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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 15, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1048—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES


Subpart F—Test Procedures


Contents
§1048.501   How do I run a valid emission test?
§1048.505   How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?
§1048.510   What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?
§1048.515   What are the field-testing procedures?

§1048.501   How do I run a valid emission test?

(a) Use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether engines meet the duty-cycle emission standards in §1048.101(a) and (b). Measure the emissions of all the pollutants we regulate in §1048.101 using the sampling procedures specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Measure CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1048.235. Use the applicable duty cycles specified in §§1048.505 and 1048.510.

(b) Section 1048.515 describes the supplemental procedures for evaluating whether engines meet the field-testing emission standards in §1048.101(c).

(c) Use the fuels and lubricants specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, to perform valid tests for all the testing we require in this part, except as noted in §1048.515. For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use.

(d) In place of the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.405, you may consider emission levels stable without measurement after 50 hours of engine operation.

(e) To test engines for evaporative emissions, use the equipment and procedures specified for testing diurnal emissions as described in 40 CFR 1060.525, subject to the following provisions:

(1) Precondition nonmetal fuel tanks as specified in 40 CFR 1060.520(a) and (b).

(2) For engines equipped with carbon canisters that store fuel vapors that will be purged for combustion in the engine, precondition the canister as specified in 40 CFR 86.132-96(h) and then operate the engine for 60 minutes over repeat runs of the duty cycle specified in Appendix I of this part.

(3) Start the diurnal emission test after the engine is stabilized at room temperatures, but within 36 hours after the engine operation specified in paragraph (e)(2) of this section.

(4) You may not separately measure permeation emissions from nonmetal fuel tanks for subtracting from the diurnal emission measurement.

(5) Note that you may omit testing for evaporative emissions during certification if you certify by design, as specified in §1048.245.

(f) You may use special or alternate procedures to the extent we allow them under 40 CFR 1065.10.

(g) This subpart is addressed to you as a manufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you, and to us when we perform testing to determine if your engines meet emission standards.

[70 FR 40476, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 59239, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 56510, Oct. 30, 2009]

§1048.505   How do I test engines using steady-state duty cycles, including ramped-modal testing?

This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. In some cases, we allow you to choose the appropriate steady-state duty cycle for an engine. In these cases, you must use the duty cycle you select in your application for certification for all testing you perform for that engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the duty cycles you select for your own testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act.

(a) You may perform steady-state testing with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal cycles, as follows:

(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid. Operate the engine and sampling system as follows:

(i) Engines with lean NOX aftertreatment. For lean-burn engines that depend on aftertreatment to meet the NOX emission standard, operate the engine for 5-6 minutes, then sample emissions for 1-3 minutes in each mode.

(ii) Engines without lean NOX aftertreatment. For other engines, operate the engine for at least 5 minutes, then sample emissions for at least 1 minute in each mode.

(2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions and cycle statistics the same as for transient testing as specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart G.

(b) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one or more of the following sets of duty cycles to determine whether it meets the steady-state emission standards in §1048.101(b):

(1) For engines from an engine family that will be used only in variable-speed applications, use one of the following duty cycles:

(i) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing:

Table 1 of §1048.505

C2 mode No.Engine speed1 Torque
(percent)2
Weighting
factors
1Maximum test speed250.06
2Intermediate test1000.02
3Intermediate test750.05
4Intermediate test500.32
5Intermediate test250.30
6Intermediate test100.10
7Warm idle00.15

1Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065.

2The percent torque is relative to the maximum torque at the given engine speed.

(ii) The following duty cycle applies for ramped-modal testing:

Table 2 of §1048.505

RMC mode Time in mode
(seconds)
Engine speed1 2 Torque
(percent)2 3
1a Steady-state119Warm idle0
1b Transition20Linear transitionLinear transition.
2a Steady-state29Intermediate speed100
2b Transition20Intermediate speedLinear transition.
3a Steady-state150Intermediate speed10
3b Transition20Intermediate speedLinear transition.
4a Steady-state80Intermediate speed75
4b Transition20Intermediate speedLinear transition.
5a Steady-state513Intermediate speed25
5b Transition20Intermediate speedLinear transition.
6a Steady-state549Intermediate speed50
6b Transition20Linear transitionLinear transition.
7a Steady-state96Maximum test speed25
7b Transition20Linear transitionLinear transition.
8 Steady-state124Warm idle0

1Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065.

2Advance from one mode to the next within a 20-second transition phase. During the transition phase, command a linear progression from the torque setting of the current mode to the torque setting of the next mode.

3The percent torque is relative to maximum torque at the commanded engine speed.

(2) For engines from an engine family that will be used only at a single, rated speed, use the 5-mode duty cycle or the corresponding ramped-modal cycle described in 40 CFR part 1039, Appendix II, paragraph (a).

(3) Use a duty cycle from both paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section if you will not restrict an engine family to constant-speed or variable-speed applications.

(4) Use a duty cycle specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section for all severe-duty engines.

(5) For high-load engines, use one of the following duty cycles:

(i) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing:

Table 3 of §1048.505

Mode No.Engine
speed
Torque
(percent)1
Minimum time in mode (minutes)Weighting factors
1Maximum test speed1003.00.50
2Maximum test speed753.00.50

1The percent torque is relative to the maximum torque at maximum test speed.

(ii) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing:

Table 4 of §1048.505

RMC modes Time in mode
(seconds)
Engine speed
(percent)
Torque
(percent)1 2
1a Steady-state290Engine governed100
1b Transition20Engine governedLinear transition.
2 Steady-state290Engine governed75

1The percent torque is relative to maximum test torque.

2Advance from one mode to the next within a 20-second transition phase. During the transition phase, command a linear progression from the torque setting of the current mode to the torque setting of the next mode.

(c) If we test an engine to confirm that it meets the duty-cycle emission standards, we will use the steady-state duty cycles that apply for that engine family.

(d) During idle mode, operate the engine at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510.

(e) For full-load operating modes, operate the engine at wide-open throttle.

(f) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations.

(g) For those cases where steady-state testing does not directly follow a transient test, perform the steady-state test according to this section after an appropriate warm-up period, consistent with 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F.

[73 FR 59239, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23022, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1048.510   What transient duty cycles apply for laboratory testing?

(a) Starting with the 2007 model year, measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with the duty cycle described in Appendix II to determine whether it meets the transient emission standards in §1048.101(a).

(b) Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.

(c) Warm up the test engine as follows before running a transient test:

(1) Operate the engine for the first 180 seconds of the appropriate duty cycle, then allow it to idle without load for 30 seconds. At the end of the 30-second idling period, start measuring emissions as the engine operates over the prescribed duty cycle. For severe-duty engines, this engine warm-up procedure may include up to 15 minutes of operation over the appropriate duty cycle.

(2) If the engine was already operating before a test, use good engineering judgment to let the engine cool down enough so measured emissions during the next test will accurately represent those from an engine starting at room temperature. For example, if an engine starting at room temperature warms up enough in three minutes to start closed-loop operation and achieve full catalyst activity, then minimal engine cooling is necessary before starting the next test.

(3) You are not required to measure emissions while the engine is warming up. However, you must design your emission-control system to start working as soon as possible after engine starting. In your application for certification, describe how your engine meets this objective (see §1048.205(b)).

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40478, July 13, 2005; 73 FR 59241, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23023, Apr. 30, 2010]

§1048.515   What are the field-testing procedures?

(a) This section describes the procedures to determine whether your engines meet the field-testing emission standards in §1048.101(c). These procedures may include any normal engine operation and ambient conditions that the engines may experience in use. Paragraph (b) of this section defines the limits of what we will consider normal engine operation and ambient conditions. Use the test procedures we specify in §1048.501, except for the provisions we specify in this section. Measure emissions with one of the following procedures:

(1) Remove the selected engines for testing in a laboratory. You may use an engine dynamometer to simulate normal operation, as described in this section.

(2) Test the selected engines while they remain installed in the equipment. In 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J, we describe the equipment and sampling methods for testing engines in the field. Use fuel meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, or a fuel typical of what you would expect the engine to use in service.

(b) An engine's emissions may not exceed the levels we specify in §1048.101(c) for any continuous sampling period of at least 120 seconds under the following ranges of operation and operating conditions:

(1) Engine operation during the emission sampling period may include any normal operation, subject to the following restrictions:

(i) Average power must be at least 5 percent of maximum brake power.

(ii) Continuous time at idle must not be greater than 120 seconds.

(iii) The sampling period may not begin until the engine has reached stable operating temperatures. For example, this would exclude engine operation after starting until the thermostat starts modulating coolant temperature.

(iv) The sampling period may not include engine starting.

(v) For engines that qualify for the alternate Tier 2 emission standards in §1048.101(d), operation at 90 percent or more of maximum power must be less than 10 percent of the total sampling time. You may request our approval for a different power threshold.

(2) Engine testing may occur under any normal conditions without correcting measured emission levels, subject to the following restrictions:

(i) Barometric pressure must be between 80.0 and 103.3 kPa (600 and 775 mm Hg).

(ii) Ambient air temperature must be between 13° and 35 °C.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40478, July 13, 2005; 73 FR 59241, Oct. 8, 2008]



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