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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 17, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 89—CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES


Subpart E—Exhaust Emission Test Procedures


Contents
§89.401   Scope; applicability.
§89.402   Definitions.
§89.403   Symbols/abbreviations.
§89.404   Test procedure overview.
§89.405   Recorded information.
§89.406   Pre-test procedures.
§89.407   Engine dynamometer test run.
§89.408   Post-test procedures.
§89.409   Data logging.
§89.410   Engine test cycle.
§89.411   Exhaust sample procedure—gaseous components.
§89.412   Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.
§89.413   Raw sampling procedures.
§89.414   Air flow measurement specifications.
§89.415   Fuel flow measurement specifications.
§89.416   Raw exhaust gas flow.
§89.417   Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.
§89.418   Raw emission sampling calculations.
§89.419   Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.
§89.420   Background sample.
§89.421   Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.
§89.422   Dilute sampling procedures—CVS calibration.
§89.423   [Reserved]
§89.424   Dilute emission sampling calculations.
§89.425   [Reserved]
Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 89—Figures
Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 89—Tables

§89.401   Scope; applicability.

(a) This subpart describes the procedures to follow in order to perform exhaust emission tests on new nonroad compression-ignition engines subject to the provisions of subpart B of this part.

(b) Exhaust gases, either raw or dilute, are sampled while the test engine is operated using the appropriate test cycle on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust gases receive specific component analysis determining concentration of pollutant, exhaust volume, the fuel flow (raw analysis), and the power output during each mode. Emissions are reported as grams per kilowatt hour (g/kW-hr).

(c) Requirements for emission test equipment and calibrating this equipment are found in subpart D of this part.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56995, 57015, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.402   Definitions.

The definitions in subpart A of this part apply to this subpart. For terms not defined in this part, the definitions in 40 CFR part 86, subparts A, D, I, and N, apply to this subpart.

[63 FR 57015, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.403   Symbols/abbreviations.

(a) The abbreviations in §86.094-3 or §89.3 of this chapter apply to this subpart.

(b) The abbreviations in Table 1 in appendix A to subpart D also apply to this subpart. Some abbreviations from §89.3 have been included for the convenience of the reader.

(c) The symbols in Table 2 in appendix A to subpart D apply to this subpart.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.404   Test procedure overview.

(a) The test consists of prescribed sequences of engine operating conditions to be conducted on an engine dynamometer. The exhaust gases, generated raw or dilute during engine operation, are sampled for specific component analysis through the analytical train. The test is applicable to engines equipped with catalytic or direct-flame afterburners, induction system modifications, or other systems, or to uncontrolled engines.

(b) The test is designed to determine the brake-specific emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. For more information on particulate matter sampling see §89.112(c). The test cycles consist of various steady-state operating modes that include different combinations of engine speeds and loads. These procedures require the determination of the concentration of each pollutant, exhaust volume, the fuel flow (raw analysis), and the power output during each mode. The measured values are weighted and used to calculate the grams of each pollutant emitted per kilowatt hour (g/kW-hr).

(c)(1) When an engine is tested for exhaust emissions, the complete engine shall be tested with all emission control devices installed and functioning.

(2) On air-cooled engines, the fan shall be installed.

(3) Additional accessories (for example, oil cooler, alternators, or air compressors) may be installed but such accessory loading will be considered parasitic in nature and observed power shall be used in the emission calculation.

(d) All emission control systems installed on or incorporated in the application must be functioning during all procedures in this subpart. In cases of component malfunction or failure, maintenance to correct component failure or malfunction must be authorized in accordance with §86.094-25 of this chapter.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56995, 57015, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.405   Recorded information.

(a) The information described in this section must be recorded, where applicable, for each test.

(b) Engine description and specification. A copy of the information specified in this paragraph must accompany each engine sent to the Administrator for compliance testing. The manufacturer need not record the information specified in this paragraph for each test if the information, with the exception of paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(9) of this section, is included in the manufacturer's application for certification.

(1) Engine-system combination.

(2) Engine identification numbers.

(3) Number of hours of operation accumulated on engine.

(4) Rated maximum horsepower and torque.

(5) Maximum horsepower and torque speeds.

(6) Engine displacement.

(7) Governed speed.

(8) Idle rpm.

(9) Fuel consumption at maximum power and torque.

(10) Maximum air flow.

(11) Air inlet restriction.

(12) Exhaust pipe diameter(s).

(13) Maximum exhaust system backpressure.

(c) Test data; general. (1) Engine-system combination.

(2) Engine identification number.

(3) Instrument operator.

(4) Engine operator.

(5) Number of hours of operation accumulated on the engine prior to beginning the warm-up portion of the test.

(6) Fuel identification.

(7) Date of most recent analytical assembly calibration.

(8) All pertinent instrument information such as tuning, gain, serial numbers, detector number, and calibration curve numbers. As long as this information is available for inspection by the Administrator, it may be summarized by system number or analyzer identification numbers.

(d) Test data; pre-test. (1) Date and time of day.

(2) Test number.

(3) Intermediate speed and rated speed as defined in §89.2 and maximum observed torque for these speeds.

(4) Recorder chart or equivalent. Identify the zero traces for each range used, and span traces for each range used.

(5) Air temperature after and pressure drop across the charge air cooler (if applicable) at maximum observed torque and rated speed.

(e) Test data; modal. (1) Recorder chart or equivalent. Identify for each test mode the emission concentration traces and the associated analyzer range(s). Identify the start and finish of each test.

(2) Observed engine torque.

(3) Observed engine rpm.

(4) Record engine torque and engine rpm continuously during each mode with a chart recorder or equivalent recording device.

(5) Intake air flow (for raw mass flow sampling method only) and depression for each mode.

(6) Engine intake air temperature at the engine intake or turbocharger inlet for each mode.

(7) Mass fuel flow (for raw sampling) for each mode.

(8) Engine intake humidity.

(9) Coolant temperature outlet.

(10) Engine fuel inlet temperature at the pump inlet.

(f) Test data; post-test. (1) Recorder chart or equivalent. Identify the zero traces for each range used and the span traces for each range used. Identify hangup check, if performed.

(2) Total number of hours of operation accumulated on the engine.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56995, 57015, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.406   Pre-test procedures.

(a) Allow a minimum of 30 minutes warmup in the standby or operating mode prior to spanning the analyzers.

(b) Replace or clean the filter elements and then vacuum leak check the system per §89.316(a). Allow the heated sample line, filters, and pumps to reach operating temperature.

(c) Perform the following system checks:

(1) Check the sample-line temperatures (see §89.309(a)(4)(ii) and (a)(5)(i)(A)).

(2) Check that the system response time has been accounted for prior to sample collection data recording.

(3) A hang-up check is permitted, but is optional.

(d) Check analyzer zero and span at a minimum before and after each test. Further, check analyzer zero and span any time a range change is made or at the maximum demonstrated time span for stability for each analyzer used.

(e) Check system flow rates and pressures.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56995, 57015, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.407   Engine dynamometer test run.

(a) Measure and record the temperature of the air supplied to the engine, the fuel temperature, the intake air humidity, and the observed barometric pressure during the sampling for each mode. The fuel temperature shall be less than or equal to 43C during the sampling for each mode.

(b) The governor and fuel system shall have been adjusted to provide engine performance at the levels reported in the application for certification required under §89.115.

(c) The following steps are taken for each test:

(1) Install instrumentation and sample probes as required.

(2) Perform the pre-test procedure as specified in §89.406.

(3) Read and record the general test data as specified in §89.405(c).

(4) Start cooling system.

(5) Precondition (warm up) the engine in the following manner:

(i) For variable-speed engines:

(A) Operate the engine at idle for 2 to 3 minutes;

(B) Operate the engine at approximately 50 percent power at the peak torque speed for 5 to 7 minutes;

(C) Operate the engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower for 25 to 30 minutes;

(ii) For constant-speed engines:

(A) Operate the engine at minimum load for 2 to 3 minutes;

(B) Operate the engine at 50 percent load for 5 to 7 minutes;

(C) Operate the engine at maximum load for 25 to 30 minutes;

(iii) Optional. It is permitted to precondition the engine at rated speed and maximum horsepower until the oil and water temperatures are stabilized. The temperatures are defined as stabilized if they are maintained within 2 percent of point on an absolute basis for 2 minutes. The engine must be operated a minimum of 10 minutes for this option. This optional procedure may be substituted for the procedure in paragraph (c)(5)(i)or (c)(5)(ii) of this section;

(iv) Optional. If the engine has been operating on service accumulation for a minimum of 40 minutes, the service accumulation may be substituted for the procedure in paragraphs (c)(5)(i) through (iii) of this section.

(6) Read and record all pre-test data specified in §89.405(d).

(7) Start the test cycle (see §89.410) within 20 minutes of the end of the warmup. (See paragraph (c)(13) of this section.) A mode begins when the speed and load requirements are stabilized to within the requirements of §89.410(b). A mode ends when valid emission sampling for that mode ends. For a mode to be valid, the speed and load requirements must be maintained continuously during the mode. Sampling in the mode may be repeated until a valid sample is obtained as long the speed and torque requirements are met.

(8) Calculate the torque for any mode with operation at rated speed.

(9) During the first mode with intermediate speed operation, if applicable, calculate the torque corresponding to 75 and 50 percent of the maximum observed torque for the intermediate speed.

(10) Record all modal data specified in §89.405(e) during a minimum of the last 60 seconds of each mode.

(11) Record the analyzer(s) response to the exhaust gas during the a minimum of the last 60 seconds of each mode.

(12) Test modes may be repeated, as long as the engine is preconditioned by running the previous mode. In the case of the first mode of any cycle, precondition according to paragraph (c)(5) of this section.

(13) If a delay of more than 20 minutes, but less than 4 hours, occurs between the end of one mode and the beginning of another mode, precondition the engine by running the previous mode. If the delay exceeds 4 hours, the test shall include preconditioning (begin at paragraph (c)(2) of this section).

(14) The speed and load points for each mode are listed in Tables 1 through 4 of Appendix B of this subpart. The engine speed and load shall be maintained as specified in §89.410(b).

(15) If at any time during a test mode, the test equipment malfunctions or the specifications in paragraph (c)(14) of this section are not met, the test mode is void and may be aborted. The test mode may be restarted by preconditioning with the previous mode.

(16) Fuel flow and air flow during the idle load condition may be determined just prior to or immediately following the dynamometer sequence, if longer times are required for accurate measurements.

(d) Exhaust gas measurements. (1) Measure HC, CO, CO2, and NOX concentrations in the exhaust sample. Use the same units and modal calculations as for your other results to report a single weighted value for CO2; round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kW-hr.

(2) Each analyzer range that may be used during a test mode must have the zero and span responses recorded prior to the execution of the test. Only the zero and span for the range(s) used to measure the emissions during the test are required to be recorded after the completion of the test.

(3) It is permissible to change filter elements between test modes.

(4) A leak check is permitted between test segments.

(5) A hangup check is permitted between test segments.

(6) If, during the emission measurement portion of a test segment, the value of the gauges downstream of the NDIR analyzer(s) G3 or G4 (see Figure 1 in appendix B to subpart D) differs by more than ±0.5 kPa from the pretest value, the test segment is void.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57015, Oct. 23, 1998; 74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009]

§89.408   Post-test procedures.

(a) A hangup check is recommended at the completion of the last test mode using the following procedure:

(1) Within 30 seconds introduce a zero-grade gas or room air into the sample probe or valve V2 (see Figure 1 in appendix B to subpart D) to check the “hangup zero” response. Simultaneously start a time measurement.

(2) Select the lowest HC range used during the test.

(3) Within four minutes of beginning the time measurement in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the difference between the span-zero response and the hangup zero response shall not be greater than 5.0 percent of full scale or 10 ppmC whichever is greater.

(b) Begin the analyzer span checks within 6 minutes after the completion of the last mode in the test. Record for each analyzer the zero and span response

(c) If during the test, the filter element(s) were replaced or cleaned, as of §89.316(a), the test is void.

(d) Record the post-test data specified in §89.405(f).

(e) For a valid test, the zero and span checks performed before and after each test for each analyzer must meet the following requirements:

(1) The span drift (defined as the change in the difference between the zero response and the span response) must not exceed 3 percent of full-scale chart deflection for each range used.

(2) The zero response drift must not exceed 3 percent of full-scale chart deflection.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57016, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.409   Data logging.

(a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart.

(b) Determine from the data collection records the analyzer responses corresponding to the end of each mode.

(c) Record data at a minimum of once every 5 seconds.

(d) Determine the final value for CO2, CO, HC, and NOX concentrations by averaging the concentration of each point taken during the sample period for each mode.

(e) For purposes of this section, calibration data includes calibration curves, linearity curves, span-gas responses, and zero-gas responses.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.410   Engine test cycle.

(a) Emissions shall be measured using one of the test cycles specified in tables 1 through 4 of appendix B of this subpart, subject to the provisions of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section. These cycles shall be used to test engines on a dynamometer.

(1) The 8-mode test cycle described in table 1 of appendix B of this subpart shall be used for all engines, except constant speed engines, engines rated under 19 kW, and propulsion marine diesel engines.

(2) The 5-mode test cycle described in table 2 of appendix B of this subpart shall be used for constant-speed engines as defined in §89.2. Any engine certified under this test cycle must meet the labeling requirements of §89.110(b)(11).

(3) The 6-mode test cycle described in table 3 of appendix B of this subpart shall be used for variable speed engines rated under 19 kW.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section, the 4-mode test cycle described in table 4 of appendix B of this subpart shall be used for propulsion marine diesel engines.

(5) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(4) of this section:

(i) Manufacturers may use the 8-mode test cycle described in table 1 of appendix B of this subpart for:

(A) Constant speed engines, or variable speed engines rated under 19 kW; or

(B) Propulsion marine diesel engines, provided the propulsion marine diesel engines are certified in an engine family that includes primarily non-marine diesel engines, and the manufacturer obtains advance approval from the Administrator.

(ii) The Administrator may use the 8-mode test cycle specified in table 1 of appendix B of this subpart during testing of any engine which was certified based on emission data collected from that test cycle.

(b) During each non-idle mode, hold the specified load to within 2 percent of the engine maximum value and speed to within ±2 percent of point. During each idle mode, speed must be held within the manufacturer's specifications for the engine, and the throttle must be in the fully closed position and torque must not exceed 5 percent of the peak torque value of mode 5.

(c) For any mode except those involving either idle or full-load operation, if the operating conditions specified in paragraph (b) of this section cannot be maintained, the Administrator may authorize deviations from the specified load conditions. Such deviations shall not exceed 10 percent of the maximum torque at the test speed. The minimum deviations above and below the specified load necessary for stable operation shall be determined by the manufacturer and approved by the Administrator prior to the test run.

(d) Power generated during the idle mode may not be included in the calculation of emission results.

(e) Manufacturers may optionally use the ramped-modal duty cycles corresponding to the discrete-mode duty cycles specified in this section, as described in 40 CFR 1039.505.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57016, Oct. 23, 1998; 70 FR 40445, July 13, 2005]

§89.411   Exhaust sample procedure—gaseous components.

(a) Automatic data collection equipment requirements. The analyzer response may be read by automatic data collection (ADC) equipment such as computers, data loggers, and so forth. If ADC equipment is used, the following is required:

(1) For bag sample analysis, the analyzer response must be stable at greater than 99 percent of the final reading for the dilute exhaust sample bag. A single value representing the average chart deflection over a 10-second stabilized period shall be stored.

(2) For continuous analysis systems, a single value representing the average integrated concentration over a cycle shall be stored.

(3) The chart deflections or average integrated concentrations required in paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this section may be stored on long-term computer storage devices such as computer tapes, storage discs, punch cards, and so forth, or they may be printed in a listing for storage. In either case a chart recorder is not required and records from a chart recorder, if they exist, need not be stored.

(4) If ADC equipment is used to interpret analyzer values, the ADC equipment is subject to the calibration specifications of the analyzer as if the ADC equipment is part of analyzer system.

(b) Data records from any one or a combination of analyzers may be stored as chart recorder records.

(c) Bag sample analysis. For bag sample analysis perform the following sequence:

(1) Warm up and stabilize the analyzers; clean and/or replace filter elements, conditioning columns (if used), and so forth, as necessary.

(2) Obtain a stable zero reading.

(3) Zero and span the analyzers with zero and span gases. The span gases must have concentrations between 75 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection. The flow rates and system pressures during spanning shall be approximately the same as those encountered during sampling. A sample bag may be used to identify the required analyzer range.

(4) Recheck zero response. If this zero response differs from the zero response recorded in paragraph (c)(3) of this section by more than 1 percent of full scale, then paragraphs (c)(2), (c)(3), and (c)(4) of this section must be repeated.

(5) If a chart recorder is used, identify and record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(6) If ADC equipment is used, electronically record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(7) Measure HC, CO, CO2, and NOX background concentrations in the sample bag(s) with approximately the same flow rates and pressures used in paragraph (c)(3) of this section. (Constituents measured continuously do not require bag analysis.)

(8) A post-analysis zero and span check of each range must be performed and the values recorded. The number of events that may occur between the pre- and post-analysis checks is not specified. However, the difference between pre-analysis zero and span values (recorded in paragraph (c)(5) or (c)(6) of this section) versus those recorded for the post-analysis check may not exceed the zero drift limit or the span drift limit of 2 percent of full-scale chart deflection for any range used. Otherwise the test is void.

(d) Continuous sample analysis. For continuous sample analysis perform the following sequence:

(1) Warm up and stabilize the analyzers; clean and/or replace filter elements, conditioning columns (if used), and so forth, as necessary.

(2) Leak check portions of the sampling system that operate at negative gauge pressures when sampling, and allow heated sample lines, filters, pumps, and so forth to stabilize at operating temperature.

(3) Optional: Perform a hangup check for the HFID sampling system:

(i) Zero the analyzer using zero air introduced at the analyzer port.

(ii) Flow zero air through the overflow sampling system. Check the analyzer response.

(iii) If the overflow zero response exceeds the analyzer zero response by 2 percent or more of the HFID full-scale deflection, hangup is indicated and corrective action must be taken.

(iv) The complete system hangup check specified in paragraph (e) of this section is recommended as a periodic check.

(4) Obtain a stable zero reading.

(5) Zero and span each range to be used on each analyzer operated prior to the beginning of the test cycle. The span gases shall have a concentration between 75 and 100 percent of full-scale chart deflection. The flow rates and system pressures shall be approximately the same as those encountered during sampling. The HFID analyzer shall be zeroed and spanned either through the overflow sampling system or through the analyzer port.

(6) Re-check zero response. If this zero response differs from the zero response recorded in paragraph (d)(5) of this section by more than 1 percent of full scale, then paragraphs (d)(4), (d)(5), and (d)(6) of this section must be repeated.

(7) If a chart recorder is used, identify and record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(8) If ADC equipment is used, electronically record the most recent zero and span response as the pre-analysis values.

(9) Collect background HC, CO, CO2, and NOX in a sample bag (for dilute exhaust sampling only, see §89.420).

(10) Perform a post-analysis zero and span check for each range used at the conditions specified in paragraph (d)(5) of this section. Record these responses as the post-analysis values.

(11) Neither the zero drift nor the span drift between the pre-analysis and post-analysis checks on any range used may exceed 3 percent for HC, or 2 percent for NOX. CO, and CO2, of full scale chart deflection, or the test is void. (If the HC drift is greater than 3 percent of full-scale chart deflection, hydrocarbon hangup is likely.)

(12) Determine background levels of NOX. CO, or CO2 (for dilute exhaust sampling only) by the bag sample technique outlined in paragraph (c) of this section.

(e) Hydrocarbon hangup. If HC hangup is indicated, the following sequence may be performed:

(1) Fill a clean sample bag with background air.

(2) Zero and span the HFID at the analyzer ports.

(3) Analyze the background air sample bag through the analyzer ports.

(4) Analyze the background air through the entire sample probe system.

(5) If the difference between the readings obtained greater than or equal to 2 percent of full scale deflection, clean the sample probe and the sample line.

(6) Reassemble the sample system, heat to specified temperature, and repeat the procedure in paragraphs (e)(1) through (e)(6) of this section.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57016, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.412   Raw gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

(a) Schematic drawing. An example of a sampling and analytical system which may be used for testing under this subpart is shown in Figure 1 in appendix B to subpart D. All components or parts of components that are wetted by the sample or corrosive calibration gases shall be either chemically cleaned stainless steel or inert material, for example, polytetrafluoroethylene resin. The use of “gauge savers” or “protectors” with nonreactive diaphragms to reduce dead volumes is permitted.

(b) Sample probe. (1) The sample probe shall be a straight, closed-end, stainless steel, multi-hole probe. The inside diameter shall not be greater than the inside diameter of the sample line plus 0.03 cm. The wall thickness of the probe shall not be greater than 0.10 cm. The fitting that attaches the probe to the exhaust pipe shall be as small as practical in order to minimize heat loss from the probe.

(2) The probe shall have a minimum of three holes. The spacing of the radial planes for each hole in the probe must be such that they cover approximately equal cross-sectional areas of the exhaust duct. See Figure 1 in appendix A to this subpart. The angular spacing of the holes must be approximately equal. The angular spacing of any two holes in one plane may not be 180° ±20° (that is, section view C-C of Figure 1 in appendix A to this subpart). The holes should be sized such that each has approximately the same flow. If only three holes are used, they may not all be in the same radial plane.

(3) The probe shall extend radially across the exhaust duct. The probe must pass through the approximate center and must extend across at least 80 percent of the diameter of the duct.

(c) Sample transfer line. (1) The maximum inside diameter of the sample line shall not exceed 1.32 cm.

(2) If valve V2 is used, the sample probe must connect directly to valve V2. The location of optional valve V2 may not be greater than 1.22 m from the exhaust duct.

(3) The location of optional valve V16 may not be greater than 61 cm from the sample pump.

(d) Venting. All vents, including analyzer vents, bypass flow, and pressure relief vents of regulators, should be vented in such a manner to avoid endangering personnel in the immediate area.

(e) Any variation from the specifications in this subpart including performance specifications and emission detection methods may be used only with prior approval by the Administrator.

(f) Additional components, such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, switches, and so forth, may be employed to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems.

(g) The following requirements must be incorporated in each system used for raw testing under this subpart.

(1) [Reserved]

(2) The sample transport system from the engine exhaust pipe to the HC analyzer and the NOX analyzer must be heated as indicated in Figure 1 in appendix B of subpart D.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57016, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.413   Raw sampling procedures.

Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous emissions.

(a) The gaseous emission sampling probe must be installed at least 0.5 m or 3 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system.

(b) In the case of a multi-cylinder engine with a branched exhaust manifold, the inlet of the probe shall be located sufficiently far downstream so as to ensure that the sample is representative of the average exhaust emissions from all cylinders.

(c) In multi-cylinder engines having distinct groups of manifolds, such as in a “Vee” engine configuration, it is permissible to:

(1) Sample after all exhaust pipes have been connected together into a single exhaust pipe.

(2) For each mode, sample from each exhaust pipe and average the gaseous concentrations to determine a value for each mode.

(3) Sample from all exhaust pipes simultaneously with the sample lines connected to a common manifold prior to the analyzer. It must be demonstrated that the flow rate through each individual sample line is ±4 percent of the average flow rate through all the sample lines.

(4) Use another method, if it has been approved in advance by the Administrator.

(d) All gaseous heated sampling lines shall be fitted with a heated filter to extract solid particles from the flow of gas required for analysis. The sample line for CO and CO2 analysis may be heated or unheated.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57016, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.414   Air flow measurement specifications.

(a) The air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the engine operating range during the test. Overall measurement accuracy must be ±2 percent of the maximum engine value for all modes. The Administrator must be advised of the method used prior to testing.

(b) When an engine system incorporates devices that affect the air flow measurement (such as air bleeds) that result in understated exhaust emission results, corrections to the exhaust emission results shall be made to account for such effects.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57017, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.415   Fuel flow measurement specifications.

The fuel flow rate measurement instrument must have a minimum accuracy of 2 percent of the engine maximum fuel flow rate. The controlling parameters are the elapsed time measurement of the event and the weight or volume measurement.

[63 FR 57017, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.416   Raw exhaust gas flow.

The exhaust gas flow shall be determined by one of the methods described in this section and conform to the tolerances of table 3 in appendix A to subpart D:

(a) Measurement of the air flow and the fuel flow by suitable metering systems (for details see SAE J244. This procedure has been incorporated by reference. See §89.6.) and calculation of the exhaust gas flow as follows:

GEXHW = GAIRW + GFUEL      (for wet exhaust mass)

or

VEXHD = VAIRD + (−.767) × GFUEL      (for dry exhaust volume)

or

VEXHW = VAIRW + .749 × GFUEL      (for wet exhaust volume)

(b) Exhaust mass calculation from fuel consumption (see §89.415) and exhaust gas concentrations using the method found in §89.418.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.417   Data evaluation for gaseous emissions.

For the evaluation of the gaseous emission recording, the last 60 seconds of each mode are recorded, and the average values for HC, CO, CO2, and NOX during each mode are determined from the average concentration readings determined from the corresponding calibration data.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.418   Raw emission sampling calculations.

(a) The final test results shall be derived through the steps described in this section.

(b) The exhaust gas flow rate GEXHW and VEXHW shall be determined for each mode.

(1) For measurements using the mass flow method, see §89.416(a).

(2) For measurements using the fuel consumption and exhaust gas concentrations method, use the following equations:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.004.gif

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Where:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.005.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.006.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.007.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.008.gif

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K = 3.5

(3) Humidity values may be calculated from either one of the following equations:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.009.gif

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or

eCFR graphic er23oc98.010.gif

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(c) When applying GEXHW, the measured “dry” concentration shall be corrected to a wet basis, if not already measured on a wet basis. This section is applicable only for measurements made on raw exhaust gas. Correction to a wet basis shall be according to the following formula:

ConcWET = Kw × ConcDRY

Where:

KW is determined according to the equations in paragraph (c)(1) or (c)(2) of this section.

(1) For measurements using the mass flow method (see §89.416(a)):

eCFR graphic er23oc98.011.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.012.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.013.gif

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α = H/C mole ratio of the fuel.

(2) For measurements using the fuel consumption and exhaust gas concentrations method (see §89.416(b)):

eCFR graphic er23oc98.014.gif

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Where:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.015.gif

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(d) As the NOX emission depends on intake air conditions, the NOX concentration shall be corrected for intake air temperature and humidity with the factor Kh given in the following formula. For engines operating on alternative combustion cycles, other correction formulas may be used if they can be justified or validated. The formula follows:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.016.gif

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(e) The pollutant mass flow for each mode shall be calculated as follows:

Gas mass = u × Gas conc. × GEXHW

Gas mass = v × Gas conc. × VEXHD

Gas mass = w × Gas conc. × VEXHW

The coefficients u (wet), v (dry), and w (wet) are to be used according to the following table:

Gasuvwconc.
NOX0.0015870.002050.00205ppm.
CO0.0009660.001250.00125ppm.
HC0.000478   0.000618ppm.
CO215.1919.6419.64percent.

Note: The given coefficients u, v, and w are calculated for 273.15 °K (0 °C) and 101.3 kPa. In cases where the reference conditions vary from those stated, an error may occur in the calculations.

(f) The following equations may be used to calculate the coefficients u, v, and w in paragraph (e) of this section for other conditions of temperature and pressure:

(1) For the calculation of u, v, and w for NOX (as NO2), CO, HC (in paragraph (e) of this section as CH1.80), CO2, and O2:

Where:

w = 4.4615.10−5× M if conc. in ppm

w = 4.4615.10−1× M if conc. in percent

v = w

u = w/ρAir

M = Molecular weight

ρAir = Density of dry air at 273.15 °K (0 °C), 101.3 kPa = 1.293 kg/m3

(2) For real gases at 273.15 °K (0 °C) and 101.3 kPa: For the calculation of u, v, and w

w = gas × 10−6 if conc. in ppm

v = w

u = w/pAir

pGas = Density of measured gas at 0 °C, 101.3 kPas in g/m3

(3) General formulas for the calculation of concentrations at temperature (designated as T) and pressure (designated as p):

—for ideal gases

eCFR graphic er17jn94.017.gif

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—for real gases

eCFR graphic er17jn94.018.gif

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with:

1% = 104 ppm

M = Molecular weight in g/Mo1

Mv = Molecular Volume = 22.414 × 10−3 m3/Mol for ideal gases

T = reference temperature 273.15 K

p = reference pressure 101.3 kPa

T = Temperature in °C

p = pressure in kPa

pGas = Density of the measured gas at 0 °C, 101.3 kPa

Conc. = Gas concentration

(g)(1) The emission shall be calculated for all individual components in the following way where power at idle is equal to zero:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.017.gif

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(2) The weighting factors and the number of modes (n) used in the calculation in paragraph (g)(1) of this section are according to §89.410.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57017, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.419   Dilute gaseous exhaust sampling and analytical system description.

(a) General. The exhaust gas sampling system described in this section is designed to measure the true mass of gaseous emissions in the exhaust of petroleum-fueled nonroad compression-ignition engines. This system utilizes the CVS concept (described in 40 CFR part 1065, subparts A and B) of measuring mass emissions of HC, CO, and CO2. A continuously integrated system is required for HC and NOX measurement and is allowed for all CO and CO2 measurements. The mass of gaseous emissions is determined from the sample concentration and total flow over the test period. As an option, the measurement of total fuel mass consumed over a cycle may be substituted for the exhaust measurement of CO2. General requirements are as follows:

(1) This sampling system requires the use of a PDP-CVS and a heat exchanger or a CFV-CVS with either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation. Figure 2 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the PDP-CVS system. Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the CFV-CVS system.

(2) The HC analytical system for petroleum-fueled compression-ignition engines requires a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) and heated sample system (191 ±11 °C).

(i) The HFID sample must be taken directly from the diluted exhaust stream through a heated probe and integrated continuously over the test cycle. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, the HFID must be used with a constant flow system to ensure a representative sample.

(ii) The heated probe shall be located in the primary dilution tunnel and far enough downstream of the mixing chamber to ensure a uniform sample distribution across the CVS duct at the point of sampling.

(3) The CO and CO2 analytical system requires:

(i) Bag sampling (see 40 CFR part 1065) and analytical capabilities (see 40 CFR part 1065), as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart; or

(ii) Continuously integrated measurement of diluted CO and CO2 meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(4) The NOX analytical system requires a continuously integrated measurement of diluted NOX meeting the minimum requirements and technical specifications contained in paragraph (b)(4) of this section. Unless compensation for varying flow is made, a constant flow system must be used to ensure a representative sample.

(5) Since various configurations can produce equivalent results, exact conformance with these drawings is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps, and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components, such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy on some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(6) Other sampling and/or analytical systems may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b) Component description. The components necessary for exhaust sampling shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Exhaust dilution system. The PDP-CVS shall conform to all of the requirements listed for the exhaust gas PDP-CVS in 40 CFR part 1065. The CFV-CVS shall conform to all the requirements listed for the exhaust gas CFV-CVS in 40 CFR part 1065. In addition, the CVS must conform to the following requirements:

(i) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream at or below the temperature required for the measurement of hydrocarbon emissions noted in the following paragraph and to prevent condensation of water at any point in the dilution tunnel.

(ii) The flow capacity of the CVS must be sufficient to maintain the diluted exhaust stream in the primary dilution tunnel at a temperature of 191 °C or less at the sampling zone for hydrocarbon measurement and as required to prevent condensation at any point in the dilution tunnel. Gaseous emission samples may be taken directly from this sampling point.

(iii) For the CFV-CVS, either a heat exchanger or electronic flow compensation is required (see Figure 3 in appendix A to this subpart).

(iv) For the CFV-CVS when a heat exchanger is used, the gas mixture temperature, measured at a point immediately ahead of the critical flow venturi, shall be within ±11 °C) of the average operating temperature observed during the test with the simultaneous requirement that condensation does not occur. The temperature measuring system (sensors and readout) shall have an accuracy and precision of ±2 °C. For systems utilizing a flow compensator to maintain proportional flow, the requirement for maintaining constant temperature is not necessary.

(v) The primary dilution air shall have a temperature of 25 °C ±5 °C.

(2) Continuous HC measurement system. (i) The continuous HC sample system (as shown in Figure 2 or 3 in appendix A to this subpart) uses an “overflow” zero and span system. In this type of system, excess zero or span gas spills out of the probe when zero and span checks of the analyzer are made. The “overflow” system may also be used to calibrate the HC analyzer according to 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F, although this is not required.

(ii) No other analyzers may draw a sample from the continuous HC sample probe, line or system, unless a common sample pump is used for all analyzers and the sample line system design reflects good engineering practice.

(iii) The overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow rate.

(iv) The overflow gases shall enter the heated sample line as close as practical to the outside surface of the CVS duct or dilution tunnel.

(v) The continuous HC sampling system shall consist of a probe (which must raise the sample to the specified temperature) and, where used, a sample transfer system (which must maintain the specified temperature). The continuous hydrocarbon sampling system (exclusive of the probe) shall:

(A) Maintain a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C as measured at every separately controlled heated component (that is, filters, heated line sections), using permanent thermocouples located at each of the separate components.

(B) Have a wall temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C over its entire length. The temperature of the system shall be demonstrated by profiling the thermal characteristics of the system where possible at initial installation and after any major maintenance performed on the system. The profiling shall be accomplished using the insertion thermocouple probing technique. The system temperature will be monitored continuously during testing at the locations and temperature described in 40 CFR 1065.145.

(C) Maintain a gas temperature of 191 °C ±11 °C immediately before the heated filter and HFID. These gas temperatures will be determined by a temperature sensor located immediately upstream of each component.

(vi) The continuous hydrocarbon sampling probe shall:

(A) Be defined as the first 25 cm to 76 cm of the continuous hydrocarbon sampling system.

(B) Have a 0.48 cm minimum inside diameter.

(C) Be installed in the primary dilution tunnel at a point where the dilution air and exhaust are well mixed (that is, approximately 10 tunnel diameters downstream of the point where the exhaust enters the dilution tunnel).

(D) Be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influence of any wakes or eddies.

(E) Increase the gas stream temperature to 191 °C ±11 °C at the exit of the probe. The ability of the probe to accomplish this shall be demonstrated using the insertion thermocouple technique at initial installation and after any major maintenance. Compliance with the temperature specification shall be demonstrated by continuously recording during each test the temperature of either the gas stream or the wall of the sample probe at its terminus.

(vii) The response time of the continuous measurement system shall be no greater than:

(A) 1.5 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the port entrance to the analyzer to within 90 percent of the step change.

(B) 20 seconds from an instantaneous step change at the entrance to the sample probe or overflow span gas port to within 90 percent of the step change. Analysis system response time shall be coordinated with CVS flow fluctuations and sampling time/test cycle offsets if necessary.

(C) For the purpose of verification of response times, the step change shall be at least 60 percent of full-scale chart deflection.

(3) Primary dilution tunnel. (i) The primary dilution tunnel shall be:

(A) Small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow (Reynolds Number greater than 4000) and of sufficient length to cause complete mixing of the exhaust and dilution air;

(B) At least 46 cm in diameter; (engines below 110 kW may use a dilution tunnel that is 20 cm in diameter or larger)

(C) Constructed of electrically conductive material which does not react with the exhaust components; and

(D) Electrically grounded.

(ii) The temperature of the diluted exhaust stream inside of the primary dilution tunnel shall be sufficient to prevent water condensation.

(iii) The engine exhaust shall be directed downstream at the point where it is introduced into the primary dilution tunnel.

(4) Continuously integrated NOX. CO, and CO2 measurement systems. (i) The sample probe shall:

(A) Be in the same plane as the continuous HC probe, but shall be sufficiently distant (radially) from other probes and the tunnel wall so as to be free from the influences of any wakes or eddies.

(B) Heated and insulated over the entire length, to prevent water condensation, to a minimum temperature of 55 °C. Sample gas temperature immediately before the first filter in the system shall be at least 55 °C.

(ii) The continuous NOX, CO, or CO2 sampling and analysis system shall conform to the specifications of 40 CFR 1065.145 with the following exceptions and revisions:

(A) The system components required to be heated by 40 CFR 1065.145 need only be heated to prevent water condensation, the minimum component temperature shall be 55 °C.

(B) The system response shall meet the specifications in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C.

(C) Alternative NOX measurement techniques outlined in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D, are not permitted for NOX measurement in this subpart.

(D) All analytical gases must conform to the specifications of §89.312.

(E) Any range on a linear analyzer below 155 ppm must have and use a calibration curve conforming to §89.310.

(iii) The chart deflections or voltage output of analyzers with non-linear calibration curves shall be converted to concentration values by the calibration curve(s) specified in §89.313 before flow correction (if used) and subsequent integration takes place.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998, as amended at 70 FR 40445, July 13, 2005]

§89.420   Background sample.

(a) Background samples are produced by continuously drawing a sample of dilution air during the exhaust collection phase of each test cycle mode.

(1) Individual background samples may be produced and analyzed for each mode. Hence, a unique background value will be used for the emission calculations for each mode.

(2) Alternatively, a single background sample may be produced by drawing a sample during the collection phase of each of the test cycle modes. Hence, a single cumulative background value will be used for the emission calculations for each mode.

(b) For analysis of the individual sample described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section, a single value representing the average chart deflection over a 10-second stabilized period is stored. All readings taken during the 10-second interval must be stable at the final value to within ±1 percent of full scale.

(c) Measure HC, CO, CO2, and NOX exhaust and background concentrations in the sample bag(s) with approximately the same flow rates and pressures used during calibration.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57018, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.421   Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS bag sample.

(a) Schematic drawings. Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart is a schematic drawing of the exhaust gas analytical system used for analyzing CVS bag samples from compression- ignition engines. Since various configurations can produce accurate results, exact conformance with the drawing is not required. Additional components such as instruments, valves, solenoids, pumps and switches may be used to provide additional information and coordinate the functions of the component systems. Other components such as snubbers, which are not needed to maintain accuracy in some systems, may be excluded if their exclusion is based upon good engineering judgment.

(b) Major component description. The analytical system, Figure 4 in appendix A to this subpart, consists of a flame ionization detector (FID) (heated for petroleum-fueled compression-ignition engines to 191 °C ±6 °C) for the measurement of hydrocarbons, nondispersive infrared analyzers (NDIR) for the measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or HCLD) for the measurement of oxides of nitrogen. The exhaust gas analytical system shall conform to the following requirements:

(1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric oxide before analysis. Other types of analyzers may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(2) If CO instruments are used which are essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference, the use of the conditioning column may be deleted. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.)

(3) A CO instrument will be considered to be essentially free of CO2 and water vapor interference if its response to a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2, which has been bubbled through water at room temperature, produces an equivalent CO response, as measured on the most sensitive CO range, which is less than 1 percent of full scale CO concentration on ranges above 300 ppm full scale or less than 3 ppm on ranges below 300 ppm full scale. (See 40 CFR part 1065, subpart D.)

(c) Alternate analytical systems. Alternate analysis systems meeting the specifications of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart A, may be used for the testing required under this subpart. Heated analyzers may be used in their heated configuration.

(d) Other analyzers and equipment. Other types of analyzers and equipment may be used if shown to yield equivalent results and if approved in advance by the Administrator.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated at 63 FR 56996, Oct. 23, 1998, as amended at 70 FR 40446, July 13, 2005]

§89.422   Dilute sampling procedures—CVS calibration.

(a) The CVS is calibrated using an accurate flowmeter and restrictor valve.

(1) The flowmeter calibration must be traceable to NIST measurements, and will serve as the reference value (NIST “true” value) for the CVS calibration. (Note: In no case should an upstream screen or other restriction which can affect the flow be used ahead of the flowmeter unless calibrated throughout the flow range with such a device.)

(2) The CVS calibration procedures are designed for use of a “metering venturi” type flowmeter. Large radius or ASME flow nozzles are considered equivalent if traceable to NIST measurements. Other measurement systems may be used if shown to be equivalent under the test conditions in this section and traceable to NIST measurements.

(3) Measurements of the various flowmeter parameters are recorded and related to flow through the CVS.

(4) Procedures used by EPA for both PDP-CVS and CFV-CVS are outlined below. Other procedures yielding equivalent results may be used if approved in advance by the Administrator.

(b) After the calibration curve has been obtained, verification of the entire system may be performed by injecting a known mass of gas into the system and comparing the mass indicated by the system to the true mass injected. An indicated error does not necessarily mean that the calibration is wrong, since other factors can influence the accuracy of the system (for example, analyzer calibration, leaks, or HC hangup). A verification procedure is found in paragraph (e) of this section.

(c) PDP-CVS calibration. (1) The following calibration procedure outlines the equipment, the test configuration, and the various parameters which must be measured to establish the flow rate of the PDP-CVS pump.

(i) All the parameters related to the pump are simultaneously measured with the parameters related to a flowmeter which is connected in series with the pump.

(ii) The calculated flow rate, in

(cm3/s), (at pump inlet absolute pressure and temperature) can then be plotted versus a correlation function which is the value of a specific combination of pump parameters.

(iii) The linear equation which relates the pump flow and the correlation function is then determined.

(iv) In the event that a CVS has a multiple speed drive, a calibration for each range used must be performed.

(2) This calibration procedure is based on the measurement of the absolute values of the pump and flowmeter parameters that relate the flow rate at each point. Two conditions must be maintained to assure the accuracy and integrity of the calibration curve:

(i) The temperature stability must be maintained during calibration. (Flowmeters are sensitive to inlet temperature oscillations; this can cause the data points to be scattered. Gradual changes in temperature are acceptable as long as they occur over a period of several minutes.)

(ii) All connections and ducting between the flowmeter and the CVS pump must be absolutely void of leakage.

(3) During an exhaust emission test the measurement of these same pump parameters enables the user to calculate the flow rate from the calibration equation.

(4) Connect a system as shown in Figure 5 in appendix A to this subpart. Although particular types of equipment are shown, other configurations that yield equivalent results may be used if approved in advance by the Administrator. For the system indicated, the following measurements and accuracies are required:

Calibration Data Measurements

Parameter Symbol Units Sensor-readout tolerances
Barometric pressure (corrected)PBkPa±.34 kPa
Ambient temperatureTA°C±.3 °C
Air temperature into metering venturiETI°C±1.1 °C
Pressure drop between the inlet and throat of metering venturiEDPkPa±.01 kPa
Air flowQSm3/min±.5% of NIST value.
Air temperature at CVS pump inletPTI°C±1.1 °C
Pressure depression at CVS pump inletPPIkPa±.055 kPa
Pressure head at CVS pump outletPPOkPa±.055 kPa
Air temperature at CVS pump outlet (optional)PTO°C±1.1 °C
Pump revolutions during test periodNRevs±1 Rev.
Elapsed time for test periodts±.5 s.

(5) After the system has been connected as shown in Figure 5 in appendix A to this subpart, set the variable restrictor in the wide open position and run the CVS pump for 20 minutes. Record the calibration data.

(6) Reset the restrictor valve to a more restricted condition in an increment of pump inlet depression that will yield a minimum of six data points for the total calibration. Allow the system to stabilize for 3 minutes and repeat the data acquisition.

(7) Data analysis:

(i) The air flow rate, Qs, at each test point is calculated in standard cubic meters per minute (0 °C, 101.3 kPa) from the flowmeter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.

(ii) The air flow rate is then converted to pump flow, Vo, in cubic meter per revolution at absolute pump inlet temperature and pressure:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.020.gif

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Where:

Vo = Pump flow, (m3/rev) at Tp, Pp.

Qs = Meter air flow rate in standard cubic meters per minute, standard conditions are 0 °C, 101.3 kPa.

n=Pump speed in revolutions per minute.

Tp=Pump inlet temperature °K=Pti+273 °K, Pti=Pump inlet temp °C

Pp=Absolute pump inlet pressure, (kPa)

= PBPPI

Where:

PB=barometric pressure, (kPa).

PPI=Pump inlet depression, (kPa).

(iii) The correlation function at each test point is then calculated from the calibration data:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.021.gif

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Xo = correlation function.

Δp = The pressure differential from pump inlet to pump outlet, (kPa).

= PePp.

Pe = Absolute pump outlet pressure, (kPa)

= PB+PPO

Where:

PPO=Pressure head at pump outlet, (kPa).

(iv) A linear least squares fit is performed to generate the calibration equation which has the form:

Vo=DoM(Xo)

Do and M are the intercept and slope constants, respectively, describing the regression line.

(8) A CVS system that has multiple speeds must be calibrated on each speed used. The calibration curves generated for the ranges will be approximately parallel and the intercept values, Do, will increase as the pump flow range decreases.

(9) If the calibration has been performed carefully, the calculated values from the equation will be within ±0.50 percent of the measured value of Vo. Values of M will vary from one pump to another, but values of Do for pumps of the same make, model, and range should agree within ±3 percent of each other. Calibrations should be performed at pump start-up and after major maintenance to assure the stability of the pump slip rate. Analysis of mass injection data will also reflect pump slip stability.

(d) CFV-CVS calibration. (1) Calibration of the CFV is based upon the flow equation for a critical venturi. Gas flow is a function of inlet pressure and temperature:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.022.gif

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Where:

Qs = flow.

Kv = calibration coefficient.

P = absolute pressure.

T = absolute temperature.

The calibration procedure described in paragraph (d)(3) of this section establishes the value of the calibration coefficient at measured values of pressure, temperature, and air flow.

(2) The manufacturer's recommended procedure shall be followed for calibrating electronic portions of the CFV.

(3) Measurements necessary for flow calibration are as follows:

Calibration Data Measurements

ParameterSymbolUnitsTolerances
Barometric pressure (corrected)PBkPa (Inches Hg)0.034 (0.01).
Air temperature, flowmeterETIdeg.C (deg.F)0.14 (0.25).
Pressure depression upstream of LFEEPIkPa(Inches H2O)0.012 (0.05).
Pressure drop across LFE matrixEDPkPa (Inches H2O)0.001 (0.005).
Air flowQsm3/min. (Ft3/min)0.5 pct.
CFV inlet depressionPPIkPa (Inches Hg)0.055 (0.016).
CFV outlet pressurePPOkPa (Inches Hg)0.17 (0.05).
Temperature at venturi inletTvdeg.C (deg.F)0.28 (0.5)
Specific gravity of manometer fluidSp.Gr(1.75 oil).

(4) Set up equipment as shown in Figure 6 in appendix A to subpart and eliminate leaks. (Leaks between the flow measuring devices and the critical flow venturi will seriously affect the accuracy of the calibration.)

(5) Set the variable flow restrictor to the open position, start the blower, and allow the system to stabilize. Record data from all instruments.

(6) Vary the flow restrictor and make at least eight readings across the critical flow range of the venturi.

(7) Data analysis. The data recorded during the calibration are to be used in the following calculations:

(i) The air flow rate (designated as Qs) at each test point is calculated in standard cubic feet per minute from the flow meter data using the manufacturer's prescribed method.

(ii) Calculate values of the calibration coefficient for each test point:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.023.gif

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Where:

Qs = Flow rate in standard cubic meter per minute, at the standard conditions of 0 °C, 101.3 kPa.

Tv = Temperature at venturi inlet, °K.

Pv = PB - PPI (= Pressure at venturi inlet, kPA)

Where:

PPI = Venturi inlet pressure depression, (kPa).

(iii) Plot Kv as a function of venturi inlet pressure. For choked flow, Kv will have a relatively constant value. As pressure decreases (vacuum increases), the venturi becomes unchoked and Kv decreases. (See Figure 7 in appendix A to this subpart.)

(iv) For a minimum of eight points in the critical region calculate an average Kv and the standard deviation.

(v) If the standard deviation exceeds 0.3 percent of the average Kv, take corrective action.

(e) CVS system verification. The following “gravimetric” technique can be used to verify that the CVS and analytical instruments can accurately measure a mass of gas that has been injected into the system. (Verification can also be accomplished by constant flow metering using critical flow orifice devices.)

(1) Obtain a small cylinder that has been charged with 99.5 percent or greater propane or carbon monoxide gas (Caution—carbon monoxide is poisonous).

(2) Determine a reference cylinder weight to the nearest 0.01 grams.

(3) Operate the CVS in the normal manner and release a quantity of pure propane into the system during the sampling period (approximately 5 minutes).

(4) The calculations are performed in the normal way except in the case of propane. The density of propane (0.6109 kg/m3/carbon atom)) is used in place of the density of exhaust hydrocarbons.

(5) The gravimetric mass is subtracted from the CVS measured mass and then divided by the gravimetric mass to determine the percent accuracy of the system.

(6) Good engineering practice requires that the cause for any discrepancy greater than ±2 percent must be found and corrected.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57018, Oct. 23, 1998]

§89.423   [Reserved]

§89.424   Dilute emission sampling calculations.

(a) The final reported emission test results are computed by use of the following formula:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.018.gif

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Where:

Awm = Weighted mass emission level (HC, CO, CO2, PM, or NOX) in g/kW-hr.

gi = Mass flow in grams per hour, = grams measured during the mode divided by the sample time for the mode.

WFi = Effective weighing factor.

Pi = Power measured during each mode (Power set = zero for the idle mode).

(b) The mass of each pollutant for each mode for bag measurements and diesel heat exchanger system measurements is determined from the following equations:

(1) Hydrocarbon mass:

HCmass= Vmix × DensityHC × (HCconc/106)

(2) Oxides of nitrogen mass:

NOXmass = Vmix × DensityNO2 × KH × (NOXconc/106)

(3) Carbon monoxide mass:

COmass= Vmix× DensityCO× (COconc/106)

(4) Carbon dioxide mass:

CO2mass= Vmix× DensityCO2 × (CO2conc/102)

(c) The mass of each pollutant for the mode for flow compensated sample systems is determined from the following equations:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.025.gif

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eCFR graphic er17jn94.026.gif

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(d) Meaning of symbols:

(1) For hydrocarbon equations:

HCmass= Hydrocarbon emissions, in grams per test mode.

DensityHC= Density of hydrocarbons is (.5800 kg/m3) for #1 diesel, and (0.5746 kg/m3) for #2 diesel, assuming an average carbon to hydrogen ratio of 1:1.93 for #1 diesel, and 1:1.80 for #2 diesel at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure.

HCconc= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm carbon equivalent (that is, equivalent propane times 3).

eCFR graphic er17jn94.027.gif

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Where:

HCe= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample or, for diesel heat exchanger systems, average hydrocarbon concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as calculated from the integrated HC traces, in ppm carbon equivalent. For flow compensated sample systems (HCe)i is the instantaneous concentration.

HCd= Hydrocarbon concentration of the dilution air as measured, in ppm carbon equivalent.

(2) For oxides of nitrogen equations:

NOXmass = Oxides of nitrogen emissions, in grams per test mode.

Density NO2= Density of oxides of nitrogen is 1.913 kg/m3, assuming they are in the form of nitrogen dioxide, at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure.

NOXconc= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in ppm:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.028.gif

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Where:

NOX.= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample as measured, in ppm. For flow compensated sample systems (NOX.)i is the instantaneous concentration.

NOX.= Oxides of nitrogen concentration of the dilute air as measured, in ppm.

(3) For carbon monoxide equations:

COmass=Carbon monoxide emissions, grams per test mode. DensityCO=Density of carbon monoxide (1.164 kg/m3 at 20 °C and 101.3 kPa pressure).

COconc=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, water vapor, and CO2 extraction, ppm.

eCFR graphic er17jn94.029.gif

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Where:

COe=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample volume corrected for water vapor and carbon dioxide extraction, ppm. For flow compensated sample systems, (COe)i is the instantaneous concentration.

The following calculation assumes the carbon to hydrogen ratio of the fuel is 1:1.85. As an option the measured actual carbon to hydrogen ratio may be used:

COe=[1−0.01925CO2.−0.000323R]COem

Where:

COem=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample as measured, ppm.

CO2.=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust bag sample, in percent, if measured. For flow compensated sample systems, (CO2.)i is the instantaneous concentration. For cases where exhaust sampling of CO2 is not performed, the following approximation is permitted:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.030.gif

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a=Average carbon to hydrogen ratio.

M1 = Fuel mass consumed during the mode.

R=Relative humidity of the dilution air, percent.

COd=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air corrected for water vapor extraction, ppm.

COd=(1−0.000323R)COdm

Where:

COdm=Carbon monoxide concentration of the dilution air sample as measured, ppm.

(Note: If a CO instrument that meets the criteria specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart C, is used without a sample dryer according to 40 CFR 1065.145, COem must be substituted directly for COe and COdm must be substituted directly for COd.)

(4) For carbon dioxide equation:

CO2mass=Carbon dioxide emissions, in grams per test mode.

Density CO2=Density of carbon dioxide is 1.830 kg/m3, at 20 °C and 760 mm Hg pressure.

CO2conc=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilute exhaust sample corrected for background, in percent.

eCFR graphic er17jn94.031.gif

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Where:

CO2.=Carbon dioxide concentration of the dilution air as measured, in percent.

eCFR graphic er17jn94.032.gif

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(6) Measured “dry” concentrations shall be corrected to a wet basis, if not already measured on a wet basis. This section is applicable only for measurements made on dilute exhaust gas. Correction to a wet basis shall be according to the following formula:

ConcWET = KW × ConcDRY

Where: KW is determined according to the equation in paragraph (d)(6)(i) or (d)(6)(ii), of this section.

(i) For wet CO2 measurement:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.019.gif

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(ii) For dry CO2 measurement:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.020.gif

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(iii) For the equations in paragraph (d)(6)(i) and (d)(6)(ii) of this section, the following equation applies:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.021.gif

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Where: Ha and Hd are the grams of water per kilogram of dry air; as illustrated in the following equations:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.022.gif

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eCFR graphic er23oc98.023.gif

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(e) The final modal reported brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc) shall be computed by use of the following formula:

eCFR graphic er23oc98.024.gif

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Where:

bsfc = brake-specific fuel consumption for a mode in grams of fuel per kilowatt-hour (kW-hr).

M = mass of fuel in grams, used by the engine during a mode.

kW-hr = total kilowatts integrated with respect to time for a mode.

(f) The mass of fuel for the mode is determined from mass fuel flow measurements made during the mode, or from the following equation:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.034.gif

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Where:

M=Mass of fuel, in grams, used by the engine during the mode.

Gs=Grams of carbon measured during the mode:

eCFR graphic er17jn94.035.gif

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R2=Grams C in fuel per gram of fuel

Where:

HCmass=hydrocarbon emissions, in grams for the mode

CO2mass=carbon monoxide emissions, in grams for the mode

CO2mass=carbon dioxide emissions, in grams for the mode

α=The atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the fuel.

[59 FR 31335, June 17, 1994. Redesignated and amended at 63 FR 56996, 57018, Oct. 23, 1998; 70 FR 40446, July 13, 2005]

§89.425   [Reserved]

Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 89—Figures

eCFR graphic ec01mr92.002.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr92.003.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr92.004.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr92.005.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr92.007.gif

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eCFR graphic ec01mr92.008.gif

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Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 89—Tables

Table 1—8-Mode Test Cycle for Variable-Speed Engines

Test segmentMode numberEngine speed1Observed torque2 (percent of max. observed)Minimum time in mode (minutes)Weighting factors
11Rated1005.00.15
12Rated755.00.15
13Rated505.00.15
14Rated105.00.10
25Int1005.00.10
26Int755.00.10
27Int505.00.10
28Idle05.00.15

1Engine speed (non-idle): ±2 percent of point. Engine speed (idle): Within manufacturer's specifications. Idle speed is specified by the manufacturer.

2Torque (non-idle): Throttle fully open for 100 percent points. Other non-idle points: ±2 percent of engine maximum value. Torque (idle): Throttle fully closed. Load less than 5 percent of peak torque.

Table 2—5-Mode Test Cycle for Constant-Speed Engines

Mode numberEngine1 SpeedObserved torque2 (percent of max. observed)Minimum time in mode (minutes)Weighting factors
1Rated1005.00.05
2Rated755.00.25
3Rated505.00.30
4Rated255.00.30
5Rated105.00.10

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Torque: Throttle fully open for 100 percent point. Other points: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

Table 3—6-Mode Test Cycle for Engines Rated Under 19 kW

Mode numberEngine speed1Observed torque2 (percent of max. observed)Minimum time in mode (minutes)Weighting factors
1Rated1005.00.09
2Rated755.00.20
3Rated505.00.29
4Rated255.00.30
5Rated105.00.07
6Idle05.00.05

1Engine speed (non-idle): ±2 percent of point. Engine speed (idle): Within manufacturer's specifications. Idle speed is specified by the manufacturer.

2Torque (non-idle): Throttle fully open for operation at 100 percent point. Other nonidle points: ±2 percent of engine maximum value. Torque (idle): Throttle fully closed. Load less than 5 percent of peak torque.

Table 4—4-Mode Test Cycle for Propulsion Marine Diesel Engines

Mode numberEngine speed1 (percent of max. observed)Observed power2 (percent of max. observed)Minimum time in mode (minutes)Weighting factors
11001005.00.20
291755.00.50
380505.00.15
463255.00.15

1Engine speed: ±2 percent of point.

2Power: Throttle fully open for operation at 100 percent point. Other points: ±2 percent of engine maximum value.

[63 FR 57019, Oct. 23, 1998]



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