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Title 40Chapter ISubchapter EPart 158 → Subpart A

Title 40: Protection of Environment

Subpart A—General Provisions

§158.1   Purpose and scope.
§158.3   Definitions.
§158.5   Applicability.
§158.30   Flexibility.
§158.32   Format of data submissions.
§158.33   Confidential data.
§158.34   Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.
§158.45   Waivers.
§158.60   Minor use data policies.
§158.70   Satisfying data requirements.
§158.75   Requirements for additional data.
§158.80   Use of other data.

§158.1   Purpose and scope.

(a) Purpose. The purpose of this part is to specify the kinds of data and information EPA requires in order to make regulatory judgments under FIFRA secs. 3, 4, and 5 about the risks and benefits of pesticide products. Further, this part specifies the data and information needed to determine the safety of pesticide chemical residues under FFDCA sec. 408.

(b) Scope. (1) This part describes the minimum data and information EPA typically requires to support an application for pesticide registration or amendment; support the reregistration of a pesticide product; support the maintenance of a pesticide registration by means of the data call-in process, e.g., as used in the registration review program; or establish or maintain a tolerance or exemption from the requirements of a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue.

(2) This part establishes general policies and procedures associated with the submission of data in support of a pesticide regulatory action.

(3) This part does not include study protocols, methodology, or standards for conducting or reporting test results; nor does this part describe how the Agency uses or evaluates the data and information in its risk assessment and risk management decisions, or the regulatory determinations that may be based upon the data.

(c) Scope of individual subparts. (1) Conventional pesticides. Subparts A, B, C, D, F, G, K, L, N, and O apply to conventional pesticides.

(2) Biochemical pesticides. Subparts A, B and U apply to biochemical pesticides.

(3) Microbial pesticides. Subparts A, B and V apply to microbial pesticides.

(4) Antimicrobial pesticides. Subparts A, B, C, D, and W of this part apply to antimicrobial pesticides.

[72 FR 60957, Oct. 26, 2007, as amended at 78 FR 26978, May 8, 2013]

§158.3   Definitions.

All terms defined in sec. 2 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act apply to this part and are used with the meaning given in the Act. Applicable terms from the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act also apply to this part. Individual subparts may contain definitions that pertain solely to that subpart. The following additional terms apply to this part:

Applicant means any person or entity, including for the purposes of this part a registrant, who submits, or is required to submit, to the Agency any application, petition, or submission intended to persuade EPA to grant, modify, or leave unmodified a registration or other approval required as a condition of sale or distribution of a pesticide. Such submissions may include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) An application for registration or amended registration of a pesticide product under FIFRA sec. 3 or 24.

(2) A submission of data required in conjunction with reregistration of a currently registered product under FIFRA sec. 4.

(3) An application for an experimental use permit under FIFRA sec. 5.

(4) A submission of data in response to a notice issued by EPA under FIFRA sec. 3(c)(2)(B).

(5) A petition to establish or modify a tolerance or an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for a pesticide chemical residue under FFDCA sec. 408.

Registration includes a new registration, amended registration and reregistration, unless stated otherwise.

§158.5   Applicability.

(a) The requirements of this part apply to the following submissions:

(1) An application for new or amended registration under FIFRA sec. 3 or 24.

(2) An application for experimental use permit under FIFRA sec. 5.

(3) A submission of data or information to support the continuation of a registration under FIFRA sec. 3, 4, or 24.

(4) A petition to establish, modify or revoke a tolerance or exemption from a tolerance under FFDCA sec. 408.

(b) The information specified in this part must be furnished with each submission described in paragraph (a) of this section if it has not been submitted previously, or if any previous submission is not accurate or complete.

§158.30   Flexibility.

(a) FIFRA provides EPA flexibility to require, or not require, data and information for the purposes of making regulatory judgments for pesticide products. EPA has the authority to establish or modify data needs for individual pesticide chemicals. The actual data required may be modified on an individual basis to fully characterize the use and properties, characteristics, or effects of specific pesticide products under review. The Agency encourages each applicant to consult with EPA to discuss the data requirements particular to its product prior to and during the registration process.

(b) The Agency cautions applicants that the data routinely required in this part may not be sufficient to permit EPA to evaluate the potential of the product to cause unreasonable adverse effects to man or the environment. EPA may require the submission of additional data or information beyond that specified in this part if such data or information are needed to appropriately evaluate a pesticide product.

(c) This part will be updated as needed to reflect evolving program needs and advances in science.

§158.32   Format of data submissions.

(a) General. (1) All data submitted under this part must be formatted in accordance with this section.

(2) The requirements of this section do not apply to administrative materials accompanying a data submission, including forms, labeling, and correspondence.

(b) Transmittal document. Each submission in support of a regulatory action must be accompanied by a transmittal document, which includes:

(1) Identity of the submitter.

(2) The transmittal date.

(3) Identification of the regulatory action with which the submission is associated, e.g., the registration or petition number.

(4) A list of the individual documents included in the submission.

(c) Individual documents. Unless otherwise specified by the Agency, each submission must be in the form of individual documents or studies. Previously submitted documents should not be resubmitted unless specifically requested by the Agency, but should be cited with adequate information to identify the previously submitted document. Each study or document should include the following:

(1) A title page including the following information:

(i) The title of the study, including identification of the substance(s) tested and the test name or data requirement addressed.

(ii) The author(s) of the study.

(iii) The date the study was completed.

(iv) If the study was performed in a laboratory, the name and address of the laboratory, project numbers or other identifying codes.

(v) If the study is a commentary on or supplement to another previously submitted study, full identification of the other study with which it should be associated in review.

(vi) If the study is a reprint of a published document, all relevant facts of publication, such as the journal title, volume, issue, inclusive page numbers, and date of publication.

(2) The appropriate statement(s) regarding any data confidentiality claims as described in §158.33.

(3) A statement of compliance or non-compliance with respect to Good Laboratory Practice Standards as required by 40 CFR 160.12, if applicable.

(4) A complete and accurate English translation must be included for any information that is not in English.

(5) A flagging statement as prescribed by §158.34, if applicable.

§158.33   Confidential data.

(a) Definitions. For the purposes of this section:

(1) Registered or previously registered pesticide means any pesticide containing an active ingredient contained in a product that is, or has ever been, an active ingredient in a product registered under sec. 3 of FIFRA. A registered pesticide that is the subject of an application for a new use falls within the category of “registered or previously registered pesticide.”

(2) Safety and efficacy information means information concerning the objectives, methodology, results, or significance of any test or experiment performed on or with a registered or previously registered pesticide or its separate ingredients, impurities, or degradation products, and any information concerning the effects of such pesticide on any organism or the behavior of such pesticide in the environment, including, but not limited to, data on safety to fish and wildlife, humans and other mammals, plants, animals, and soil, and studies on persistence, translocation and fate in the environment, and metabolism.

(b) Applicability. (1) This section applies to information submitted pursuant to this part. It supplements the general confidentiality procedures in 40 CFR part 2, subpart B, including FIFRA confidentiality procedures at 40 CFR 2.307. To the extent that provisions in this section conflict with those in 40 CFR part 2, subpart B, the provisions in this section take precedence. The provisions of 40 CFR 2.308 do not apply to information to which this section applies. In addition to complying with the requirements of this section, any confidentiality claims for information subject to 40 CFR part 174 (plant-incorporated protectants) must be substantiated at the time of submission as described in §174.9 of this chapter.

(2) FFDCA sec. 408(i) protects confidential information submitted in connection with an application for a tolerance or exemption to the same extent as FIFRA sec. 10. References in this section to FIFRA sec. 10 are deemed to apply equally to information submitted pursuant to FFDCA sec. 408, pursuant to the authority in sec. 408(i).

(c) Method of asserting business confidentiality claims—(1) Claim required. Information to which this section applies (and which is submitted on or after the effective date of this regulation) will be deemed as not subject to a confidentiality claim unless a claim for that information is made in accordance with the procedures specified in this paragraph. Information not subject to a confidentiality claim may be made available to the public without further notice, subject to the requirements of FIFRA sec. 10(g).

(2) Statement required. Upon submission to EPA, each document must be accompanied by a signed and dated document containing either the statements in paragraph (c)(2)(i) or (ii) of this section. No claims or markings on the document or any attachments, other than these statements and attachments submitted in accordance with paragraph (c)(3) of this section, will be recognized as asserting a claim of confidentiality. The format of data submissions is set forth in §158.32.

(i) No claim of confidentiality.

No claim of confidentiality, on any basis whatsoever, is made for any information contained in this document. I acknowledge that information not designated as within the scope of FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1)(A), (B), or (C) and which pertains to a registered or previously registered pesticide is not entitled to confidential treatment and may be released to the public, subject to the provisions regarding disclosure to multinational entities under FIFRA sec. 10(g).

(ii) Claim of confidentiality.

Information claimed as confidential has been removed to a confidential attachment.

(3) Confidential attachment. (i) All information claimed as confidential must be submitted in a separate confidential attachment to the document and cross referenced to the specific location in the document from which it was removed. The confidential attachment must have its own title page and be paginated separately from the non-confidential document.

(ii) All information in the confidential attachment that consists of (or whose disclosure would in turn disclose) manufacturing or quality control processes must be individually identified in the confidential attachment as a claim for information within the scope of FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1)(A).

(iii) All information in the confidential attachment that consists of (or whose disclosure would in turn disclose) the details of any methods for testing, detecting, or measuring the quantity of any deliberately added inert ingredient of a pesticide, must be individually identified in the confidential attachment as a claim for information within the scope of FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1)(B).

(iv) All information in the confidential attachment that consists of (or whose disclosure would in turn disclose) the identity or percentage quantity of any deliberately added inert ingredient of a pesticide must be individually identified in the confidential attachment as a claim for information within the scope of FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1)(C).

(v) Information in the confidential attachment that is designated in accordance with paragraphs (c)(3)(ii) - (iv) of this section must be on a separate page from information that is not so designated.

(4) Voluntary release of information to States and foreign governments. (i) Submitters are encouraged to include with the statement required under paragraph (c)(2) of this section an additional statement to allow EPA to share information with State and foreign governments. EPA will not consider such a statement to be a waiver of confidentiality or proprietary claims for the information. The statement is as follows:

I authorize the Environmental Protection Agency to release any information contained in this document to State or foreign governments, without relinquishing proprietary rights or any confidentiality claims asserted above.

(ii) Information designated as releasable to state or foreign governments in accordance with this section may be released to such a government without further notice to the submitter. EPA will inform the State or foreign government of any of the confidentiality claims associated with the information.

(d) Release of information. (1) Safety and efficacy information that was submitted to EPA on or after May 4, 1988 and that has not been designated by the submitter as FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1)(A), (B), or (C) information in accordance with the applicable requirements of this section is not entitled to confidential treatment and may be disclosed to the public without further notice to the submitter, in accordance with paragraph (d)(2) of this section. Safety and efficacy information which has been designated by the submitter as FIFRA sec. 10(d)(1) (A), (B), or (C) information is entitled to confidential treatment only to the extent provided by FIFRA sec. 10(b), this section, and 40 CFR 2.208.

(2) Information that is not entitled to be protected as confidential in accordance with FIFRA sec. 10(b), this section and with EPA confidentiality regulations at 40 CFR part 2, subpart B, may be released to the public without the affirmation of non-multinational status provided under FIFRA sec. 10(g), provided that the information does not contain or consist of any complete unpublished report submitted to EPA, or excerpts or restatements of any such report which reveal the full methodology and complete results of the study, test, or experiment, and all explanatory information necessary to understand the methodology or interpret the results.

§158.34   Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

(a) Any applicant who submits a study of a type listed in paragraph (b) of this section must submit with the study a statement in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) The following table indicates the study types and the criteria to be applied to each. Column 1 lists the study types by name. Column 2 lists the associated Pesticide Assessment Guideline number. Column 3 lists the criteria applicable to each type of study. Column 4 lists the reporting code to be included in the statement specified in paragraph (c) of this section when any criterion is met or exceeded.

Table—Flagging Criteria

Study Type(s) Guideline No.Criteria: Treated animals show any of the following:Criteria No.
Carcinogenicity or combined carcinogenicity/chronic feeding study870.4200
An incidence of neoplasms in males or females which increases with dose (positive trend p≤0.05); or1
      A statistically significant (pairwise p≤0.05) increase of any type of neoplasm in any test group, males or females at any dose level, compared to concurrent control animals of the same sex; or2
      An increase in any type of uncommon or rare neoplasms in any test group, males or females animals at any dose level, compared to concurrent controls of the same sex; or3
      A decrease in the time to development of any type of neoplasms in any test group, males or females at any dose level, compared to concurrent controls of the same sex.4
Prenatal developmental toxicity
Reproduction and fertility
Developmental neurotoxicity
When compared to concurrent controls, treated offspring show a dose-related increase in malformations, pre- or post-natal deaths, or persistent functional or behavioral changes on a litter basis in the absence of significant maternal toxicity at the same dose level.5
When compared to concurrent controls, treated animals show a statistically or biologically significant increase in neuropathological lesions or persistent functional or behavioral changes.6
Chronic feeding
Reproduction and fertility
Prenatal developmental toxicity
Developmental neurotoxicity
Acute or 90-day neurotoxicity
The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) from one of these studies is less than the NOAEL currently used by the Agency as the basis for either the acute or chronic reference dose.7

(c) Identification of studies. For each study of a type identified in paragraph (b) of this section, the applicant shall include the appropriate one of the following two statements, together with the signature of the authorized representative of the company, and the date of signature:

(1) Study does not meet or exceed criteria.

I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse effects to the results of the attached study. This study neither meets nor exceeds any of the applicable criteria.

(2) Study meets or exceeds criteria.

I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse effects to the results of the attached study. This study meets or exceeds the criteria numbered [insert all applicable reporting codes].

§158.45   Waivers.

(a) The data requirements specified in this part as applicable to a category of products will not always be appropriate for every product in that category. Some products may have unusual physical, chemical, or biological properties or atypical use patterns which would make particular data requirements inappropriate, either because it would not be possible to generate the required data or because the data would not be useful in the Agency's evaluation of the risks or benefits of the product. The Agency will waive data requirements it finds are inappropriate, but will ensure that sufficient data are available to make the determinations required by the applicable statutory standards.

(b)(1) Applicants are encouraged to discuss a data waiver request with the Agency before developing and submitting supporting data, information, or other materials.

(2) All waiver requests must be submitted to the Agency in writing. The request must clearly identify the data requirement(s) for which a waiver is sought along with an explanation and supporting rationale why the applicant believes the data requirement should be waived. In addition, the applicant must describe any unsuccessful attempts to generate the required data, furnish any other information which the applicant(s) believe(s) would support the request, and when appropriate, suggest alternative means of obtaining data to address the concern which underlies the data requirement.

(c) The Agency will review each waiver request and subsequently inform the applicant in writing of its decision. If the decision could apply to more than the requested product, the Agency, in its discretion, may choose to send a notice to all registrants or publish a notice in the Federal Register announcing the decision. An Agency decision denying a written request to waive a data requirement is a final Agency action.

§158.60   Minor use data policies.

FIFRA sec. 2(ll) defines the term “minor use”and FIFRA provides a number of statutory provisions concerning minor uses. In addition, EPA has established policies with respect to minor uses of pesticides, including, but not limited to, the following:

(a) A new data requirement pertinent to both an unregistered minor use and a registered major use will not be applied to a minor use applicant until it is applied to the major use registration.

(b) EPA will accept appropriate and adequate extrapolations and regional data to support establishment of individual minor use tolerances.

§158.70   Satisfying data requirements.

(a) General policy. The Agency will determine whether the data submitted or cited to fulfill the data requirements specified in this part are acceptable. This determination will be based on the design and conduct of the experiment from which the data were derived, and an evaluation of whether the data fulfill the purpose(s) of the data requirement. In evaluating experimental design, the Agency will consider whether generally accepted methods were used, sufficient numbers of measurements were made to achieve statistical reliability, and sufficient controls were built into all phases of the experiment. The Agency will evaluate the conduct of each experiment in terms of whether the study was conducted in conformance with the design, good laboratory practices were observed, and results were reproducible. The Agency will not reject data merely because they were derived from studies which, when initiated, were in accordance with an Agency-recommended protocol, even if the Agency subsequently recommends a different protocol, as long as the data fulfill the purposes of the requirements as described in this paragraph.

(1) The provisions in this part 158 should be read in conjunction with the provisions in §152.85 to claim eligibility for the formulators' exemption.

(2) [Reserved]

(b) Good laboratory practices. Applicants must adhere to the good laboratory practice (GLP) standards described in 40 CFR part 160 when conducting studies. Applicants must also adhere to GLP standards when conducting a study in support of a waiver request of any data requirement which is within the scope of the GLP requirements.

(c) Agency guidelines. EPA has published Test Guidelines that contain standards for conducting acceptable tests, guidance on the evaluation and reporting of data, definition of terms, and suggested study protocols. Copies of the Test Guidelines may be obtained by visiting the agency's website at www.epa.gov/pesticides.

(d) Study protocols—(1) General. Any appropriate protocol may be used to generate the data required by this part, provided that it meets the purpose of the test standards specified in the pesticide assessment guidelines, and provides data of suitable quality and completeness as typified by the protocols cited in the guidelines. Applicants should use the test procedure which is most suitable for evaluation of the particular ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a test if another appropriate methodology is used.

(2) Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) protocols. Tests conducted in accordance with the requirements and recommendations of the applicable OECD protocols can be used to develop data necessary to meet the requirements specified in this part. Applicants should note, however, that certain of the OECD recommended test standards, such as test duration and selection of test species, are less restrictive than those recommended by EPA. Therefore, when using OECD protocols, care should be taken to observe the test standards in a manner such that the data generated by the study will satisfy the requirements of this part.

(e) Combining studies. Certain toxicology studies may be combined to satisfy data requirements. For example, carcinogenicity studies in rats may be combined with the rat chronic toxicity study. Combining appropriate studies may be expected to reduce usage of test animals as well as reduce the cost of studies. EPA encourages this practice by including standards for acceptable combined tests in the Pesticide Assessment Guidelines. Registrants and applicants are encouraged to consider combining other tests when practical and likely to produce scientifically acceptable results. Registrants and applicants, however, must consult with the EPA before initiating combined studies.

§158.75   Requirements for additional data.

The data routinely required by this part may not be sufficient to permit EPA to evaluate every pesticide product. If the information required under this part is not sufficient to evaluate the potential of the product to cause unreasonable adverse effects on man or the environment, additional data requirements will be imposed. However, EPA expects that the information required by this part will be adequate in most cases for an assessment of the properties and effects of the pesticide.

§158.80   Use of other data.

(a) Data developed in foreign countries. With certain exceptions, laboratory and field study data developed outside the United States may be submitted in support of a pesticide registration. Data generated in a foreign country which the Agency will not consider include, but are not limited to, data from tests which involved field test sites or a test material, such as a native soil, plant, or animal, that is not characteristic of the United States. Applicants submitting foreign data must take steps to ensure that U.S. materials are used, or be prepared to supply data or information to demonstrate the lack of substantial or relevant differences between the selected material or test site and the U.S. material or test site. Once submitted, the Agency will determine whether or not the data meet the data requirements.

(b) Data generated for other purposes. Data developed for purposes other than satisfaction of FIFRA data requirements, such as monitoring studies, may also satisfy data requirements in this part. Consultation with the Agency should be arranged if applicants are unsure about suitability of such data.

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