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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 16, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1039—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES


Subpart F—Test Procedures


Contents
§1039.501   How do I run a valid emission test?
§1039.505   How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?
§1039.510   Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?
§1039.515   What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?
§1039.520   What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?
§1039.525   How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

§1039.501   How do I run a valid emission test?

(a) Use the equipment and procedures for compression-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether engines meet the duty-cycle emission standards in subpart B of this part. Measure the emissions of all the exhaust constituents subject to emissions standards as specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Measure CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1039.235. Use the applicable duty cycles specified in §§1039.505 and 1039.510.

(b) Section 1039.515 describes the supplemental procedures for evaluating whether engines meet the not-to-exceed emission standards in subpart B of this part.

(c) Measure smoke using the procedures in 40 CFR part 86, subpart I, for evaluating whether engines meet the smoke standards in §1039.105, except that you may test two-cylinder engines with an exhaust muffler like those installed on in-use engines.

(d) Use the fuels specified in §1039.104(e) and 40 CFR part 1065 to perform valid tests.

(1) For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use.

(2) For diesel-fueled engines, use the appropriate diesel fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for emission testing. Unless we specify otherwise, the appropriate diesel test fuel is the ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel. If we allow you to use a test fuel with higher sulfur levels, identify the test fuel in your application for certification and ensure that the emission control information label is consistent with your selection of the test fuel (see §1039.135(c)(9)). For example, do not test with ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel if you intend to label your engines to allow use of diesel fuel with sulfur concentrations up to 500 ppm.

(e) You may use special or alternate procedures to the extent we allow them under 40 CFR 1065.10.

(f) This subpart is addressed to you as a manufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you, and to us when we perform testing to determine if your engines meet emission standards.

(g) You may disable any AECDs that have been approved solely for emergency equipment applications under §1039.115(g)(4).

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 40463, July 13, 2005; 72 FR 53132, Sept. 18, 2007; 74 FR 56509, Oct. 30, 2009; 77 FR 34147, June 8,, 2012]

§1039.505   How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these cases, you must use the duty cycle you select in your application for certification for all testing you perform for that engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the duty cycles you select for your own testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act.

(a) You may perform steady-state testing with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal cycles, as follows:

(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid. Operate the engine and sampling system as follows:

(i) Engines with NOX aftertreatment. For engines that depend on aftertreatment to meet the NOX emission standard, operate the engine for 5-6 minutes, then sample emissions for 1-3 minutes in each mode. You may extend the sampling time to improve measurement accuracy of PM emissions, using good engineering judgment. If you have a longer sampling time for PM emissions, calculate and validate cycle statistics separately for the gaseous and PM sampling periods.

(ii) Engines without NOX aftertreatment. For other engines, operate the engine for at least 5 minutes, then sample emissions for at least 1 minute in each mode.

(2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions and cycle statistics the same as for transient testing.

(b) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one of the following duty cycles to determine whether it meets the steady-state emission standards in §1039.101(b):

(1) Use the 5-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in appendix II of this part for constant-speed engines. Note that these cycles do not apply to all engines used in constant-speed applications, as described in §1039.801.

(2) Use the 6-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in appendix III of this part for variable-speed engines below 19 kW. You may instead use the 8-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in appendix IV of this part if some engines from your engine family will be used in applications that do not involve governing to maintain engine operation around rated speed.

(3) Use the 8-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in appendix IV of this part for variable-speed engines at or above 19 kW.

(c) During idle mode, operate the engine at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR part 1065.

(d) For constant-speed engines whose design prevents full-load operation for extended periods, you may ask for approval under 40 CFR 1065.10(c) to replace full-load operation with the maximum load for which the engine is designed to operate for extended periods.

(e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations.

(f) For those cases where transient testing is not necessary, perform the steady-state test according to this section after an appropriate warm-up period, consistent with 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F.

(g) To allow non-motoring dynamometers on cycles with idle, you may omit additional points from the duty-cycle regression as follows:

(1) For variable-speed engines with low-speed governors, you may omit speed, torque, and power points from the duty-cycle regression statistics if the following are met:

(i) The engine operator demand is at its minimum.

(ii) The dynamometer demand is at its minimum.

(iii) It is an idle point fnref = 0 % (idle) and Tref = 0 % (idle).

(iv) Tref <T ≤5 % · Tmax mapped.

(2) For variable-speed engines without low-speed governors, you may omit torque and power points from the duty-cycle regression statistics if the following are met:

(i) The dynamometer demand is at its minimum.

(ii) It is an idle point fnref = 0 % (idle) and Tref = 0 % (idle).

(iii) fnref − (2 % · fntest) <fn <fnref + (2 % · fntest).

(iv) Tref <T ≤5 % · Tmax mapped.

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 73 FR 37241, June 30, 2008]

§1039.510   Which duty cycles do I use for transient testing?

(a) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one of the following transient duty cycles to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §1039.101(a):

(1) For variable-speed engines, use the transient duty cycle described in appendix VI of this part.

(2) [Reserved]

(b) The transient test sequence consists of an initial run through the transient duty cycle from a cold start, 20 minutes with no engine operation, then a final run through the same transient duty cycle. Calculate the official transient emission result from the following equation:

eCFR graphic er30ap10.002.gif

View or download PDF

(c) Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 70 FR 40463, July 13, 2005; 75 FR 22991, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57437, Sept. 15, 2011]

§1039.515   What are the test procedures related to not-to-exceed standards?

(a) General provisions. The provisions in 40 CFR 86.1370-2007 apply for determining whether an engine meets the not-to-exceed emission standards in §1039.101(e). Interpret references to vehicles and vehicle operation to mean equipment and equipment operation.

(b) Special PM zone. For engines certified to a PM standard or FEL above 0.07 g/kW-hr, a modified NTE control area applies for PM emissions only. The speeds and loads to be excluded are determined based on speeds B and C, determined according to the provisions of 40 CFR 86.1360-2007(c). One of the following provisions applies:

(1) If the C speed is below 2400 rpm, exclude the speed and load points to the right of or below the line formed by connecting the following two points on a plot of speed-vs.-power:

(i) 30% of maximum power at the B speed; however, use the power value corresponding to the engine operation at 30% of maximum torque at the B speed if this is greater than 30% of maximum power at the B speed.

(ii) 70% of maximum power at 100% speed.

(2) If the C speed is at or above 2400 rpm, exclude the speed and load points to the right of the line formed by connecting the two points in paragraphs (b)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section (the 30% and 50% torque/power points) and below the line formed by connecting the two points in paragraphs (b)(2)(ii) and (iii) of this section (the 50% and 70% torque/power points). The 30%, 50%, and 70% torque/power points are defined as follows:

(i) 30% of maximum power at the B speed; however, use the power value corresponding to the engine operation at 30% of maximum torque at the B speed if this is greater than 30% of maximum power at the B speed.

(ii) 50% of maximum power at 2400 rpm.

(iii) 70% of maximum power at 100% speed.

§1039.520   What testing must I perform to establish deterioration factors?

Sections 1039.240 and 1039.245 describe the method for testing that must be performed to establish deterioration factors for an engine family.

§1039.525   How do I adjust emission levels to account for infrequently regenerating aftertreatment devices?

This section describes how to adjust emission results from engines using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events. For this section, “regeneration” means an intended event during which emission levels change while the system restores aftertreatment performance. For example, exhaust gas temperatures may increase temporarily to remove sulfur from adsorbers or to oxidize accumulated particulate matter in a trap. For this section, “infrequent” refers to regeneration events that are expected to occur on average less than once over the applicable transient duty cycle or ramped-modal cycle, or on average less than once per typical mode in a discrete-mode test. If your engine family includes engines with one or more AECDs for emergency equipment applications approved under §1039.115(g)(4), do not consider additional regenerations resulting from those AECDs when calculating emission factors or frequencies under this section.

(a) Developing adjustment factors. Develop an upward adjustment factor and a downward adjustment factor for each pollutant based on measured emission data and observed regeneration frequency. Adjustment factors should generally apply to an entire engine family, but you may develop separate adjustment factors for different engine configurations within an engine family. If you use adjustment factors for certification, you must identify the frequency factor, F, from paragraph (b) of this section in your application for certification and use the adjustment factors in all testing for that engine family. You may use carryover or carry-across data to establish adjustment factors for an engine family, as described in §1039.235(d), consistent with good engineering judgment. All adjustment factors for regeneration are additive. Determine adjustment factors separately for different test segments. For example, determine separate adjustment factors for hot-start and cold-start test segments and for different modes of a discrete-mode steady-state test. You may use either of the following different approaches for engines that use aftertreatment with infrequent regeneration events:

(1) You may disregard this section if regeneration does not significantly affect emission levels for an engine family (or configuration) or if it is not practical to identify when regeneration occurs. If you do not use adjustment factors under this section, your engines must meet emission standards for all testing, without regard to regeneration.

(2) If your engines use aftertreatment technology with extremely infrequent regeneration and you are unable to apply the provisions of this section, you may ask us to approve an alternate methodology to account for regeneration events.

(b) Calculating average adjustment factors. Calculate the average adjustment factor (EFA) based on the following equation:

EFA = (F)(EFH) + (1-F)(EFL)

Where:

F = the frequency of the regeneration event in terms of the fraction of tests during which the regeneration occurs.

EFH = measured emissions from a test segment in which the regeneration occurs.

EFL = measured emissions from a test segment in which the regeneration does not occur.

(c) Applying adjustment factors. Apply adjustment factors based on whether regeneration occurs during the test run. You must be able to identify regeneration in a way that is readily apparent during all testing.

(1) If regeneration does not occur during a test segment, add an upward adjustment factor to the measured emission rate. Determine the upward adjustment factor (UAF) using the following equation:

UAF = EFA − EFL

(2) If regeneration occurs or starts to occur during a test segment, subtract a downward adjustment factor from the measured emission rate. Determine the downward adjustment factor (DAF) using the following equation:

DAF = EFH − EFA

(d) Sample calculation. If EFL is 0.10 g/kW-hr, EFH is 0.50 g/kW-hr, and F is 0.1 (the regeneration occurs once for each ten tests), then:

EFA = (0.1)(0.5 g/kW-hr) + (1.0 − 0.1)(0.1 g/kW-hr) = 0.14 g/kW-hr.

UAF = 0.14 g/kW-hr − 0.10 g/kW-hr = 0.04 g/kW-hr.

DAF = 0.50 g/kW-hr − 0.14 g/kW-hr = 0.36 g/kW-hr.

[69 FR 39213, June 29, 2004, as amended at 77 FR 34147, June 8, 2012]



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