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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 21, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 94—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES


Subpart B—Test Procedures


Contents
§94.101   Applicability.
§94.102   General provisions.
§94.103   Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines.
§94.104   Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines.
§94.105   Duty cycles.
§94.106   Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.
§94.107   Determination of maximum test speed.
§94.108   Test fuels.
§94.109   Test procedures for Category 3 marine engines.

§94.101   Applicability.

Provisions of this subpart apply for testing performed by the Administrator or a manufacturer.

§94.102   General provisions.

(a) The test procedures specified in this part are intended to produce emission measurements that are equivalent to emission measurements that would result from emission tests performed during in-use operation using the same engine configuration installed in a vessel.

(b) Test procedures otherwise allowed by the provisions of this subpart shall not be used where such procedures are not consistent with good engineering practice and the regulatory goal specified in paragraph (a) of this section.

(c) Alternate test procedures may be used if shown to yield equivalent results, and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

§94.103   Test procedures for Category 1 marine engines.

(a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be measured using the test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 89, except as otherwise specified in this subpart.

(b) The Administrator may specify changes to the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section that are necessary to comply with the general provisions of §94.102.

(c) Measure CH4 as specified in 40 CFR 1042.235 starting in the 2012 model year.

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009]

§94.104   Test procedures for Category 2 marine engines.

(a) Gaseous and particulate emissions shall be measured using the test procedures specified in 40 CFR part 92, except as otherwise specified in this subpart.

(b)(1) The requirements of 40 CFR part 92 related to charge air temperatures, engine speed and load, and engine air inlet restriction pressures do not apply for marine engines.

(2) For marine engine testing, charge air temperatures, engine speed and load, and engine air inlet restriction pressures shall be representative of typical in-use marine engine conditions.

(c) Conduct testing at ambient temperatures from 13 °C to 30 °C.

(d) The Administrator may specify changes to the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section that are necessary to comply with the general provisions of §94.102.

(e) Measure CO2 as described in 40 CFR 92.129 through the 2010 model year. Measure CO2 as specified in 40 CFR 1042.235 starting in the 2011 model year. Measure CH4 as specified in 40 CFR 1042.235 starting in the 2012 model year.

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68343, Nov. 8, 2002; 74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009]

§94.105   Duty cycles.

(a) Overview. For the purpose of determining compliance with the emission standards of §94.8, except for those in §94.8(e), engines shall be tested using the appropriate duty cycles described in this section.

(b) General cycle. Propulsion engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) fixed-pitch propellers, propeller-law auxiliary engines, and any other engines for which the other duty cycles of this section do not apply, shall be tested using the duty cycle described in the following Table B-1:

Table B-1—General Marine Duty Cycle

Mode No.Engine speed1 (percent of maximum test speed)Percent of maximum test power2Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
11001005.00.20
291755.00.50
380505.00.15
463255.00.15

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Power: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

(c) Variable-pitch and electrically coupled propellers. (1) Constant-speed propulsion engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) variable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers shall be tested using the duty cycle described in the following Table B-2:

Table B-2—Duty Cycle for Constant-Speed Propulsion Engines

Mode No.Engine speed1 (percent of maximum test speed)Percent of maximum test power2Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
11001005.00.20
2100755.00.50
3100505.00.15
4100255.00.15

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Power: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

(2) For the purpose of determining compliance with the emission standards of §94.8, variable-speed propulsion engines that are used with (or intended to be used with) variable-pitch propellers or with electrically coupled propellers shall be tested using the duty cycle described in Table B-3, which follows:

Table B-3—Duty Cycle for Variable Speed Propulsion Engines Used on Non-Propeller Law Vessels and for Variable Speed Auxiliary Engines

Test segmentMode No.Engine speed1Percent of maximum test torque2Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
11Maximum Test Speed1005.00.15
12Maximum Test Speed755.00.15
13Maximum Test Speed505.00.15
14Maximum Test Speed105.00.10
25Intermediate1005.00.10
26Intermediate755.00.10
27Intermediate505.00.10
28Idle05.00.15

1Engine speed (non-idle): ±2 percent of point. Engine speed (idle): Within manufacturer's specifications. Idle speed is specified by the manufacturer.

2Torque (non-idle): ±2 percent of engine maximum value. Torque (idle): minimum fueling rate Load less than 5 percent of peak torque.

(d) Auxiliary. For the purpose of determining compliance with the emission standards of §94.8:

(1) Constant speed auxiliary engines shall be tested using the duty cycle described in Table B-4, which follows:

Table B-4—Duty Cycle for Constant-Speed Auxiliary Engines

Mode No.Engine speed1Percent of maximum test torque2Minimum time in mode
(minutes)
Weighting factors
1Maximum Test Speed1005.00.05
2Maximum Test Speed755.00.25
3Maximum Test Speed505.00.30
4Maximum Test Speed255.00.30
5Maximum Test Speed105.00.10

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Torque: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

(2) Variable speed auxiliary engines shall be tested using the duty cycle described in Table B-3 in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(e) Recreational. For the purpose of determining compliance with the emission standards of §94.8, recreational engines shall be tested using the duty cycle described in Table B-5, which follows:

Table B-5—Recreational Marine Duty Cycle

Mode No. Engine speed(1) (percent of maximum test speed) Percent of maximum test power(2) Minimum time in mode (minutes) Weighting factors
11001005.00.08
291755.00.13
380505.00.17
463255.00.32
5idle05.00.30

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Power: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68343, Nov. 8, 2002; 70 FR 40458, July 13, 2005]

§94.106   Supplemental test procedures for Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines.

This section describes the test procedures for supplemental testing conducted to determine compliance with the exhaust emission requirements of §94.8(e)(1). In general, the supplemental test procedures are the same as those otherwise specified by this subpart, except that they cover any speeds, loads, ambient conditions, and operating parameters that may be experienced in use. The test procedures specified by other sections in this subpart also apply to these tests, except as specified in this section.

(a) Notwithstanding other provisions of this subpart, testing conducted to determine compliance with the exhaust emission requirements of §94.8(e) may be conducted:

(1) At any speed and load (or any combination of speeds and loads that is nominally steady-state) within the applicable Not To Exceed Zone specified in paragraph (b) of this section;

(2)(i) Without correction, at any intake air temperature between 13 °C and 35 °C (or between 13 °C and 30 °C for engines not drawing intake air directly from a space that could be heated by the engine);

(ii) Without correction at any ambient water temperature (or equivalent) between 5 °C and 27 °C;

(iii) Without correction at any ambient humidity between 7.1 and 10.7 grams of moisture per kilogram of dry air; and

(3) With a continuous sampling period not less than 30 seconds in duration.

(b) The specified Not to Exceed Zones for marine engines are defined as follows. These Not to Exceed Zones apply, unless a modified zone is established under paragraph (c) of this section.

(1) For commercial Category 1 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §94.105(b), the Not to Exceed zones are defined as follows:

(i) The Not to Exceed zone is the region between the curves power = 1.15 × SPD2 and power = 0.85 × SPD4, excluding all operation below 25% of maximum power at rated speed and excluding all operation below 63% of maximum test speed.

(ii) This zone is divided into two subzones, one above and one below 45% of maximum power at rated speed.

(iii) SPD in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section refers to percent of maximum test speed.

(iv) See Figure B-1 for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone which follows:

eCFR graphic er29de99.002.gif

View or download PDF

(2) For Category 2 engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §94.105(b), the Not to Exceed zones are defined as follows:

(i) The Not to Exceed zone is the region between the curves power = 1.04 × SPD2 and power = 0.76 × SPD4, excluding all operation below 25% of maximum power at rated speed and excluding all operation below 63% of maximum test speed.

(ii) This zone is divided into two subzones, one above and one below 45% of maximum power at rated speed.

(iii) SPD in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section refers to percent of maximum test speed.

(iv) See Figure B-2 in paragraph (b)(3) of this section for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone.

(3) For engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §94.105(c)(2), the Not to Exceed zones are defined as follows:

eCFR graphic er29de99.003.gif

View or download PDF

(i) The Not to Exceed zone is the region above the curve power = 0.85 SPD4, excluding all operation below 25% of maximum power at rated speed and excluding all operation below 63% of maximum test.

(ii) This zone is divided into two subzones, one above and one below 45% of maximum power at rated speed.

(iii) SPD in paragraph (b)(3)(i) of this section refers to percent of maximum test speed.

(iv) See Figure B-3 for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone:

eCFR graphic er29de99.004.gif

View or download PDF

(4) For engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §94.105(c)(1), the Not to Exceed zone is defined as any load greater than or equal to 25 percent of maximum power at rated speed, and any speed at which the engine operates in use.

(5) For recreational marine engines certified using the duty cycle specified in §94.105(e), the Not to Exceed zones are defined as follows:

(i) The Not to Exceed zone is the region between the curves power = 1.15 × SPD2 and power = 0.85 × SPD4, excluding all operation below 25% of maximum power at rated speed and excluding all operation below 63% of maximum test speed.

(ii) This zone is divided into three subzones, one below 45% of maximum power at maximum test speed; one above 95% of maximum test speed; and a third area including all of the remaining area of the NTE zone.

(iii) SPD in paragraph (b)(5)(i) of this section refers to percent of maximum test speed.

(iv) See Figure B-4 for an illustration of this Not to Exceed zone as follows:

eCFR graphic er08no02.003.gif

View or download PDF

(c)(1) Upon request by the manufacturer, the Administrator may specify a narrower Not to Exceed Zone for an engine family at the time of certification, provided that the narrower Not to Exceed Zone includes all speeds greater than 63 percent of maximum test speed and loads greater than 25 percent of maximum power at rated speed at which the engines are expected to normally operate in use.

(2) At the time of certification, the Administrator may specify, or require the manufacturer to specify, a broader Not to Exceed Zone for an engine family, provided that the broader Not to Exceed Zone includes only speeds greater than 63 percent of maximum test speed and loads greater than 25 percent of maximum power at rated speed at which the engines are expected to normally operate in use.

(d) Testing conducted to determine compliance with the exhaust emission requirements of §94.8(e) may be conducted at any ambient air temperature or humidity outside the ranges specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, provided that emission measurements are corrected to be equivalent to measurements within the ranges specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Correction of emission measurements made in accordance with this paragraph (d) shall be made in accordance with good engineering practice. The measurements shall be corrected to be within the range using the minimum possible correction.

(e) Testing conducted under this section may not include engine starting.

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68344, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9784, Feb. 28, 2003; 70 FR 40458, July 13, 2005]

§94.107   Determination of maximum test speed.

(a) Overview. This section specifies how to determine maximum test speed from a lug curve. This maximum test speed is used in §§94.105, 94.106, and §94.109 (including the tolerances for engine speed specified in §94.105).

(b) Generation of lug curve. Prior to beginning emission testing, generate maximum measured brakepower versus engine speed data points using the applicable method specified in 40 CFR 1065.510. These data points form the lug curve. It is not necessary to generate the entire lug curve. For the portion of the curve where power increases with increasing speed, it is not necessary to generate points with power less than 90 percent of the maximum power value. For the portion of the curve where power decreases with increasing speed, it is not necessary to generate points with power less than 75 percent of the maximum power value.

(c) Normalization of lug curve. (1) Identify the point (power and speed) on the lug curve at which maximum power occurs.

(2) Normalize the power values of the lug curve by dividing them by the maximum power value identified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and multiplying the resulting values by 100.

(3) Normalize the engine speed values of the lug curve by dividing them by the speed at which maximum power occurs, which is identified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, and multiplying the resulting values by 100.

(4) Maximum engine power is located on the normalized lug curve at 100 percent power and 100 percent speed.

(d) Determination of maximum test speed. Calculate the maximum test speed from the speedfactor analysis described in this paragraph (d).

(1) For a given combination of engine power and speed (i.e., a given power/speed point), the speedfactor is the distance to the normalized power/speed point from the zero power, zero speed point. The value of the speedfactor is defined as:

eCFR graphic er29de99.005.gif

View or download PDF

(2) Calculate speedfactors for the power/speed data points on the lug curve, and determine the maximum value.

(3) Maximum test speed is the speed at which the maximum value for the speedfactor occurs.

(e) For constant-speed engines, rated speed is the maximum test speed.

(f) For Category 3 engines, manufacturers may choose to set the maximum test speed at the maximum in-use engine speed instead of the speed specified in §94.107(d).

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 68 FR 9784, Feb. 28, 2003; 70 FR 40458, July 13, 2005]

§94.108   Test fuels.

(a) Distillate diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines designed to operate on distillate diesel fuel shall be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: cetane improver, metal deactivator, antioxidant, dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. The diesel fuel shall also meet the specifications (as determined using methods incorporated by reference at §94.5) in Table B-5 of this section, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, as follows:

Table B-5—Federal Test Fuel Specifications

Item Procedure1 Value
CetaneASTM D 613-0140-48
Distillation Range:
Initial boiling point, °CASTM D 86-01171-204
10% point, °CASTM D 86-01204-238
50% point, °CASTM D 86-01243-282
90% point, °CASTM D 86-01293-332
End point, °CASTM D 86-01321-366
Flash Point, °CASTM D93-0954 minimum.
Gravity, APIASTM D 287-9232-37
Hydrocarbon composition:
Aromatics, volume percentASTM D 1319-02a or D 5186-9910 minimum
Olefins and Saturates (paraffins and napththenes)ASTM D 1319-02aRemainder
Total Sulfur, weight percentASTM D 129-00 or D 2622-980.03-0.80
Viscosity at 38 °C, centistokesASTM D445-092.0-3.2.

1All ASTM standards are incorporated by reference in §94.5.

(2) Other diesel fuels may be used for testing provided:

(i) They are commercially available; and

(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in service; and

(iii) Use of a fuel listed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability; and

(iv) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications is provided prior to the start of testing.

(3) The specification of the fuel to be used under paragraphs (a)(1), and (a)(2) of this section shall be reported in the application for certification.

(4) Manufacturers may perform testing using the low-sulfur diesel test fuel or the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065.

(b) Other fuel types. For Category 1 and Category 2 engines that are designed to be capable of using a type of fuel (or mixed fuel) instead of or in addition to distillate diesel fuel (e.g., natural gas, methanol, or nondistillate diesel), and that are expected to use that type of fuel (or mixed fuel) in service:

(1) A commercially available fuel of that type shall be used for exhaust emission testing. The manufacturer shall propose for the Administrator's approval a set of test fuel specifications that take into account the engine design and the properties of commercially available fuels. The Administrator may require testing on each fuel if it is designed to operate on more than one fuel. These test fuel specifications shall be reported in the application for certification.

(2) [Reserved]

(c) Service accumulation fuel. Fuel used for service accumulation shall be representative of the typical fuel expected to be used by the engines in service.

(d) Correction for sulfur—(1) High sulfur fuel. (i) Particulate emission measurements from Category 1 or Category 2 engines without exhaust aftertreatment obtained using a diesel fuel containing more than 0.40 weight percent sulfur may be adjusted to a sulfur content of 0.40 weight percent.

(ii) Adjustments to the particulate measurement for using high sulfur fuel shall be made using the following equation:

PMadj=PM−[BSFC × 0.0917 × (FSF-0.0040)]

Where:

PMadj=adjusted measured PM level [g/kW-hr]

PM=measured weighted PM level [g/kW-hr]

BSFC=measured brake specific fuel consumption [g/kW-hr]

FSF=fuel sulfur weight fraction

(2) Low sulfur fuel. (i) Particulate emission measurements from Category 1 or Category 2 engines without exhaust aftertreatment obtained using diesel fuel containing less than 0.03 weight percent sulfur shall be adjusted to a sulfur content of 0.20 weight percent.

(ii) Adjustments to the particulate measurement for using ultra low-sulfur fuel shall be made using the following equation:

PMadj=PM+[BSFC × 0.0917 × (0.0020-FSF)]

Where:

PMadj=adjusted measured PM level [g/kW-hr]

PM=measured weighted PM level [g/kW-hr]

BSFC=measured brake specific fuel consumption [g/kW-hr]

FSF=fuel sulfur weight fraction

(e) Test fuel for Category 3 engines. For testing Tier 1 engines, use test fuels meeting the specifications listed in the Annex VI Technical Code (incorporated by reference in §94.5).

[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68345, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9784, Feb. 28, 2003; 73 FR 37196, June 30, 2008; 77 FR 2463, Jan. 18, 2012]

§94.109   Test procedures for Category 3 marine engines.

(a) Gaseous emissions shall be measured using the test cycles and procedures specified by Section 5 of the Annex VI Technical Code (incorporated by reference in §94.5), except as otherwise specified in this paragraph (a).

(1) The inlet air and exhaust restrictions shall be set at the average in-use levels.

(2) Measurements are valid only for sampling periods in which the temperature of the charge air entering the engine is within 3 °C of the temperature that would occur in-use under ambient conditions (temperature, pressure, and humidity) identical to the test conditions. You may measure emissions within larger discrepancies, but you may not use those measurements to demonstrate compliance.

(3) Engine coolant and engine oil temperatures shall be equivalent to the temperatures that would occur in-use under ambient conditions identical to the test conditions.

(4) Exhaust flow rates shall be calculated using measured fuel flow rates.

(5) Standards used for calibration shall be traceable to NIST standards. (Other national standards may be used if they have been shown to be equivalent to NIST standards.)

(6) Certification tests may be performed at any representative pressure and humidity levels. Certification tests may be performed at any ambient air temperature from 13 °C to 30 °C and any charge air cooling water temperature from 17 °C to 27 °C. These limits apply instead of the limits specified in section 5.2.1 of the Annex VI Technical Code. Correct emissions for test conditions using the corrections specified in section 5.12.3 of the Annex VI Technical Code.

(7) Test cycles shall be denormalized based on the maximum test speed described in §94.107.

(b) Analyzers meeting the specifications of either 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, or ISO 8178-1 (incorporated by reference in §94.5) shall be used to measure THC and CO.

(c) The Administrator may specify changes to the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section that are necessary to comply with the general provisions of §94.102.

[68 FR 9785, Feb. 28, 2003, as amended at 70 FR 40458, July 13, 2005]



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