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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of October 21, 2014

Title 40Chapter ISubchapter UPart 1051 → Subpart F


Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 1051—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES


Subpart F—Test Procedures


Contents
§1051.501   What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?
§1051.505   What special provisions apply for testing snowmobiles?
§1051.510   What special provisions apply for testing ATV engines? [Reserved]
§1051.515   How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions?
§1051.520   How do I perform exhaust durability testing?

§1051.501   What procedures must I use to test my vehicles or engines?

This section describes test procedures that you use to determine whether vehicles meet the emission standards of this part. See §1051.235 to determine when testing is required for certification. See subpart D of this part for the production-line testing requirements.

(a) Snowmobiles. For snowmobiles, use the equipment and procedures for spark-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether your snowmobiles meet the duty-cycle emission standards in §1051.103. Measure the emissions of all the pollutants we regulate in §1051.103. Measure CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1051.235. Use the duty cycle specified in §1051.505.

(b) Motorcycles and ATVs. For motorcycles and ATVs, use the equipment, procedures, and duty cycle in 40 CFR part 86, subpart F, to determine whether your vehicles meet the exhaust emission standards in §1051.105 or §1051.107. Measure the emissions of all the pollutants we regulate in §1051.105 or §1051.107. Measure CO2, N2O, and CH4 as described in §1051.235. If we allow you to certify ATVs based on engine testing, use the equipment, procedures, and duty cycle described or referenced in the section that allows engine testing. For motorcycles with engine displacement at or below 169 cc and all ATVs, use the driving schedule in paragraph (c) of appendix I to 40 CFR part 86. For all other motorcycles, use the driving schedule in paragraph (b) of Appendix I to part 86. With respect to vehicle-speed governors, test motorcycles and ATVs in their ungoverned configuration, unless we approve in advance testing in a governed configuration. We will only approve testing in a governed configuration if you can show that the governor is permanently installed on all production vehicles and is unlikely to be removed in use. With respect to engine-speed governors, test motorcycles and ATVs in their governed configuration. Run the test engine, with all emission-control systems operating, long enough to stabilize emission levels; you may consider emission levels stable without measurement if you accumulate 12 hours of operation.

(c) Permeation testing. (1) Use the equipment and procedures specified in §1051.515 to measure fuel tank permeation emissions.

(2) Prior to permeation testing of fuel hose, the hose must be preconditioned by filling the hose with the fuel specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section, sealing the openings, and soaking the hose for 4 weeks at 23 ±5 °C. To measure fuel-line permeation emissions, use the equipment and procedures specified in SAE J30 as described in 40 CFR 1060.810. The measurements must be performed at 23 ±2 °C using the fuel specified in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(d) Fuels. Use the fuels meeting the following specifications:

(1) Exhaust. Use the fuels and lubricants specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for all the exhaust testing we require in this part. For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use engines will use. The following provisions apply for using specific fuel types:

(i) For gasoline-fueled engines, use the grade of gasoline specified for general testing.

(ii) For diesel-fueled engines, use either low-sulfur diesel fuel or ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel meeting the specifications in 40 CFR 1065.703. If you use sulfur-sensitive technology as defined in 40 CFR 1039.801 and you measure emissions using ultra low-sulfur diesel fuel, you must add a permanent label near the fuel inlet with the following statement: “ULTRA LOW SULFUR FUEL ONLY”.

(2) Fuel Tank Permeation. (i) For the preconditioning soak described in §1051.515(a)(1) and fuel slosh durability test described in §1051.515(d)(3), use the fuel specified in Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.710 blended with 10 percent ethanol by volume. As an alternative, you may use Fuel CE10, which is Fuel C as specified in ASTM D 471-98 (see 40 CFR 1060.810) blended with 10 percent ethanol by volume.

(ii) For the permeation measurement test in §1051.515(b), use the fuel specified in Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.710. As an alternative, you may use the fuel specified in paragraph (d)(2)(i) of this section.

(3) Fuel Hose Permeation. Use the fuel specified in Table 1 of 40 CFR 1065.710 blended with 10 percent ethanol by volume for permeation testing of fuel lines. As an alternative, you may use Fuel CE10, which is Fuel C as specified in ASTM D 471-98 (see 40 CFR 1060.810) blended with 10 percent ethanol by volume.

(e) Engine stabilization. Instead of the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.405, you may consider emission levels stable without measurement after 12 hours of engine operation.

(f) [Reserved]

(g) Special procedures for engine testing. (1) You may use special or alternate procedures, as described in §1065.10 of this chapter.

(2) We may reject data you generate using alternate procedures if later testing with the procedures in part 1065 of this chapter shows contradictory emission data.

(3) You may test engines using a test speed based on the point of maximum power if that represents in-use operation better than testing based on maximum test speed.

(h) Special procedures for vehicle testing. (1) You may use special or alternate procedures, as described in paragraph (f)(3) of this section.

(2) We may reject data you generate using alternate procedures if later testing with the otherwise specified procedures shows contradictory emission data.

(3)(i) The test procedures specified for vehicle testing are intended to produce emission measurements equivalent to those that would result from measuring emissions during in-use operation using the same vehicle configuration. If good engineering judgment indicates that use of the procedures in this part for a vehicle would result in measurements that are not representative of in-use operation of that vehicle, you must notify us. If we determine that using these procedures would result in measurements that are significantly unrepresentative and that changes to the procedures will result in more representative measurements that do not decrease the stringency of emission standards or other requirements, we will specify changes to the procedures. In your notification to us, you should recommend specific changes you think are necessary.

(ii) You may ask to use emission data collected using other test procedures, such as those of the California Air Resources Board or the International Organization for Standardization. We will allow this only if you show us that these data are equivalent to data collected using our test procedures.

(iii) You may ask to use alternate procedures that produce measurements equivalent to those obtained using the specified procedures. In this case, send us a written request showing that your alternate procedures are equivalent to the test procedures of this part. If you prove to us that the procedures are equivalent, we will allow you to use them. You may not use alternate procedures until we approve them.

(iv) You may ask to use special test procedures if your vehicle cannot be tested using the specified test procedures (for example, it is incapable of operating on the specified transient cycle). In this case, send us a written request showing that you cannot satisfactorily test your engines using the test procedures of this part. We will allow you to use special test procedures if we determine that they would produce emission measurements that are representative of those that would result from measuring emissions during in-use operation. You may not use special procedures until we approve them.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 2442, Jan. 15, 2004; 70 FR 40499, July 13, 2005; 73 FR 59253, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 56511, Oct. 30, 2009]

§1051.505   What special provisions apply for testing snowmobiles?

Use the following special provisions for testing snowmobiles:

(a) You may perform steady-state testing with either discrete-mode or ramped-modal cycles. You must use the type of testing you select in your application for certification for all testing you perform for that engine family. If we test your engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will do testing the same way. If you submit certification test data collected with both discrete-mode and ramped-modal testing (either in your original application or in an amendment to your application), either method may be used for subsequent testing. We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act. Measure steady-state emissions as follows:

(1) For discrete-mode testing, sample emissions separately for each mode, then calculate an average emission level for the whole cycle using the weighting factors specified for each mode. In each mode, operate the engine for at least 5 minutes, then sample emissions for at least 1 minute. Calculate cycle statistics and compare with the established criteria as specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid.

(2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling at the beginning of the first mode and continue sampling until the end of the last mode. Calculate emissions and cycle statistics the same as for transient testing as specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart G.

(3) Measure emissions by testing the engine on a dynamometer with one or more of the following sets of duty cycles to determine whether it meets the steady-state emission standards in §1051.103:

(i) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing:

Table 1 of §1051.505—5-Mode Duty Cycle for Snowmobiles

Mode No.Speed
(percent)1
Torque
(percent)2
Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
11001003.00.12
285513.00.27
375333.00.25
465193.00.31
5Idle03.00.05

1Percent speed is percent of maximum test speed.

2Percent torque is percent of maximum torque at maximum test speed.

(ii) The following duty cycle applies for ramped-modal testing:

Table 2 of §1051.505—Ramped-modal Cycle for Testing Snowmobiles

RMC mode Time in mode Speed (percent)1 Torque (percent)2 3
1a Steady-state27Warm Idle0
1b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition
2a Steady-state121100100
2b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition
3a Steady-state3476519
3b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition
4a Steady-state3058551
4b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition
5a Steady-state2727533
5b Transition20Linear TransitionLinear Transition
6 Steady-state28Warm Idle0

1Percent speed is percent of maximum test speed.

2Advance from one mode to the next within a 20-second transition phase. During the transition phase, command a linear progression from the torque setting of the current mode to the torque setting of the next mode.

3Percent torque is percent of maximum torque at maximum test speed.

(b) During idle mode, operate the engine at its warm idle speed as described in 40 CFR 1065.510.

(c) For the full-load operating mode, operate the engine at wide-open throttle.

(d) Ambient temperatures during testing must be between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F), or other representative test temperatures, as specified in paragraph (f) of this section.

(e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations.

(f) You may test snowmobiles at ambient temperatures below 20 °C or using intake air temperatures below 20 °C if you show that such testing complies with 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(1). You must get our approval before you begin the emission testing. For example, the following approach would be appropriate to show that such testing complies with 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(1):

(1) Using good engineering judgment, instrument a representative snowmobile built with a representative engine from the family being tested with an appropriate temperature measuring device located in the intake air plenum where fuel spitback is not likely to occur.

(2) Choose a time and location with the following weather conditions: windspeed less than 10 knots, no falling precipitation, air temperature between −20 °C and 0 °C (−4 °F and 32 °F).

(3) Operate the snowmobile until its engine reaches a steady operating temperature.

(4) Operate the snowmobile on a level surface free of other vehicle traffic. Operate the snowmobile at each specified engine speed corresponding to each mode in the emissions test specific to the engine being tested. When readings are stable, record the temperature in the intake air plenum and the ambient temperature. Calculate the temperature difference between the air in the plenum and the ambient air for each mode.

(5) Calculate the nominal intake air test temperature for each test mode as −10 °C (14 °F) plus the temperature difference for the corresponding mode determined in paragraph (f)(4) of this section.

(6) Before the emissions test, select the appropriate carburetor jetting for −10 °C (14 °F) conditions according to the jet chart. For each mode, maintain the inlet air temperature within 5 °C (9 °F) of the corresponding modal temperature calculated in paragraph (f)(5) of this section.

(7) Adjust other operating parameters to be consistent with operation at −10 °C (14 °F). For example, this may require that you modify the engine cooling system used in the laboratory to make its performance representative of cold-temperature operation.

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 70 FR 40500, July 13, 2005; 73FR 59253, Oct. 8, 2008]

§1051.510   What special provisions apply for testing ATV engines? [Reserved]

§1051.515   How do I test my fuel tank for permeation emissions?

Measure permeation emissions by weighing a sealed fuel tank before and after a temperature-controlled soak.

(a) Preconditioning fuel soak. To precondition your fuel tank, follow these five steps:

(1) Fill the tank with the fuel specified in §1051.501(d)(2)(i), seal it, and allow it to soak at 28 ±5 °C for 20 weeks. Alternatively, the tank may be soaked for a shorter period of time at a higher temperature if you can show that the hydrocarbon permeation rate has stabilized.

(2) Determine the fuel tank's internal surface area in square-meters accurate to at least three significant figures. You may use less accurate estimates of the surface area if you make sure not to overestimate the surface area.

(3) Fill the fuel tank with the test fuel specified in §1051.501(d)(2)(ii) to its nominal capacity. If you fill the tank inside the temperature-controlled room or enclosure, do not spill any fuel.

(4) Allow the tank and its contents to equilibrate to 28 ±2 °C.

(5) Seal the fuel tank using fuel caps and other fittings (excluding petcocks) that can be used to seal openings in a production fuel tank. In cases where openings are not normally sealed on the fuel tank (such as hose-connection fittings and vents in fuel caps), these openings may be sealed using nonpermeable fittings such as metal or fluoropolymer plugs.

(b) Permeation test run. To run the test, take the following steps for a tank that was preconditioned as specified in paragraph (a) of this section:

(1) Weigh the sealed fuel tank and record the weight to the nearest 0.1 grams. You may use less precise weights as long as the difference in mass from the start of the test to the end of the test has at least three significant figures. Take this measurement within 8 hours of filling the tank with test fuel as specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(2) Carefully place the tank within a ventilated, temperature-controlled room or enclosure. Do not spill or add any fuel.

(3) Close the room or enclosure and record the time.

(4) Ensure that the measured temperature in the room or enclosure is 28 ±2 °C.

(5) Leave the tank in the room or enclosure for 14 days.

(6) Hold the temperature of the room or enclosure to 28 ±2 °C; measure and record the temperature at least daily.

(7) At the end of the soak period, weigh the sealed fuel tank and record the weight to the nearest 0.1 grams. You may use less precise weights as long as the difference in mass from the start of the test to the end of the test has at least three significant figures. Unless the same fuel is used in the preconditioning fuel soak and the permeation test run, record weight measurements on five separate days per week of testing. The test is void if a linear plot of tank weight vs. test days for the full soak period for permeation testing specified in paragraph (b)(5) of this section yields r2 below 0.8. See 40 CFR 1065.602 for the equation to calculate r2.

(8) Subtract the weight of the tank at the end of the test from the weight of the tank at the beginning of the test; divide the difference by the internal surface area of the fuel tank. Divide this g/m2 value by the number of test days (using at least three significant figures) to calculate the g/m2/day emission rate. Example: If a tank with an internal surface area of 0.72 m2 weighed 31882.3 grams at the beginning of the test and weighed 31813.8 grams after soaking for 14.03 days, then the g/m2/day emission rate would be—

(31882.3 g−31813.8 g)/0.72 m2/14.03 days = 6.78 g/m2/day.

(9) Round your result to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard.

(10) In cases where consideration of permeation rates, using good engineering judgment, leads you to conclude that soaking for 14 days is not long enough to measure weight change to at least three significant figures, you may soak for 14 days longer. In this case, repeat the steps in paragraphs (b)(8) and (9) of this section to determine the weight change for the full 28 days.

(c) Determination of final test result. To determine the final test result, apply a deterioration factor to the measured emission level. The deterioration factor is the difference between permeation emissions measured before and after the durability testing described in paragraph (d) of this section. Adjust the baseline test results for each tested fuel tank by adding the deterioration factor to the measured emissions. The deterioration factor determination must be based on good engineering judgement. Therefore, during the durability testing, the test tank may not exceed the fuel tank permeation standard described in §1051.110 (this is known as “line-crossing”). If the deterioration factor is less than zero, use zero.

(d) Durability testing. You normally need to perform a separate durability demonstration for each substantially different combination of treatment approaches and tank materials. Perform these demonstrations before an emission test by taking the following steps, unless you can use good engineering judgment to apply the results of previous durability testing with a different fuel system. You may ask to exclude any of the following durability tests if you can clearly demonstrate that it does not affect the emissions from your fuel tank.

(1) Pressure cycling. Perform a pressure test by sealing the tank and cycling it between +2.0 psig and −0.5 psig and back to +2.0 psig for 10,000 cycles at a rate 60 seconds per cycle.

(2) UV exposure. Perform a sunlight-exposure test by exposing the tank to an ultraviolet light of at least 24 W/m2 (0.40 W-hr/m2/min) on the tank surface for at least 450 hours. Alternatively, the fuel tank may be exposed to direct natural sunlight for an equivalent period of time, as long as you ensure that the tank is exposed to at least 450 daylight hours.

(3) Slosh testing. Perform a slosh test by filling the tank to 40 percent of its capacity with the fuel specified in §1051.501(d)(2)(i) and rocking it at a rate of 15 cycles per minute until you reach one million total cycles. Use an angle deviation of +15° to −15° from level. This test must be performed at a temperature of 28 °C ±5 °C.

(4) Final test result. Following the durability testing, the fuel tank must be soaked (as described in paragraph (a) of this section) to ensure that the permeation rate is stable. The period of slosh testing and the period of ultraviolet testing (if performed with fuel in the tank consistent with paragraph (a)(1) of this section) may be considered to be part of this soak, provided that the soak begins immediately after the slosh testing. To determine the final permeation rate, drain and refill the tank with fresh fuel, and repeat the permeation test run (as described in paragraph (b) of this section) immediately after this soak period. The same test fuel must be used for this permeation test run as for the permeation test run performed prior to the durability testing.

(e) Flow chart. The following figure presents a flow chart for the permeation testing described in this section, showing the full test procedure with durability testing, as well as the simplified test procedure with an applied deterioration factor:

eCFR graphic er15ja04.002.gif

View or download PDF

[67 FR 68347, Nov. 8, 2002, as amended at 69 FR 2442, Jan. 15, 2004; 70 FR 40501, July 13, 2005]

§1051.520   How do I perform exhaust durability testing?

Sections 1051.240 and 1051.243 describe the method for testing that must be performed to establish deterioration factors for an engine family.

[70 FR 40501, July 13, 2005]



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