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Electronic Code of Federal Regulations

e-CFR Data is current as of April 23, 2014

Title 40: Protection of Environment
PART 87—CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES


Subpart G—Test Procedures


Contents
§87.60   Testing engines.
§87.64   Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

§87.60   Testing engines.

(a) Use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 3, Appendix 5, and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in §87.8), as applicable, to demonstrate whether engines meet the gaseous emission standards specified in subpart C of this part. Measure the emissions of all regulated gaseous pollutants. Similarly, use the equipment and procedures specified in Appendix 2 and Appendix 6 of ICAO Annex 16 to determine whether engines meet the smoke standard specified in subpart C of this part. The compliance demonstration consists of establishing a mean value from testing some number of engines, then calculating a “characteristic level” by applying a set of statistical factors that take into account the number of engines tested. Round each characteristic level to the same number of decimal places as the corresponding emission standard. For turboprop engines, use the procedures specified for turbofan engines, consistent with good engineering judgment.

(b) Use a test fuel meeting the specifications described in Appendix 4 of ICAO Annex 16 (incorporated by reference in §87.8). The test fuel must not have additives whose purpose is to suppress smoke, such as organometallic compounds.

(c) Prepare test engines by including accessories that are available with production engines if they can reasonably be expected to influence emissions. The test engine may not extract shaft power or bleed service air to provide power to auxiliary gearbox-mounted components required to drive aircraft systems.

(d) Test engines must reach a steady operating temperature before the start of emission measurements.

(e) In consultation with the EPA, the FAA may approve alternate procedures for measuring emissions as specified in this paragraph (e). This might include testing and sampling methods, analytical techniques, and equipment specifications that differ from those specified in this part. Manufacturers and operators may request this approval by sending a written request with supporting justification to the FAA and to the Designated EPA Program Officer. Such a request may be approved only if one of the following conditions is met:

(1) The engine cannot be tested using the specified procedures.

(2) The alternate procedure is shown to be equivalent to or better (e.g., more accurate or precise) than the specified procedure.

(f) The following landing and take-off (LTO) cycles apply for emission testing and calculating weighted LTO values:

Table 1 to §87.60—LTO Test Cycles

ModeTurbopropSubsonic turbofanSupersonic turbofan
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Percent of rated outputTime in mode
(minutes)
Take-off1000.51000.71001.2
Climb902.5852.2652.0
Descent151.2
Approach304.5304.0342.3
Taxi/ground idle726.0726.05.826.0

(g) Engines comply with an applicable standard if the testing results show that the engine type certificate family's characteristic level does not exceed the numerical level of that standard, as described in §87.60.

[77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012]

§87.64   Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) Starting January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated NOX to the Administrator for engines of a type or model of which the date of manufacture of the first individual production model was on or after January 1, 2011. By January 1, 2011, report CO2 values along with your emission levels of regulated NOX to the Administrator for engines currently in production and of a type or model for which the date of manufacture of the individual engine was before January 1, 2011. Round CO2 to the nearest 1 g/kilonewton rO.

(c) Report CO2 by calculation from fuel mass flow rate measurements in Appendices 3 and 5 to ICAO Annex 16, volume II or alternatively, according to the measurement criteria of CO2 in Appendices 3 and 5 to ICAO Annex 16, volume II.

[74 FR 56374, Oct. 30, 2009, as amended at 77 FR 36386, June 18, 2012]



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