:

(i) Calculate 12-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of wet scrubber pressure drop (or smelt dissolving tank scrubber fan amperage) and liquid flow rate (or liquid supply pressure), as applicable.

(ii) Calculate semiannual averages from the recorded measurements of ESP parameters (secondary voltage and secondary current, or total secondary power) for ESP-controlled recovery furnaces or lime kilns that measure opacity in addition to ESP parameters.

(iii) Calculate 12-hour block averages from the recorded measurements of ESP parameters (secondary voltage and secondary current, or total secondary power) for recovery furnaces or lime kilns with combination ESP/wet scrubber controls.

(4) During the initial performance test required in §60.285a, the owner or operator must establish site-specific operating limits for the monitoring parameters in paragraphs (b)(2) through (4) of this section by continuously monitoring the parameters and determining the arithmetic average value of each parameter during the performance test. The arithmetic average of the measured values for the three test runs establishes your minimum site-specific operating limit for each wet scrubber or ESP parameter. Multiple performance tests may be conducted to establish a range of parameter values. The owner or operator may establish replacement operating limits for the monitoring parameters during subsequent performance tests using the test methods in §60.285a.

(5) You must operate the continuous monitoring systems required in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section to collect data at all required intervals at all times the affected facility is operating except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, and required monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities including, as applicable, calibration checks and required zero and span adjustments.

(6) You may not use data recorded during monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions or out-of-control periods, or required monitoring system quality assurance or control activities in calculations used to report emissions or operating limits. You must use all the data collected during all other periods in assessing the operation of the control device and associated control system.

(7) Except for periods of monitoring system malfunctions, repairs associated with monitoring system malfunctions, and required quality monitoring system quality assurance or quality control activities (including, as applicable, system accuracy audits and required zero and span adjustments), failure to collect required data is a deviation of the monitoring requirements.

(d) Excess emissions are defined for this subpart as follows:

(1) For emissions from any recovery furnace, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour averages of TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume at 8-percent oxygen for straight kraft recovery furnaces and above 25 ppm by volume at 8-percent oxygen for cross recovery furnaces during times when BLS is fired.

(ii) All 6-minute average opacities that exceed 20 percent during times when BLS is fired.

(2) For emissions from any lime kiln, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour average TRS concentrations above 8 ppm by volume at 10-percent oxygen during times when lime mud is fired.

(ii) All 6-minute average opacities that exceed 20 percent during times when lime mud is fired.

(3) For emissions from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour average TRS concentrations above 5 ppm by volume at 10-percent oxygen unless the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(i), (ii), or (iv) apply; or

(ii) All 3-hour block averages during which the combustion temperature at the point of incineration is less than 650 °C (1200  °F), where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) apply and an incinerator is used as the combustion device.

(iii) All times when gases are not routed through the closed-vent system to one of the control devices specified in §60.283a(a)(1)(i) through (iii) and (v).

(4) For any recovery furnace, lime kiln, or smelt dissolving tank controlled with a wet scrubber emission control device that complies with the parameter monitoring requirements specified in §60.284a(b)(2), periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour block average scrubbing liquid flow rate (or scrubbing liquid supply pressure) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), and

(ii) All 12-hour block average scrubber pressure drop (or fan amperage, if used as an alternative under paragraph (b)(2)(iii) of this section) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), except during startup and shutdown.

(5) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln controlled with an ESP followed by a wet scrubber that complies with the parameter monitoring requirements specified in §60.284a(b)(4), periods of excess emissions are:

(i) All 12-hour block average scrubbing liquid flow rate (or scrubbing liquid supply pressure) measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable), and

(ii) All 12-hour block average scrubber pressure drop measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) except during startup and shutdown,

(iii) All 12-hour block average ESP secondary voltage measurements below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) including startup and shutdown.

(iv) All 12-hour block average ESP secondary current measurements (or total secondary power values) below the minimum site-specific limit established during performance testing during times when BLS or lime mud is fired (as applicable) except during startup and shutdown.

(e) The Administrator will not consider periods of excess emissions reported under §60.288a(a) to be indicative of a violation of the standards provided the criteria in paragraphs (e)(1) and (2) of this section are met.

(1) The percent of the total number of possible contiguous periods of excess emissions in the semiannual reporting period does not exceed:

(i) One percent for TRS emissions from straight recovery furnaces, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 30 ppm corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(ii) Two percent for average opacities from recovery furnaces, provided that the ESP secondary voltage and secondary current (or total secondary power) averaged over the semiannual period remained above the minimum operating limits established during the performance test.

(iii) One percent for TRS emissions from lime kilns, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 22 ppm corrected to 10-percent oxygen.

(iv) One percent for average opacities from lime kilns, provided that the ESP secondary voltage and secondary current (or total secondary power) averaged over the semiannual period remained above the minimum operating limits established during the performance test.

(v) One percent for TRS emissions from cross recovery furnaces, provided that the 12-hour average TRS concentration does not exceed 50 ppm corrected to 8-percent oxygen.

(vi) For closed-vent systems delivering gases to one of the control devices specified in §60.283a(a)(1)(i) through (iii) and (v), the time of excess emissions divided by the total process operating time in the semiannual reporting period does not exceed:

(A) One percent for LVHC closed-vent systems; or

(B) Four percent for HVLC closed-vent systems or for HVLC and LVHC closed-vent systems combined.

(2) The Administrator determines that the affected facility, including air pollution control equipment, is maintained and operated in a manner which is consistent with good air pollution control practice for minimizing emissions during periods of excess emissions.

(3) The 12-hour average TRS concentration uncorrected for oxygen may be considered when determining compliance with the excess emission provisions in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) and (iii) of this section during periods of startup or shutdown when the 12-hour average stack oxygen percentage approaches ambient conditions. If the 12-hour average TRS concentration uncorrected for oxygen is less than the applicable limit (5 ppm for recovery furnaces or 8 ppm for lime kilns) during periods of startup or shutdown when the 12-hour average stack oxygen concentration is 15 percent or greater, then the Administrator will consider the TRS average to be in compliance. This provision only applies during periods of affected facility startup and shutdown.

(f) The procedures under §60.13 must be followed for installation, evaluation, and operation of the continuous monitoring systems required under this section. All continuous monitoring systems must be operated in accordance with the applicable procedures under Performance Specifications 1, 3, and 5 of appendix B of this part.

§60.285a   Test methods and procedures.

(a) In conducting the performance tests required by this subpart and §60.8, the owner or operator must use as reference methods and procedures the test methods in appendix A of this part or other methods and procedures in this section, except as provided in §60.8(b). Acceptable alternative methods and procedures are given in paragraph (f) of this section. Section 60.8(c) must be read as follows for purposes of this subpart: Performance tests shall be conducted under such conditions as the Administrator shall specify to the plant operator based on representative performance of the affected facility. The owner or operator shall make available to the Administrator such records as may be necessary to determine the conditions of the performance tests. Operations during periods of startup, shutdown and malfunction shall not constitute representative conditions for the purpose of a performance test.

(b) The owner or operator must determine compliance with the filterable particulate matter standards in §60.282a(a)(1), (2), (5) and (6) as follows:

(1) Method 5 of Appendix A-3 of this part must be used to determine the filterable particulate matter concentration. The sampling time and sample volume for each run must be at least 60 minutes and 0.90 dscm (31.8 dscf). Water must be used as the cleanup solvent instead of acetone in the sample recovery procedure. The particulate concentration must be corrected to the appropriate oxygen concentration according to §60.284a(c)(3).

(2) The emission rate correction factor, integrated sampling and analysis procedure of Method 3B of Appendix A-2 of this part must be used to determine the oxygen concentration. The gas sample must be taken at the same time and at the same traverse points as the particulate sample.

(3) Method 9 of Appendix A-4 of this part and the procedures in §60.11 must be used to determine opacity. Opacity measurement is not required for recovery furnaces or lime kilns operating with a wet scrubber alone or a wet scrubber in combination with an ESP.

(4) In addition to the initial performance test required by this subpart and §60.8(a), you must conduct repeat performance tests for filterable particulate matter at intervals no longer than 5 years following the previous performance test using the procedures in paragraphs (b)(1) and (2) of this section.

(5) When the initial and repeat performance tests are conducted for filterable particulate matter, the owner or operator must also measure condensable particulate matter using Method 202 of Appendix M of 40 CFR part 51.

(c) The owner or operator must determine compliance with the filterable particular matter standards in §60.282a(a)(3) and (4) as follows:

(1) The emission rate (E) of filterable particulate matter must be computed for each run using the following equation:

E = csQsd/BLS

Where:

E = emission rate of filterable particulate matter, g/kg (lb/ton) of BLS.

cs = Concentration of filterable particulate matter, g/dscm (lb/dscf).

Qsd = volumetric flow rate of effluent gas, dry standard cubic meter per hour (dscm/hr) (dry standard cubic feet per hour (dscf/hr)).

BLS = black liquor solids (dry weight) feed rate, kg/hr (ton/hr).

(2) Method 5 of Appendix A-3 of this part must be used to determine the filterable particulate matter concentration (cs) and the volumetric flow rate (Qsd) of the effluent gas. The sampling time and sample volume must be at least 60 minutes and 0.90 dscm (31.8 dscf). Water must be used instead of acetone in the sample recovery.

(3) Process data must be used to determine the black liquor solids (BLS) feed rate on a dry weight basis.

(4) In addition to the initial performance test required by this subpart and §60.8(a), you must conduct repeat performance tests for filterable particulate matter at intervals no longer than 5 years following the previous performance test using the procedures in paragraphs (c)(1) through (3) of this section.

(5) When the initial and repeat performance tests are conducted for filterable particulate matter, the owner or operator must also measure condensable particulate matter using Method 202 of Appendix M of 40 CFR part 51.

(d) The owner or operator must determine compliance with the TRS standards in §60.283a, except §60.283a(a)(1)(vi) and (4), as follows:

(1) Method 16 of Appendix A-6 of this part must be used to determine the TRS concentration. The TRS concentration must be corrected to the appropriate oxygen concentration using the procedure in §60.284a(c)(3). The sampling time must be at least 3 hours, but no longer than 6 hours.

(2) The emission rate correction factor, integrated sampling and analysis procedure of Method 3B of Appendix A-2 of this part must be used to determine the oxygen concentration. The sample must be taken over the same time period as the TRS samples.

(3) When determining whether a furnace is a straight kraft recovery furnace or a cross recovery furnace, TAPPI Method T 624 (incorporated by reference—see §60.17) must be used to determine sodium sulfide, sodium hydroxide, and sodium carbonate. These determinations must be made 3 times daily from the green liquor, and the daily average values must be converted to sodium oxide (Na20) and substituted into the following equation to determine the green liquor sulfidity:

GLS=100CNa2S/(CNa2SCNaOHCNa2CO3)

Where:

GLS = green liquor sulfidity, percent.

CNa2S = concentration of Na2S as Na2O, milligrams per liter (mg/L) (grains per gallon (gr/gal)).

CNaOH = concentration of NaOH as Na2O, mg/L (gr/gal).

CNa2CO3 = concentration of Na2CO3 as Na2O, mg/L (gr/gal).

(4) For recovery furnaces and lime kilns, in addition to the initial performance test required in this subpart and §60.8(a), you must conduct repeat TRS performance tests at intervals no longer than 5 years following the previous performance test using the procedures in paragraphs (d)(1) and (2) of this section.

(e) The owner or operator must determine compliance with the TRS standards in §60.283a(a)(1)(vi) and (4) as follows:

(1) The emission rate (E) of TRS must be computed for each run using the following equation:

E=CTRS F Qsd/P

Where:

E = emission rate of TRS, g/kg (lb/ton) of BLS or ADP.

CTRS = average combined concentration of TRS, ppm.

F = conversion factor, 0.001417 g H2S/cubic meter (m3)-ppm (8.846 × 10-8 lb H2S/cubic foot (ft3)-ppm).

Qsd = volumetric flow rate of stack gas, dscm/hr (dscf/hr).

P = black liquor solids feed or pulp production rate, kg/hr (ton/hr).

(2) Method 16 of Appendix A-6 of this part must be used to determine the TRS concentration (CTRS).

(3) Method 2 of Appendix A-1 of this part must be used to determine the volumetric flow rate (Qsd) of the effluent gas.

(4) Process data must be used to determine the black liquor feed rate or the pulp production rate (P).

(5) For smelt dissolving tanks, in addition to the initial performance test required in this subpart and §60.8(a), you must conduct repeat TRS performance tests at intervals no longer than 5 years following the previous performance test using the procedures in paragraphs (e)(1) through (4) of this section.

(f) The owner or operator may use the following as alternatives to the reference methods and procedures specified in this section:

(1) In place of Method 5 of Appendix A-3 of this part, Method 17 of Appendix A-6 of this part may be used if a constant value of 0.009 g/dscm (0.004 gr/dscf) is added to the results of Method 17 and the stack temperature is no greater than 204 °C (400  °F).

(2) In place of Method 16 of Appendix A-6 of this part, Method 16A, 16B, or 16C of Appendix A-6 of this part may be used.

(3) In place of Method 3B of Appendix A-2 of this part, ASME PTC 19.10-1981 (incorporated by reference—see §60.17) may be used.

§60.286a   Affirmative defense for violations of emission standards during malfunction.

In response to an action to enforce the standards set forth in §§60.282a and 60.283a, you may assert an affirmative defense to a claim for civil penalties for violations of such standards that are caused by malfunction, as defined at §60.2. Appropriate penalties may be assessed if you fail to meet your burden of proving all of the requirements in the affirmative defense. The affirmative defense must not be available for claims for injunctive relief.

(a) Assertion of affirmative defense. To establish the affirmative defense in any action to enforce such a standard, you must timely meet the reporting requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, and must prove by a preponderance of evidence that:

(1) The violation:

(i) Was caused by a sudden, infrequent, and unavoidable failure of air pollution control equipment, process equipment, or a process to operate in a normal or usual manner; and

(ii) Could not have been prevented through careful planning, proper design or better operation and maintenance practices; and

(iii) Did not stem from any activity or event that could have been foreseen and avoided, or planned for; and

(iv) Was not part of a recurring pattern indicative of inadequate design, operation, or maintenance; and

(2) Repairs were made as expeditiously as possible when a violation occurred; and

(3) The frequency, amount, and duration of the violation (including any bypass) were minimized to the maximum extent practicable; and

(4) If the violation resulted from a bypass of control equipment or a process, then the bypass was unavoidable to prevent loss of life, personal injury, or severe property damage; and

(5) All possible steps were taken to minimize the impact of the violation on ambient air quality, the environment, and human health; and

(6) All emission monitoring and control systems were kept in operation if at all possible, consistent with safety and good air pollution control practices; and

(7) All of the actions in response to the violation were documented by properly signed, contemporaneous operating logs; and

(8) At all times, the affected source was operated in a manner consistent with good practices for minimizing emissions; and

(9) A written root cause analysis has been prepared, the purpose of which is to determine, correct, and eliminate the primary causes of the malfunction and the violation resulting from the malfunction event at issue. The analysis must also specify, using best monitoring methods and engineering judgment, the amount of any emissions that were the result of the malfunction.

(b) Report. The owner or operator seeking to assert an affirmative defense must submit a written report to the Administrator with all necessary supporting documentation that explains how it has met the requirements set forth in paragraph (a) of this section. This affirmative defense report must be included in the first periodic compliance, deviation report or excess emission report otherwise required after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard (which may be the end of any applicable averaging period). If such compliance, deviation report or excess emission report is due less than 45 days after the initial occurrence of the violation, the affirmative defense report may be included in the second compliance, deviation report or excess emission report due after the initial occurrence of the violation of the relevant standard.

§60.287a   Recordkeeping.

(a) The owner or operator must maintain records of the performance evaluations of the continuous monitoring systems.

(b) For each continuous monitoring system, the owner or operator must maintain records of the following information, as applicable:

(1) Records of the opacity of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP emission control device, except as specified in paragraph (b)(6) of this section, and records of the ESP secondary voltage and secondary current (or total secondary power) averaged over the reporting period for the opacity allowances specified in §60.284a(e)(1)(ii) and (iv).

(2) Records of the concentration of TRS emissions on a dry basis and the percent of oxygen by volume on a dry basis in the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any lime kiln, recovery furnace, digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple-effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system, except where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) or (iv) apply.

(3) Records of the incinerator combustion temperature at the point of incineration of effluent gases which are emitted from any digester system, brown stock washer system, multiple effect evaporator system, or condensate stripper system where the provisions of §60.283a(a)(1)(iii) apply and an incinerator is used as the combustion device.

(4) For any recovery furnace, lime kiln, or smelt dissolving tank using a wet scrubber emission control device:

(i) Records of the pressure drop of the gas stream through the control equipment (or smelt dissolving tank scrubber fan amperage), and

(ii) Records of the scrubbing liquid flow rate (or scrubbing liquid supply pressure).

(5) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP control device:

(i) Records of the secondary voltage of each ESP collection field, and

(ii) Records of the secondary current of each ESP collection field, and

(iii) If used as an alternative to secondary voltage and current, records of the total secondary power of each ESP collection field.

(6) For any recovery furnace or lime kiln using an ESP followed by a wet scrubber, the records specified under paragraphs (b)(4) and (5) of this section.

(7) Records of excess emissions as defined in §60.284a(d).

(c) For each malfunction, the owner or operator must maintain records of the following information:

(1) Records of the occurrence and duration of each malfunction of operation (i.e., process equipment) or the air pollution control and monitoring equipment.

(2) Records of actions taken during periods of malfunction to minimize emissions in accordance with §60.11(d), including corrective actions to restore malfunctioning process and air pollution control and monitoring equipment to its normal or usual manner of operation.

§60.288a   Reporting.

(a) For the purpose of reports required under §60.7(c), any owner or operator subject to the provisions of this subpart must report semiannually periods of excess emissions defined in §60.284a(d).

(b) Within 60 days after the date of completing each performance test (defined in §60.8) as required by this subpart you must submit the results of the performance tests, including any associated fuel analyses, required by this subpart to the EPA as follows. You must use the latest version of the EPA's Electronic Reporting Tool (ERT) (see http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ert/index.html) existing at the time of the performance test to generate a submission package file, which documents performance test data. You must then submit the file generated by the ERT through the EPA's Compliance and Emissions Data Reporting Interface (CEDRI), which can be accessed by logging in to the EPA's Central Data Exchange (CDX) (https://cdx.epa.gov/). Only data collected using test methods supported by the ERT as listed on the ERT Web site are subject to the requirement to submit the performance test data electronically. Owners or operators who claim that some of the information being submitted for performance tests is confidential business information (CBI) must submit a complete ERT file including information claimed to be CBI on a compact disk, flash drive, or other commonly used electronic storage media to the EPA. The electronic media must be clearly marked as CBI and mailed to U.S. EPA/OAPQS/CORE CBI Office, Attention: WebFIRE Administrator, MD C404-02, 4930 Old Page Rd., Durham, NC 27703. The same ERT file with the CBI omitted must be submitted to the EPA via CDX as described earlier in this paragraph (b). At the discretion of the delegated authority, you must also submit these reports, including the CBI, to the delegated authority in the format specified by the delegated authority. For any performance test conducted using test methods that are not listed on the ERT Web site, the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance test to the Administrator at the appropriate address listed in §60.4.

(c) Within 60 days after the date of completing each CEMS performance evaluation test as defined in §60.13, you must submit relative accuracy test audit (RATA) data to the EPA's Central Data Exchange (CDX) by using CEDRI in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section. Only RATA pollutants that can be documented with the ERT (as listed on the ERT Web site) are subject to this requirement. For any performance evaluations with no corresponding RATA pollutants listed on the ERT Web site, the owner or operator must submit the results of the performance evaluation to the Administrator at the appropriate address listed in §60.4.

(d) If a malfunction occurred during the reporting period, you must submit a report that contains the following:

(1) The number, duration, and a brief description for each type of malfunction which occurred during the reporting period and which caused or may have caused any applicable emission limitation to be exceeded.

(2) A description of actions taken by an owner or operator during a malfunction of an affected facility to minimize emissions in accordance with §60.11(d), including actions taken to correct a malfunction.



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