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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 16, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 281—APPROVAL OF STATE UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS


Subpart D—Adequate Enforcement of Compliance


Contents
§281.40   Requirements for compliance monitoring program and authority.
§281.41   Requirements for enforcement authority.
§281.42   Requirements for public participation.
§281.43   Sharing of information.

§281.40   Requirements for compliance monitoring program and authority.

(a) Any authorized representative of the state engaged in compliance inspections, monitoring, and testing must have authority to obtain by request any information from an owner or operator with respect to the UST system(s) that is necessary to determine compliance with the regulations.

(b) Any authorized representative of the state must have authority to require an owner or operator to conduct monitoring or testing.

(c) Authorized representatives must have the authority to enter any site or premises subject to UST system regulations or in which records relevant to the operation of the UST system(s) are kept, and to copy these records, obtain samples of regulated substances, and inspect or conduct the monitoring or testing of UST system(s).

(d) State programs must have procedures for receipt, evaluation, retention and investigation of records and reports required of owners or operators and must provide for enforcement of failure to submit these records and reports. States that choose to receive electronic documents must include the requirements of 40 CFR Part 3—(Electronic reporting) in their state program.

(e)(1) State programs must have inspection procedures to determine, independent of information supplied by regulated persons, compliance with program requirements, and must provide for enforcement of failure to comply with the program requirements. States must maintain a program for systematic inspections of facilities subject to regulations in a manner designed to determine compliance or non-compliance, to verify accuracy of information submitted by owners or operators of regulated USTs, and to verify adequacy of methods used by owners or operators in developing that information.

(2) When inspections are conducted, samples taken, or other information gathered, these procedures must be conducted in a manner (for example, using proper “chain of custody” procedures) that will produce evidence admissible in an enforcement proceeding, or in court.

(f) Public effort in reporting violations must be encouraged and the state enforcement agency(ies) must make available information on reporting procedures. State programs must maintain a program for investigating information obtained from the public about suspected violations of UST program requirements.

(g) The state program must maintain the data collected through inspections and evaluation of records in such a manner that the implementing agency can monitor over time the compliance status of the regulated community. Any compilation, index, or inventory of such facilities and activities shall be made available to EPA upon request.

[53 FR 37241, Sept. 23, 1988, as amended at 70 FR 59889, Oct. 13, 2005]

§281.41   Requirements for enforcement authority.

(a) Any state agency administering a program must have the authority to implement the following remedies for violations of state program requirements:

(1) To restrain immediately and effectively any person by order or by suit in state court from engaging in any unauthorized activity that is endangering or causing damage to public health or the environment;

(2) To sue in courts of competent jurisdiction to enjoin any threatened or continuing violation of any program requirement;

(3) To assess or sue to recover in court civil penalties as follows:

(i) Civil penalties for failure to notify or for submitting false information pursuant to tank notification requirements must be capable of being assessed up to $5,000 or more per violation.

(ii) Civil penalties for failure to comply with any state requirements or standards for existing or new tank systems must be capable of being assessed for each instance of violation, up to $5,000 or more for each tank for each day of violation. If the violation is continuous, civil penalties shall be capable of being assessed up to $5,000 or more for each day of violation.

(b) The burden of proof and degree of knowledge or intent required under state law for establishing violations under paragraph (a)(3) of this section, must be no greater than the burden of proof or degree of knowledge or intent that EPA must provide when it brings an action under Subtitle I of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

(c) A civil penalty assessed, sought, or agreed upon by the state enforcement agency(ies) under paragraph (a)(3) of this section must be appropriate to the violation.

§281.42   Requirements for public participation.

Any state administering a program must provide for public participation in the state enforcement process by providing any one of the following three options:

(a) Authority that allows intervention analogous to Federal Rule 24(a)(2), and assurance by the appropriate state enforcement agency that it will not oppose intervention under the state analogue to Rule 24(a)(2) on the ground that the applicant's interest is adequately represented by the State.

(b) Authority that allows intervention as of right in any civil action to obtain the remedies specified in §281.41 by any citizen having an interest that is or may be adversely affected; or

(c) Assurance by the appropriate state agency that:

(1) It will provide notice and opportunity for public comment on all proposed settlements of civil enforcement actions (except where immediate action is necessary to adequately protect human health and the environment);

(2) It will investigate and provide responses to citizen complaints about violations; and

(3) It will not oppose citizen intervention when permissive intervention is allowed by statute, rule, or regulation.

§281.43   Sharing of information.

(a) States with approved programs must furnish EPA, upon request, any information in state files obtained or used in the administration of the state program. This information includes:

(1) Any information submitted to the state under a claim of confidentiality. The state must submit that claim to EPA when providing such information. Any information obtained from a state and subject to a claim of confidentiality will be treated in accordance with federal regulations in 40 CFR part 2; and

(2) Any information that is submitted to the state without a claim of confidentiality. EPA may make this information available to the public without further notice.

(b) EPA must furnish to states with approved programs, upon request, any information in EPA files that the state needs to administer its approved state program. Such information includes:

(1) Any information that is submitted to EPA without a claim of confidentiality; and

(2) Any information submitted to EPA under a claim of confidentiality, subject to the conditions in 40 CFR part 2.



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